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Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Archives of Osteoporosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chiropractic Journal of Australia     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Chiropractic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Osteoporosis Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
DO - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Osteopathie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chiropractic Humanities     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Osteoporosis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
La Revue d'Homéopathie     Full-text available via subscription  
Musculoskeletal Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Osteopathische Medizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Osteopatía Científica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Osteoporosis International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Prosthetics and Orthotics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Revista de Osteoporosis y Metabolismo Mineral     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription  
Zeitschrift für Klassische Homöopathie     Hybrid Journal  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Osteoporosis International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.523
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 14  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1433-2965 - ISSN (Online) 0937-941X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Pharmacotherapy decisions among postmenopausal women attending a group
           medical consultation or a one-on-one specialist consultation at an
           osteoporosis center: an observational cohort study
    • Abstract: Summary Group medical visits for osteoporosis can improve access to care while being highly accepted by patients. In this study, a similar proportion of women planned to initiate pharmacotherapy after attending a group or traditional one-on-one osteoporosis consultation, indicating that the group consultation model does not produce unexpected treatment decisions. Introduction Group medical consultations for osteoporosis are time-efficient and highly accepted by patients, but effects on treatment decisions are unknown. We aimed to compare women’s decisions to initiate or decline osteoporosis pharmacotherapy after attending either a group or transitional one-on-one osteoporosis consultation. Methods In this observational study, we prospectively evaluated postmenopausal women referred to an osteoporosis clinic who attended a group medical visit and compared their decisions regarding pharmacologic osteoporosis treatment with retrospective data from a cohort of women who attended a traditional consultation. Both consultation types involved interaction with a specialist physician, individualized fracture risk estimation (using FRAX®), and education regarding fracture consequences and available osteoporosis medications. Both forms of consultation emphasized shared decision-making; however, group consultation attendees did not receive personalized treatment recommendations from the physician. Results We reviewed the records of 125 women (median age 63 years) who attended a group consultation and 83 women (median age 64 years) who attended a traditional consultation between 2016 and 2019. Twenty-four (19%) of the group cohort and 16 (19%) of the traditional cohort were at high 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fracture (FRAX® ≥ 20.0%). A similar proportion planned to initiate pharmacologic therapy after the group and traditional consultations (23% vs 16%, p = 0.22); these proportions were comparable among women at high risk (42% vs 50%, p = 0.75) and moderate risk (19% vs 15%, p = 0.77), but a higher proportion of low-risk women planned to initiate therapy after the group consultation (18% vs 0%, p = 0.009). Conclusion Patient decisions to initiate pharmacologic treatment made during a group visit are similar to those made during traditional one-on-one consultation. The group consultation model represents an alternative to one-on-one assessment for delivering osteoporosis consultative services.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
  • Efficacy of annual zoledronic acid in initial percutaneous kyphoplasty
           patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a 3-year
           follow-up study
    • Abstract: Summary This study investigated the efficacy of annual zoledronic acid (ZOL) administration against previously treated recompression vertebral fractures (RVF) and new vertebral fractures (NVF) in initial percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) over a 3-year follow-up period. Introduction Although PKP achieves a satisfactory outcome, previously treated RVF and NVF can limit its effectiveness. The annual infusion of ZOL over 3 years can improve fracture protection, particularly in the vertebrae. We hypothesized that ZOL can reduce the incidence of RVFs and/or NVFs, and improve the clinical outcomes of PKP. Methods This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind prospective trial of 154 PKP patients (mean age: 70 years) with OVCFs. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single infusion of ZOL (5 mg) or placebo (78 ZOL vs. 76 placebo) at 1 week, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. Patients were followed-up for 36 months. Results ZOL treatment lowered the risk of RVF by ~ 65% over the 36-month period when compared to placebo controls (6.41% in ZOL vs. 18.42% in placebo groups; relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.92). ZOL also reduced the risk of NVF by ~ 73% (3.85% in ZOL vs. 14.47% in placebo groups; relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.92). ZOL also significantly reduced the vertebral height lost rate (HLR) at 12, 24, and 36 months. ZOL also improved the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, and bone mineral density (BMD). Conclusion Annual ZOL administration significantly lowers the risk of RVFs and NVFs, improving the clinical outcome of initial PKP in patients with OVCFs over a 3-year follow-up period. Trial registration ChiCTR2000029307
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
  • Vertebral fractures are increased in rheumatoid arthritis despite recent
           therapeutic advances: a case-control study
    • Abstract: Summary Prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal RA women were assessed in 323 patients and compared with 660 age-matched women. Of patients, 24.15% had at least one vertebral fracture vs.16.06% of controls. Age, glucocorticoids and falls were the main fracture risks. Vertebral fractures were associated with disease severity. Introduction There is little quality data on the updated prevalence of fractures in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may have changed due to advances in the therapeutic strategy in recent years. This study was aimed at analysing the prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with RA and comparing it with that of the general population. Methods We included 323 postmenopausal women diagnosed with RA from 19 Spanish Rheumatology Departments, randomly selected and recruited in 2018. Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained to evaluate morphometric vertebral fractures and the spinal deformity index. We analysed subject characteristics, factors related to RA, and fracture risk factors. The control group consisted of 660 age-matched Spanish postmenopausal women from the population-based Camargo cohort. Results Seventy-eight (24.15%) RA patients had at least one vertebral fracture. RA patients had increased fracture risk compared with controls (106 of 660, 16.06%) (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.27–4.00), glucocorticoids (OR 3.83; 95% CI 1.32–14.09) and falls (OR 3.57; 95% CI 1.91–6.86) were the independent predictors of vertebral fractures in RA patients. The subgroup with vertebral fractures had higher disease activity (DAS28: 3.15 vs. 2.78, p = 0.038) and disability (HAQ: 0.96 vs. 0.63, p = 0.049), as compared with those without vertebral fractures. Conclusion The risk of vertebral fracture in RA is still high in recent years, when compared with the general population. The key determinants of fracture risk are age, glucocorticoids and falls. Patients with vertebral fractures have a more severe RA.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
  • Peri-operative derangement in liver function tests in older patients with
           neck of femur fracture
    • Abstract: Abstract Neck of femur fracture is a common consequence of falls in the elderly with a large burden of morbidity and mortality. Derangement in liver function tests (LFTs) is frequently seen in elderly people with neck of femur (NOF) fracture in the peri-operative period and can indicate serious and treatable underlying pathology as well as prognosis. On admission, raised alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels with normal gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) suggest underlying bone pathology such as osteomalacia or Paget’s disease but do not confirm or exclude osteoporosis. ALP can also be raised by non-bone pathology such as congestive cardiac failure and chronic kidney disease. LFT derangement in cardiac failure is associated with poorer prognosis. Post-operatively, ALP levels rise after the first week with a peak at 3–4 weeks and then fall thereafter. The rate at which they fall may help indicate bone healing in trochanteric fractures. Derangement in other LFTs is commonly due to hepatic injury; causes include trauma, alcohol, and viral hepatitis. There are also iatrogenic causes including surgery and commonly prescribed medication such as beta-lactam antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and paracetamol. The differential diagnosis for deranged LFTs in the elderly peri-operatively is wide; however, most causes can be elicited through careful history and examination with occasional need for further investigations.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
  • A longitudinal histologic evaluation of vitamin D receptor expression in
           the skeletal muscles of patients with a distal radius fracture
    • Abstract: Summary We investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the expression of muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) and cross-sectional area (CSA) in patients with a distal radius fracture (DRF). Significant increases in VDR expression and CSA were observed, especially in vitamin D-deficient patients. Purpose Vitamin D supplementation is known to enhance muscle mass and function, but whether the VDR is essential in this process remains unknown. We evaluated the change in VDR expression and CSA in the forearm muscles following vitamin D supplementation in patients with a DRF. Methods We prospectively recruited 18 women with a median age of 63.5 years who have a DRF. We obtained two biopsies of the forearm muscle, first at the time of fracture repair and then during hardware removal. We supplemented 1000 IU of vitamin D per day during a median interval of 8 months. We examined the changes in VDR expression and CSA by immunohistochemistry. Results The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] increased from 14.3 to 32.1 ng/mL (P = 0.001). The median VDR expression increased from 0.72 to 0.78 (P = 0.002), and the median CSA increased from 1290.0 to 1685.8 μm2 (P = 0.022). Significant increases in VDR expression and CSA were observed in vitamin D-deficient patients [25(OH)D] < 20 ng/mL, but not in vitamin D-non-deficient patients. The changes in VDR expression and CSA were in the same direction in 13 patients, but in the opposite direction in 5 patients. Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation may increase muscle VDR expression and CSA in patients with a DRF, especially in vitamin D-deficient patients. The increase in CSA without an increase in VDR expression in some patients indicates that the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle mass could be mediated by indirect effect of serum vitamin D restoration and by VDR.
      PubDate: 2021-01-16
  • Bone and non-contractile soft tissue changes following open kinetic chain
           resistance training and testosterone treatment in spinal cord injury: an
           exploratory study
    • Abstract: Summary Twenty men with spinal cord injury (SCI) were randomized into two 16-week intervention groups receiving testosterone treatment (TT) or TT combined with resistance training (TT + RT). TT + RT appears to hold the potential to reverse or slow down bone loss following SCI if provided over a longer period. Introduction Persons with SCI experience bone loss below the level of injury. The combined effects of resistance training and TT on bone quality following SCI remain unknown. Methods Men with SCI were randomized into 16-week treatments receiving TT or TT + RT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right lower extremity before participation and post-intervention was used to visualize the proximal, middle, and distal femoral shaft, the quadriceps tendon, and the intermuscular fascia of the quadriceps. For the TT + RT group, MRI microarchitecture techniques were utilized to elucidate trabecular changes around the knee. Individual mixed models were used to estimate effect sizes. Results Twenty participants completed the pilot trial. A small effect for yellow marrow in the distal femur was indicated as increases following TT and decreases following TT + RT were observed. Another small effect was observed as the TT + RT group displayed greater increases in intermuscular fascia length than the TT arm. Distal femur trabecular changes for the TT + RT group were generally small in effect (decreased trabecular thickness variability, spacing, and spacing variability; increased network area). Medium effects were generally observed in the proximal tibia (increased plate width, trabecular thickness, and network area; decreased trabecular spacing and spacing variability). Conclusions This pilot suggests longer TT + RT interventions may be a viable rehabilitation technique to combat bone loss following SCI. Clinical trial registration Registered with NCT01652040 (07/27/2012).
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Cost-effectiveness of buffered soluble alendronate 70 mg effervescent
           tablet for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in
    • Abstract: Summary The use of buffered soluble alendronate 70 mg effervescent tablet, a convenient dosing regimen for bisphosphonate therapy, seems a cost-effective strategy compared with relevant alternative treatments for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis aged 60 years and over in Italy. Introduction To assess the cost-effectiveness of buffered soluble alendronate (ALN) 70 mg effervescent tablet compared with relevant alternative treatments for postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Italy. Methods A previously validated Markov microsimulation model was adjusted to the Italian healthcare setting to estimate the lifetime costs (expressed in €2019) per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) of buffered soluble ALN compared with generic ALN, denosumab, zoledronic acid and no treatment. Pooled efficacy data derived from the NICE network meta-analysis were used for bisphosphonate treatments. Two treatment duration scenarios were assessed: 1 year using persistence data derived from an Italian prospective observational study including 144 and 216 postmenopausal osteoporotic women on buffered soluble ALN and oral ALN, respectively, and 3 years. Analyses were conducted for women 60–80 years of age with a bone mineral density T-score ≤ − 3.0 or with existing vertebral fractures. Results In all simulated populations, buffered soluble ALN was dominant (more QALYs, lower costs) compared to denosumab. The cost per QALY gained of buffered soluble ALN compared to generic ALN and no treatment always falls below €20,000 per QALY gained. In the 1-year treatment scenario, zoledronic acid was associated with more QALY than buffered soluble ALN but the cost per QALY gained of zoledronic acid compared with buffered soluble ALN was always higher than €70,000, while buffered soluble ALN was dominant in the 3-year treatment scenario. Conclusion This study suggests that buffered soluble ALN represents a cost-effective strategy compared with relevant alternative treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis women in Italy aged 60 years and over.
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
  • Postpartum bilateral sacral stress fracture without osteoporosis—a case
           report and literature review
    • Abstract: Purpose Sacral stress fractures are rare complications which can arise during pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. We report a case and discuss the findings of a confirmed postpartum sacral stress fracture in a 39-year-old multiparous woman and review previous case reports in the literature of sacral stress fracture related to pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to examine the main characteristics of sacral stress fractures related to pregnancy. The Ovid/Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched with the inclusion criteria: human studies, English language, intrapartum, postpartum (within 6 months of parturition), sacrum and stress fracture. Our exclusion criteria included pubic fractures, vertebral fractures and non-English articles. The search terms included “stress fracture”, “postpartum”, “pregnancy”, “atraumatic” and the wildcard “sacr*”. Thirty-four cases were found and summarised in Table 2. Results A total of 65% of patients had onset of symptoms postpartum. Most patients did not have risk factors for sacral stress fractures including macrosomia, excessive pregnancy weight gain, heparin exposure, rapid vaginal delivery or predisposition to accelerated osteoporosis. Lumbar radiculopathy can be a feature of sacral stress fracture and it is more common (17.6%) than reported in the literature (2%). MRI is the preferred imaging modality for its safety profile in pregnancy and high sensitivity. A total of 70% reported normal bone mineral density (BMD). The mainstay treatment for sacral stress fractures includes relative bed rest, analgesia and modified weight-bearing exercises. Most patients have favourable outcome with complete symptom resolution. Conclusion Sacral stress fractures in the absence of osteoporosis are rare complications of pregnancy that can present with lumbar radiculopathy. Conservative management often produces good clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
  • Estimates of the effects of physical activity on osteoporosis using
           multivariable Mendelian randomization analysis
    • Abstract: Summary This study estimates causality of physical activity (PA) on bone mineral density (BMD) by conducting multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR). The findings suggest that habitual vigorous PA increases lumbar spine BMD, and higher overall acceleration average would improve forearm BMD. The results could promote PA intervention targeting individuals with optimized type. Introduction Evidence from epidemiologic studies showed type, frequency, and duration of PA influenced BMD. However, these observational studies may be confounded by many factors, resulting in spurious associations. We aimed to conduct multivariable MR to estimate the causal effect of self-reported and device-measured PA on osteoporosis. Methods Three self-reported and two device-measured PA-related traits were selected as exposures. Outcomes were BMD at different skeletal sites: femoral neck BMD (FN BMD), lumbar spine BMD (LS BMD), and forearm BMD (FA BMD). Exposure datasets were obtained from UK Biobank with total 377,234 subjects. Outcome datasets were obtained from GEFOS consortium with 53,236 subjects. Standard MR analysis and multivariable MR were conducted to assess the total and direct causal effect of PA on BMD. Results For self-reported PA, inverse-normalized moderate-to-vigorous had a direct causal effect on FN BMD independently (β = − 1.116 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: − 2.210, − 0.023), P = 0.045); vigorous PA showed a direct effect (β = 3.592 (95%CI: 0.310, 6.874), P = 0.032) on LS BMD independently. While overall acceleration average and fraction of accelerations both had a direct causal effect on FA BMD independently. Conclusions Habitual vigorous PA could increase LS BMD. Individuals with higher overall acceleration average would have a higher FA BMD.
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
  • Simulated effects of early menopausal bone mineral density preservation on
           long-term fracture risk: a feasibility study
    • Abstract: Summary Prevention of early menopausal bone loss may reduce the future burden of osteoporosis. In this modelling exercise, an osteoporosis prevention strategy involving 5-year infusions of zoledronic acid, beginning early in menopause, reduced long-term fracture risk and the proportion of aging women with femoral neck densitometric osteoporosis. This strategy warrants further evaluation. Introduction Preventing early menopausal bone loss may substantially reduce the future burden of osteoporosis. We modelled the effects of infrequent zoledronic acid infusions on long-term fracture risk. Methods Data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) were used to determine the expected natural history of femoral neck areal bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk (using FRAX®) from ages 50–80 for women with no antiresorptive drug exposures. We modelled the effects of three infusions of zoledronic acid (at ages 50, 55, 60) on long-term fracture risk, assuming this intervention would preserve BMD until age 65 years, followed by losses mirroring early menopausal BMD loss. Results At age 65, untreated women and zoledronic acid recipients had expected mean (SD) femoral neck T-scores of − 1.5(1.0) and − 0.8(1.0), 10-year major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) risks of 9.8%(5.0) and 8.0%(3.7) and hip fracture risks of 1.7%(2.4) and 0.8%(1.2), respectively. At age 80, untreated women and zoledronic acid recipients had expected femoral neck T-scores of − 1.9(0.9) and − 1.4(0.9), MOF risks of 17.9%(8.2) and 14.9%(6.4) and hip fracture risks of 6.3%(6.2) and 4.4%(4.5), respectively. The expected proportion of women with femoral neck T-score ≤ − 2.5 was 14.9% for untreated women and 3.8% for zoledronic acid recipients at age 65, increasing to 28.1% and 12.0%, respectively, at age 80. Numbers-needed-to-treat to prevent one case of densitometric osteoporosis were 9 at age 65 and 5 at age 80. Conclusion Infrequent infusions of zoledronic acid, initiated early in menopause, are expected to reduce long-term fracture risk and result in a substantial reduction in the proportion of women with densitometric osteoporosis after age 65.
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
  • Reduced postprandial bone resorption and greater rise in GLP-1 in
           overweight and obese individuals after an α-glucosidase inhibitor: a
           double-blinded randomized crossover trial
    • Abstract: Summary When taken with a meal, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GI) reduce the rise in postprandial glucose and increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and this may lower bone turnover. In this study, a salacinol-type α-GI increased GLP-1 and markedly reduced postprandial bone resorption compared to placebo, suggesting it could have implications for bone health. Introduction Animal and clinical trials indicate that α-glucosidase inhibitors attenuate postprandial glycemic indices and increase secretion of GLP-1. In addition, GLP-1 acts on bone by inhibiting resorption. The goal in this study was to determine if a salacinol α-GI alters postprandial bone turnover and can be explained by changes in serum GLP-1. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy overweight/obese adults (body mass index 29.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2; 21–59 years; n = 21) received a fixed breakfast and, in random order, were administered Salacia chinensis (SC; 500 mg) or placebo. A fasting blood sample was taken before and at regular intervals for 3 h after the meal. Serum was measured for bone turnover markers, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin, and for glycemic indices and gut peptides. Results Compared to placebo, SC attenuated the bone resorption marker, CTX, at 60, 90, and 120 min (p < 0.05) after the meal, and decreased osteocalcin, at 180 min (p < 0.05). As expected, SC attenuated the postprandial rise in glucose compared with placebo, whereas GLP-1 was increased at 60 min (p < 0.05) with SC. Serum GLP-1 explained 41% of the variance for change in postprandial CTX (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study indicates that attenuating postprandial glycemic indices, with an α-GI, markedly decreases postprandial bone resorption and can be explained by the rise in GLP-1. Future studies should determine whether longer term α-GI use benefits bone health.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
  • Circulating MiR-21 expression is upregulated after 30 days of
           head-down tilt bed rest
    • Abstract: Summary Relative expression of miR-21-5p in serum was upregulated in response to 30 days of bed rest, and miRNA fold changes were positively associated with serum calcium changes. Introduction Circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) have potential as biomarkers of cellular activity, and they may play a role in cell-to-cell communication. The purpose of this study was to examine c-miRNA and bone marker responses to a 30-day six-degree head-down bed rest protocol at an ambient 0.5% CO2. Methods Eleven participants (6 males/5 females, 25–50 years) had fasting blood draws taken 3 days before and immediately after completing the 30-day bed rest protocol at the Institute for Aerospace Medicine in Germany. Serum relative expression of miRNAs associated with bone function (miR-21-5p, -100-5p, -125b-5p, -126-3p) were analyzed using qPCR, and serum bone markers were quantitated using ELISA. Results Serum bone markers, sclerostin, and calcium significantly increased (p ≤ 0.036), and total hip aBMD significantly decreased (p = 0.003) post bed rest. Serum miR-21-5p relative expression was significantly upregulated (p = 0.018) post bed rest. Fold changes in miR-126-3p (r = 0.82, p = 0.002) and miR-21-5p (r = 0.62, p = 0.042) were positively correlated with absolute change in serum calcium. There were no sex differences in miRNA responses; women had greater percent increases in TRAP5b (37.3% vs. 16.9% p = 0.021) and greater percent decreases in total hip aBMD (− 2.15% vs. − 0.69%, p = 0.034) than men. Conclusion c-miR-21-5p has potential as a biomarker of bone resorption and bone loss in an unloading condition. The upregulation of miR-21-5p may reflect an increase in osteoclast activity after bed rest, which is corroborated by the increase in TRAP5b.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
  • Vitamin D and bone health status in beta thalassemia
           patients—systematic review
    • Abstract: Abstract Thalassemia is a chronic congenital disease characterized by a combination of endocrine and metabolic disorders. Bone disease is a very common complication related to the poor absorption of calcium, the secondary chronic renal disease with low vitamin D, as well as multiple endocrine risk factors. The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in thalassemia, as well as its association with osteoporosis/low bone mass. A systematic review was carried out using PubMed/Medline, Cochrane, and EBSCO databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the validated Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies and cohort studies respectfully and the Cochrane Collaboration for clinical trials. After application of predetermined exclusion criteria compatible with the PICOS process, a total of 12 suitable articles were identified. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied considerably. Only five of the reviewed studies examined the correlation between vitamin D levels and BMD of which just three showed a statistically significant positive association of mild/moderate grade. Vitamin D deficiency is a common comorbidity in patients with thalassemia. However, both its prevalence and its severity vary considerably in different populations, and existing evidence is insufficient to conclude whether vitamin D supplementation is also associated with BMD improvement in this special population group.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
  • Evolution in fracture risk assessment: artificial versus augmented
    • PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Calcification of lower extremity arteries is related to the presence of
           osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a
           cross-sectional observational study
    • Abstract: Summary It is unknown whether there is any relationship between extremity arterial macroangiopathy and osteoporosis in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. We provide evidence to show the association between lower extremity arterial calcification and the presence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal T2DM women, but not in T2DM men of similar age. Purpose To investigate the relationship between lower extremity arterial calcification and the presence of osteoporosis in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with T2DM. They were assigned into two groups (patients with or without vascular calcification) in both sexes. Clinical characteristics, presence of osteoporosis, and bone metabolic markers were compared. Arterial calcification was determined by ultrasonography examination. Osteoporosis was defined based on the measurements from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The relationship between the lower extremity arterial calcification and the presence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 26.0. Results A total of 933 T2DM patients (535 men ≥ 50 years old, and 398 postmenopausal women) were identified and analyzed. A significant association between arterial calcification and osteoporosis was only observed in women, with a higher prevalence of osteoporosis observed in women with calcification (40.8%) than in women without calcification (26.9%) (P = 0.004). Compared to women without calcification, women with calcification had lower bone mineral densities in the hip (P < 0.001) and femoral neck (P < 0.001). Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that women with calcification had a nearly 2-fold increased risk for osteoporosis, even after adjusting for age, duration of T2DM, body mass index, pulse pressure, clearance of creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, and fasting C-peptide. Similar differences were not identified between men with and without calcification. Conclusion Calcification of lower extremity arteries is related with the presence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal T2DM women.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Over half of seniors who start oral bisphosphonate therapy are exposed for
           3 or more years: novel rolling window approach and patterns of use
    • Abstract: Summary Most adherence studies only consider treatment following a first prescription. Using an extended follow-up, we found that 60% of seniors starting oral bisphosphonate therapy were exposed for ≥ 3 years (48% for ≥ 5 years). Studies are needed to examine the benefits and harms of continuing bisphosphonate therapy beyond 3 years. Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify and describe patterns of long-term oral bisphosphonate use among seniors using a novel methodological approach that considers extended follow-up. Methods Among Ontarians aged 66 years or older, we identified subjects with a first dispensing of alendronate or risedronate between November 2000 and December 2016. We followed them until death or December 2019 to identify patients with ≥ 3 years of bisphosphonate use, defined as a proportion of days covered ≥ 80%, using 3-year rolling windows. We calculated the proportion of patients with long-term therapy (≥ 3 years of use) using Kaplan-Meier estimates. We described patterns of long-term use and compared patient characteristics between patients with and without long-term therapy. Results We identified 260,784 eligible seniors initiating bisphosphonate therapy. Of these, 60% continued therapy ≥ 3 years (77% women), and 48% continued ≥ 5 years. Characteristics did not meaningfully differ between patients with or without long-term therapy. The median length of long-term therapy was 7.0 (IQR 5.1) years for women and 6.1 (IQR 4.3) years for men. Only 20% experienced a treatment gap before long-term therapy, yet 50% experienced a treatment gap of ≥ 120 days after a median 5.3 years of therapy. Eighty-one percent who returned to therapy following a treatment gap re-initiated an oral bisphosphonate, with 18% switching to denosumab. Conclusions Among seniors initiating oral bisphosphonates, we found that 60% receive at least 3 years of therapy when using an extended follow-up. Studies are needed to examine the benefits and harms of continuing bisphosphonate therapy beyond 3 years.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Situational risk factors for fall-related vertebral fractures in older men
           and women
    • Abstract: Summary Situational factors might help explain why most vertebral fractures occur in older people without a previous osteoporosis diagnosis. After adjusting for predisposing risk factors, the activity before the fall, type of fall, and falling direction remained as strong determinants of fall-related vertebral fractures in older men and women. Introduction A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the effects of situational factors, in addition to predisposing factors, on clinical vertebral fractures in older men and women in Taiwan. Methods Cases were community-dwelling individuals aged ≥ 65 years who visited emergency departments (EDs) of two university-affiliated hospitals due to a fall and had a primary diagnosis of a vertebral fracture during a 1-year period in 2017. Five control patients per case, matched by the time of falling, gender, and age, who sought care in the same ED due to a fall resulting in a soft tissue injury were selected. A total of 64 men (age range: 65 ~ 99 years) and 194 women (age range: 65 ~ 100 years), diagnosed with a vertebral fracture, participated in the study. Results Multivariable logistic models were conducted separately for men and women. Results suggested that the following factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of vertebral fractures in men: a low educational level (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02 ~ 3.71), asthma (OR = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.35 ~ 6.92), depression (OR = 4.31; 95% CI, 1.03 ~ 17.5), toileting (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.04 ~ 4.94), slipping (OR = 5.27; 95% CI, 1.80 ~ 15.4), stepping down (OR = 3.99; 95% CI, 1.40 ~ 11.4), sudden leg weakness (OR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.13 ~ 12.4), and falling backwards (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.83 ~ 7.80); and in women: a fracture history (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07 ~ 3.76), osteoporosis (OR = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.15 ~ 3.49), getting in/out of the bed/chair (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.07 ~ 3.39), stepping down (OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.17 ~ 3.77), and falling backwards (OR = 4.00; 95% CI, 2.39 ~ 6.68) and sideways (OR = 2.61; 95% CI, 1.38 ~ 4.96). Conclusions The combination of predisposing and situational risk factors may display a more comprehensive risk profile for the occurrence of VFs, and thus, interventions that add both types of risk factors may result in greater risk reduction of VFs, although those specifically targeted at situational risk factors during falls are limited and their effectiveness and efficiency remained to be explored.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Comparing three machine learning approaches to design a risk assessment
           tool for future fractures: predicting a subsequent major osteoporotic
           fracture in fracture patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis
    • Abstract: Summary Four machine learning models were developed and compared to predict the risk of a future major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), defined as hip, wrist, spine and humerus fractures, in patients with a prior fracture. We developed a user-friendly tool for risk calculation of subsequent MOF in osteopenia patients, using the best performing model. Introduction Major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs), defined as hip, wrist, spine and humerus fractures, can have serious consequences regarding morbidity and mortality. Machine learning provides new opportunities for fracture prediction and may aid in targeting preventive interventions to patients at risk of MOF. The primary objective is to develop and compare several models, capable of predicting the risk of MOF as a function of time in patients seen at the fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic (FO-clinic) after sustaining a fracture. Methods Patients aged > 50 years visiting an FO-clinic were included in this retrospective study. We compared discriminative ability (concordance index) for predicting the risk on MOF with a Cox regression, random survival forests (RSF) and an artificial neural network (ANN)-DeepSurv model. Missing data was imputed using multiple imputations by chained equations (MICE) or RSF’s imputation function. Analyses were performed for the total cohort and a subset of osteopenia patients without vertebral fracture. Results A total of 7578 patients were included, 805 (11%) patients sustained a subsequent MOF. The highest concordance-index in the total dataset was 0.697 (0.664–0.730) for Cox regression; no significant difference was determined between the models. In the osteopenia subset, Cox regression outperformed RSF (p = 0.043 and p = 0.023) and ANN-DeepSurv (p = 0.043) with a c-index of 0.625 (0.562–0.689). Cox regression was used to develop a MOF risk calculator on this subset. Conclusion We show that predicting the risk of MOF in patients who already sustained a fracture can be done with adequate discriminative performance. We developed a user-friendly tool for risk calculation of subsequent MOF in patients with osteopenia.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Fracture rates in patients discontinuing alendronate treatment in real
           life: a population-based cohort study
    • Abstract: Summary In this nationwide register-based cohort study, we found no difference in the risk of fractures in patients discontinuing versus continuing alendronate (ALN) treatment after 5 years. Introduction Information on fracture risk in patients discontinuing ALN in a real-life setting is sparse. We aimed to examine ALN discontinuation patterns, compare fracture rates in patients discontinuing versus continuing ALN after 5 years of treatment, and define determinants of fractures in ALN discontinuers. Methods A nationwide population-based cohort study using Danish health registry data. Our source population was individuals who had redeemed ≥ 2 ALN prescriptions between January 1, 1995, and September 1, 2017. Results We found that 25% of all ALN initiators used ALN for less than 1 year and 43% continued treatment for at least 5 years. We classified n = 1865 as ALN discontinuers and n = 29,619 as ALN continuers. Using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and an “as-treated” approach, we observed no increased risk of any fracture (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.06, 95% CI 0.92–1.23), vertebral fracture (IRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33–1.05), hip fracture (IRR 1.04, 95% CI 0.75–1.45), or major osteoporotic fracture (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 0.88–1.25) in the ALN discontinuers compared to continuers during a follow-up time of 1.84 ± 1.56 years (mean ± SD) and 2.51 ± 1.60 years, respectively. ALN re-initiation was a major determinant of follow-up among the discontinuers. Old age (> 80 vs. 50–60 years, unadjusted IRR 2.92, 95% CI 1.18–7.24) was the strongest determinant for fractures following ALN discontinuation. Conclusion In a real-world setting, less than 50% continued ALN treatment for 5 years. We found no difference in the risk of fractures in patients discontinuing versus continuing ALN after 5 years.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
  • Long-term direct and indirect economic burden associated with osteoporotic
           fracture in US postmenopausal women
    • Abstract: Summary The study examined long-term direct and indirect economic burden of osteoporotic fractures among postmenopausal women. Healthcare costs among fracture patients were substantial in first year after fracture and remained higher than fracture-free controls for 5 years which highlight needs for early detection of high-risk patients and continued management for osteoporosis. Introduction This study compared direct and indirect healthcare costs between postmenopausal women and demographically matched controls in the 5 years after incident non-traumatic fracture, and by fracture type in commercially insured and Medicare populations. Methods Two hundred twenty-six thousand one hundred ninety women (91,925 aged 50–64 years; 134,265 aged ≥ 65 years) with incident non-traumatic fracture (hip, vertebral, and non-hip non-vertebral (NHNV)) from 2008 to 2017 were identified. Patients with fracture were directly matched (1:1) to non-fracture controls based on demographic characteristics. Direct healthcare costs were assessed using general linear models, adjusting for baseline costs, comorbidities, osteoporosis diagnosis, and treatment. Indirect costs associated with work loss due to absenteeism and short-term disability (STD) were assessed among commercially insured patients. Costs were standardized to 2019 US dollars. Results Osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment rates prior to fracture were low. Patients with fracture incurred higher direct costs across 5-year post-index compared with non-fracture controls, regardless of fracture type or insurance. For commercially insured hip fracture patients, the mean adjusted incremental direct healthcare costs in years 1, 3, and 5 were $59,327, $6885, and $3241, respectively. Incremental costs were lower, but trends were similar for vertebral and NHNV fracture types and Medicare-insured patients. Commercially insured patients with fracture had higher unadjusted indirect costs due to absenteeism and STD in year 1 and higher adjusted indirect costs due to STD at year 1 (incremental cost $5848, $2748, and $2596 for hip, vertebral, and NHNV fracture). Conclusions A considerable and sustained economic burden after a non-traumatic fracture underscores the need for early patient identification and continued management.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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