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Showing 1 - 98 of 98 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adipocyte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied In Vitro Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Medicine Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Nanomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Aging Research: An International Journal Devoted to the Scientific Study of the Aging Process     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Experimental Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Research and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Current and Advance Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics JDDT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muhammadiyah Medical Laboratory Technologist     Open Access  
Journal of Operating Department Practitioners     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Image Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Medical Laboratory Observer     Full-text available via subscription  
Medical Laboratory Technology Journal     Open Access  
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Medtech Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Prosthetics and Orthotics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription  
Qualitative Research in Medicine & Healthcare     Open Access  
Recent Advances in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública     Open Access  
Revista Romana de Medicina de Laborator     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
SA Pharmacist's Assistant     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
SLAS Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Statistics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Trends in Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.44
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0954-4119 - ISSN (Online) 2041-3033
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1099 journals]
  • An optimal brain tumor detection by convolutional neural network and
           Enhanced Sparrow Search Algorithm
    • Authors: Tingting Liu, Zhi Yuan, Li Wu, Benjamin Badami
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Precise and timely detection of brain tumor area has a very high effect on the selection of medical care, its success rate and following the disease process during treatment. Existing algorithms for brain tumor diagnosis have problems in terms of better performance on various brain images with different qualities, low sensitivity of the results to the parameters introduced in the algorithm and also reliable diagnosis of tumors in the early stages of formation. A computer aided system is proposed in this research for automatic brain tumors diagnosis. The method includes four main parts: pre-processing and segmentation techniques, features extraction and final categorization. Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) were applied for characteristic extraction of the MR images which are then injected to an optimized convolutional neural network (CNN) for the final diagnosis. The CNN is optimized by a new design of Sparrow Search Algorithm classification (ESSA). Finally, a comparison of the results of the method with three state of the art technique on the Whole Brain Atlas (WBA) database to show its higher efficiency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-01-13T08:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920987964
       
  • A mechanobiological approach to find the optimal thickness for the locking
           compression plate: Finite element investigations
    • Authors: Yousof Mohandes, Masoud Tahani, Gholamreza Rouhi, Mohammad Tahami
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed at finding the acceptable range, and the optimal value for the locking compression plate (LCP) thickness (THK), through simulating the osteogenic pathway of bone healing, and by checking bone-plate construct’s strength and stability. To attain the goals of this research, a multi-objective approach was adopted, which should trade-off between some conflicting objectives. A finite element model of the long bone-plate construct was made first, and validated against an experimental study. The validated model was then employed to determine the initial strength and stability of the bone-plate construct, for the time right after surgery, for various thicknesses of the LCP. Afterward, coupling with a mechano-regulatory algorithm, the iterative process of bone healing was simulated, and follow up was made for each LCP thickness, over the first 16 post-operative weeks. Results of this study regarding the sequence of tissue evolution inside the fracture gap, showed a similar trend with the existing in-vivo data. For the material and structural properties assigned to the bone-plate construct, in this study, an optimal thickness for the LCP was found to be 4.7 mm, which provides an enduring fixation through secondary healing, whereas for an LCP with a smaller or greater thickness, either bone-implant failure, unstable fixation, impaired fracture consolidation, or primary healing may occur. This result is in agreement with a recent study, that has employed a comprehensive optimization approach to find the optimal thickness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T10:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920985757
       
  • Smartphone monitoring of in-ambulance vibration and noise
    • Authors: Tom Partridge, Lorelei Gherman, David Morris, Roger Light, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey, Donal McNally, John Crowe
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Transferring sick premature infants between hospitals increases the risk of severe brain injury, potentially linked to the excessive exposure to noise, vibration and driving-related accelerations. One method of reducing these levels may be to travel along smoother and quieter roads at an optimal speed, however this requires mass data on the effect of roads on the environment within ambulances. An app for the Android operating system has been developed for the purpose of recording vibration, noise levels, location and speed data during ambulance journeys. Smartphone accelerometers were calibrated using sinusoidal excitation and the microphones using calibrated pink noise. Four smartphones were provided to the local neonatal transport team and mounted on their neonatal transport systems to collect data. Repeatability of app recordings was assessed by comparing 37 journeys, made during the study period, along an 8.5 km single carriageway. The smartphones were found to have an accelerometer accurate to 5% up to 55 Hz and microphone accurate to 0.8 dB up to 80 dB. Use of the app was readily adopted by the neonatal transport team, recording more than 97,000 km of journeys in 1 year. To enable comparison between journeys, the 8.5 km route was split into 10 m segments. Interquartile ranges for vehicle speed, vertical acceleration and maximum noise level were consistent across all segments (within 0.99 m . s−1, 0.13 m · s−2 and 1.4 dB, respectively). Vertical accelerations registered were representative of the road surface. Noise levels correlated with vehicle speed. Android smartphones are a viable method of accurate mass data collection for this application. We now propose to utilise this approach to reduce potential harmful exposure, from vibration and noise, by routing ambulances along the most comfortable roads.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T10:22:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920985994
       
  • Three-dimensional asymmetric maximum weight lifting prediction considering
           dynamic joint strength
    • Authors: Rahid Zaman, Yujiang Xiang, Jazmin Cruz, James Yang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric maximum weight lifting is predicted using an inverse-dynamics-based optimization method considering dynamic joint torque limits. The dynamic joint torque limits are functions of joint angles and angular velocities, and imposed on the hip, knee, ankle, wrist, elbow, shoulder, and lumbar spine joints. The 3D model has 40 degrees of freedom (DOFs) including 34 physical revolute joints and 6 global joints. A multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem is solved by simultaneously maximizing box weight and minimizing the sum of joint torque squares. A total of 12 male subjects were recruited to conduct maximum weight box lifting using squat-lifting strategy. Finally, the predicted lifting motion, ground reaction forces, and maximum lifting weight are validated with the experimental data. The prediction results agree well with the experimental data and the model’s predictive capability is demonstrated. This is the first study that uses MOO to predict maximum lifting weight and 3D asymmetric lifting motion while considering dynamic joint torque limits. The proposed method has the potential to prevent individuals’ risk of injury for lifting.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T10:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920987035
       
  • Research on coupling effects of actuator and round window membrane on
           reverse stimulation of human cochlea
    • Authors: Lin Xue, Houguang Liu, Jianhua Yang, Songyong Liu, Yu Zhao, Xinsheng Huang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      An active actuator of a middle-ear implant coupled to the round window membrane (RWM), which transmits vibration to the cochlea, has been used to compensate for hearing loss in patients. However, various factors affect the coupling condition between the actuator and the RWM, resulting in coupling leakage. In this study, a coupling impedance model of the human ear and the actuator was used to investigate the effect of inefficient coupling during reverse stimulation. First, the three-port circuit network model of the actuator was coupled with the acoustic impedance model of human ear reverse sound transmission. Meanwhile, the inefficient coupling impedance was estimated. Then, the effect of the actuator’s coupling on reverse stimulation was studied by comparing the reverse pressure transfer function. Furthermore, the inefficient coupling’s influence in the ear with middle-ear disorder was also investigated by simulating two typical forms of middle-ear disorder: otosclerosis and ossicular chain disarticulation. The results show that the change of the inefficient coupling impedance plays a significant role during reverse stimulation. Inefficient coupling of the actuator and the RWM deteriorates the cochlear response of reverse stimulation over the entire frequency range. Additionally, the coupling effect of the actuator does not change the influence tendency of middle-ear disorder on reverse stimulation’s performance, but changes the response amplitude of the reverse stimulation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T10:21:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920987960
       
  • The effect of large deformation on Poisson’s ratio of brain white
           matter: An experimental study
    • Authors: Faezeh Eskandari, Zahra Rahmani, Mehdi Shafieian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      A more Accurate description of the mechanical behavior of brain tissue could improve the results of computational models. While most studies have assumed brain tissue as an incompressible material with constant Poisson’s ratio of almost 0.5 and constructed their modeling approach according to this assumption, the relationship between this ratio and levels of applied strains has not yet been studied. Since the mechanical response of the tissue is highly sensitive to the value of Poisson’s ratio, this study was designed to investigate the characteristics of the Poisson’s ratio of brain tissue at different levels of applied strains. Samples were extracted from bovine brain tissue and tested under unconfined compression at strain values of 5%, 10%, and 30%. Using an image processing method, the axial and transverse strains were measured over a 60-s period to calculate the Poisson’s ratio for each sample. The results of this study showed that the Poisson’s ratio of brain tissue at strain levels of 5% and 10% was close to 0.5, and assuming brain tissue as an incompressible material is a valid assumption at these levels of strain. For samples under 30% compression, this ratio was higher than 0.5, which could suggest that under strains higher than the brain injury threshold (approximately 18%), tissue integrity was impaired. Based on these observations, it could be concluded that for strain levels higher than the injury threshold, brain tissue could not be assumed as an incompressible material, and new material models need to be proposed to predict the material behavior of the tissue. In addition, the results showed that brain tissue under unconfined compression uniformly stretched in the transverse direction, and the bulging in the samples is negligible.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T10:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920984027
       
  • Surface quality and pullout strength of ultrasonically-assisted drilling
           cortical bone
    • Authors: Yahui Hu, Zhenhao Fan, Huaiyu Zhang, Chunqiu Zhang, Weihua Fu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Bone surgery is a complex process involving sustainable and healthy human recuperation, but poor surface quality and loose implant fixtures can affect the recovery time of orthopedic patients. However, it has been demonstrated that the application of ultrasonic vibration during drilling procedures can improve the success of bone remediation procedures. The focus of the present paper was on the investigation of surface quality and pullout strength of drilled holes. After analyzing the special kinematic characteristics of the ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD), UAD testing using fresh cortical bone was carried out and compared with the results obtained after conventional drilling (CD) procedures. Surface roughness measurements and microscope examination were used to evaluate surface quality, and an electro-mechanical tensile machine was used to measure pullout resistance. The test findings indicated that surface roughness was reduced by 17–68.7% when using UAD; the axial pullout strength of screws inserted into UAD holes was significantly increased by 4.28–30.1% compared to that of CD. It was found also that low spindle speeds and high feed rates reduced surface quality and the stability of the inserted cortical screws. The findings demonstrated that UAD produced better surface quality and higher pullout strengths, which could provide greater stability for implants and improved post-operative recovery.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-24T06:44:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920983662
       
  • An effective heterogeneous whole-heart mathematical model of cardiac
           induction system with heart rate variability
    • Authors: Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Ahmed M. E. Ali, Ismail M. Abdelrazik
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The main objective of this research work is to develop an effective mathematical model of cardiac conduction system using a heterogeneous whole-heart model. The model is in the form of a system of modified Van der Pol and FitzHugh-Nagumo differential equations capable of describing the heart dynamics. The proposed model extends the range of normal and pathological electrocardiogram (ECG) waveforms that can be generated by the model. The effects of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and the Mayer waves (MW) are both incorporated to modulate the intrinsic frequency of the main oscillator that represents the sinoatrial node. Also, three pathological conditions are incorporated into the model. The heart rate variability (HRV) phenomenon is incorporated into the synthetic ECGs produced which yields valuable information about the cardiovascular health and the performance of the autonomic nervous system. The spectral analysis of the generated RR tachogram delivers power spectrums that resemble those obtained from real recordings. Also, the proposed model generates synthetic ECGs that characteristic the three considered pathological conditions, namely, the tall T wave, the ECG with U wave, and the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. In general, the significance of this research work is in developing a mathematical model that represents the interactions between different pacemakers and allows analysis of cardiac rhythms. To show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the presented model, the results are compared to published results. The proposed model can be a useful tool to study the influences of different physiological conditions on the profile of the ECG. The synthetic ECG signals produced can be used as signal sources for the assessment of diagnostic ECG signal processing devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-19T08:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920978052
       
  • A bioprinted composite hydrogel with controlled shear stress on cells
    • Authors: Amirhossein Bakhtiiari, Rezvan Khorshidi, Fatemeh Yazdian, Hamid Rashedi, Meisam Omidi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, three dimensional (3D) bio-printing technology has found widespread use in tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study is to scrutinize different parameters of the bioprinter – with the help of simulation software – to print a hydrogel so much so that avoid high amounts of shear stress which is detrimental for cell viability and cell proliferation. Rheology analysis was done on several hydrogels composed of different percentages of components: alginate, collagen, and gelatin. The results have led to the combination of percentages collagen:alginate:gelatin (1:4:8)% as the best condition which makes sol-gel transition at room temperature possible. The results have shown the highest diffusion rate and cell viability for the cross-linked sample with 1.5% CaCl2 for the duration of 1 h. Finally, we have succeeded in printing the hydrogel that is mechanically strong with suitable degradation rate and cell viability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920976682
       
  • Non-invasive monitoring method for lower-leg compartment syndrome using a
           wireless sensor system and finite element analysis
    • Authors: Fuh-Yu Chang, Ping-Tun Teng, Liang-Chun Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a non-invasive pressure monitoring system that is portable and convenient was designed for detecting compartment syndrome. The system combines a wireless module and smartphone, which aids in the achievement of mHealth objectives, specifically, the continuous monitoring of the compartment pressure in patients. A compartment syndrome detecting method using a wireless sensor system and finite element analysis is developed and verified with an in vitro lower-leg model by rapid prototyping. The sensor system is designed to measure a five point pressure variation from the outside of the lower leg and transmit the data to a smartphone via Bluetooth. The analysis model based on the finite element method is employed to calculate the change of pressure and volume inside the four compartments of the lower leg. The in vitro experimental results show that the non-invasive detecting method can monitor the compartment pressure and provide a warning for the occurrence of compartment syndrome if the compartment pressure is higher than 30 mmHg. Furthermore, the theoretical simulation of the real lower leg shows similar trends to those of the in vitro experiments and can promptly detect the occurrence of compartment syndrome. Measured pressure values exceeding 6.3, 2.7, and 2.8 kPa for the three sensors contacting the outside centers of the superficial posterior, anterior, and lateral compartments, respectively, can indicate that each compartment contains a pressure higher than 30 mmHg. These results can provide a warning for the risk of compartment syndrome of each compartment. In addition, the measured values from the three sensors contacting the superficial posterior compartment at the outside center, close to the tibia, and close to the lateral compartment exceeding 1.8, 0.7, and 0.7 kPa, respectively, can indicate the risk of deep posterior compartment syndrome.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-18T09:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920981243
       
  • A methodology for the customization of hinged ankle-foot orthoses based on
           in vivo helical axis calculation with 3D printed rigid shells
    • Authors: Carlo Ferraresi, Carlo De Benedictis, Loris Bono, Federica Del Gaudio, Laura Ferrara, Fabiana Masiello, Walter Franco, Daniela Maffiodo, Alberto Leardini
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to develop techniques for ankle joint kinematics analysis using motion capture based on stereophotogrammetry. The scope is to design marker attachments on the skin for a most reliable identification of the instantaneous helical axis, to be targeted for the fabrication of customized hinged ankle-foot orthoses. These attachments should limit the effects of the experimental artifacts, in particular the soft-tissue motion artifact, which affect largely the accuracy of any in vivo ankle kinematics analysis. Motion analyses were carried out on two healthy subjects wearing customized rigid shells that were designed through 3D scans of the subjects’ lower limbs and fabricated by additive manufacturing. Starting from stereophotogrammetry data collected during walking and dorsi-plantarflexion motor tasks, the instantaneous and mean helical axes of ankle joint were calculated. The customized shells matched accurately the anatomy of the subjects and allowed for the definition of rigid marker clusters that improved the accuracy of in vivo kinematic analyses. The proposed methodology was able to differentiate between subjects and between the motor tasks analyzed. The observed position and dispersion of the axes were consistent with those reported in the literature. This methodology represents an effective tool for supporting the customization of hinged ankle-foot orthoses or other devices interacting with human joints functionality.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-16T07:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920981543
       
  • Effects of a particle placed on the ossicles for microphoneless cochlear
           implant design
    • Authors: Serkan Kurt, Ahmet G Ozsonmez
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In a typical cochlear implant design, the ambient sound is detected via a microphone and the transmission unit of the implant is placed at the back of the auricle. However, this design has several drawbacks. Firstly, the subject cannot bath or swim comfortably with the microphone unit on, and secondly having an external attached unit which may be visible is cosmetically disturbing. Herein, the idea is to explore obtaining the acoustic signals that would directly drive the cochlear nerves, without using a microphone, in which only the vibrations of the ossicles are employed. Thus, the natural filter caused by the anatomy of the ear may be maintained. The proposed method is to place or attach a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) type of tiny and lightweight accelerometer to sense or detect the vibrations of ossicles, namely malleus, incus and stapes. A quick analysis or first-thought revealed that physically longer extension of the incus is the most suitable and/or convenient place to attach such a sensor. The model adopted has been optimized to match the amplitude and phase response of the human ear from a system analysis point of view. Some simulation experiments had been done to study and understand the possible loading effects of placing a sensor on the incus. Purpose of the simulations is testing the feasibility before the very difficult surgical procedures. Preliminary results indicate that placing a sensor of weight up to 36 mg does not seriously affect the amplitude and the phase response of the ear. This study is yet another example of how simulations of physiological systems can be advantageous and facilitating in the design of biomedical systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T09:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920979436
       
  • A detailed finite element model of a mid-sized male for the investigation
           of traffic pedestrian accidents
    • Authors: Daniel Grindle, Wansoo Pak, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik, Eric Song, Costin Untaroiu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The pedestrian is one of the most vulnerable road users and comprises approximately 23% of the road crash-related fatalities in the world. To protect pedestrians during Car-to-Pedestrian Collisions (CPC), subsystem impact tests are used in regulations. These tests provide insight but cannot characterize the complex vehicle-pedestrian interaction. The main purpose of this study was to develop and validate a detailed pedestrian Finite Element (FE) model corresponding to a 50th percentile male to predict CPC induced injuries. The model geometry was reconstructed using a multi-modality protocol from medical images and exterior scan data corresponding to a mid-sized male volunteer. To investigate injury response, this model included internal organs, muscles and vessels. The lower extremity, shoulder and upper body of the model were validated against Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) test data in valgus bending, and lateral/anterior-lateral blunt impacts, respectively. The whole-body pedestrian model was validated in CPC simulations using a mid-sized sedan and simplified generic vehicles bucks and previously unpublished PMHS coronal knee angle data. In the component validations, the responses of the FE model were mostly within PMHS test corridors and in whole body validations the kinematic and injury responses predicted by the model showed similar trends to PMHS test data. Overall, the detailed model showed higher biofidelity, especially in the upper body regions, compared to a previously reported simplified pedestrian model, which recommends using it in future pedestrian automotive safety research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T09:35:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920976223
       
  • Design of a 3D-printed hand prosthesis featuring articulated bio-inspired
           fingers
    • Authors: Juan Sebastian Cuellar, Dick Plettenburg, Amir A Zadpoor, Paul Breedveld, Gerwin Smit
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Various upper-limb prostheses have been designed for 3D printing but only a few of them are based on bio-inspired design principles and many anatomical details are not typically incorporated even though 3D printing offers advantages that facilitate the application of such design principles. We therefore aimed to apply a bio-inspired approach to the design and fabrication of articulated fingers for a new type of 3D printed hand prosthesis that is body-powered and complies with basic user requirements. We first studied the biological structure of human fingers and their movement control mechanisms in order to devise the transmission and actuation system. A number of working principles were established and various simplifications were made to fabricate the hand prosthesis using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printer with dual material extrusion. We then evaluated the mechanical performance of the prosthetic device by measuring its ability to exert pinch forces and the energy dissipated during each operational cycle. We fabricated our prototypes using three polymeric materials including PLA, TPU, and Nylon. The total weight of the prosthesis was 92 g with a total material cost of 12 US dollars. The energy dissipated during each cycle was 0.380 Nm with a pinch force of ≈16 N corresponding to an input force of 100 N. The hand is actuated by a conventional pulling cable used in BP prostheses. It is connected to a shoulder strap at one end and to the coupling of the whiffle tree mechanism at the other end. The whiffle tree mechanism distributes the force to the four tendons, which bend all fingers simultaneously when pulled. The design described in this manuscript demonstrates several bio-inspired design features and is capable of performing different grasping patterns due to the adaptive grasping provided by the articulated fingers. The pinch force obtained is superior to other fully 3D printed body-powered hand prostheses, but still below that of conventional body powered hand prostheses. We present a 3D printed bio-inspired prosthetic hand that is body-powered and includes all of the following characteristics: adaptive grasping, articulated fingers, and minimized post-printing assembly. Additionally, the low cost and low weight make this prosthetic hand a worthy option mainly in locations where state-of-the-art prosthetic workshops are absent.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-09T06:24:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920980889
       
  • Movement of the sacroiliac joint: Anatomy, systematic review, and
           biomechanical considerations
    • Authors: Ho-Jung Cho, Dai-Soon Kwak
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Several researchers investigated the anatomy and biomechanics of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) to understand the relationship between lower back pain and the SIJ. Many studies concluded that the SIJ has little movement; however, some studies using spinopelvic parameters mentioned high change in pelvic incidence (PI). In this study, SIJ movement and PI change reported in previous studies were reviewed according to position and posture changes. Literature on SIJ movement was reviewed by searching through the publication databases. In biomechanical studies, the result of the rotational angle in the sagittal plane was mainly investigated to compare with the results of PI change. From the results of SIJ movement studies, the minimum movement of nutation and count-nutation was 0.01°, and maximum movement was 2.27°. From the results of PI change studies with different positions and movements, the highest change was 9°, and the lowest change was 0°. Movement of the SIJ was limited by its anatomical structure; maximum movement of the SIJ was 9° in a previous study. Therefore, SIJ movement should be studied more intensely as biomechanical perspective to understand its movement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-12-01T07:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920978021
       
  • Relevance of a novel external dynamic distraction device for treating back
           pain
    • Authors: Fahed Zaïri, Mélissa Moulart, Christian Fontaine, Fahmi Zaïri, Vincent Tiffreau, Régis Logier
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Low back pain is a common, expensive, and disabling condition in industrialized countries. There is still no consensus for its ideal management. Believing in the beneficial effect of traction, we developed a novel external dynamic distraction device. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that external distraction allows limiting the pressure exerted in standing-up position on the lower intervertebral discs. Numerical and cadaveric studies were used as complementary approaches. Firstly, we implemented the device into a numerical model of a validated musculoskeletal software (Anybody Modeling System) and we calculated the lower disc pressure while traction forces were applied. Secondly, we performed an anatomical study using a non-formalin preserved cadaver placed in a sitting position. A pressure sensor was placed in the lower discs under fluoroscopic control through a Jamshidi needle. The intradiscal pressure was then measured continuously at rest while applying a traction force of 200 N. Both numerical and cadaveric studies demonstrated a decrease in intradiscal pressures after applying a traction force with the external device. Using the numerical model, we showed that tensile forces below 500 N in total were sufficient. The application of higher forces seems useless and potentially deleterious. External dynamic distraction device is able to significantly decrease the intradiscal pressure in a sitting or standing position. However, the therapeutic effects need to be proven using clinical studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T09:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971401
       
  • Mechanical testing of glutaraldehyde cross-linked mitral valves. Part two:
           Elastic and viscoelastic properties of chordae tendineae
    • Authors: Matthew Constable, Rhiannon Northeast, Bernard M Lawless, Hanna E Burton, Vera Gramigna, Kheng Lim Goh, Keith G Buchan, Daniel M Espino
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to assess whether the mechanical properties of mitral valve chordae tendineae are sensitive to being cross-linked under load. A total 64 chordae were extracted from eight porcine hearts. Two chordae (posterior basal) from each heart were subjected to uniaxial ramp testing and six chordae (two strut, two anterior basal and two posterior basal) were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over frequencies between 0.5 and 10 Hz. Chordae were either cross-linked in tension or cross-linked in the absence of loading. Chordae cross-linked under load transitioned from high to low extension at a lower strain than cross-linked unloaded chordae (0.07 cf. 0.22), with greater pre-transitional (30.8 MPa cf. 5.78 MPa) and post-transitional (139 MPa cf. 74.1 MPa) moduli. The mean storage modulus of anterior strut chordae ranged from 48 to 54 MPa for cross-linked unloaded chordae, as compared to 53–61 MPa cross-linked loaded chordae. The mean loss modulus of anterior strut chordae ranged from 2.3 to 2.9 MPa for cross-linked unloaded chordae, as compared to 3.8–4.8 MPa cross-linked loaded chordae. The elastic and viscoelastic properties of chordae following glutaraldehyde cross-linking are dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of loading during the cross-linking process; with loading increasing the magnitude of the material properties measured.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-27T09:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920975938
       
  • Implementation of anisotropic soft pads in a surgical gripper for secure
           and gentle grip on vulnerable tissues
    • Authors: Peter van Assenbergh, Costanza Culmone, Paul Breedveld, Dimitra Dodou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Current surgical grippers rely on friction grip, where normal loads (i.e. pinch forces) are translated into friction forces. Operating errors with surgical grippers are often force-related, including tissue slipping out of the gripper because of too low pinch forces and tissue damaging due to too high pinch forces. Here, we prototyped a modular surgical gripper with elastomeric soft pads reinforced in the shear direction with a carbon-fiber fabric. The elastomeric component provides low normal stiffness to maximize contact formation without the need of applying high normal loads (i.e. pinch forces), whereas the carbon-fiber fabric offers high shear stiffness to preserve the formed contact under the lateral loads (i.e. shear forces) that occur during tissue lifting. Additionally, we patterned the pads with a sub-surface micropattern, to further reduce the normal stiffness and increase shear stiffness. The body of the prototype gripper, including shaft, joints, and gripper tips, was fabricated in a single step using 3D printing, followed by manual attachment of the soft pads to the gripper. The gripping performance of the newly developed soft gripper on soft tissues was experimentally compared to reference grippers equipped with metal patterned pads. The soft-pad gripper generated similar gripping forces but significantly lower pinch forces than metal-pad grippers. We conclude that grippers with anisotropic-stiffness pads are promising for secure and gentle tissue grip.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-25T08:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971400
       
  • Mechanical testing of glutaraldehyde cross-linked mitral valves. Part one:
           In vitro mechanical behaviour
    • Authors: Rhiannon Northeast, Matthew Constable, Hanna E Burton, Bernard M Lawless, Vera Gramigna, Kheng Lim Goh, Keith G Buchan, Daniel M Espino
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to perform an initial assessment, in vitro, of the feasibility of using a glutaraldehyde cross-linked porcine mitral valve to retain acute functionality, focusing on assessing mitral regurgitation. Six porcine hearts were tested using an in vitro simulator. Testing was repeated following cross-linking of mitral valves; where cross-linking was achieved by placing them in a glutaraldehyde solution. The simulator enabled systolic pressure on the ventricular side of the valve to be mimicked. Following testing, mitral valve leaflets underwent Scanning Electron Microscopy of the ventricular surface of both the anterior and posterior leaflets (1 cm2 samples). The peak pressure withstood by cross-linked valves was significantly lower than for untreated valves (108 mmHg cf. 128 mmHg for untreated valves; p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-24T10:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920975894
       
  • Feed rate control in robotic bone drilling process
    • Authors: Tony Boiadjiev, George Boiadjiev, Kamen Delchev, Ivan Chavdarov, Roumen Kastelov
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The bone drilling process is characterised by various parameters, the most important of which are the feed rate (mm/s) and the drill speed (rpm). They highly reflect the final effects and results of the drilling process, such as mechanical and thermal damages of bone tissue and hole quality. During manual drilling, these parameters are controlled by the surgeon based on his practical skills. But automatic drilling can assure an optimal result of the manipulation where such parameters are under control. During bicortical automatic bone drilling such a process consists of several stages: searching the contact with the first cortex, cortex drilling and automatic stop; searching the contact with the second cortex, cortex drilling and automatic stop; drill bit extraction. This work presents a way to control the feed rate during different stages of the bone drilling process (an original feed rate control algorithm) using the orthopaedic drilling robot (ODRO). The feed rate control is based on a proposed algorithm created and realised by specific software. During bicortical bone drilling process the feed rate takes various values in any stage in the range 0.5–6 mm/s. These values depend on drill bit position and real time force sensor data. The novelty of this work is the synthesis of an original feed rate control algorithm to solve the main problems of bone drilling in orthopaedic surgery – minimisation the drilling time (the heat generation); eliminating of the drill bit slip at the first (near) cortex and the drill bit bending at the second (far) cortex; minimising the risk of micro cracks which causes Traumatic Osteonecrosis; improving hole quality of the drilled holes; eliminating of the drill bit slip and the drill bit bending at the second cortex; minimising the value of the second cortex drill bit penetration by bicortical bone drilling.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-24T10:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920975890
       
  • Properties of PMMA end cap holders affect FE stiffness predictions of
           vertebral specimens
    • Authors: Bruno Agostinho Hernandez, Harinderjit S Gill, Sabina Gheduzzi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Bone cement is often used, in experimental biomechanics, as a potting agent for vertebral bodies (VB). As a consequence, it is usually included in finite element (FE) models to improve accuracy in boundary condition settings. However, bone cement material properties are typically assigned to these models based on literature data obtained from specimens created under conditions which often differ from those employed for cement end caps. These discrepancies can result in solids with different material properties from those reported. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the effect of assigning different mechanical properties to bone cement in FE vertebral models. A porcine C2 vertebral body was potted in bone cement end caps, [math]CT scanned, and tested in compression. DIC was performed on the anterior surface of the specimen to monitor the displacement. Specimen stiffness was calculated from the load-displacement output of the materials testing machine and from the machine load output and average displacement measured by DIC. Fifteen bone cement cylinders with dimensions similar to the cement end caps were produced and subjected to the same compression protocol as the vertebral specimen and average stiffness and Young moduli were estimated. Two geometrically identical vertebral body FE models were created from the [math]CT images, the only difference residing in the values assigned to bone cement material properties: in one model these were obtained from the literature and in the other from the cylindrical cement samples previously tested. The average Youngs modulus of the bone cement cylindrical specimens was 1177 ± 3 MPa, considerably lower than the values reported in the literature. With this value, the FE model predicted a vertebral specimen stiffness 3% lower than that measured experimentally, while when using the value most commonly reported in similar studies, specimen stiffness was overestimated by 150%.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T09:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971071
       
  • Wearable wireless low-cost electrogoniometer design with Kalman filter for
           joint range of motion measurement and 3D modeling of joint movements
    • Authors: Cemil Keskinoğlu, Ahmet Aydın
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Joint movements are the key factor for the mobility of the people during daily activities. The evaluation of the joint movements is determined by the range of motion (ROM) parameters. The ROM might change due to age, gender, and some diseases. Therefore, it is essential to measure ROM accurately and compare it with the normal values of the healthy people. In this study, a low-cost, wireless, and wearable electrogoniometer was designed for highly precise and accurate measurements. The stability of the measurements is guaranteed with the quaternion based Kalman filter. The measurements of the developed system are compared with the traditional goniometer. The concordance correlation coefficient is calculated as a similarity metric, and the result is obtained as [math]. In addition, a GUI was prepared to present 3D visualization of the movements in real-time with the ROM measurements and give visual feedback to the physiotherapists during physical examinations and to the patient during the home therapy sessions. The measurements also can be recorded using the GUI for retrospective analysis.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T09:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971398
       
  • Ensembled liver cancer detection and classification using CT images
    • Authors: Abhay Krishan, Deepti Mittal
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Computed tomography (CT) images are commonly used to diagnose liver disease. It is sometimes very difficult to comment on the type, category and level of the tumor, even for experienced radiologists, directly from the CT image, due to the varying intensities. In recent years, it has been important to design and develop computer-assisted imaging techniques to help doctors/physicians improve their diagnosis. The proposed work is to detect the presence of a tumor region in the liver and classify the different stages of the tumor from CT images. CT images of the liver have been classified between normal and tumor classes. In addition, CT images of the tumor have been classified between Hepato Cellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Metastases (MET). The performance of six different classifiers was evaluated on different parameters. The accuracy achieved for different classifiers varies between 98.39% and 100% for tumor identification and between 76.38% and 87.01% for tumor classification. To further, improve performance, a multi-level ensemble model is developed to detect a tumor (liver cancer) and to classify between HCC and MET using features extracted from CT images. The k-fold cross-validation (CV) is also used to justify the robustness of the classifiers. Compared to the individual classifier, the multi-level ensemble model achieved high accuracy in both the detection and classification of different tumors. This study demonstrates automated tumor characterization based on liver CT images and will assist the radiologist in detecting and classifying different types of tumors at a very early stage.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T09:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971888
       
  • Head acceleration event metrics in youth contact sports more dependent on
           sport than level of play
    • Authors: Taylor Lee, Roy Lycke, Joshua Auger, Jacob Music, Michael Dziekan, Sharlene Newman, Thomas Talavage, Larry Leverenz, Eric Nauman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The goal of the study was to evaluate how repetitive head traumas sustained by athletes in contact sports depend on sport and level of play. A total of 16 middle school football players, 107 high school football players, and 65 high school female soccer players participated. Players were separated into levels of play: middle school (MS), freshman (FR), junior varsity (JV), junior varsity-varsity (JV-V), and varsity (V). xPatch sensors were used to measure peak translational and angular accelerations (PTA and PAA, respectively) for each head acceleration event (HAE) during practice and game sessions. Data were analyzed using a custom MATLAB program to compare metrics that have been correlated with functional neurological changes: session metrics (median HAEs per contact session), season metrics (total HAEs, cumulative PTA/PAA), and regressions (cumulative PTA/PAA versus total HAEs, total HAEs versus median HAEs per contact session). Football players had greater session (p
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-13T09:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920970812
       
  • A novel simplified biomechanical assessment of the heel pad during foot
           plantarflexion
    • Authors: Ukadike C Ugbolue, Emma L Yates, Keir E Rowland, Scott C Wearing, Yaodong Gu, Wing-Kai Lam, Julien S Baker, Nicholas F Sculthorpe, Frédéric Dutheil
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The heel pad (HP) which is located below the calcaneus comprises a composition of morphometrical and morphological arrangements of soft tissues that are influenced by factors such as gender, age and obesity. It is well known that HP pain and Achilles tendonitis consist of discomfort, pain and swelling symptoms that usually develop from excessive physical activities such as walking, jumping and running. The purpose of this study was to develop biomechanical techniques to evaluate the function and characteristics of the HP. Ten healthy participants (five males and five females) participated in this laboratory-based study, each performing a two-footed heel raise to mimic the toe-off phase during human locomotion. Twenty-six (3 mm) retroreflective markers were attached to the left and right heels (thirteen markers on each heel). Kinematic data was captured using three-dimensional motion analysis cameras synchronised with force plates. Descriptive and multivariate statistical tests were used in this study. In addition, a biomechanical technique that utilises only six markers from 26 markers to assess HP deformation and function has been developed and used in this study. Overall HP displacement was significantly higher in males on the most lateral part of the right heel (p < 0.05). No significant differences were evident when comparing the non-dominant and dominant heels during the baseline, unloading and loading phases (p> 0.05). Findings from this study suggested that biomechanical outputs expressed as derivatives from tracked HP marker movements can morphologically and morphometrically characterise HP soft tissue deformation changes. The outcome of this study highlights the importance of 3D motion analysis being used as a potential prospective intervention to quantify the function / characteristics of the heel pad soft tissues.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-05T09:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920971069
       
  • Influence of cancellous bone material and dead zone on stress-strain, bone
           stimulus and bone remodelling around the tibia for total ankle replacement
           
    • Authors: Subrata Mondal, Rajesh Ghosh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Extreme bone resorption due to bone remodelling is one of the reasons for ankle component loosening. Finite element (FE) analysis has been effectively used nowadays for pre-clinical analysis of orthopaedic implants. For FE modelling, the selection of bone material and dead zone play a vital role to understand the bone remodelling. This study deals with the effects of different cancellous elastic modulus-density relationships and dead zone on bone remodelling around the tibia owing to total ankle replacement (TAR), using finite element analysis with physiological loading conditions. This study also investigated the bone stimulus distribution in the tibia to identify the initial indication of bone density changes due to bone remodelling. Additionally, the Hoffman failure criterion was used to investigate the chances of implant-bone interface failure due to different cancellous bone material modelling and bone remodelling. The present bone remodelling study consists of three different dead or lazy zones (±0.75, ±0.60 and ±0.35) to examine the influence of the dead zone on bone remodelling. Differences in stress/strain distribution were observed in the tibia bone due to different cancellous bone material modelling. Despite little variations, bone density changes due to bone remodelling were found to be almost similar for two FE models having different cancellous bone material. Similar to these results, the effect of different dead zone on bone density changes due to bone remodelling was found to be minimal. Bone stimulus distribution in the cancellous bone was found to be almost similar for FE models having different cancellous bone material modelling and different dead zones. To understand the stress/strain and interface related failure of the tibial component, cancellous bone material modelling plays a crucial role. However, cancellous bone material modelling and dead zone have minimal influence on bone remodelling around the tibia cancellous bone due to TAR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-11-03T10:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920967775
       
  • Spectral features based convolutional neural network for accurate and
           prompt identification of schizophrenic patients
    • Authors: Kuldeep Singh, Sukhjeet Singh, Jyoteesh Malhotra
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Schizophrenia is a fatal mental disorder, which affects millions of people globally by the disturbance in their thinking, feeling and behaviour. In the age of the internet of things assisted with cloud computing and machine learning techniques, the computer-aided diagnosis of schizophrenia is essentially required to provide its patients with an opportunity to own a better quality of life. In this context, the present paper proposes a spectral features based convolutional neural network (CNN) model for accurate identification of schizophrenic patients using spectral analysis of multichannel EEG signals in real-time. This model processes acquired EEG signals with filtering, segmentation and conversion into frequency domain. Then, given frequency domain segments are divided into six distinct spectral bands like delta, theta-1, theta-2, alpha, beta and gamma. The spectral features including mean spectral amplitude, spectral power and Hjorth descriptors (Activity, Mobility and Complexity) are extracted from each band. These features are independently fed to the proposed spectral features-based CNN and long short-term memory network (LSTM) models for classification. This work also makes use of raw time-domain and frequency-domain EEG segments for classification using temporal CNN and spectral CNN models of same architectures respectively. The overall analysis of simulation results of all models exhibits that the proposed spectral features based CNN model is an efficient technique for accurate and prompt identification of schizophrenic patients among healthy individuals with average classification accuracies of 94.08% and 98.56% for two different datasets with optimally small classification time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T10:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920966937
       
  • Design of dental implant using design of experiment and topology
           optimization: A finite element analysis study
    • Authors: Yash Gupta, Rohit Iyer, Vamsi Krishna Dommeti, Emil Nutu, Masud Rana, Ali Merdji, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Sandipan Roy
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Ever since the introduction of topology optimization into the industrial and manufacturing fields, it has been a top priority to maximize the performance of any system by optimizing its geometrical parameters to save material while keeping its functionality unaltered. The purpose of this study is to design a dental implant macro-geometry by removing expendable material using topology optimization and to evaluate its biomechanical function. Three-dimensional finite element models were created of an implant embedded in cortical and cancellous bone. Parameters like the length and diameter of the implant and the bone quality (±20% variation in Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and density for both cortical and cancellous bone) were varied to evaluate their effect on the principal stresses induced on the peri-implant bone tissues and the micromotion of the implant at 150 N applied load. Design optimization is used to select one suitable implant for each material property combination with optimum parameters that experiences the least von Mises stress and axial deformation, out of twenty implants with different length and diameter for each material property combination. Topology optimization was then used on the selected implants to remove the redundant material. The biomechanical functions of the implants with optimized parameter and volume were then evaluated. The finite element analyses estimated that a reduction of 32% to 45% in the implant volume is possible with the implant still retaining all of its functionality.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T11:56:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920967146
       
  • Statistical ankle-shape and pressure analysis for design of elastic
           tubular bandage
    • Authors: Chunqiang Zhang, Xiaomin Ji, Yanmin Xue, Gang Hu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Ankles can benefit from the elastic tube bandage (ETB) by providing the ankle joint with compression, but partial high- or low-pressure leads to body discomfort. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for analyzing the ankle shape with the fabric compression which is basis on the comfortable pressure on human body. First, a standard model of ankle is established from the scanned data of 306 samples, and the mapping of the fabric shape curves on ankle were constructed by the U-direction convex curves of the model. The positions or areas of maximum and minimum pressure are then marked by extracting the curvatures of the fabric shape curves. According to the Laplace’s Law, the sizes of ETBs can be calculated given that the value of comfortable pressure on human body is the maximum one. The data of calculation is approximate to the relevant previous studies which has the same parameters of ETBs. Nine groups of the ankle shapes from the database are discussed, each group has a proportional coefficient to the standard model, and the result shows that six sizes of ETBs with comfort pressure match for the nine groups. These can be applied to the comfort design, and the method proposed can boost size customization of ETBs, as well as will inspire the research on other elastic compression garments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T08:59:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920965286
       
  • Biomechanical evaluation of the screw preload values used in the plate
           placement for bone fractures
    • Authors: Talip Çelik
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of screw preload values on the bone-plate system. The preload value was taken differently in the literature range from 50 N to 3000 N. These preload value were examined in this study. The finite element method was used to calculate the strain and stress on the models. The long bone, plate and screws were modeled as 3D using CAD software. The finite element models were created using Ansys Workbench software. The convergence and validation study were made for the correct results. The 400 N axial load was applied to the proximal end of bone. The distal end of the bone fixed for boundary condition. The preload values were applied to the screws differently. The results of the finite element analysis were compared and evaluated. The results showed that when the preload values increased, the von Mises stresses and strains on the bone and plate system increased. The critical preload value of the screw is the 500 N. The upper values of this critical value can be damaged bone and plate system. The critical region of the bone is the holes where the screw inserted. In conclusion, the preload values of the screw should not exceed the 500 N for the successful fixation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T09:19:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920964628
       
  • Does vacuum mixing affect diameter shrinkage of a PMMA cement mantle
           during in vitro cemented acetabulum implantation'
    • Authors: Alexander T Boote, Robert JA Bigsby, David J Deehan, Kenneth S Rankin, David C Swailes, Philip J Hyde
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Radiolucent lines on immediate postoperative cemented acetabular component radiographs between the PMMA bone cement mantle and bone are an indicator of an increased risk of early loosening. The cause of these lines has yet to be identified. Thermal and chemical necrosis, fluid interposition and cement shrinkage have all been suggested in the literature. The aim of the study reported here was to take an engineering approach – eliminating confounding variables present during surgery – to quantify the size of the interstice created by cement shrinkage when a 50 mm diameter flanged acetabular cup is implanted in a model acetabulum with a 52 mm hemispherical bore under controlled conditions using vacuum and non-vacuum mixed cement. Irrespective of the mixing method used, a significant interstice was created between the bone cement and the mock acetabulum. When the cement was mixed under vacuum the interstice created between the mock acetabulum and the cement mantle was 0.60 mm ± 0.09 mm; when the cement was mixed under non-vacuum conditions the interstice created was 0.39 mm ± 0.15 mm. Possible explanations for radiolucent lines are discussed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-15T07:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920964023
       
  • An engineering perspective of vacuum assisted delivery devices in
           obstetrics: A review
    • Authors: Dushyant Goordyal, John Anderson, Ali Alazmani, Peter Culmer
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Complications during childbirth result in the need for clinicians to use ‘assisted delivery’ in over 12% of cases (UK). After more than 50 years in clinical practice, vacuum assisted delivery (VAD) devices remain a mainstay in physically assisting child delivery; sometimes preferred over forceps due to their ease of use and reduced maternal morbidity. Despite their popularity and enduring track-record, VAD devices have shown little evidence of innovation or design change since their inception. In addition, evidence on the safety and functionality of VAD devices remains limited but does present opportunities for improvements to reduce adverse clinical outcomes. Consequently in this review we examine the literature and patent landscape surrounding VAD biomechanics, design evolution and performance from an engineering perspective, aiming to collate the limited but valuable information from a disparate field and provide a series of recommendations to inform future research into improved, safer, VAD systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-15T07:23:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920956467
       
  • Comparison of femur strain under different loading scenarios: Experimental
           testing
    • Authors: Ievgen Levadnyi, Jan Awrejcewicz, Yan Zhang, Yaodong Gu
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Bone fracture, formation and adaptation are related to mechanical strains in bone. Assessing bone stiffness and strain distribution under different loading conditions may help predict diseases and improve surgical results by determining the best conditions for long-term functioning of bone-implant systems. In this study, an experimentally wide range of loading conditions (56) was used to cover the directional range spanned by the hip joint force. Loads for different stance configurations were applied to composite femurs and assessed in a material testing machine. The experimental analysis provides a better understanding of the influence of the bone inclination angle in the frontal and sagittal planes on strain distribution and stiffness. The results show that the surface strain magnitude and stiffness vary significantly under different loading conditions. For the axial compression, maximal bending is observed at the mid-shaft, and bone stiffness is also maximal. The increased inclination leads to decreased stiffness and increased magnitude of maximum strain at the distal end of the femur. For comparative analysis of results, a three-dimensional, finite element model of the femur was used. To validate the finite element model, strain gauges and digital image correlation system were employed. During validation of the model, regression analysis indicated robust agreement between the measured and predicted strains, with high correlation coefficient and low root-mean-square error of the estimate. The results of stiffnesses obtained from multi-loading conditions experiments were qualitatively compared with results obtained from a finite element analysis of the validated model of femur with the same multi-loading conditions. When the obtained numerical results are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, similarities can be noted. The developed finite element model of femur may be used as a promising tool to estimate proximal femur strength and identify the best conditions for long-term functioning of the bone-implant system in future study.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-08-19T05:05:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920951033
       
  • Experimental study of the optimum puncture pattern of robot-assisted
           needle insertion into hyperelastic materials
    • Authors: Yao Wang, Zhuang Fu, Zhi-Feng Zhao, Yun Shen, Tie-Feng Zhang, Wei-Yi Shi, Jian Fei, Guang-Biao Chen
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The robot-assisted insertion surgery plays a crucial role in biopsy and therapy. This study focuses on determining the optimum puncture pattern for robot-assisted insertion, aiming at the matching problem of needle insertion parameters, thereby to reduce the pain for patients and to improve the reachability to the lesion point. First, a 6-degrees of freedom (DOFs) Computed Tomography (CT)-guided surgical robotic system for minimally invasive percutaneous lung is developed and used to perform puncture experiments. The effects of four main insertion factors on the robotic puncture are verified by designing the orthogonal test, where the inserting object is the artificial skin-like specimen with high transparent property and a digital image processing method is used to analyze the needle tip deflection. Next, the various phases of puncture process are divided and analyzed in detail in view of the tissue deformation and puncture force. Then, short discussion on the comparison of puncture force with different effect factors for the same beveled needle is presented. The same pattern can be observed for all of the cases. Finally, based on the experimental data, the formulations of the puncture force and needle deflection which depends on Gauge size, insertion velocity, insertion angle, and insertion depth are developed using the multiple regression method, which can be used to get an optimum puncture pattern under the constrains of minimum peak force and minimum needle tip deflection. The developed models have the effectiveness and applicability on determining the optimum puncture pattern for one puncture event, and which can also provide insights useful for the setting of insertion parameters in clinical practice.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T07:20:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920950904
       
  • Development of a smart-fit system for CPAP interface selection
    • Authors: Zhichao Ma, Philip Hyde, Michael Drinnan, Javier Munguia
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy is commonly prescribed for longstanding, acute cases of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) during which patients must wear a tight-fitting breathing mask overnight for the duration of the treatment. Because this condition frequently leads to the permanent use of CPAP masks, interface selection is a crucial factor influencing the treatment quality and effectiveness. Masks/interface selection is normally performed on a trial an error basis with clinicians informing their selection based on OSA-related factors with basic fitting feedback from patients. However, it is not uncommon for patients to abandon the treatment or request additional consultations due to ill-fitting CPAP mask with the main sources of discomfort being perceived air leakage and mask/strap overtightening leading to skin damage. This work introduces a novel system (Smart-Fit), for CPAP interface selection using advanced digital technologies, such as Reverse Engineering and Computational Modeling (Finite Element Analysis) which are paired to evaluate and determine the best fitting interface for each clinical case. The model simplifies the number of 3D facial landmarks to 12 and established that a 2 mm scan resolution is enough for accurate scans. The Von Mises stress map in ANSYS serves as an indicator of potential high-pressure areas, triggering the need for a chance of mask size. Current results indicate the Smart Fit System can enable a “best fit CPAP interface” to be selected considering individual’s physical characteristics and existing CPAP interface configurations. The development of the Smart Fit System is an evolution compared to traditional CPAP interface selection approach, which optimizes the CPAP interface selection process.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920959879
       
  • Design and evaluation of a novel anti-reflux biliary stent with cone
           spiral valve
    • Authors: Yue Wang, Xiao-Fei Song, Yu-Shan Su, Xin-Sheng Xu
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Endoscopic placement of biliary stent is a well-established palliative treatment for biliary obstruction. However, duodenobiliary reflux after stent placement has been a common problem which may lead to dreadful complications. This paper designed a novel anti-reflux biliary stent with a cone spiral valve. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations were established to evaluate the efficiency of the anti-reflux stent comparing with a clinically applied standard stent. According to the stress distribution of the valve, the fatigue performance in the stress concentration area was analyzed. The results show that when the antegrade flow through the valve, the cone spiral valve could stretch and open to realize adequate drainage under the normal physiological pressure of biliary tract; When the duodenal reflux through the valve, the valve would be compressed and close with a result of nearly zero at the outlet flow rate. Furthermore, the anti-reflux stent achieved improved radial mechanical performance with 2.7 times higher radial stiffness than standard stent. Finite element analysis (FEA) also indicates that compared with the standard stent, the addition of the anti-reflux valve had little negative effect on flexibility of the stent. Fatigue analysis results showed that the valve was reliable. This research provides the new stent with a cone spiral valve and proves that it is technically feasible and effective for preventing the duodenobiliary reflux while ensuring the antegrade bile flow without compromising the other biomechanical performances.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920959986
       
  • Influence of outer geometry on primary stability for uncemented acetabular
           shells in developmental dysplasia of the hip
    • Authors: Kazuhiro Yoshida, Kensuke Fukushima, Rina Sakai, Katsufumi Uchiyama, Naonobu Takahira, Masanobu Ujihira
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Excellent primary stability of uncemented acetabular shells is essential to obtain successful clinical outcomes. However, in the case of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), aseptic loosening may be induced by instability due to a decrease of the contact area between the acetabular shell and host bone. The aim of this study was to assess the primary stability of two commercially-available acetabular shells, hemispherical and hemielliptical, in normal and DDH models. Synthetic bone was reamed using appropriate surgical reamers for each reaming condition (normal acetabular model). The normal acetabular model was also cut diagonally at 40° to create a dysplasia model. Stability of the acetabular components was evaluated by the lever-out test. In the normal acetabular model conditions, the maximum primary stabilities of hemispherical and hemielliptical shells were observed in the 1-mm under- and 1-mm over-reamed conditions, respectively, and the resulting stabilities were comparable. The lateral defect in the dysplasia model had an adverse effect on the primary stabilities of the two designs. The lever-out moment of the hemielliptical acetabular shell was 1.4 times greater than that of the hemispherical acetabular shell in the dysplasia model. The hemispherical shell is useful for the normal acetabular condition, and the hemielliptical shell for the severe dysplasia condition, in the context of primary stability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-30T09:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920960000
       
  • Multi-modal infusion pump real-time monitoring technique for improvement
           in safety of intravenous-administration patients
    • Authors: Young Jun Hwang, Gun Ho Kim, Eui Suk Sung, Kyoung Won Nam
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Intravenous (IV) medication administration processes have been considered as high-risk steps, because accidents during IV administration can lead to serious adverse effects, which can deteriorate the therapeutic effect or threaten the patient’s life. In this study, we propose a multi-modal infusion pump (IP) monitoring technique, which can detect mismatches between the IP setting and actual infusion state and between the IP setting and doctor’s prescription in real time using a thin membrane potentiometer and convolutional-neural-network-based deep learning technique. During performance evaluation, the percentage errors between the reference infusion rate (IR) and average estimated IR were in the range of 0.50–2.55%, while those between the average actual IR and average estimated IR were in the range of 0.22–2.90%. In addition, the training, validation, and test accuracies of the implemented deep learning model after training were 98.3%, 97.7%, and 98.5%, respectively. The training and validation losses were 0.33 and 0.36, respectively. According to these experimental results, the proposed technique could provide improved protection functions to IV-administration patients.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T08:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920960260
       
  • Contact patterns in the ankle joint after lateral ligamentous injury
           during internal rotation: A computational study
    • Authors: G Marta, C Quental, J Folgado, F Guerra-Pinto
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Lateral ankle instability, resulting from the inability of ankle ligaments to heal after injury, is believed to cause a change in the articular contact mechanics that may promote cartilage degeneration. Considering that lateral ligaments’ insufficiency has been related to rotational instability of the talus, and that few studies have addressed the contact mechanics under this condition, the aim of this work was to evaluate if a purely rotational ankle instability could cause non-physiological changes in contact pressures in the ankle joint cartilages using the finite element method. A finite element model of a healthy ankle joint, including bones, cartilages and nine ligaments, was developed. Pure internal talus rotations of 3.67°, 9.6° and 13.43°, measured experimentally for three ligamentous configurations, were applied. The ligamentous configurations consisted in a healthy condition, an injured condition in which the anterior talofibular ligament was cut, and an injured condition in which the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments were cut. For all simulations, the contact areas and maximum contact pressures were evaluated for each cartilage. The results showed not only an increase of the maximum contact pressures in the ankle cartilages, but also novel contact regions at the anteromedial and posterolateral sections of the talar cartilage with increasing internal rotation. The anteromedial and posterolateral contact regions observed due to pathological internal rotations of the talus are a computational evidence that supports the link between a pure rotational instability and the pattern of pathological cartilaginous load seen in patients with long-term lateral chronic ankle instability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-03T06:07:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920960256
       
  • Design and development of model eye for retina laser by using additive
           manufacturing
    • Authors: Arivazhagan Pugalendhi, Rajesh Ranganathan, Narendran Venkatapathy, Kalpana Narendran, Parag K Shah
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Surgical skill of the surgeon can be improved by surgical simulation. Especially in ophthalmology, it is impossible to use real human/non-human primate eyes for ophthalmology surgery practice. However, surgical practice is most important for ophthalmologist. The retina laser surgery is one of the ophthalmology surgeries and it requires more surgical practice for surgeons to use the laser beam precisely to coagulate and fuse small areas of tissue. Dealing with the prospect of vision reduction or vision loss presents a peculiar problem and that can be highly stressful and frustrating for both doctors and patients. In this regard, training for indirect ophthalmoscopy and retinal photocoagulation is undergone using model eyes instead of real eyes. Properties and functioning of an existing model eye are huge and they differ from real human eye such as casings are completely rigid and focusing of retinal fundus is not completely covered. Therefore, this research concentrates to develop a model eye that assimilates close to the human eye by focussing on the maximum viewing area that is not done at the moment. Finally, the design and development of re-engineered model eye for retina laser is fabricated by additive manufacturing. Compared to existing plastic model eye, viewing area and viewing angle of the re-engineered model eye is increased by 16.66% and 6.14%, respectively. Due to design modifications and elimination of the insert, it can be reduced by 18.99% and 13.95% of height and weight of the top casing respectively. Developed re-engineered model eye will improve the surgical and diagnostic skill of the surgeon and increase their confidence and proficiency. It also augments the effective use of essential ophthalmic instruments. Additionally, it can reduce the surgical error and meet the existing demand of actual eyes for surgical practices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:20:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920960548
       
  • Fabrication, characterization, and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of
           titanium-niobium implants
    • Authors: Abdurrahman Yolun, Murat Şimşek, Mehmet Kaya, Ebru Elibol Annaç, Mustafa Köm, Ömer Çakmak
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, biocompatible titanium-niobium (Ti-Nb) alloys were fabricated by using powder metallurgy methods. Physical, morphological, thermal, and mechanical analyses were performed and their in vivo compatibility was evaluated. Besides α, β, and α″ martensitic phases, α+β Widmanstätten phase due to increasing sintering temperature was seen in the microstructure of the alloys. Phase transformation temperatures of the samples decreased as Nb content increased. The ratio of Nb in the samples affected their mechanical properties. No toxic effect was observed on implanted sites. This study shows that Ti-Nb alloys can be potentially used for orthopedic applications without any toxic effects.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-29T05:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920960854
       
  • The relations between the stress in temporomandibular joints and the
           deviated distances for mandibular asymmetric patients
    • Authors: Jingheng Shu, Xin Xiong, Desmond YR Chong, Yang Liu, Zhan Liu
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      The study aimed to compare the difference of stress distributions in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) between the patients with mandibular asymmetry and asymptomatic subjects and find the relations between deviated distance and biomechanical stress using three-dimensional finite element method, to give guidance to dentists for correction of mandibular asymmetry. Ten facial symmetric subjects without symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and 10 mandibular asymmetric patients were recruited and assigned as the Control and Case group respectively. The FE models of the mandible and maxilla were reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Muscle forces and boundary conditions were applied to the two groups corresponding to centric and anterior occlusions. The simulation manifested significant differences in stresses of the TMJs between the non-deviated and deviated sides in the Case group under the centric and anterior occlusions. The stresses in the Case group were significantly greater than those in the Control group, especially on the non-deviated side. Besides, there were weak and moderate correlations between the third principal stresses and deviated distances for the patients under centric and anterior occlusions. The excessive stresses in the TMJ of patients with mandibular asymmetry were associated with temporomandibular disorders.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:58:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920962392
       
  • Wearable sensing devices for upper limbs: A systematic review
    • Authors: Mingjie Dong, Bin Fang, Jianfeng Li, Fuchun Sun, Huaping Liu
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, Ahead of Print.
      Wearable sensing devices, which are smart electronic devices that can be worn on the body as implants or accessories, have attracted much research interest in recent years. They are rapidly advancing in terms of technology, functionality, size, and real-time applications along with the fast development of manufacturing technologies and sensor technologies. By covering some of the most important technologies and algorithms of wearable devices, this paper is intended to provide an overview of upper-limb wearable device research and to explore future research trends. The review of the state-of-the-art of upper-limb wearable technologies involving wearable design, sensor technologies, wearable computing algorithms and wearable applications is presented along with a summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Toward the end of this paper, we highlight areas of future research potential. It is our goal that this review will guide future researchers to develop better wearable sensing devices for upper limbs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine
      PubDate: 2020-09-04T09:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954411920953031
       
 
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