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LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (98 journals)

Showing 1 - 98 of 98 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adipocyte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied In Vitro Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Medicine Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Nanomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Aging Research: An International Journal Devoted to the Scientific Study of the Aging Process     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Experimental Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Research and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Current and Advance Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics JDDT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muhammadiyah Medical Laboratory Technologist     Open Access  
Journal of Operating Department Practitioners     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Image Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Medical Laboratory Observer     Full-text available via subscription  
Medical Laboratory Technology Journal     Open Access  
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Medtech Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Prosthetics and Orthotics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription  
Qualitative Research in Medicine & Healthcare     Open Access  
Recent Advances in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública     Open Access  
Revista Romana de Medicina de Laborator     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
SA Pharmacist's Assistant     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
SLAS Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Statistics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Trends in Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • New PTX-HS15/T80 Mixed Micelles: Cytotoxicity, Pharmacokinetics and Tissue
           Distribution
    • Abstract: Abstract Compared with single micelle, the new PTX-HS15/T80 mixed micelle system (PTX-HS15/T80 MMs) had achieved better results in solubilization, stability, and sensitization before. Therefore, we intend to further verify the potential advantages of the mixed micelle delivery system through in vitro cytotoxicity test and animal test to understand the anticancer effect and in vivo pharmaceutical behavior of the system. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the new PTX-HS15/T80 MMs had a stronger ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. The results of in vivo pharmacokinetics showed that the micelle had shorter half-life, higher clearance rate, and lower blood concentration and had good blood clearance characteristics. The results of in vivo tissue distribution showed that, compared with the single micelle Taxol®, the new PTX-HS15/T80 MMs had good distribution characteristics in the lung (AUC (lung 0–4 H) increased about 26%) and low concentration in the heart (AUC (Heart 0–4 H) decreased about 10%). Paclitaxel was mainly metabolized through the liver and kidney. The above results suggested that the new PTX-HS15/T80 MMs may have a certain therapeutic potential against lung cancer and reduce the toxic and side effects. In general, the mixed micelle delivery system was not only simple and cheap to prepare but also had certain advantages in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the combination of surfactants provides a good choice for solving the problem of insoluble drug delivery.
      PubDate: 2021-01-24
       
  • Emerging Nanomedicines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
    • Abstract: Abstract Globally, the prevalence of Atopic dermatitis (AD) is significantly increasing and affecting around 20% of population including children. Complex interactions amongst abnormality in epidermal barrier function, environment, infectious agents and immunological defects are considered as key factors in the pathogenesis of AD. Although the role of oxidative stress has been studied in some skin diseases, investigation of the same in AD is intermittent. Calcineurin inhibitors and/or topical corticosteroids are currently available; however, it causes atrophy of the skin, burning sensation, and systemic side effects which leads to poor patient compliance. These limitations provoke the strong need to develop an innovative approach in managing AD. Nanomaterials for effective drug delivery to skin conditions such as AD have attracted a lot of attention owing to its ability to encapsulate, protect, and release the cargo at the diseased skin site. However, there are lots of unmet challenges especially in terms of development of non-toxic formulations and clinical translation of established nanomedicines in the form of accessible products. Numerous formulations have emerged as carrier for poorly soluble and permeable drugs, viz., lipidic, polymeric, metal, silica, liposomes, hydrocarbon gels and this field is evolving. This review is intended to provide an insight incidences associated with pathophysiology of AD and challenges with existing treatments of AD. Focus is kept on reviewing current development and emerging nanomedicines for effective treatment of AD. The review also inculcates merits of several nanomedicines in overcoming challenges of existing products and its future implications.
      PubDate: 2021-01-24
       
  • Exploratory Study on Lercanidipine Hydrochloride Polymorphism:
           pH-Dependent Solubility Behavior and Simulation of its Impact on
           Pharmacokinetics
    • Abstract: Abstract This work describes an exploratory experimental and in silico study of the influence of polymorphism, particle size, and physiology on the pharmacokinetics of lercanidipine hydrochloride (LHC). Equilibrium and kinetic solubility studies were performed on LHC forms I and II, as a function of pH and buffer composition. GastroPlus® was used to evaluate the potential effect of solubility differences due to polymorphism, particle size, and physiological conditions, on the drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicated that solubilities of LHC polymorphs are strongly dependent on the composition and pH of the buffer media. The concentration ratio (CI/CII) is particularly large for chloride buffer (CI/CII = 3.3–3.9) and exhibits a slightly decreasing tendency with the pH increase for all other buffers. Based on solubility alone, a higher bioavailability of form I might be expected. However, exploratory PBPK simulations suggested that (i) under usual fasted (pH 1.3) and fed (pH 4.9) gastric conditions, the two polymorphs have similar bioavailability, regardless of the particle size; (ii) at high gastric pH in the fasted state (e.g., pH 3.0), the bioavailability of form II can be considerably lower than that of form I, unless the particle size is < 20 μm. This study demonstrates the importance of investigating the effect of the buffer nature when evaluating the solubility of ionizable polymorphic substances. It also showcases the benefits of using PBPK simulations, to assess the risk and pharmacokinetic relevance of different solubility and particle size between crystal forms, for diverse physiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
       
  • Evaluation of Microwave Vacuum Drying as an Alternative to Freeze-Drying
           of Biologics and Vaccines: the Power of Simple Modeling to Identify a
           Mechanism for Faster Drying Times Achieved with Microwave
    • Abstract: Abstract Vial-based lyophilization for biopharmaceuticals has been an indispensable cornerstone process for over 50 years. However, the process is not without significant challenges. Capital costs to realize a lyophilized drug product facility, for example, are very high. Similarly, heat and mass transfer limitations inherent in lyophilization result in drying cycle on the order of several days while putting practical constraints on available formulation space, such as solute mass percentage or fill volume in a vial. Through collaboration with an external partner, we are exploring microwave vacuum drying (MVD) as a faster drying process to vial lyophilization wherein the heat transfer process occurs by microwave radiation instead of pure conduction from the vial. Drying using this radiative process demonstrates greater than 80% reduction in drying time over traditional freeze-drying times while maintaining product activity and stability. Such reduction in freeze-drying process times from days to several hours is a welcome change as it enables flexible manufacturing by being able to better react to changes either in terms of product volume for on-demand manufacturing scenarios or facilities for production (e.g., scale-out over scale-up). Additionally, by utilizing first-principle modeling coupled with experimental verification, a mechanism for faster drying times associated with MVD is proposed in this article. This research, to the best of our knowledge, forms the very first report of utilizing microwave vacuum drying for vaccines while utilizing the power of simplified models to understand drying principles associated with MVD.
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
       
  • Equipment Capability Measurement of Laboratory Freeze-Dryers: a Comparison
           of Two Methods
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this investigation was to evaluate two methods for measuring the maximum sublimation rate that a freeze-dryer will support—the minimum controllable pressure method and the choke point method. Both methods gave equivalent results, but the minimum controllable pressure method is preferred, since it is easier, faster, and less subjective. The ratio of chamber pressure to condenser pressure corresponding to the onset of choked flow was considerably higher in this investigation (up to about 20:1) than in previously published reports. This ratio was not affected by the location of the pressure gauge on the condenser; that is, on the foreline of the vacuum pump versus on the body of the condenser itself. The total water loss due to sublimation as measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was consistently within 5% of gravimetrically determined weight loss, regardless of whether the measurement took place during choked versus non-choked process conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
       
  • Potential Application of USP Paddle and Basket Dissolution Methods in
           Discriminating for Portioned Moist Snuff and Snus Smokeless Tobacco
           Products
    • Abstract: Abstract The focus of the study was to develop discriminatory dissolution methods for portioned snus and moist snuff sub-categories of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) using USP basket and paddle apparatuses. Skoal Classic Wintergreen (SCW) and CORESTA CRP1.1 pouches were used as test products. The dissolution was performed at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 rpm basket or paddle speed in 500 ml artificial saliva pH 6.8. The products were also characterized for assay, pH, particle size, and loss on drying. The dissolution profiles were evaluated for amount/% of nicotine dissolved, time to reach plateau, and profiles comparison by f2 and f1 factors. The nicotine assay was 13.3 ± 0.2 and 7.6 ± 0.1 mg/pouch for SCW and CRP1.1, respectively. The nicotine dissolved in 30 min from SCW and CRP1.1 were 38.4–81.8 and 37.6–88.1, and 50.5–64.9 and 72.3–92.1% by paddle and basket methods, respectively. The f2 and f1 values were ≤ 39.2 and ≥ 42.1 and ≤ 43.2 and ≥ 34.1 for basket methods and paddle methods. RSD were less than 20% at all points of dissolution profiles, and dissolution plateau were achieved in 30 min at some of the tested conditions. In summary, dissolution methods based on basket and paddle can be used as a performance test for STPs.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
       
  • Supercritical Fluid Extraction Combined with Ultrahigh Performance Liquid
           Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for
           Determination of Extractables to Evaluate Compatibility of Drugs with
           Rubber Closures
    • Abstract: Abstract Biological activity and pharmacological efficacy of protein drugs may be affected by the compatibility between drug and packaging materials. The compatibility of rubber closures seal cap has become the focus of many studies due to its complicated formulation. Despite of the significance of the issue, currently, there is little available data about organic leachables in drugs which is also not comprehensive. Since the concentration of migrants in drug is usually low and the matrix is complicated, the establishment of overall profile of extractables is crucial for the characterization of leachables. Herein, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method was used because of its great extraction capacity and efficiency for low to medium polar extractables in rubber stoppers. The SFE conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Experimental results of the extract yield were close to the predicted values (R2 = 0.95). Then the extractables were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Finally, risk assessment was made by comparing predicted exposure with injection permitted daily exposure (pPDE) limit or threshold recommended by threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). The results showed that there are many extractables such as glyceride, fatty acids and derivatives, antioxidants, and degradation products. Among them degradation products were in the majority and content of 17 substances exceeded corresponding limits. Considering their unknown toxicology, more experiments are therefore needed to provide information on their toxicology and risk assessment. The study provides a reference for the compatibility of drugs, and quality supervision of pharmaceuticals packaging.
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
       
  • 3D Printing as a Promising Tool in Personalized Medicine
    • Abstract: Abstract Personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare sector, its goal being to tailor medication to a particular individual by taking into consideration the physiology, drug response, and genetic profile of that individual. There are many technologies emerging to cause this paradigm shift from the conventional “one size fits all” to personalized medicine, the major one being three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D printing involves the establishment of a three-dimensional object, in a layer upon layer manner using various computer software. 3D printing can be used to construct a wide variety of pharmaceutical dosage forms varying in shape, release profile, and drug combination. The major technological platforms of 3D printing researched on in the pharmaceutical sector include inkjet printing, binder jetting, fused filament fabrication, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, and pressure-assisted microsyringe. A possible future application of this technology could be in a clinical setting, where prescriptions could be dispensed based on individual needs. This manuscript points out the various 3D printing technologies and their applications in research for fabricating pharmaceutical products, along with their pros and cons. It also presents its potential in personalized medicine by individualizing the dose, release profiles, and incorporating multiple drugs in a polypill. An insight on how it tends to various populations is also provided. An approach of how it can be used in a clinical setting is also highlighted. Also, various challenges faced are pointed out, which must be overcome for the success of this technology in personalized medicine.
      PubDate: 2021-01-17
       
  • Recent Advancement in Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery System Against
           Viral Infections
    • Abstract: Abstract In the last few decades, the exponential rise in the incidence of viral infections sets a global health emergency across the world. The biomimetic architecture, the ability to hijack host immune responses, continuous antigen shifting, and drafting are the major critical factors that are responsible for the unavailability of a concrete therapeutic regimen against viral infections. Further, inappropriate pharmacodynamic physicochemical and biological parameters such as low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, high affinity for plasm proteins, short biological half-lives, and fast elimination from the systemic circulation are the major critical factors that govern the suboptimal drug concentration at the target site that leads to the development of drug resistance. To address this issue, nanotechnology-based drug delivery approach is emerged as an altering method to attain the optimal drug concentration at the target site for a prolonged period by integrating the nanoengineering tools in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanodimensional configuration with enhanced permeability and retention effect, increased surface-area-to-volume ratio, provision for surface functionalization, etc., are the privileged aspects that make it an effective drug delivery system for dispensing the antiviral therapeutics. However, size, shape, charge, and surface topology of nanoparticles are the greater influential factors that determine target-specific drug delivery, optimum cellular uptake, degree of opsonization by the host immune cells, drug retention time, transcytosis, the extension of biological half-life, in vivo stability, and cytotoxicity. The review will enlighten the elaborative role of nanotechnology-based drug delivery and the major challenging aspect of clinical safety and efficacy.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
       
  • Novel Application of Hot Melt Extrusion Technology for Preparation and
           Evaluation of Valacyclovir Hydrochloride Ocular Inserts
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the processability of hot-melt extrusion (HME) to formulate ocular inserts of valacyclovir hydrochloride and evaluate the in vivo bioavailability of the formulation. To optimize the formulation of this drug, different physical mixtures of the polymers and plasticizer were prepared. The physical mixture was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, and the obtained ocular inserts were cut with dimensions of 4 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm to enhance the formulation instillation in the eye. Ocular inserts were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, uniformity of thickness, in vitro drug release, and in vivo drug bioavailability. The ocular inserts were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The attributes observed for the ocular inserts were within the target specifications. The ocular inserts of valacyclovir hydrochloride were successfully prepared using the HME. They provided sustained drug release along with enhanced drug permeation when compared with the eyedrop solution and dissolve completely in 8 h. Additionally, the obtained results demonstrated that the formulation of ocular inserts of valacyclovir hydrochloride using HME was reproducible, robust, and effective method.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
       
  • Ratiometric Delivery of Mitoxantrone and Berberine Co-encapsulated
           Liposomes to Improve Antitumor Efficiency and Decrease Cardiac Toxicity
    • Abstract: Abstract Combination therapy is one of the most common clinical practices in the treatment of malignancies. Synergistic effects, however, are produced only when optimal ratios of combined drugs were delivered to tumor cells. Thus, carriers co-encapsulating of multiple drugs are widely utilized for coordinated delivery. Herein, co-encapsulated pegylated liposomal formulation of mitoxantrone (MIT) and berberine (BER) at an optimal ratio has been developed (MBL) with high encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug loading in order to achieve the purpose of ratiometric loading and delivery. MBL can not only extend blood circulation but also enhance tumor accumulation for both MIT and BER. More importantly, MBL can maintain the originally desired drug ratio in tumors within 48 h of intravenous injection for synergistic therapy. Compared with the liposomal formulation of MIT-treated group (ML), the progression of tumor growth was inhibited significantly in murine 4T1 breast tumor model after the treatment of MBL, as well as a lower cardiac toxicity. In addition, MBL evidently prolonged the survival of mice with L1210 ascitic tumor model. In summary, such a strategy of co-encapsulated liposomes could improve the clinical applications against multiple cancers.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
       
  • Improved Oral Bioavailability and Hypolipidemic Effect of Syringic Acid
           via a Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to enhance the solubility, oral bioavailability, and hypolipidemic effects of syringic acid (SA), a bioactive and poorly-soluble polyphenol. Based on the response surface methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD), an optimum formulation of SA-SMEDDS, consisting of ethyl oleate (oil, 12.30%), Cremophor-EL (surfactant, 66.25%), 1,2-propanediol (cosurfactant, 21.44%), and drug loading (50 mg/g), was obtained. The droplets of SA-SMEDDS were nanosized (16.38 ± 0.12 nm), spherically shaped, and homogeneously distributed (PDI = 0.058 ± 0.013) nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (98.04 ± 1.39%) and stability. In vitro release study demonstrated a prolonged and controlled release of SA from SMEDDS. In vitro cell studies signified that SA-SMEDDS droplets substantially promoted cellular internalization. In comparison with the SA suspension, SA-SMEDDS showed significant prolonged Tmax, t1/2, and MRT after oral administration. Also, SA-SMEDDS exhibited a delayed in vivo elimination, increased bioavailability (2.1-fold), and enhanced liver accumulation. Furthermore, SA-SMEDDS demonstrated significant improvement in alleviating serum lipid profiles and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Collectively, SMEDDS demonstrated potential as a nanosystem for the oral delivery of SA with enhanced bioavailability and hypolipidemic effects.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
       
  • Influence of Particle Size and Drug Load on Amorphous Solid Dispersions
           Containing pH-Dependent Soluble Polymers and the Weak Base Ketoconazole
    • Abstract: Abstract Among the great number of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical development, most of them are weak bases. Typically, they readily dissolve in an acidic environment but are prone to precipitation at elevated pH. This was aimed to be counteracted by the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) using the pH-dependent soluble polymers methacrylic acid ethylacrylate copolymer (Eudragit L100–55) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) via hot-melt extrusion. The hot-melt extruded ASDs were of amorphous nature and single phased with the presence of specific interactions between drug and polymer as revealed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The ASDs were milled and classified into six particle size fractions. We investigated the influence of particle size, drug load, and polymer type on the dissolution performance. The best dissolution performance was achieved for the ASD made from Eudragit L100–55 at a drug load of 10%, whereby the dissolution rate was inversely proportional to the particle size. Within a pH-shift dissolution experiment (from pH 1 to pH 6.8), amorphous-amorphous phase separation occurred as a result of exposure to acidic medium which caused markedly reduced dissolution rates at subsequent higher pH values. Phase separation could be prevented by using enteric capsules (Vcaps Enteric®), which provided optimal dissolution profiles for the Eudragit L100–55 ASD at a drug load of 10%.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
       
  • Impact of Membranes on In Vitro Release Assessment: a Case Study Using
           Dexamethasone
    • Abstract: Abstract In vitro release studies are commonly used to assess the product performance of topical dosage forms. In such studies, the mass transport of drugs through synthetic membranes into a receiving chamber filled with a release medium is measured. The release medium is also passed through filtration membranes prior to chromatographic analysis. There are no official guidelines directing membrane selection for in vitro release studies or for filtration. Considering the diversity in membrane materials and their physical properties, the aim of this study was to investigate membrane-drug binding and the effect of various membranes on the release performance of a model drug dexamethasone (DEX) using USP dissolution apparatus IV. Seven membranes of different pore sizes (0.45 and 1.2 μm) and materials (cellulose acetate, polyethersulfone, and nylon) were assessed. Two different methods, syringe filter and 24-h incubation, were used for the determination of membrane-drug binding effects at low drug concentrations and saturated concentration conditions. Cellulose acetate and nylon membranes showed significant drug binding after 24-h incubations at both drug concentrations. DEX diffusion through membranes was significantly slowed down in all the tested membranes when compared with DEX solution without membranes. The extent of the retardation varied due to the differences in membrane structures. In conclusion, materials and sources of membranes affected drug dissolution profiles and the results showed membrane-drug binding effects. Proper selection of membranes with low drug binding ability and low diffusion resistance is essential to ensure appropriate and reproducible in vitro release assessments and filtration studies. Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: 2021-01-10
       
  • Determination and Comparison of the Solubility, Oil–Water Partition
           Coefficient, Intestinal Absorption, and Biliary Excretion of Carvedilol
           Enantiomers
    • Abstract: Abstract Carvedilol is administered as a racemic mixture for the therapy of hypertension and heart failure. S-enantiomer is the dominant conformation of pharmacodynamics, but its further development was obstructed by its poor bioavailability. In this study, carvedilol and its enantiomers were compared in terms of solubility, permeability, and biliary excretion, and reasons for the poor bioavailability were discussed. Equilibrium solubility and log P were measured by a shake flask method at a wide pH range (1.2–8.0), and intestinal absorption and biliary excretion were evaluated using a single-pass rat intestinal perfusion model. According to BCS guidance, carvedilol and its R/S enantiomers are considered highly soluble at pH value less than 5.0 and low soluble at neutral or weak alkaline conditions. RS-carvedilol showed significantly lower solubilities at pH 1.2–5.0 and higher solubilities at pH 6.0–8.0 than its enantiomers. In addition, carvedilol and its enantiomers possessed similar log P values at pH 1.2–8.0. High intestinal permeabilities of carvedilol and its enantiomers were observed, and S-carvedilol showed higher absorption than R-carvedilol and RS-carvedilol. The biliary excretion about two major metabolites, 1-hydroxycarvedilol O-glucuronide and 8-hydroxycarvedilol O-glucuronide, of RS-carvedilol, S-carvedilol, and R-carvedilol were 66.4%, 73.5%, and 54.3%, respectively. In conclusion, there are significant differences amongst carvedilol and its R/S enantiomers in terms of solubility, intestine absorption, and biliary excretion abilities. The first pass effect is the primary reasons for the low bioavailability of S-carvedilol. Therefore, pharmaceutical strategies or parenteral routes should be considered to avoid the first pass metabolism.
      PubDate: 2021-01-10
       
  • Development of a Pediatric Mini-Tablet Formulation for Expedited
           Preclinical Studies
    • Abstract: Abstract Multiple considerations are essential to address the main challenges of dose flexibility and patient adherence in pediatric drug development, particularly for oncology. Mini-tablets, 2 mm in diameter, were manufactured using a rotary tablet press at a set weight and compression force level. The physical characteristics were consistent for mini-tablets throughout multiple batches. Polymeric amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) was used as a solubility enhancing technique to increase solubility and exposure of lapatinib. The effects of the polymeric excipient and disintegrant on drug release properties were investigated. While having a lower apparent solubility and shorter storage stability, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E3 (HPMCE3) formulation provided a higher percentage of drug release compared to hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP). The intermolecular interaction within the ASD system plays a role in the level of apparent solubility, physical stability, and concentration of free drug available in an aqueous environment. Juvenile porcine models at two different weight groups (10 and 20 kg) were used to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters of lapatinib. While the dose-normalized exposure of drug was found to be lower in the pig study, the dose flexibility of mini-tablets enabled a constant dose level to be administered to achieve equivalent plasma concentration-time profiles between the two groups. This linear scaling in the amount of drug in pediatric and adult population has also been observed in human clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
       
  • Investigation of Preprocessing and Validation Methodologies for PAT: Case
           Study of the Granulation and Coating Steps for the Manufacturing of
           Ethenzamide Tablets
    • Abstract: Abstract After the Food and Drug Association in the USA published guidelines on the enhanced use of process analytical technology (PAT) and continuous manufacturing, many studies regarding PAT and continuous manufacturing have been published. This paper describes a case study involving granulation and coating steps with ethenzamide to investigate interference for PAT model construction and model management. We investigated what factors should be considered and addressed when PAT is implemented for continuous manufacturing and how predictive models should be constructed. The product qualities that were monitored were moisture content and particle size in the granulation step and tablet weight and moisture content in the coating step. We have constructed models for the granulation step and validated the predictive capability of the models against an external dataset. A partial least squares (PLS) model with manual wavelength selection had the best predictive accuracy for loss on drying against the external validation set. We found that the prediction of loss on drying was accurate, but the prediction of particle size was not sufficiently accurate. In the coating step, because of the small amount of data, we performed three-fold cross-validation and y-scrambling 10 times, to select the optimal hyper-parameters and to check if the models were fitted to chance correlations. We confirmed that the coating agent weights, tablet weights, and water content could be accurately predicted based on the mean of the R2 score for cross-validation. Addition of other variables, as well as the absorbance, slightly improved the predictive accuracy.
      PubDate: 2021-01-08
       
  • Characterization and Systemic Delivery of Dibenzoylmethane via the
           Intranasal Route
    • Abstract: Abstract Intranasal (IN) administration is known to be noninvasive with the potential to carry a drug or vaccine directly to the blood, bypassing first-pass metabolism in the liver and the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal system. Orally administered dibenzoylmethane (DBM) has been shown experimentally to be neuroprotective in animal models of tauopathy and prion disease and effective in the treatment of certain forms of cancers. The purpose of this study was to prepare, characterize, and test formulations of DBM designed for IN administration. DBM was formulated in brain homogenate (BH) and hypromellose and as nanoparticles (NPs). These formulations were detected using UPLC and characterized in solid and suspension states; NPs were also characterized by in vitro cell culture–based studies. Particle size for DBM NP was 163.8 ± 3.2 nm, and in vitro release studies showed 95.80% of DBM was released from the NPs within 8 days. In vitro cell, culture studies suggested no drug uptake until 6 h. A histological analysis of nasal cavity (NC) sections and blood detection studies were carried out 30 min after inhalation. DBM amounting to 40.77 ± 4.93 and 44.45 ± 5.36 ng/mL was detected in the blood of animals administered DBM in polymeric and NP formulation, respectively. Histological studies on NCs confirmed the presence of BH within lymphatic vessels in the lamina propria of each animal; BH was identified traversing the mucosa in 2 animals. Thus, formulations for DBM administered via IN route were successfully designed and characterized and able to cross the nasal mucosa following inhalation.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
  • Investigating Cocrystallization of Carbamazepine with Structurally
           Compatible Coformers: New Cocrystal and Eutectic Phases with Enhanced
           Dissolution
    • Abstract: Abstract In this work, carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant drug was cocrystallized with several structurally complement coformers (coformers with amide, acid and hydrazide functional groups) to enhance its dissolution. CBZ formed a cocrystal phase with acetamide (ACE) when mixtures of CBZ and ACE (containing CBZ mole fractions, XCBZ of 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 0.67) were subjected to solid-state grinding (SSG), evaporative crystallization (EC), slurry conversion (SC), and slow cooling crystallization (SLC). Upon heating, the CBZ-ACE cocrystal phase formed from CBZ-ACE mixtures containing XCBZ of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.67 underwent solid-state phase transition to CBZ form I and CBZ cocrytsal phase obtained from the CBZ-ACE mixture containing XCBZ of 0.5 converted to CBZ form III. Interestingly, slow cooling cocrystallization experiments resulted in crystallization of a cocrystal as well as the CBZ dihydrate forms. The powder dissolution studies demonstrated that among the different CBZ-ACE-SSG cocrystal phases, CBZ-ACE-SSG-XCBZ-0.33 cocrystal exhibited 7.47 times improved dissolution whereas the CBZ eutectic phase with nicotinic acid hydrazide (NAH) exhibited 4.93 times increased dissolution when compared to raw CBZ.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
  • Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Pharmacodynamics and
           Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of PEGylated Urolithin A Liposomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Urolithin A (Uro-A), a metabolite of ellagitannins in mammals’ intestinal tract, displays broad biological properties in preclinical models, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. However, the clinical application of Uro-A is restricted because of its low aqueous solubility and short elimination half-life. Our purpose was to develop a delivery system to improve the bioavailability and anti-tumor efficacy of Uro-A. To achieve this goal, urolithin A–loaded PEGylated liposomes (Uro-A-PEG-LPs) were prepared for the first time and its physicochemical properties and anti-tumor efficacy in vitro were evaluated. The morphology of Uro-A-PEG-LPs displayed a uniform sphere under transmission electron microscope. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of Uro-A-PEG-LPs were 122.8 ± 7.4 nm, 0.25 ± 0.16, − 25.5 ± 2.3 mV, and 94.6 ± 1.6%, respectively. Moreover, Uro-A-PEG-LPs possessed higher stability and could be stably stored at 4°C for a long time. In vitro release characteristics indicated that Uro-A-PEG-LPs possessed superior sustained release properties. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy experiment showed that the coumarin 6–loaded PEGylated liposomes (C6-PEG-LPs) have superior cellular uptake than that of conventional liposomes. In addition, in vitro tests demonstrated that Uro-A-PEG-LPs elevated cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect in human hepatoma cells comparing with free Uro-A. Furthermore, the results of pharmacokinetic experiments showed that the t1/2, AUC0-t, and MRT0-t of Uro-A-PEG-LPs increased to 4.58-fold, 2.33-fold, and 2.43-fold than those of free Uro-A solution, respectively. Collectively, these manifested that PEGylated liposomes might be a potential delivery system for Uro-A to prolonging in vivo circulation time, promoting cellular uptake, and enhancing its anti-tumor efficacy.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
 
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