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SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)

Showing 1 - 81 of 81 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.073
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 61  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0195-9131 - ISSN (Online) 1530-0315
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [301 journals]
  • Hypoxic Exercise Training to Improve Exercise Capacity in Obese
           Individuals
    • Authors: CHACAROUN; SAMARMAR; BOROWIK, ANNA; VEGA-ESCAMILLA Y. GONZALEZ, IGNACIO; DOUTRELEAU, STÉPHANE; WUYAM, BERNARD; BELAIDI, ELISE; TAMISIER, RENAUD; PEPIN, JEAN-LOUIS; FLORE, PATRICE; VERGES, SAMUEL
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Combining exercise training with hypoxic exposure has been recently proposed as a new therapeutic strategy to improve health status of obese individuals. Whether hypoxic exercise training (HET) provides greater benefits regarding body composition and cardiometabolic parameters than normoxic exercise training (NET) remains, however, unclear. We hypothesized that HET would induce greater improvement in exercise capacity and health status than NET in overweight and obese individuals.Methods Twenty-three subjects were randomized into 8-wk HET (11 men and 1 woman; age, 52 ± 12 yr; body mass index, 31.2 ± 2.4 kg·m−2) or NET (eight men and three women; age, 56 ± 11 yr; body mass index, 31.8 ± 3.2 kg·m−2) programs (three sessions per week; constant-load cycling at 75% of maximal heart rate; target arterial oxygen saturation for HET 80%, FiO2 ~0.13, i.e., ~3700 m a.s.l.). Before and after the training programs, the following evaluations were performed: incremental maximal and submaximal cycling tests, measurements of pulse-wave velocity, endothelial function, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profile, blood NO metabolites and oxidative stress, and determination of body composition by magnetic resonance imaging.Results Peak oxygen consumption and maximal power output increased significantly after HET only (peak oxygen consumption HET + 10% ± 11% vs NET + 1% ± 10% and maximal power output HET + 11% ± 7% vs NET + 3% ± 10%, P < 0.05). Submaximal exercise responses improved similarly after HET and NET. Except diastolic blood pressure which decreased significantly after both HET and NET, no change in vascular function, metabolic status and body composition was observed after training. Hypoxic exercise training only increased nitrite and reduced superoxide dismutase concentrations.Conclusions Combining exercise training and hypoxic exposure may provide some additional benefits to standard NET for obese individual health status.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Clinical versus Functional Reaction Time: Implications for Postconcussion
           Management
    • Authors: LEMPKE; LANDON B.; JOHNSON, RACHEL S.; SCHMIDT, JULIANNE D.; LYNALL, ROBERT C.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to examine the association between clinical and functional reaction time (RT) assessments with and without simultaneous cognitive tasks among healthy individuals.Methods Participants (n = 41, 49% female; 22.5 ± 2.1 yr; 172.5 ± 11.9 cm; 71.0 ± 13.7 kg) completed clinical (drop stick, Stroop) and functional (gait, jump landing, single-leg hop, anticipated cut, unanticipated cut) RT assessments in random order. All RT assessments, except Stroop and unanticipated cut, were completed under single- (movement only) and dual-task conditions (movement and subtracting by 6s or 7s). Drop stick involved catching a randomly dropped rod embedded in a weighted disk. Stroop assessed RT via computerized neurocognitive testing. An instrumented walkway measured gait RT when center-of-pressure moved after random stimulus. All other functional RT assessments involved participants jumping forward and performing a vertical jump (jump landing), balancing on one leg (single-leg hop), or a 45° cut in a known (anticipated cut) or unknown (unanticipated cut) direction. RT was determined when the sacrum moved following random visual stimulus. Pearson correlation coefficients and a 5 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA compared RT assessments and cognitive conditions.Results Stroop RT outcomes did not significantly correlate with functional RT assessments (r range = −0.10 to 0.24). A significant assessment by cognitive task interaction (F4,160 = 14.01; P < 0.001) revealed faster single-task RT among all assessments compared with dual-task (mean differences, −0.11 to −0.09 s; P < 0.001), except drop stick (P = 0.195). Single-leg hop (0.58 ± 0.11 s) was significantly slower compared with jump landing (0.53 ± 0.10 s), anticipated cut (0.49 ± 0.09 s), gait (0.29 ± 0.07 s), and drop stick (0.21 ± 0.03 s; P values ≤ 0.001). Dual-task assessments were significantly slower than single-task assessments (mean difference, 0.08 s; P < 0.001).Conclusions Clinical and functional RT assessments were not correlated with each other, suggesting that sport-like RT is not being assessed after concussion. Functional and dual-task RT assessments may add clinical value and warrant further exploration after concussion.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Single-Joint and Whole-Body Movement Changes in Anterior Cruciate Ligament
           Athletes Returning to Sport
    • Authors: SMEETS; ANNEMIE; VERHEUL, JASPER; VANRENTERGHEM, JOS; STAES, FILIP; VANDENNEUCKER, HILDE; CLAES, STEVEN; VERSCHUEREN, SABINE
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Athletes returning to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate prolonged changes in landing kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation, predisposing them for reinjury, knee osteoarthritis, and/or knee instability. So far, researchers have been focusing on how kinematics and kinetics change in every joint separately. However, as the human body operates within a kinetic chain, we will assess whether single-joint changes are associated with whole-body changes.Methods Twenty-one athletes who had an ACLR and 21 uninjured controls performed five unilateral landing tasks, whereas lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius were recorded. Single-joint landing kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations of the ACL-injured leg were compared with the uninjured leg and compared with the control group. Whole-body changes were assessed by decomposing movements into fundamental components using marker-based principal component analysis (PCA).Results We found several single-joint changes in landing kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations in the athletes with ACLR that were seen across all tasks and therefore of major interest as they are likely to occur during sports as well. Hamstrings activation increased and external knee flexion moments decreased in the ACL-injured leg compared with their uninjured leg. Furthermore, hip adduction moments and knee abduction angles decreased compared with the control group. The PCA could detect changes in whole-body movement, which were task-specific.Conclusions Athletes with ACLR still show protective task-independent single-joint kinematic, kinetic, and muscle activation changes during single-leg landings at the time of return to sport. These single-joint changes were not consistently accompanied by changes in whole-body movements (revealed by marker-based PCA). Whole-body expressions of the single-joint compensations are likely to be affected by the demands of the task.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Physiological Parameters of Bone Health in Elite Ballet Dancers
    • Authors: LAMBERT; BRADLEY S.; CAIN, MICHAEL T.; HEIMDAL, TYLER; HARRIS, JOSHUA D.; JOTWANI, VIJAY; PETAK, STEVEN; MCCULLOCH, PATRICK C.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to characterize bone health in relation to stress fracture history, body composition, eating disorder risk, and blood biomarkers in professional male and female ballet dancers.Methods A single cohort of 112 dancers (male: 55, 25 ± 6 yr; female: 57, 24 ± 6 yr) was recruited. All participants underwent bone and body composition measures using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In a subset of our cohort (male: 30, 24 ± 6 yr; female, 29, 23 ± 5 yr), a blood panel, disordered eating screen, menstrual history, and stress fracture history were also collected. Age-matched Z scores and young-adult T scores were calculated for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. Independent-samples t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare BMD, Z-scores, T scores, and those with and without history of stress fractures. A 1 × 3 ANOVA was used to compare BMD for those scoring 0–1, 2–6, and 7+ using the EAT26 questionnaire for eating disorder risk. Regression was used to predict BMD from demographic and body composition measures.Results Female dancers demonstrated reduced spinal (42nd percentile, 10%T < −1) and pelvic (16th percentile, 76%T < −1) BMD. Several anthropometric measures were predictive of BMD (P < 0.05, r2 = 0.65–0.81, standard error of estimate = 0.08–0.10 g·cm−2, percent error = 6.3–8.5). Those scoring>1 on EAT26 had lower BMD than did those with a score of 0–1 (P < 0.05).Conclusions Professional female ballet dancers exhibit reduced BMD, fat mass, and lean mass compared with the general population whereby low BMD and stress fractures tend to be more prevalent in those with a higher risk of disordered eating. Anthropometric and demographic measures are predictive of BMD in this population.Stress fractures are common among elite ballet dancers whereby musculoskeletal health may be affected by energy balance and overtraining.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Exercise Induces Different Molecular Responses in Trained and Untrained
           Human Muscle
    • Authors: MOBERG; MARCUS; LINDHOLM, MALENE E.; REITZNER, STEFAN M.; EKBLOM, BJÖRN; SUNDBERG, CARL-JOHAN; PSILANDER, NIKLAS
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Human skeletal muscle is thought to have heightened sensitivity to exercise stimulus when it has been previously trained (i.e., it possesses “muscle memory”). We investigated whether basal and acute resistance exercise-induced gene expression and cell signaling events are influenced by previous strength training history.Methods Accordingly, 19 training naïve women and men completed 10 wk of unilateral leg strength training, followed by 20 wk of detraining. Subsequently, an acute resistance exercise session was performed for both legs, with vastus lateralis biopsies taken at rest and 1 h after exercise in both legs (memory and control).Results The phosphorylation of AMPKThr172 and eEF2Thr56 was higher in the memory leg than that in the control leg at both time points. The postexercise phosphorylation of 4E-BP1Thr46 and Ser65 was higher in the memory leg than that in the control leg. The memory leg had lower basal mRNA levels of total PGC1α and, unlike the control leg, exhibited increases in PGC1α-ex1a transcripts after exercise. In the genes related to myogenesis (SETD3, MYOD1, and MYOG), mRNA levels differed between the memory and the untrained leg; these effects were evident primarily in the male subjects. Expression of the novel gene SPRYD7 was lower in the memory leg at rest and decreased after exercise only in the control leg, but SPRYD7 protein levels were higher in the memory leg.Conclusion In conclusion, several key regulatory genes and proteins involved in muscular adaptations to resistance exercise are influenced by previous training history. Although the relevance and mechanistic explanation for these findings need further investigation, they support the view of a molecular muscle memory in response to training.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Fatigue and Recovery after Single-Stage versus Multistage Ultramarathon
           Running
    • Authors: BESSON; THIBAULT; ROSSI, JÉRÉMY; LE ROUX MALLOUF, THIBAULT; MARECHAL, MATTHIEU; DOUTRELEAU, STÉPHANE; VERGES, SAMUEL; MILLET, GUILLAUME Y.
      Abstract: imagePurpose Ultramarathon running includes two main types of events: single-stage race (SSR) and multistage races (MSR). Direct comparison of neuromuscular fatigue and recovery after SSR versus MSR race of comparable distance and elevation has never been performed. The aim of this study was to assess neuromuscular fatigue and recovery after two ultramarathons of equal distance performed either (i) in a single stage or (ii) in four successive days.Methods Thirty-one runners participated in the study: 17 ran 169 km in a single-stage race and 14 performed around 40 km·d−1 over 4 d. The two races were performed on the same course. Neuromuscular function was tested before (PRE), after (POST), and 2 (D + 2), 5 (D + 5) and 10 (D + 10) days after the races. Neuromuscular function was evaluated on both knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) with voluntary and evoked contractions using electrical (femoral and tibial, respectively) nerve stimulation.Results Reduction of voluntary activation measured in the KE was greater (i.e., central fatigue) for SSR than MSR directly after the race (−23% vs −7%), P < 0.01). Reductions in evoked mechanical KE and PF responses on relaxed muscle (i.e., peripheral fatigue) of both KE and PF took longer to recover in MSR than in SSR.Conclusions Performing prolonged running exercise over several days, each separated by rest, elicits more prolonged impairments in contractile function compared with single-stage ultramarathon, whereas single-stage mountain ultramarathon ran on the same course is associated with greater central fatigue.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • An Animal Trial on the Optimal Time and Intensity of Exercise after Stroke
    • Authors: Zhang; Liying; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yin, Mingyu; Yang, Huaichun; Li, Lili; Parashos, Alexandra; Alawieh, Ali; Feng, Wuwei; Zheng, Haiqing; Hu, Xiquan
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Although exercise is a safe, cost-effective, and therapeutic poststroke therapy, the proper time window and dosage of exercise are still unknown. We aim to determine the optimal combination of time window and intensity of exercise by assessing infarct volume, neurological recovery, and underlying mechanisms in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats.Methods The study contains two parts: the time-window and the dosage experiments. The time-window experiment assessed the effects of moderate-intensity exercise that was initiated at 24, 48, 72, 96 h and the control. In the dosage experiment, moderate and another two intensity exercise groups (low, high) were assessed. Forced wheel running was the exercise technique used. Infarct volume and neurological function (modified neurological severity scores [mNSS]) were measured. Inflammatory cytokines, cell death, and proliferation were further detected in the ischemic penumbra.Results The time window part revealed that neither infarct volume nor mNSS was reduced in the exercise group initiated at 24 h. The other three groups with exercise initiated after 24 h had reduced infarct volume and reduced mNSS but those outcomes do not differ from each other. In the dosage part, the low- and moderate-intensity groups with exercise initiated at 48 h were both better than the high-intensity group in terms of infarct volume and mNSS at 14 d; however, there was no statistical difference between these low and moderate groups. Exercise initiated at 24 h or high-intensity promoted proinflammatory cytokines and cell death.Conclusions Exercise at 24 h is harmful. Low- and moderate-intensity exercise initiated at 48 h poststroke appears to be the optimal combination for maximal functional recovery.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Exhaustive Exercise Induces Gastrointestinal Syndrome through Reduced ILC3
           and IL-22 in Mouse Model
    • Authors: Hou; Pengfei; Zhou, Xi; Yu, Li; Yao, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Yujie; Chen, Mengtin; Yi, Long; Mi, Mantian
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study was to investigate the mechanism of intestinal physical and immune barriers in the occurrence of high-intensive exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms.Methods An overtraining model of male C57BL/6 mice was established by running-to-exhaustive exercise. Then, the mice were sacrificed, and a series of evaluation indicators, including the routine blood analysis as well as histological examinations, inflammatory factors, ultrastructure observation, and intestinal permeability of the gut, were measured based on this model. The expressions of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 as well as the tight junction and adherence junction proteins ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1, and E-cadherin were measured, respectively. Furthermore, the mRNA level of IL-22 and the proportion of ILC3 and IL-22 produced in CD4+ T cells in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Besides, the liver glycogen and the expressions of sirtuins-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1a, which were associated with the intestinal metabolism phenotype, were analyzed by Western blotting.Results Exhaustive exercise induced a disrupted intestinal barrier integrity, an aggravated intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and the reduced IL-22 mRNA level. Compared with the nonexercise mice, the IL-22 produced in LPL was reduced followed by exhaustive exercise, whereas the proportion of IL-22 produced in CD4+ T cells was still unchanged. Significantly, the proportion of ILC3 in the LPL was decreased obviously, including the NCR+ ILC3. Furthermore, the intestinal metabolism phenotype assessment showed lower liver glycogen and blood glucose as well as higher blood lactic acid and hypoxia-inducible factor-1a, respectively.Conclusions The data indicated that the acute high-intensity running-induced gastrointestinal symptom is closely associated with a reduced percentage of ILC3 and IL-22 level in the LPL, possibly due to the glycogen exhaustion and intestinal mucosa hypoperfusion.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Nrf2 Activation Enhances Muscular MCT1 Expression and Hypoxic Exercise
           Capacity
    • Authors: WANG; LINJIA; ZHU, RONGXIN; WANG, JIAHUI; YU, SIWANG; WANG, JIANXIONG; ZHANG, YING
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Skeletal muscle is the major producing and metabolizing site of lactic acid. A family of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins, especially MCT1 and MCT4, are involved in the lactate–pyruvate exchange and metabolism. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal coordinator of antioxidant response and energy metabolism, and has been reported to associate with the physiological functions of the skeletal muscle.Methods In this study, C57BL/6 J mice were administrated with an Nrf2 activator, sulforaphane (SFN) before taking incremental treadmill exercise to exhaustion under hypoxia; then the effects of SFN on exercise endurance and molecular/biochemical makers of the skeletal muscle were evaluated.Results The results indicated that SFN pretreatment enhanced the exercise endurance under hypoxia. SFN not only increased the expressions of antioxidant genes and activity of antioxidant enzymes, but also significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of MCT1 and CD147, but not MCT4. Moreover, the expressions of LDH-B and LDH activity of converting lactate into pyruvate, as well as citrate synthase activity were significantly higher, whereas the LDH activity of converting pyruvate into lactate and blood lactate level were remarkably lower in the SFN-exercise mice than those of the phosphate-buffered saline–exercise group. Furthermore, Atf3Δzip2 (the alternatively spliced isoform of activating transcription factor-3) mRNA was increased by the exercise and further potentiated by SFN.Conclusion These results show, for the first time, that SFN increases MCT1 expression in the skeletal muscle under acute hypoxic exercise and suggest that Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy to enhance exercise performance under hypoxia.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Physical Activity and Mortality among Male Survivors of Myocardial
           Infarction
    • Authors: AL-SHAAR; LAILA; LI, YANPING; RIMM, ERIC B.; MANSON, JOANN E.; ROSNER, BERNARD; HU, FRANK B.; STAMPFER, MEIR J.; WILLETT, WALTER C.
      Abstract: imagePurpose An inverse association between physical activity (PA) and risk of CHD has been seen in many studies, but evidence for benefits of PA after myocardial infarction (MI) in reducing mortality is limited.Methods Using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort, we followed male survivors of MI. Short- and long-term changes in PA from before to after MI were calculated, and participants without ambulation impairment were classified into maintained low, decreased, increased, or maintained high PA categories. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality across PA and PA change categories.Results During a mean of 14 yr of follow-up of 1651 incident nonfatal MI cases, we documented 678 deaths, 307 were due to cardiovascular disease. The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality comparing ≥21 with ≤1.5 MET·wk−1 of PA before MI was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.59–0.89, Ptrend = 0.03). Compared with men who maintained low PA before and after MI, men who maintained high PA had a 39% (95% CI = 25–50) lower risk of all-cause mortality, and those who had a long-term increase in PA from before to after MI had a 27% (95% CI = 6–43) lower risk. Walking for ≥30 min·d−1 after MI was associated with a 29% lower mortality (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58–0.84), independent of walking pace, and walking pace after MI was inversely associated with mortality (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49–0.92).Conclusions Maintaining a high PA or having a long-term increase in PA from before to after MI was associated with lower mortality among male MI survivors. Walking time and walking pace after MI were each inversely associated with mortality.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscular Strength on Arterial Stiffness in
           Older Adults
    • Authors: ALBIN; EMMA E.; BRELLENTHIN, ANGELIQUE G.; LANG, JAMES A.; MEYER, JACOB D.; LEE, DUCK-CHUL
      Abstract: imagePurpose To evaluate the independent and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MS) with arterial stiffness (AS), a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, in older adults.Methods This cross-sectional study included 405 older adults (mean age, 72 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by time (s) to complete a 400-m walking test and MS by maximal handgrip strength (kg). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was used to assess AS. High AS was defined as a pulse wave velocity of ≥10 m·s−1, a previously established threshold for increased cardiovascular risk. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having high AS across sex-specific tertiles of CRF and MS. Muscular strength and CRF were further dichotomized into either “weak” or “unfit” (lower one third for each), or “strong” or “fit” (upper two thirds for each) to investigate the combined associations of CRF and MS with high AS. All analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including MS for CRF and CRF for MS.Results Sixty-nine (17%) participants had high AS. Compared with lower CRF, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.53 (0.30–0.95) and 0.69 (0.38–1.23) for middle and upper CRF, respectively. Compared with lower MS, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.81 (0.49–1.34) and 0.52 (0.29–0.92) for middle and upper MS, respectively. In the joint analysis, compared with the “unfit and weak” group, PR (95% CI) of having high AS were 0.72 (0.38–1.35), 0.58 (0.29–1.16), and 0.46 (0.25–0.85) for “unfit and strong,” “fit and weak,” and “fit and strong” groups, respectively.Conclusions Higher levels of CRF and MS were independently associated with lower (healthier) levels of AS in older adults.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Machine Learning Approach to Assess Injury Risk in Elite Youth Football
           Players
    • Authors: ROMMERS; NIKKI; RÖSSLER, ROLAND; VERHAGEN, EVERT; VANDECASTEELE, FLORIAN; VERSTOCKT, STEVEN; VAEYENS, ROEL; LENOIR, MATTHIEU; D’HONDT, Eva; WITVROUW, ERIK
      Abstract: imagePurpose To assess injury risk in elite-level youth football (soccer) players based on anthropometric, motor coordination and physical performance measures with a machine learning model.Methods A total of 734 players in the U10 to U15 age categories (mean age, 11.7 ± 1.7 yr) from seven Belgian youth academies were prospectively followed during one season. Football exposure and occurring injuries were monitored continuously by the academies’ coaching and medical staff, respectively. Preseason anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and sitting height) were taken and test batteries to assess motor coordination and physical fitness (strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and endurance) were performed. Extreme gradient boosting algorithms (XGBoost) were used to predict injury based on the preseason test results. Subsequently, the same approach was used to classify injuries as either overuse or acute.Results During the season, half of the players (n = 368) sustained at least one injury. Of the first occurring injuries, 173 were identified as overuse and 195 as acute injuries. The machine learning algorithm was able to identify the injured players in the hold-out test sample with 85% precision, 85% recall (sensitivity) and 85% accuracy (f1 score). Furthermore, injuries could be classified as overuse or acute with 78% precision, 78% recall, and 78% accuracy.Conclusions Our machine learning algorithm was able to predict injury and to distinguish overuse from acute injuries with reasonably high accuracy based on preseason measures. Hence, it is a promising approach to assess injury risk among elite-level youth football players. This new knowledge could be applied in the development and improvement of injury risk management strategies to identify youth players with the highest injury risk.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Velocity Loss as a Critical Variable Determining the Adaptations to
           Strength Training
    • Authors: PAREJA-BLANCO; FERNANDO; ALCAZAR, JULIAN; SÁNCHEZ-VALDEPEÑAS, JUAN; CORNEJO-DAZA, PEDRO J.; PIQUERAS-SANCHIZ, FRANCISCO; MORA-VELA, RAÚL; SÁNCHEZ-MORENO, MIGUEL; BACHERO-MENA, BEATRIZ; ORTEGA-BECERRA, MANUEL; ALEGRE, LUIS M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to compare the effects of four resistance training (RT) programs with different velocity loss (VL) thresholds: 0% (VL0), 10% (VL10), 20% (VL20), and 40% (VL40) on sprint and jump performance, muscle strength, neuromuscular, muscle hypertrophy, and architectural adaptations.Methods Sixty-four young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned into four groups (VL0, VL10, VL20, and VL40) that differed in the VL allowed in each set. Subjects followed an RT program for 8 wk (two sessions per week) using the full-squat (SQ) exercise, with similar relative intensity (70%–85% 1-repetition maximum), number of sets (3), and interset recovery period (4 min). Before and after the RT program, the following tests were performed: 1) muscle hypertrophy and architecture of the vastus lateralis (VLA), 2) tensiomyography, 3) 20-m running sprint, 4) vertical jump, 5) maximal voluntary isometric contraction in SQ, 6) progressive loading test in SQ, and 7) fatigue test.Results No between-group differences existed for RT-induced gains in sprint, jump, and strength performance despite the differences in the total volume performed by each group. VL20 and VL40 showed significant increases (P < 0.001) in muscle hypertrophy (group–time interaction, P = 0.06). However, only VL40 exhibited a significant slowing (P < 0.001) of the delay time in the VLA muscle (group–time interaction, P = 0.05). Moreover, VL40 showed a significant decrease in the early rate of force development (P = 0.04).Conclusions Higher VL thresholds (i.e., VL20 and VL40) maximized hypertrophic adaptations, although an excessive VL during the set (i.e., VL40) may also induce negative neuromuscular adaptations. Therefore, moderate VL thresholds should be chosen to maximize strength adaptations and to prevent negative neuromuscular adaptations.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Physiological Responses of Female Load Carriage Improves after 10 Weeks of
           Training
    • Authors: WILLS; JODIE A.; DRAIN, JACE; FULLER, JOEL T.; DOYLE, TIM L. A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to characterize and evaluate female-specific physiological and perceptual responses during a load carriage walking task before and after a 10-wk physical training program.Methods Eleven recreationally active women (age, 21.5 ± 2.2 yr; stature, 1.66 ± 0.8 m; body mass, 64.4 ± 6.8 kg) completed a load carriage task (5 km at 5.5 km·h−1, wearing a 23-kg torso-borne vest) before and after a 10-wk physical training program. Physiological (i.e., maximal oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), breathing frequency, and pulmonary ventilation) and perceptual (i.e., rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) responses were collected during the load carriage task. Additional physical performance measures (i.e., push-ups, sit-ups, beep test, and isometric midthigh pull) were collected in a separate session before and after the 10-wk of training.Results Compared with before training, maximal oxygen uptake requirements reduced during the load carriage task (P < 0.05), whereas heart rate and RPE remained similar. RER reductions over the 5-km march indicated a shift toward fat utilization, with other physiological responses demonstrating an increased ability to sustain the metabolic demands of the load carriage task. Increases in push-up and isometric midthigh pull performance demonstrated improvements in upper-body muscular endurance and lower-body strength after the 10-wk training program (P < 0.05).Conclusions During a standardized load carriage task, physiological and perceptual responses indicated physical adaptations to specific training in women. Although positive physiological responses were elicited, additional strategies (i.e., cognitive resilience training, female-specific vest design to reduce pain burden) to build load carriage task-specific resilience (perceptual responses) may be required.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sitting-induced Endothelial Dysfunction Is Prevented in Endurance-trained
           Individuals
    • Authors: MORISHIMA; TAKUMA; TSUCHIYA, YOSUKE; UEDA, HISASHI; TSUJI, KATSUNORI; OCHI, EISUKE
      Abstract: imagePurpose Prolonged sitting impairs leg endothelial function, which seems to be mediated by a sustained reduction in blood flow-induced shear stress. However, whether regular endurance training is effective in preventing sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction remains largely unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction is prevented in high endurance-trained individuals.Methods The endurance-trained group comprised 10 male collegiate cyclists, and the untrained group comprised nine men with no regular endurance training. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) was initially determined in all participants using incremental exercise test (37.9 ± 4.7 mL·min−1·kg−1 in the untrained group versus 60.8 ± 3.6 mL·min−1·kg−1 in the endurance-trained group). At second visit, the popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) was assessed before and after a 3-h sitting period. During the sitting period, the popliteal artery diameter and blood velocity were measured every hour.Results The popliteal artery blood flow and shear rate were significantly and similarly reduced during the sitting period in both groups (P < 0.001). In a 3-h sitting, a significant impairment in popliteal artery %FMD was observed in the untrained group (P = 0.003), but it was prevented in the endurance-trained group (P < 0.196).Conclusions In conclusion, the present study revealed that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction is preventable in endurance-trained individuals.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Lower-Limb Biomechanics in Football Players with and without Hip-related
           Pain
    • Authors: KING; MATTHEW G.; SEMCIW, ADAM I.; SCHACHE, ANTHONY G.; MIDDLETON, KANE J.; HEEREY, JOSHUA J.; SRITHARAN, PRASANNA; SCHOLES, MARK J.; MENTIPLAY, BENJAMIN F.; CROSSLEY, KAY M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to evaluate the differences in lower-limb biomechanics between adult subelite competitive football players with and without hip-related pain during two contrasting tasks—walking and single-leg drop jump (SLDJ)—and to determine whether potential differences, if present, are sex dependent.Methods Eighty-eight football players with hip-related pain (23 women, 65 men) and 30 asymptomatic control football players (13 women, 17 men) who were currently participating in competitive sport were recruited. Biomechanical data were collected for the stance phase of walking and SLDJ. Pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle angles, as well as the impulse of the external joint moments, were calculated. Differences between groups and sex-specific effects were calculated using linear regression models.Results Compared with their asymptomatic counterparts, football players with hip-related pain displayed a lower average pelvic drop angle during walking (P = 0.03) and a greater average pelvic hike angle during SLDJ (P < 0.05). Men with hip-related pain displayed a smaller total range of motion (excursion) for the transverse plane pelvis angle (P = 0.03) and a smaller impulse of the hip external rotation moment (P < 0.01) during walking compared with asymptomatic men. Women with hip-related pain displayed a greater total range of motion (excursion) for the sagittal plane knee angle (P = 0.01) during walking compared with asymptomatic women.Conclusion Overall, few differences were observed in lower-limb biomechanics between football players with and without hip-related pain, irrespective of the task. This outcome suggests that, despite the presence of symptoms, impairments in lower-limb biomechanics during function do not appear to be a prominent feature of people with hip-related pain who are still participating in sport.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Addition of an Alginate Hydrogel to a Carbohydrate Beverage Enhances
           Gastric Emptying
    • Authors: SUTEHALL; SHAUN; GALLOWAY, STUART D. R.; BOSCH, ANDREW; PITSILADIS, YANNIS
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to examine the effect of altering osmolality or adding sodium alginate and pectin to a concentrated carbohydrate (CHO) beverage on gastric-emptying (GE) rate.Methods Boluses (500 mL) of three drinks were instilled double blind in eight healthy men while seated, GE was measured using the double sampling method for 90 min, and blood samples were collected regularly. Drinks consisted of glucose and fructose (MON; 1392 mOsmol·kg−1), maltodextrin and fructose (POLY; 727 mOsmol·kg−1), and maltodextrin, fructose, sodium alginate, and pectin (ENCAP; 732 mOsmol·kg−1) with each providing 180 g·L−1 CHO (CHO ratio of 1:0.7 maltodextrin or glucose/fructose).Results Time to empty half of the ingested bolus was faster for ENCAP (21 ± 9 min) than for POLY (37 ± 8 min); both were faster than MON (51 ± 15 min). There were main effects for time and drink in addition to an interaction effect for the volume of test drink remaining in the stomach over the 90 min period, but there were no differences between MON and POLY at any time point. ENCAP had a smaller volume of the test drink in the stomach than MON at 30 min (193 ± 62 vs 323 ± 54 mL), which remained less up to 60 min (93 ± 37 vs 210 ± 88 mL). There was a smaller volume of the drink remaining in the stomach in ENCAP compared with POLY 20 min (242 ± 73 vs 318 ± 47 mL) and 30 min (193 ± 62 vs 304 ± 40 mL) after ingestion. Although there was a main effect of time, there was no effect of drink or an interaction effect on serum glucose, insulin or nonesterified fatty acid concentrations.Conclusion The addition of sodium alginate and pectin to a CHO beverage enhances early GE rate but did not affect serum glucose, insulin, or nonesterified fatty acid concentration at rest.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Caffeine Optimizes HIIT Benefits on Obesity-associated Metabolic Adversity
           in Women
    • Authors: ALKHATIB; AHMAD; HSIEH, MIN-JUNG; KUO, CHIA-HUA; HOU, CHIEN-WEN
      Abstract: imagePurpose We investigated whether obesity adversities such as excessive body fat, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, metabolic endotoxemia, irregular androgenicity, and reduced cardiorespiratory and anaerobic fitness are ameliorated by high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with or without caffeine supplementation in women with obesity.Methods Twenty-four women with obesity (Asian cutoff point body mass index ≥ 27 kg·m−2, body fat = 40%) were evenly randomized to caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLA) trials for an 8-wk HIIT program (10 × 1-min sprints, interspersed by 1-min rest). CAF (3 mg·kg−1·bw−1) and PLA were supplemented before each training session. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after training together with assessments of glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT), lipopolysaccharide endotoxins, testosterone, cardiorespiratory, and anaerobic fitness.Results Significant interaction between HIIT and CAF was found for OGTT glucose and OGTT insulin levels (P = 0.001 and P = 0.049 respectively). HIIT-alone increased glucose at 90 min (P = 0.049) and OGTT insulin at 60 min (P = 0.038). Conversely, HIIT with CAF decreased OGTT glucose at 120 min (P = 0.024) without affecting OGTT insulin. HIIT-alone induced 28.3% higher OGTT insulin (effect size d = 0.59 for area under the curve) and 14.5% higher OGTT glucose (d = 0.28). Conversely, HIIT with CAF decreased OGTT glucose by 19.1% (d = 0.51 for area under the curve) without changing OGTT insulin. HIIT-alone effects on glycemia and insulinemia were concurrent with a 31% increase in lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (P = 0.07; d = 0.78; confidence interval, 5.7–8.7) in the PLA but not in CAF treatment (P = 0.99; d = 0.003; confidence interval, 6.5–10.6), although endotoxin level remained within the recommended healthy thresholds. Furthermore, either HIIT alone or with CAF reduced body fat percentage (P < 0.001, ANOVA main training effects), increased muscle mass (P = 0.002), reduced testosterone (P = 0.005), and increased cardiorespiratory and anaerobic capacity (P < 0.001).Conclusions HIIT induces fat loss and decreases androgenicity in women with obesity. However, its side effects such as endotoxemia and hyperinsulinemia are ameliorated by caffeine supplementation.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Is Individualization of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Based on Time to Peak
           Necessary'
    • Authors: FARIAS DE OLIVEIRA; LUANA; SAUNDERS, BRYAN; YAMAGUCHI, GUILHERME; SWINTON, PAUL; GIANNINI ARTIOLI, GUILHERME
      Abstract: imagePurpose To describe the reliability of blood bicarbonate pharmacokinetics in response to sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation across multiple occasions and assess, using putative thresholds, whether individual variation indicated a need for individualized ingestion timings.Methods Thirteen men (age 27 ± 5 yr; body mass [BM], 77.4 ± 10.5 kg; height, 1.75 ± 0.06 m) ingested 0.3 g·kg−1 BM SB in gelatine capsules on three occasions. One hour after a standardized meal, venous blood was obtained before and every 10 min after ingestion for 3 h, then every 20 min for a further hour. Time to peak (Tmax), absolute peak (Cmax), absolute peak change (∆Cmax), and area under the curve were analyzed using mixed models, intraclass correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation and typical error. Individual variation in pharmacokinetic responses was assessed using Bayesian simulation with multilevel models with random intercepts.Results No significant differences between sessions were shown for blood bicarbonate regarding Cmax, ∆Cmax or area under the curve (P> 0.05), although Tmax occurred earlier in SB2 (127 ± 36 min) than in SB1 (169 ± 54 min, P = 0.0088) and SB3 (159 ± 42 min, P = 0.05). Intraclass correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, and typical error showed moderate to poor reliability. Bayesian modeling estimated that>80% of individuals from the population experience elevated blood bicarbonate levels above +5 mmol·L−1 between 75 and 240 min after ingestion, and between 90 and 225 min above +6 mmol·L−1.Conclusions Assessing SB supplementation using discrete values showed only moderate reliability at the group level, and poor reliability at the individual level, whereas Tmax was not reproducible. However, when analyzed as modeled curves, a 0.3-g·kg−1 BM dose was shown to create a long-lasting window of ergogenic potential, challenging the notion that SB ingestion individualized to time-to-peak is a necessary strategy, at least when SB is ingested in capsules.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Leucine Supplementation Has No Further Effect on Training-induced Muscle
           Adaptations
    • Authors: DE ANDRADE; ISABEL THOMAZI; GUALANO, BRUNO; HEVIA-LARRAÍN, VICTORIA; NEVES-JUNIOR, JUAREZ; CAJUEIRO, MONIQUE; JARDIM, FELIPE; GOMES, RODRIGO LEITE; ARTIOLI, GUILHERME GIANNINI; PHILLIPS, STUART M.; CAMPOS-FERRAZ, PATRÍCIA; ROSCHEL, HAMILTON
      Abstract: imageIntroduction Several acute studies have suggested that leucine is a key amino acid to drive muscle protein synthesis. However, there are very few studies on the long-term effects of leucine supplementation on resistance training (RT)–induced gains in muscle mass and strength. We sought to determine the impact of 10 g of leucine on muscle mass and strength in response to RT in healthy young men.Methods Twenty-five, resistance-trained men (27 ± 5 yr; 78.4 ± 11.6 kg; 24.8 ± 3.0 kg·m−2) consuming 1.8 ± 0.4 g protein·kg−1·d−1, were randomly assigned to receive 2 × 5 g·d−1 supplementation of either free leucine (LEU n = 12) or alanine (PLA n = 13) while undergoing a supervised 12-wk, twice-weekly lower-limb RT program. One-repetition maximum (leg-press 1RM) and muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) of the vastus lateralis were determined before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. Additionally, three 24-h dietary recalls were also performed at PRE and POST.Results Protein intake was roughly double that of the RDA in both groups and remained unchanged across time with no differences detected between groups. Similar increases were observed between groups in leg-press 1RM (LEU, 19.0% ± 9.4% and PLA, 21.0% ± 10.4%, P = 0.31) and mCSA (LEU, 8.0% ± 5.6% and PLA, 8.4% ± 5.1%, P = 0.77).Conclusions High-dose leucine supplementation did not enhance gains in muscle strength and mass after a 12-wk RT program in young resistance-trained males consuming adequate amounts of dietary protein.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Heat Acclimation with Controlled Heart Rate: Influence of Hydration Status
    • Authors: TRAVERS; GAVIN; NICHOLS, DAVID; RIDING, NATHAN; GONZÁLEZ-ALONSO, JOSÉ; PÉRIARD, JULIEN D.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to characterize the adaptive responses to heat acclimation (HA) with controlled heart rate (HR) and determine whether hydration strategy alters adaptations. The influence of HA on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in cool conditions and self-paced exercise in the heat was also determined.Methods Eight men (V˙O2max, 55 ± 7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed two 10-d interventions in a counterbalanced crossover design. Fluid intakes differed between interventions to either maintain euhydration (HA-EUH) or elicit similar daily body mass deficits (2.85% ± 0.26%; HA-DEH). HA consisted of 90 min of cycling in 40°C and 40% relative humidity. Initial workload (172 ± 22 W) was adjusted over the last 75 min to maintain exercising HR equivalent to 65% V˙O2max. A V˙O2max test in cool conditions and 30-min time trial in hot-humid conditions were completed before and after HA.Results HR at the end of the initial 15 min workload was 10 ± 5 bpm lower on day 10 in both interventions (P < 0.001). The workload necessary to maintain exercising HR (145 ± 7 bpm) increased throughout HA-EUH (25 ± 10 W, P = 0.001) and HA-DEH (16 ± 18 W, P = 0.02). There was a main effect of HA on sweat rate (P = 0.014), which tended to increase with HA-EUH (0.19 ± 0.18 L·h−1, P = 0.06), but not HA-DEH (P = 0.12). Skin temperature decreased during HA-EUH (0.6°C ± 0.5°C, P = 0.03), but not HA-DEH (P = 0.30). There was a main effect of HA on V˙O2max (~3 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.02); however, neither intervention independently increased V˙O2max (both, P = 0.08). Time-trial performance increased after HA-EUH (19 ± 16 W, P = 0.02), but not HA-DEH (P = 0.21).Conclusions Controlled HR exercise in the heat induces several HA adaptations, which may be optimized by maintaining euhydration. HA-EUH also improves self-paced exercise performance in the heat. However, HA does not seem to significantly increase V˙O2max in cool conditions.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Profiles of Heart Rate Variability and Bar Velocity after Resistance
           Exercise
    • Authors: DOBBS; WARD C.; FEDEWA, MICHAEL V.; MACDONALD, HAYLEY V.; TOLUSSO, DANILO V.; ESCO, MICHAEL R.
      Abstract: imageIntroduction The aim of this investigation was to observe the association in the time course in recovery between multiple heart rate variability (HRV) metrics and neuromuscular performance, as assessed by mean bar velocity (BVM) in the back squat, over a 72-h period after an exhaustive back squat protocol.Methods Eight resistance-trained males completed five laboratory visits within a 7-d period. The first visit involved short-term HRV recordings followed by a familiarization of BVM procedures and a one-repetition maximum test of the back squat. Forty-eight hours later, participants returned to the laboratory for prestimulus measurements, immediately followed by a back squat protocol (8 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of one-repetition maximum with a 2-min rest). The HRV and the BVM measurements were replicated at 0.5, 24, 48, and 72 h after squat protocol. A multivariate profile analysis and repeated-measures correlation between recovery scores [(new/prestimulus) × 100] for each HRV metric and BVM was computed.Results All log-transformed (ln) HRV metrics, except low frequency (lnLF) (P = 0.051), had a significant interaction with BVM over time (P < 0.05), indicating that recovery scores in BVM and HRV were not parallel. In addition, recovery scores in all HRV metrics significantly differed from BVM (P < 0.05) in at least one time point across the 72-h period. Furthermore, repeated-measures correlation analysis indicated a lack of intraindividual association (P> 0.05) between the change in BVM and all HRV measurements over time.Conclusion The time course in recovery in HRV measurements after an exhaustive bout of lower-body resistance exercise was not associated with neuromuscular performance recovery.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Posture and Physical Activity Detection: Impact of Number of Sensors and
           Feature Type
    • Authors: TANG; QU; JOHN, DINESH; THAPA-CHHETRY, BINOD; ARGUELLO, DIEGO JOSE; INTILLE, STEPHEN
      Abstract: imagePurpose We evaluated the effect of single-site versus multisite motion sensing at seven body locations (both ankles, wrists, hips, and dominant thigh) on the detection of physical behavior recognition using a machine learning algorithm. We also explored the effect of using orientation versus orientation-invariant features on performance.Methods Performance (F1 score) of PA and posture recognition was evaluated using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation on a 42-participant data set containing 22 physical activities with three postures (lying, sitting, and upright).Results Posture and PA recognition models using two sensors had higher F1 scores (posture, 0.89 ± 0.06; PA, 0.53 ± 0.08) than did models using a single sensor (posture, 0.78 ± 0.11; PA, 0.43 ± 0.03). Models using two nonwrist sensors for posture recognition (F1 score, 0.93 ± 0.03) outperformed two-sensor models including one or two wrist sensors (F1 score, 0.85 ± 0.06). However, two-sensor models for PA recognition with at least one wrist sensor (F1 score, 0.60 ± 0.05) outperformed other two-sensor models (F1 score, 0.47 ± 0.02). Both posture and PA recognition F1 scores improved with more sensors (up to seven; 0.99 for posture and 0.70 for PA), but with diminishing performance returns. Models performed best when including orientation-based features.Conclusions Researchers measuring posture should consider multisite sensing using at least two nonwrist sensors, and researchers measuring PA should consider multisite sensing using at least one wrist sensor and one nonwrist sensor. Including orientation-based features improved both posture and PA recognition.Studies using wearable sensors to measure posture, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior typically use a single sensor worn on the ankle, thigh, wrist, or hip. Although the use of single sensors may be convenient, using multiple sensors is becoming more practical as sensors miniaturize.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Youth Metabolic Equivalents Differ Depending on Operational Definitions
    • Authors: HIBBING; PAUL R.; BASSETT, DAVID R.; COE, DAWN P.; LAMUNION, SAMUEL R.; CROUTER, SCOTT E.
      Abstract: imagePurpose This study aimed to examine the comparability of METyBMR and METyRMR.Methods Indirect calorimetry data (Cosmed K4b2) were analyzed from two studies, with a total sample of 245 youth (125 male participants, 6–18 yr old, 37.4% overweight or obese). The Schofield equations were used to predict BMR, and K4b2 data from 30 min of supine rest were used to assess RMR. Participants performed structured physical activities (PA) of various intensities, and steady-state oxygen consumption was divided by predicted BMR and measured RMR to calculate METyBMR and METyRMR, respectively. Two-way (activity–METy calculation) analysis of variance was used to compare METyBMR and METyRMR (α = 0.05), with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc tests. Intensity classifications were also compared after encoding METyBMR and METyRMR as sedentary behavior (≤1.50 METy), light PA (1.51–2.99 METy), moderate PA (3.00–5.99 METy), or vigorous PA (≥6.00 METy).Results There was a significant interaction (F(30) = 3.6, P < 0.001), and METyBMR was significantly higher than METyRMR for 28 of 31 activities (P < 0.04), by 15.6% (watching television) to 23.1% (basketball). Intensity classifications were the same for both METy calculations in 69.0% of cases.Conclusions METyBMR and METyRMR differ considerably. Greater consensus is needed regarding how metabolic equivalents should be operationally defined in youth, and in the meantime, careful distinction is necessary between METyBMR and METyRMR.Youth metabolic equivalents (METy) are sometimes operationally defined as multiples of predicted basal metabolic rate (METyBMR) and other times as multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (METyRMR).
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • ACL Injuries in Female Athletes
    • Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Orthopaedic Knowledge Update: Foot and Ankle 6
    • Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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