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CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)

Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Chiropractic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Osteoporosis Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
DO - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Osteopathie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chiropractic Humanities     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Osteoporosis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
La Revue d'Homéopathie     Full-text available via subscription  
Musculoskeletal Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Osteopathische Medizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osteopatía Científica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Osteoporosis International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Prosthetics and Orthotics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Klassische Homöopathie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Osteoporosis Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1544-2241 - ISSN (Online) 1544-1873
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Cell Sources for Human In vitro Bone Models
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review One aim in bone tissue engineering is to develop human cell-based, 3D in vitro bone models to study bone physiology and pathology. Due to the heterogeneity of cells among patients, patient’s own cells are needed to be obtained, ideally, from one single cell source. This review attempts to identify the appropriate cell sources for development of such models. Recent Findings Bone marrow and peripheral blood are considered as suitable sources for extraction of osteoblast/osteocyte and osteoclast progenitor cells. Recent studies on these cell sources have shown no significant differences between isolated progenitor cells. However, various parameters such as medium composition affect the cell’s proliferation and differentiation potential which could make the peripheral blood-derived stem cells superior to the ones from bone marrow. Summary Peripheral blood can be considered a suitable source for osteoblast/osteocyte and osteoclast progenitor cells, being less invasive for the patient. However, more investigations are needed focusing on extraction and differentiation of both cell types from the same donor sample of peripheral blood.
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
       
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Vertebral Fracture Risk
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently published evidence concerning vertebral fracture risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Recent Findings Vertebral fracture risk is increased in individuals with T2DM. The presence of vertebral fractures in T2DM is associated with increased non-vertebral fracture risk and mortality. TBS could be helpful to estimate vertebral fracture risk in individuals with T2DM. An increased amount of bone marrow fat has been implicated in bone fragility in T2DM. Results from two recent studies show that both teriparatide and denosumab are effective in reducing vertebral fracture risk also in individuals with T2DM. Summary Individuals with T2DM could benefit from systematic screening in the clinic for presence of vertebral fractures.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
       
  • Ex vivo Bone Models and Their Potential in Preclinical Evaluation
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Novel therapies for damaged and diseased bone are being developed in a preclinical testing process consisting of in vitro cell experiments followed by in vivo animal studies. The in vitro results are often not representative of the results observed in vivo. This could be caused by the complexity of the natural bone environment that is missing in vitro. Ex vivo bone explant cultures provide a model in which cells are preserved in their native three-dimensional environment. Herein, it is aimed to review the current status of bone explant culture models in relation to their potential in complementing the preclinical evaluation process with specific attention paid to the incorporation of mechanical loading within ex vivo culture systems. Recent Findings Bone explant cultures are often performed with physiologically less relevant bone, immature bone, and explants derived from rodents, which complicates translatability into clinical practice. Mature bone explants encounter difficulties with maintaining viability, especially in static culture. The integration of mechanical stimuli was able to extend the lifespan of explants and to induce new bone formation. Summary Bone explant cultures provide unique platforms for bone research and mechanical loading was demonstrated to be an important component in achieving osteogenesis ex vivo. However, more research is needed to establish a representative, reliable, and reproducible bone explant culture system that includes both components of bone remodeling, i.e., formation and resorption, in order to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo research in preclinical testing.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
       
  • New Advances in Osteocyte Mechanotransduction
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Skeletal adaptation to mechanical loading plays a critical role in bone growth and the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Osteocytes are postulated to serve as a hub orchestrating bone remodeling. The recent findings on the molecular mechanisms by which osteocytes sense mechanical loads and the downstream bone-forming factors are reviewed. Recent Findings Calcium channels have been implicated in mechanotransduction in bone cells for a long time. Efforts have been made to identify a specific calcium channel mediating the skeletal response to mechanical loads. Recent studies have revealed that Piezo1, a mechanosensitive ion channel, is critical for normal bone growth and is essential for the skeletal response to mechanical loading. Summary Identification of mechanosensors and their downstream effectors in mechanosensing bone cells is essential for new strategies to modulate regenerative responses and develop therapies to treat the bone loss related to disuse or advanced age.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
       
  • Closing the Osteoporosis Care Gap
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This review outlines the scope of the problem in osteoporosis care and secondary fracture prevention and describes fracture prevention strategies, with a focus on the frail elderly. Recent Findings Despite heightened awareness among patients and clinicians alike and the availability of efficacious anti-osteoporosis medications, osteoporosis is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. However, the introduction of systematic risk assessment and secondary fracture prevention programmes has gained momentum, and evidence of success is accumulating. Summary We possess today the knowledge required to close the osteoporosis care gap. The basic components in a secondary prevention model are similar in all health care settings, number one being a dedicated fracture coordinator, with anti-osteoporosis medications and multifaceted falls prevention as cornerstones, particularly in the frailest, both in the near and long-term. Initiation of structured care pathways including the key elements – identification, investigation, intervention and follow-up of adherence – demonstrably reduces re-fracture rates and is cost-effective.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
       
  • Nutritional Supplements and Skeletal Health
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Nutrition influences skeletal health throughout the lifespan, from the impact of maternal intakes during development, through the development of peak bone mass, to the rate of bone loss during aging. However, there are limited data available on the effects of nutritional supplements on bone density, let alone fracture risk. This review will assess the current literature, focusing on human studies, and emphasizing nutrients where bone density or fracture data are available. Recent Findings Calcium and vitamin D supplements, in combination, reduce fracture risk, particularly in populations with low intakes. Extensive recent analyses have supported the safety of these interventions at recommended intakes. There is growing evidence that specific isoflavones may improve bone density although fracture data are lacking. Multiple other nutrient supplements may benefit skeletal health, but data are limited. Summary The effect size of nutrient interventions are relatively small, requiring large sample sizes for trials with bone outcomes, may be difficult to blind, and the impact of supplementation may depend on baseline intake. However, nutrition is the only intervention that can be implemented life long and on a population wide basis. Further investigation is needed into the potential benefits of nutritional supplements to determine in which settings supplements may add benefit in addition to dietary intakes.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
       
  • Romosozumab: a Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cardiovascular Risk
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review
      Authors review the safety and efficacy of romosozumab for the treatment of osteoporosis as demonstrated in three phase III clinical trials and offer insights into the potential cardiovascular risk associated with its use. Recent Findings Incidence of new vertebral fracture is dramatically reduced with 12 months of romosozumab use in comparison to both placebo and active bisphosphonate control groups in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Significant non-vertebral anti-fracture benefit was also demonstrated in patients with more severe osteoporosis. Numerical increases in cardiovascular events call into question the safety of romosozumab use, particularly in patients with cardiovascular history or at high cardiovascular risk. Summary Romosozumab has impressive anti-fracture effects in postmenopausal women with high risk for fragility fracture. Despite no significant differences in baseline cardiovascular risk factors between groups, a numerical increase in serious cardiovascular adverse events was demonstrated with romosozumab in randomized trials with no discernable etiology. Until more real-world evidence is available, romosozumab should not be used in patients with a recent cardiovascular event and should be used cautiously in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Romosozumab’s place in therapy is likely patients with severe postmenopausal osteoporosis and low cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
       
  • Therapies for Preventing Bone Loss with Glucocorticoid Treatment
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review We aim to critically review recent recommendations regarding preventative strategies for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and provide a summary of key evidence regarding available interventions. Recent Findings Lifestyle optimization remains the hallmark of bone health preservation. Early initiation of anti-osteoporotic agents in the setting of glucocorticoid exposure is essential, guided by appropriate risk stratification. Recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intake optimization are well-supported across all risk strata. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy. Newer agents such as denosumab and teriparatide have demonstrated comparative benefit in terms of incident fracture risk reduction and bone mineral density preservation, with comparable adverse events. With due consideration to cost, resource availability, and patient values and preferences, these agents may warrant use as the first-line agents in this setting. Summary Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis remains preventable and warrants early and targeted evidence-based therapy.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
       
  • Connexin Gap Junctions and Hemichannels Link Oxidative Stress to Skeletal
           Physiology and Pathology
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the impact and underlying mechanism of oxidative stress on connexin channel function, and their roles in skeletal aging, estrogen deficiency, and glucocorticoid excess associated bone loss. Recent Findings Connexin hemichannel opening is increased under oxidative stress conditions, which confers a cell protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Oxidative stress acts as a key contributor to aging, estrogen deficiency, and glucocorticoid excess-induced osteoporosis and impairs osteocytic network and connexin gap junction communication. Summary This paper reviews the current knowledge for the role of oxidative stress and connexin channels in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and physiological and pathological responses of connexin channels to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress decreases osteocyte viability and impairs the balance of anabolic and catabolic responses. Connexin 43 (Cx43) channels play a critical role in bone remodeling, mechanotransduction, and survival of osteocytes. Under oxidative stress conditions, there is a consistent reduction of Cx43 expression, while the opening of Cx43 hemichannels protects osteocytes against cell injury caused by oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
  • The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for the Management of Non-union
           Fractures
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The treatment of non-union fractures represents a significant challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. In recent years, biologic agents have been investigated and utilised to support and improve bone healing. Among these agents, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging strategy that is gaining popularity. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the application and clinical effectiveness of PRP injections, specifically for the treatment of non-union fractures. Recent Findings The majority of published studies reported that PRP accelerated fracture healing; however, this evidence was predominantly level IV. The lack of randomised, clinical trials (level I–II evidence) is currently hampering the successful clinical translation of PRP as a therapy for non-union fractures. This is despite the positive reports regarding its potential to heal non-union fractures, when used in isolation or in combination with other forms of treatment. Summary Future recommendations to facilitate clinical translation and acceptance of PRP as a therapy include the need to investigate the effects of administering higher volumes of PRP (i.e. 5–20 mL) along with the requirement for more prolonged (> 11 months) randomised clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
       
  • Enchondromatosis and Growth Plate Development
    • Abstract: Purpose of review Enchondroma is a common cartilage benign tumor that develops from dysregulation of chondrocyte terminal differentiation during growth plate development. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding causative mutations for enchondroma, dysregulated signaling and metabolic pathways in enchondroma, and the progression from enchondroma to malignant chondrosarcoma. Recent findings Several signaling pathways that regulate chondrocyte differentiation are dysregulated in enchondromas. Somatic mutations in the metabolic enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are the most common findings in enchondromas. Mechanisms including metabolic regulation, epigenetic regulation, and altered signaling pathways play a role in enchondroma formation and progression. Summary Multiple pathways regulate growth plate development in a coordinated manner. Deregulation of the process can result in chondrocytes failing to undergo differentiation and the development of enchondroma.
      PubDate: 2020-12-11
       
  • Osteocytes and Diabetes: Altered Function of Diabetic Osteocytes
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent chronic disease affecting millions of people in the world. Bone fragility is a complication found in diabetic patients. Although osteoblasts and osteoclasts are directly affected by diabetes, herein we focus on how the diabetic state—based on hyperglycemia and accumulation of advanced glycation end products among other features—impairs osteocyte functions exerting deleterious effects on bone. Recent Findings In the last years, several studies described that diabetic conditions cause morphological modifications on lacunar-canalicular system, alterations on osteocyte mechanoreceptors and intracellular pathways and on osteocyte communication with other cells through the secretion of proteins such as sclerostin or RANKL. Summary This article gives an overview of events occurring in diabetic osteocytes. In particular, mechanical responses seem to be seriously affected in these conditions, suggesting that mechanical sensibility could be a target for future research in the field.
      PubDate: 2020-11-13
       
  • Glucose-Lowering Drugs and Fracture Risk—a Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased fracture risk. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effects of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs on fracture risk in patients with type 2 DM. The heterogeneity of the included studies did not allow formal statistical analyses. Recent Findings Sixty studies were included in the review. Metformin, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2-inhibitors do not appear to increase fracture risk. Results for insulin and sulphonylureas were more disparate, although there may be an increased fracture risk related to hypoglycemia and falls with these treatments. Glitazones were consistently associated with increased fracture risk in women, although the evidence was sparser in men. Summary New glucose-lowering drugs are continuously being developed and better understanding of these is leading to changes in prescription patterns. Our findings warrant continued research on the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on fracture risk, elucidating the class-specific effects of these drugs.
      PubDate: 2020-11-09
       
  • When the Nervous System Turns Skeletal Muscles into Bones: How to Solve
           the Conundrum of Neurogenic Heterotopic Ossification
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is the abnormal formation of extra-skeletal bones in periarticular muscles after damage to the central nervous system (CNS) such as spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, or cerebral anoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments in the understanding of NHO pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Recent animal models of NHO and recent findings investigating the communication between CNS injury, tissue inflammation, and upcoming NHO therapeutics are discussed. Recent Findings Animal models of NHO following TBI or SCI have shown that NHO requires the combined effects of a severe CNS injury and soft tissue damage, in particular muscular inflammation and the infiltration of macrophages into damaged muscles plays a key role. In the context of a CNS injury, the inflammatory response to soft tissue damage is exaggerated and persistent with excessive signaling via substance P-, oncostatin M-, and TGF-β1-mediated pathways. Summary This review provides an overview of the known animal models and mechanisms of NHO and current therapeutic interventions for NHO patients. While some of the inflammatory mechanisms leading to NHO are common with other forms of traumatic and genetic heterotopic ossifications (HO), NHOs uniquely involve systemic changes in response to CNS injury. Future research into these CNS-mediated mechanisms is likely to reveal new targetable pathways to prevent NHO development in patients.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
       
  • Play During Growth: the Effect of Sports on Bone Adaptation
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The development of exercise interventions for bone health requires an understanding of normative growth trends. Here, we summarize changes in bone during growth and the effect of participating in sports on structural and compositional measures in different bones in males and females. Recent Findings Growing females and males have similar normalized density and bone area fraction until age 16, after which males continue increasing at a faster rate than females. All metrics for both sexes tend to plateau or decline in the early 20s. Areal BMD measures indicate significant heterogeneity in adaptation to sport between regions of the body. High-resolution CT data indicate changes in structure are more readily apparent than changes in density. Summary While adaptation to sport is spatially heterogeneous, participation in weight-bearing activities that involve dynamic muscle contractions tends to result in increased bone adaptation.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
       
  • A Review on Recent Advances in the Constitutive Modeling of Bone Tissue
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) to predict and understand the biomechanical response has become an essential methodology in musculoskeletal research. An important part of such simulation models is the constitutive material model of which recent advances are summarized in this review. Recent Findings The review shows that existing models from other fields were introduced, such as cohesion zone (cortical bone) or phase-field models (trabecular bone). Some progress has been made in describing cortical bone involving physical mechanisms such as microcracks. Problems with validations at different length scales remain a problem. Summary The improvement of recent constitutive models is partially obscured by uncertainties that affect overall predictions, such as image quality and calibration or boundary conditions. Nevertheless, in vivo CT-based FEA simulations based on a sophisticated constitutive behavior are a very valuable tool for clinical-related osteoporosis research.
      PubDate: 2020-10-17
       
  • Exercise and Diet: Uncovering Prospective Mediators of Skeletal Fragility
           in Bone and Marrow Adipose Tissue
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To highlight recent basic, translational, and clinical works demonstrating exercise and diet regulation of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone and how this informs current understanding of the relationship between marrow adiposity and musculoskeletal health. Recent Findings Marrow adipocytes accumulate in the bone in the setting of not only hypercaloric intake (calorie excess; e.g., diet-induced obesity) but also with hypocaloric intake (calorie restriction; e.g., anorexia), despite the fact that these states affect bone differently. With hypercaloric intake, bone quantity is largely unaffected, whereas with hypocaloric intake, bone quantity and quality are greatly diminished. Voluntary running exercise in rodents was found to lower MAT and promote bone in eucaloric and hypercaloric states, while degrading bone in hypocaloric states, suggesting differential modulation of MAT and bone, dependent upon whole-body energy status. Energy status alters bone metabolism and bioenergetics via substrate availability or excess, which plays a key role in the response of bone and MAT to mechanical stimuli. Summary Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a fat depot with a potential role in—as well as responsivity to—whole-body energy metabolism. Understanding the localized function of this depot in bone cell bioenergetics and substrate storage, principally in the exercised state, will aid to uncover putative therapeutic targets for skeletal fragility.
      PubDate: 2020-10-17
       
  • Markers for Identification of Postnatal Skeletal Stem Cells In Vivo
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The adult skeleton contains stem cells involved in growth, homeostasis, and healing. Mesenchymal or skeletal stem cells are proposed to provide precursors to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow adipocytes, and stromal cells. We review the evidence for existence and functionality of different skeletal stem cell pools, and the tools available for identifying or targeting these populations in mouse and human tissues. Recent Findings Lineage tracing and single cell-based techniques in mouse models indicate that multiple pools of stem cells exist in postnatal bone. These include growth plate stem cells, stem and progenitor cells in the diaphysis, reticular cells that only form bone in response to injury, and injury-responsive periosteal stem cells. New staining protocols have also been described for prospective isolation of human skeletal stem cells. Summary Several populations of postnatal skeletal stem and progenitor cells have been identified in mice, and we have an increasing array of tools to target these cells. Most Cre models lack a high degree of specificity to define single populations. Human studies are less advanced and require further efforts to refine methods for identifying stem and progenitor cells in adult bone.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
       
  • The Gut Microbiome and Bone Strength
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Osteoporosis is commonly diagnosed through the clinical assessment of bone quantity using bone mineral density; however, the primary clinical concern is bone fragility. Bone fragility is determined by both bone quantity and bone quality. Over the past decade, the gut microbiome has emerged as a factor that can regulate diseases throughout the body. This review discusses how microbial organisms and their genetic products that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract influence bone quantity, bone quality, and bone strength. Recent Findings Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiome regulates bone loss during estrogen depletion and glucocorticoid treatment. A series of studies has also shown that the gut microbiome influences whole bone strength by modifying bone tissue quality. The possible links between the gut microbiome and bone tissue quality are discussed focusing on the effects of microbiome-derived vitamin K. Summary We provide a brief introduction to the gut microbiome and how modifications to the gut microbiome may lead to changes in bone. The gut microbiome is a promising target for new therapeutic approaches that address bone quality in ways not possible with current interventions.
      PubDate: 2020-10-08
       
  • Impact of Bone Fracture on Muscle Strength and Physical
           Performance—Narrative Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Low muscle strength and poor physical performance are associated with high risk of fracture. Many studies assessed clinical and functional outcomes of fractures. Fewer studies analyzed the impact of fractures on muscle strength and physical performance. Recent Findings Vertebral fractures (especially multiple and severe ones) are associated with back pain, back-related disability, lower grip strength, lower strength of lower limbs, lower gait speed, and poor balance. Patients with hip fracture have slower gait and lower quadriceps strength. Non-vertebral fractures were associated with lower strength of the muscles adjacent to the fracture site (e.g., grip strength in the case of distal radius fracture, knee extensors in the case of patellar fracture) and poor physical function dependent on the muscles adjacent to the fracture site (e.g., limited range of motion of the shoulder in the case of humerus fracture, gait disturbances in the case of the ankle fracture). Individuals with a fracture experience a substantial deterioration of muscle strength and physical performance which exceeds that related to aging and is focused on the period close to the fracture occurrence. After fracture, muscle strength increased and physical performance improved. The rate of normalization depended partly on the therapeutic approach and on the rehabilitation program. A subgroup of patients, mainly the elderly, never returns to the pre-fracture level of physical performance. Summary The permanent decline of physical function after fracture may be related to the limitation of movements due to pain, low physical activity, poor health before the fracture, and reduced efficacy of retraining after immobilization.
      PubDate: 2020-10-08
       
 
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