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UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (155 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 155 of 155 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Nephrology     Open Access  
African Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AJP Renal Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aktuelle Urologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Andrologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Andrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Andrology & Gynecology : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Andrology and Genital Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Andrology-Open Access     Open Access  
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Clinical Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos Españoles de Urología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BANTAO Journal     Open Access  
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access  
BJU International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Urological Association Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Nephrology and Urology Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Queries: Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Cirugía     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Current Urology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Nephrologe     Hybrid Journal  
Der Urologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
EMC - Urología     Full-text available via subscription  
Enfermería Nefrológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
European Urology Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Urology Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Forum Nefrologiczne     Full-text available via subscription  
Geriatric Nephrology and Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Giornale di Clinica Nefrologica e Dialisi     Open Access  
Herald Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Human Andrology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
IJU Case Reports     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Brazilian Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Urology and Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia     Open Access  
Journal für Urologie und Urogynäkologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Clinical Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Endoluminal Endourology     Open Access  
Journal of Endourology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Endourology Case Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Genital System & Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Nephrology and Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL     Open Access  
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nephrology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pediatric Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Renal Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Renal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Renal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of The Egyptian Society of Nephrology and Transplantation     Open Access  
Journal of Translational Neurosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Urology & Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kidney Disease and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Kidney Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kidney International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Kidney International Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kidney Medicine     Open Access  
Kidney Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kidneys (Počki)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nature Reviews Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Nature Reviews Urology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Nefrología (English Edition)     Open Access  
Nefrología (Madrid)     Open Access  
Nephro-Urology Monthly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Nephron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Clinical Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Experimental Nephrology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nephron Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nephron Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Neurourology and Urodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
OA Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Access Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Urology & Nephrology Journal     Open Access  
Pediatric Urology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Portuguese Journal of Nephrology & Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription  
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Renal Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Renal Replacement Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research and Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Nefrología, Diálisis y Trasplante     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Urología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Urologia Colombiana     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Seminars in Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
The Prostate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Therapeutic Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Trends in Urology & Men's Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Ukrainian Journal of Nephrology and Dialysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uro-News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urolithiasis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Urologia Internationalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urologia Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Urologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Urologic Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Urologic Radiology     Hybrid Journal  
Urological Science     Open Access  
Urologicheskie Vedomosti     Open Access  
Urologie in der Praxis     Hybrid Journal  
Urologie Scan     Hybrid Journal  
Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Urology Annals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urology Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Urology Times     Free   (Followers: 3)
Urology Video Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Nephrology and Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
World Journal of Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Urolithiasis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.899
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2194-7228 - ISSN (Online) 2194-7236
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Correction to: Different effects of γ -linolenic acid (GLA)
           supplementation on plasma and red blood cell phospholipid fatty acid
           composition and calcium oxalate kidney stone risk factors in healthy
           subjects from two race groups with different risk profiles pose questions
           about the GLA-arachidonic acid-oxaluria metabolic pathway: pilot study
    • Abstract: The authors would like to add the following paragraph in the acknowledgement section of the original version of the paper:
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Amelioration of hyperoxaluria-induced kidney dysfunction by chemical
           chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid
    • Abstract: Hyperoxaluria is characterized by an increased excretion of urinary oxalate which is caused by inherited disorders or high oxalate intake leading to renal stone ailment. Until date, reactive oxygen species and inflammation has been convicted for the progression of kidney stones for which antioxidant therapy has been employed. However, recent studies have linked the association of endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative imbalance in the progression of renal diseases. Considering oxidative stress being at forefront in causing hyperoxaluric consequences, current study was designed to correlate the impact of hyperoxaluria and regulation of oxidative imbalance via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress by 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). Male wistar rats were subdivided into three groups, i.e., normal control (C), hyperoxaluric rats given ethylene glycol (EG), and hyperoxaluric rats treated with 4-PBA (EG + PBA). After 28 days of treatment, assessment of antioxidant defence system, inflammation, ER stress, and subsequent unfolded protein response was studied in renal tissue. It was found that the hyperoxaluric insult led to a marked damage to the renal tissue resulting in compromised antioxidant levels, upregulation of ER stress markers along with a steep surge in the extent of inflammation. However, 4-PBA treatment significantly curtailed the deleterious effects of hyperoxaluria by lowering down the level of stress markers as well as normalizing the antioxidant defence enzymes. Therefore, chemical chaperones can be deemed as a new class of drugs for the treatment of hyperoxaluric induced renal damage.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Calcifying nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated by ROS-JNK signaling
           pathways
    • Abstract: Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) play an important role in kidney stone formation, but the mechanism(s) are unclear. CNPs were isolated and cultured from midstream urine of patients with kidney stones. CNP morphology and characteristics were examined by electron microscopy and electrophoresis analysis. Chemical composition was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Western blotting. Human renal proximal convoluted tubule cell (HK-2) cultures were exposed to CNPs for 0, 12 and 72 h, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis levels were evaluated. CNPs isolated from patients showed classical morphology, the size range of CNPs were 15–500 nm and negative charge; they were found to contain fetuin-A. Exposure of HK-2 cells to CNPs induced ROS production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CNPs can enter the cell by phagocytosis, and micrographs revealed signs of apoptosis and autophagy. CNPs increased the proportion of apoptotic cells, down-regulated Bcl-2 expression and up-regulated Bax expression. CNPs also up-regulated expression of LC3-B, Beclin-1and p-JNK.CNPs are phagocytosed by HK-2 cells, leading to autophagy, apoptosis and ROS production, in part through activation of JNK signaling pathways. ROS and JNK pathways may contribute to CNP-induced cell injury and kidney stone formation.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Mini vs standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones: a
           comparative study
    • Abstract: To compare the outcome of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-PNL) versus standard-PNL for renal stones. Retrospective study was performed between March 2010 and May 2013 for patients treated by Mini-PNL or standard-PNL through 18 and 30 Fr tracts, respectively, using pneumatic lithotripsy. Semirigid ureteroscope (8.5/11.5 Fr) was used for Mini-PNL and 24 Fr nephroscope for standard-PNL. Both groups were compared in stone free rate(SFR), complications and operative time using Student-t, Mann–Whitney, Chi square or Fisher’s exact tests as appropriate in addition to logistic regression analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mini-PNL (378) and standard-PNL (151) were nearly comparable in patients and stones criteria including stone burden (3.77 ± 2.21 vs 3.77 ± 2.43 cm2; respectively). There was no significant difference in number of tracts or supracostal puncture. Mini-PNL had longer operative time (68.6 ± 29.09 vs 60.49 ± 11.38 min; p = 0.434), significantly shorter hospital stay (2.43 ± 1.46 vs 4.29 ± 1.28 days) and significantly higher rate of tubeless PNL (75.1 vs 4.6%). Complications were significantly higher in standard-PNL (7.9 vs 20.5%; p < 0.001). SFR was significantly lower in Mini-PNL (89.9 vs 96%; p = 0.022). This significant difference was found with multiple stones and large stone burden (> 2 cm2), but the SFR was comparable between both groups with single stone or stone burden ≤ 2 cm. Logistic regression analysis confirmed significantly higher complications and SFR with standard-PNL but with significantly shorter operative time. Mini-PNL has significantly lower SFR when compared to standard-PNL (but clinically comparable) with markedly reduced complications and hospital stay. Most of cases can be performed tubeless. The significant difference in SFR was found with multiple stones or large stone burden (> 2 cm2), but not with single stones or stone burden ≤ 2 cm2.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus retrograde intrarenal surgery for
           pediatric patients with upper urinary stones: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in surgical treatment of pediatric patients with upper urinary stones based on the published literature. A comprehensive literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library and CNKI was conducted to identify studies comparing outcomes of PCNL and RIRS for treating pediatric patients with upper urinary stones before May 2017. A total of 11 studies, including one randomized controlled trial, four retrospective case–control studies and six case series studies, containing 822 children with upper urinary stones were included in this systematic review. Five of 11 including studies, containing 474 children with upper urinary stones were included in a meta-analysis. Significantly shorter hospital stay and fluoroscopy time were needed by RIRS than PCNL (WMD: 1.44 days, 95% CI 0.85, 2.04; p < 0.00001) and (WMD: 72.72 s, 95% CI 52.13, 93.31; p < 0.00001). The overall complications were higher for PCNL compared with RIRS (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02, 2.84; p = 0.04). However, the minor (Clavien I or II) and major (Clavien III–V) complications rates in the PCNL group were higher compared with RIRS group but the differences were not statistically significant, respectively (p > 0.05). RIRS also benefits from significantly less need for blood transfusion (OR 9.09, 95% CI 1.66, 49.78; p = 0.01). No significant differences were found in initial, final stone-free rate, and operative times (p > 0.05). Our analysis suggested that RIRS turns out to be a safe and feasible procedure alternative to PCNL for children with upper urinary stones in selected cases. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample, prospective, multi-centric and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Electron probe micro-analysis reveals the complexity of mineral deposition
           mechanisms in urinary stones
    • Abstract: Urinary stones are complex mineralogical formations in the urinary system often impairing the kidney function. Several studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of stone formation and growth; however, it remains to be fully explored. Here, we present a detailed investigation on the morphological and mineralogical characterizations of urinary stones. Structural properties of different types of urinary stones were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analyses. X-ray maps of major and the trace elements were obtained using electron microprobe (EPMA) technique. Basic metabolic panel and urinary parameters of the patients were used for comparing mineral compositions among stone types. The study included five major types of stones identified based on the FTIR spectra. FTIR and XRD helped in identifying the major components of these stones. FE-SEM images revealed distinct microstructure and morphology of the stones among the stone types. EPMA analysis showed the presence of many metals other than calcium and certain non-metals within the urinary stone matrix at measurable levels, sometimes with distinct distribution patterns. The study demonstrates the characteristic micro-structure, morphology, distribution, and composition of elements in different stone types. Findings of the study provide scope for understanding the complex mechanisms involved in the urolithogenesis and association of trace elements in it.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • The “all-seeing needle” micro-PCNL versus flexible ureterorenoscopy
           for lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm
    • Abstract: The objectives of the study are to compare the safety and efficacy of “all-seeing needle” optical puncture system micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (micro-PCNL) and flexible ureterorenoscopy (FURS) for the treatment of lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. 116 patients in total with lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm were randomly divided into two equal groups, “all-seeing needle” optical puncture system micro-PCNL and FURS. In both groups, holmium laser was utilized for lithotripsy. The perioperative parameters were compared between the two groups. Compared to the “all-seeing needle” micro-PCNL group, the mean operative time was significantly longer in the FURS group (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to mean hemoglobin reduction (P = 0.087), complications (P = 0.731) and LOS (P = 0.856). The overall SFR of the “all-seeing needle” micro-PCNL group and FURS group was 84.5% (49/58) and 79.3% (46/58), respectively, without any significant difference between the groups (P = 0.469). For treating lower calyceal stones of ≤ 2 cm, the “all-seeing needle” micro-PCNL group had shorter operative time than FURS, while no significant differences between the two groups with respect to mean hemoglobin reduction, complications, LOS and SFR were found.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • In vitro feasibility of next generation non-linear beamforming ultrasound
           methods to characterize and size kidney stones
    • Abstract: Ultrasound imaging for kidney stones suffers from poorer sensitivity, diminished specificity, and overestimation of stone size compared to computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate in vitro feasibility of novel ultrasound imaging methods comparing traditional B-mode to advanced beamforming techniques including plane wave synthetic focusing (PWSF), short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging, mid-lag spatial coherence (MLSC) imaging with incoherent compounding, and aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). The ultrasound techniques were evaluated using a research-based ultrasound system applied to an in vitro kidney stone model at 4 and 8 cm depths. Stone diameter sizing and stone contrast were compared among the different techniques. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences among group means, with p < 0.05 considered significant, and a Student’s t test was used to compare each method with B-mode, with p < 0.0025 considered significant. All stones were detectable with each method. MLSC performed best with stone sizing and stone contrast compared to B-mode. On average, B-mode sizing error ± SD was > 1 mm (1.2 ± 1.1 mm), while those for PWSF, ADMIRE, and MLSC were < 1 mm (− 0.3 ± 2.9 mm, 0.6 ± 0.8, 0.8 ± 0.8, respectively). Subjectively, MLSC appeared to suppress the entire background thus highlighting only the stone. The ADMIRE and SLSC techniques appeared to highlight the stone shadow relative to the background. The detection and sizing of stones in vitro are feasible with advanced beamforming methods with ultrasound. Future work will include imaging stones at greater depths and evaluating the performance of these methods in human stone formers.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Upper metastable limit osmolality of urine as a predictor of kidney stone
           formation in children
    • Abstract: High fluid intake has been universally recommended for kidney stone prophylaxis. We evaluated 24-h urine osmolality regarded as the best biomarker of optimal hydration and upper metastable limit osmolality after water evaporation from urine sample to the onset of spontaneous crystallization and its usefulness as a new risk index that would describe an individual lithogenic potential. We collected 24-h urine from 257 pediatric patients with kidney stones and 270 controls. After volume and osmolality assessment, the urine samples were subjected to volume reduction in vacuum rotavapor continued to the onset of an induced urinary crystallization. The upper metastable limit osmolality of urine sample was calculated based on its initial osmolality value and the amount of water reduction. Pediatric stone formers presented with higher urine volume and lower urine osmolality than healthy controls. Despite that, their urine samples required much lower volume reduction to induce the spontaneous crystallization than those of controls. The ROC analysis revealed an AUC for the upper metastable limit osmolality of 0.9300 (95% CI 0.9104–0.9496) for distinguishing between stone formers and healthy subjects. At the cutoff of 2696 mOsm/kg, the test provided sensitivity and specificity of 0.8638 and 0.8189, respectively. 24-h urine osmolality provided the information about current hydration status, whereas evaporation test estimated the urinary potential to crystalize dependent on urine composition. Upper metastable limit osmolality may estimate the individual lithogenic capability and identify people at risk to stone formation when exposed to dehydration.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Polymorphisms of the VDR gene in patients with nephrolithiasis in a Han
           Chinese population
    • Abstract: An association study between VDR gene polymorphisms and nephrolithiasis was conducted in different populations, but it is not yet known whether the association exists in the Han Chinese population. Here, we genotyped three SNPs (rs731236, rs7975232 and rs10735810) in the promoter region of the VDR gene by iMLDR genotyping assays in a large case–control cohort. The results demonstrated that there was no association found between the three SNPs (rs731236, rs7975232 and rs10735810) in the VDR gene and nephrolithiasis, whether in allele or genotype distribution. However, SNP rs10735810 was correlated with the level of serum calcium in control groups, but not in patient groups. In conclusion, considering the large sample size, we believe that the SNP rs10735810 allele A in the VDR gene promoter region may influence the level of serum calcium, but not influence the formation of nephrolithiasis in a Han Chinese population.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Sex differences in the temperature dependence of kidney stone
           presentations: a population-based aggregated case-crossover study
    • Abstract: Previous studies assumed a uniform relationship between heat and kidney stone presentations. Determining whether sex and other characteristics modify the temperature dependence of kidney stone presentations has implications for explaining differences in nephrolithiasis prevalence and improving projections of the effect of climate change on nephrolithiasis. We performed an aggregated case-crossover study among 132,597 children and adults who presented with nephrolithiasis to 68 emergency departments throughout South Carolina from 1997 to 2015. We used quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear models to estimate sex differences in the cumulative exposure and lagged response between maximum daily wet-bulb temperatures and emergent kidney stone presentations, aggregated at the ZIP-code level. We also explored interactions by age, race, payer, and climate. Compared to 10 °C, daily wet-bulb temperatures at the 99th percentile were associated with a greater increased relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentations over 10 days for males (RR 1.73; 95% CI 1.56, 1.91) than for females (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.32; interaction P < 0.001). The shape of the lagged response was similar for males and females, with the greatest risk estimated for the 2 days following high temperatures. There were weak differences by age, race, and climatic zone, and no differences by payer status. The estimated risk of presenting emergently with kidney stones within 10 days of high daily wet-bulb temperatures was substantially greater among men than women, and similar between patients with public and private insurance. These findings suggest that the higher risk among males may be due to sexually dimorphic physiologic responses rather than greater exposure to ambient temperatures.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
       
  • In vitro bactericidal effect of Ho:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripsy on
           
    • Abstract: The endoscopic treatment of urolithiasis has a high success rate and the complications decreased after the development of lithotripsy techniques. The aim of this study is to investigate the in vitro bactericidal effect of laser and pneumatic lithotripsy on urinary stones colonized with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. A total of 40 natural calcium oxalate stones, which were obtained from the patients’ urinary systems with rigid ureteroscopy were used in the study. Surfaces of the stones were colonized with E. coli and E. faecalis strains. The fragmentation of the stones was performed using holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (Ho:YAG laser) and pneumatic lithotripters in vitro in Eppendorf tubes filled with liquid. After fragmentation, samples taken from Eppendorf tubes were inoculated on blood and EMB agar. The number of colonies was evaluated after 18–24-hour incubation period. The laser lithotripsy technique reduced the number of colonies by 100% and had bactericidal effect on E. coli and E. faecalis. Pneumatic lithotripsy technique had no bactericidal effect on these strains (0%). In the fifth minute of laser irradiation, the average temperature in the Eppendorf tube was 51–55 °C, and the average temperature in the tenth minute was 54–60 °C. The temperatures did not change in the fifth and tenth minutes with the pneumatic lithotripsy procedure. The present study revealed the bactericidal effect of Ho:YAG laser on E. coli and E. faecalis in vitro. Increased ambient temperature during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy is thought to play a role in the bactericidal effect. But the question of whether an ideal lithotripter efficiently inactivates or destroys bacteria has still not been answered in urology practice. This preliminary study showed the bactericidal effect of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy, but further studies are needed to investigate the bactericidal effect of Ho:YAG laser in vivo.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
       
  • Cancer as a risk factor for urinary tract calculi: a retrospective cohort
           study using ‘The Health Improvement Network’
    • Abstract: Purpose Urolithiasis is a common condition that poses significant morbidity to patients. There are similarities in the development of certain cancers and urinary tract calculi (UTC), however, little is known about their temporal relationship. This study aims to identify if cancer is a risk factor for the development of UTC. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted for the period 1st January 1990 to 1st May 2016. 124,901 exposed patients identified using clinical codes with newly diagnosed cancer were matched to 476,203 unexposed controls by age, gender, BMI, and general practice. The main outcome measure was the risk of developing UTC described by hazard ratios. Results There were 512 incident UTC events in the cancer group compared to 1787 in the unexposed controls. This translated to an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% CI 1.14–1.39; p < 0.001). A sub-analysis assessing cancer-specific effects demonstrated increased risks for 10 out of 12 common cancers, most significantly in bladder, colorectal and prostate cancer. Conclusion This study demonstrated a 26% increased risk of UTC in cancer patients suggesting wider recognition of this risk amongst clinicians could improve diagnosis and prevention of UTC, as well as encourage further research exploring this association.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • It is efficient to monitor the status of implanted ureteral stent using a
           mobile social networking service application
    • Abstract: Forgotten ureteral stents (FUS) is a great threat to both patients and doctors. Applications on smartphones can significantly reduce the incidence of FUS. But existing applications do not have instant notification and consultation functions. To implement those function, we developed a ureteral stent tracking system embedded in a social networking service application, WeChat. “Ureteral Stent Tracking System” was developed on WeChat, a social media application using by 1.4 million active users. The study consecutively enrolled patients who underwent ureteral stent installation from April 2018 to July 2018. Each patient’s information was recorded on the smartphone by the urologists to create a document immediately after the surgery. The system sends notifications twice a week to both patients and clinicians via the message function of WeChat. A total of 183 patients were enrolled. The most senior patient enrolled was 73 years old. 156 (85.2%) patients underwent stent extraction before the scheduled time. 22 did not undergo stent extraction before the scheduled time because of urinary tract infection or stone residue. They underwent stent extraction within 1 month after the scheduled time. Two patients did not come to the hospital until we had made a phone call to them, though they had received notification from the online system. During the study, no patient was lost-to-follow up. In bilateral stents cases, no stent was forgotten after extraction surgery. A total of 85 (46.4%) patients consulted 132 issues in the system. 52 (39.4%) patients complained about hematuria. 36 (27.3%) patients reported lower urinary tract symptoms. All the consultations were answered within 24 h. “Ureteral Stent Tracking System” implement instant notification and consultation functions via WeChat. It helps urologists to manage indwelling ureteral stents and to reduce the incidence of FUS efficiently.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
       
  • Comparison of outcomes in totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy
           according to nephrostomy tract sealing with fibrin versus gelatin matrix:
           a propensity score matching study
    • Abstract: To investigate and compare surgical outcomes in totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (ttPCNL) patients according to the type of sealant during nephrostomy tract closure, the records of 158 patients who underwent ttPCNL were retrospectively reviewed. Fibrin sealant [Tisseel®; n = 107, fibrin-only sealant (FS)] or gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant [FloSeal®; n = 51, gelatin matrix sealant (GS)] was applied during tract closure according to surgeon’s preference. On the first postoperative day, computed tomography (CT) was scanned for all patients. Unsatisfactory radiological outcome (URO) was defined as any postoperative hematoma or urinoma (≥ 2 cm) on the CT. Unsatisfactory clinical outcome (UCO) was defined as any adverse event requiring additional intervention. Both UROs and UCOs were sub-classified as either hemorrhage or drainage related. 2:1 propensity score matching was applied according to clinical parameters. Median age was 58 (19–78) years and a mean stone size was 2.1 ± 1.1 cm. The treatment success rate (stone free or < 4 mm residual) among all patients was 91.1% (144/158). UROs and UCOs occurred in 35.4% (86/158) and 11.4% (18/158) of all cases, respectively. Neither of the frequency of URO nor hemorrhage-related UCO was different according to sealant type. However, drainage-related UCOs were more prevalent among the GS group, mainly due to the higher postoperative ureter stenting rate. The postoperative pain severity and the length of hospitalization were comparable between groups. In summary, using GS rather than FS during tract closure did not worsen hemorrhage-related outcomes. However, the clinical risk of ureter occlusion requiring additional temporary ureteral stenting was increased.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
       
  • The usefulness of the maximum Hounsfield units (HU) in predicting the
           shockwave lithotripsy outcome for ureteral stones and the proposal of
           novel indicators using the maximum HU
    • Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) attenuation value of ureteral stones is one of the predictors of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) outcome. It is common to use the mean Hounsfield units (HU) to describe the CT attenuation value. However, an observer bias can occur when measuring the mean HU in the conventional method. On the other hand, our way to obtain only the maximum HU is simpler and less biased. We retrospectively evaluated 464 patients with ureteral stones who underwent SWL and compared predictive accuracy of various factors including maximum and mean HU. Results were determined after a single SWL. Predictors of SWL success were examined by the statistical analysis of successful and failed groups. 324 of the 464 patients who underwent SWL were stone-free after a single SWL. Significant differences were found in factors related to CT attenuation value and stone size. As a result of receiver operating characteristic analysis, it was found that maximum HU and mean HU, major diameter and volume have equivalent prediction accuracy, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that maximum HU and major diameter were included in independent predictors. We also examined the new original indicators using maximum HU and major diameter. Stone-resistant probability obtained from the logistic model and Maximum HU and Major diameter Index obtained by multiplying maximum HU by major diameter were useful for predicting SWL success, respectively. In conclusion, maximum HU and mean HU have equivalent predictive accuracy, and maximum HU is easier to measure and less biased than mean HU.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • Editorial comment
    • PubDate: 2019-03-08
       
  • A preliminary survey of practice patterns across several European kidney
           stone centers and a call for action in developing shared practice
    • Abstract: Currently an evidence-based approach to nephrolithiasis is hampered by a lack of randomized controlled trials. Thus, there is a need for common platforms for data sharing and recruitment of patients to interventional studies. A first step in achieving this objective would be to share practice methods and protocols for subsequent standardization in what is still a heterogeneous clinical field. Here, we present the results of a pilot survey performed across 24 European clinical kidney stone centers. The survey was distributed by a voluntary online questionnaire circulated between June 2017 and January 2018. About 46% of centers reported seeing on average 20 or more patients per month. Only 21% adopted any formal referral criteria. Centers were relatively heterogeneous in respect of the definition of an incident stone event. The majority (71%) adopted a formal follow-up scheme; of these, 65% included a follow-up visit at 3 and 12 months, and 41% more than 12 months. In 79% of centers some kind of imaging was performed systematically. 75% of all centers performed laboratory analyses on blood samples at baseline and during follow-up. All centers performed laboratory analyses on 24-h urine samples, the majority (96%) at baseline and during follow-up. There was good correspondence across centers for analyses performed on 24-h urine samples, although the methods of 24-h urine collection and analysis were relatively heterogeneous. Our survey among 24 European stone centers highlights areas of homogeneity and heterogeneity that will be investigated further. Our aim is the creation of a European network of stone centers sharing practice patterns and hosting a common database for research and guidance in clinical care.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
       
  • Hypertension and renal impairment in patients with cystinuria: findings
           from a specialist cystinuria centre
    • Abstract: Higher blood pressures (mean systolic difference 16.8 mmHg) when compared to matched individuals are already reported in patients with calcium urolithiasis. We present the prevalence of hypertension and renal impairment in patients with cystinuria from our specialist single centre. We analysed our prospective database of adult patients with cystinuria who attend our cystinuria service. This included details of the medical and operative management of their disease. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse and present the data. 120 patients were included with a median age of 40 (19–76) years, 66 were male (55%) and 54 were female (45%). 54/120 patients (45%) were taking medications to prevent stone formation. 78% (94/120) patients reported having undergone one or more stone-related procedure. 59% (55/94) of these having required at least one PCNL or open procedure during their lifetime. Prevalence of hypertension was 50.8% (61/120), and double in males compared to females (62.1% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.0063). Mean baseline creatinine was 88.2 (49–153) µmol/l and eGFR was 77.6 (32–127) ml/min/1.73 m2. When categorized by CKD stage, only 24.6% (27% vs. 21%, M vs. F) patients had normal renal function (being an eGFR > 89 ml/min/1.73 m2). 57.6% patients were CKD stage 2 and 17.8% CKD stage 3. Females had a slightly greater incidence of renal impairment. All patients who have previously undergone a nephrectomy (n = 10) or have a poorly functioning kidney (n = 19) have renal impairment (CKD stage 2 or 3). Incidence of hypertension in patients with cystinuria is 51%, with a male preponderance. Only 25% of patients with cystinuria have normal renal function. This highlights the long-term cardiovascular and renal risks that the metabolic effects of cystinuria pose, in addition to the challenges of managing recurrent urolithiasis in a young population.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
       
  • Journey of a cystinuric patient with a long-term follow-up from a medical
           stone clinic: necessity to be SaFER (stone and fragments entirely removed)
           
    • Authors: Sacha L. Moore; Bhaskar K. Somani; Paul Cook
      Abstract: There is a lack of studies looking at the longitudinal follow-up of patients with cystine stones. We wanted to assess the journey of cystinuric patients through our specialist metabolic stone clinic to improve the understanding of episodes, interventions and current outcomes in this patient cohort. After ethical approval, all patients who attended our metabolic stone clinic from 1994 to 2014 with at least one cystine stone episode were included in our study. Data were retrospectively analysed for patient demographics, stone episodes or intervention, clinical parameters and patient compliance. Over a period of 21 years, 16 patients with a median age of 15.5 years underwent a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (1–21 years). The mean number of surgical interventions was 3.1 (1–8/patient), but patients who were stone free after their first treatment had lower recurrences (p = 0.91) and lower number of interventions during their follow-up (2.7/patient, compared to those who were not stone free at 4/patient). During their follow-up period, patients with < 3 interventions had a significantly better renal function than those with ≥ 3 surgical interventions (p = 0.04). Additionally, linear regression analysis showed that eGFR was demonstrated to decline with increasing numbers of stone episodes (r2 = 0.169). It was also noted that patients who began early medical management remained stone free during follow-up compared to those who had medical management after ≥ 2 stone episodes, of whom all had a recurrent episode. Our long-term longitudinal study of cystine stone formers highlights that patients who are stone free and receive early metabolic stone screening and medical management after their initial presentation have the lowest recurrence rates and tend to preserve their renal function. Hence, prompt referral for metabolic assessment, and the stone and fragments entirely removed (SaFER) principles are key to preventing stone episodes and improving long-term function.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00240-018-1059-5
       
 
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