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SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.714
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 31  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1440-2440
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • Medication information and supply behaviours in elite and developing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Danae Perry, Bronte Librizzi, Lily Ngu, Michael Ricciardello, Amy Street, Rhonda Clifford, Carmel Goodman, Peter Peeling, Sandra M. SalterAbstractObjectivesTo investigate the behaviours of elite and developing athletes in obtaining medications and medication information, and to identify the role of pharmacists in athlete care.DesignCross-sectional surveyMethodsAn electronic, 39-item questionnaire was developed, piloted and distributed to elite and developing athletes aged 18 years and above at a state-based sporting institute. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and free text comments were analysed using an inductive reasoning approach.ResultsA total of 98 responses were analysed. Ninety (n=90/98, 91.84%) participants obtained medications in the six months prior to survey completion. Pharmacies were the most common source of both prescription (n=67/69, 97.10%) and non-prescription medications (n=64/75, 85.33%). Forty-five (n=45/98, 45.92%) participants also attended pharmacies when they had a minor ailment. Sixty-two (n= 62/98, 63.27%) participants ‘sometimes’ consulted pharmacists for medication information. Only 11 (n=11/98, 11.22%) knew, according to their sporting institute medication policy, that athletes were required to consult a medical practitioner before taking anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving or sleep-inducing medications. Forty (n= 40/98, 40.82%) participants believed pharmacists could play a role in their medication management.ConclusionsMany elite and developing athletes visited pharmacies for medication supply and treatment of minor ailments. Doping regulatory agency websites were the most commonly used and trusted sources for medication information, although some athletes believed pharmacists could also contribute to their medication management. Future research should consider whether pharmacists are ready for a role in sports pharmacy.
  • Evaluation of the bilateral function in para-athletes with spastic
           hemiplegia: A model-based clustering approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Raúl Reina, David Barbado, César Soto-Valero, José M. Sarabia, Alba RoldánAbstractObjectiveSpastic hemiplegia is one of the most common forms of cerebral palsy, in which one side of the body is affected to a greater extent than the other one. Hemiplegia severity (i.e. moderate vs mild forms) is currently used in some Para sports for classification purposes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of several tests of stability (e.g. one-legged stance test), dynamic balance (side-step test), coordination (rapid heel-toe placements), range of movement (backward stepping lunge), and lower limb power (the triple hop distance and the isometric peak force of the knee extensors) to discriminate between the impaired and unimpaired lower extremities’ function in para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia.MethodsA sample of 87 international para-athletes with cerebral palsy took part in the study, and their bilateral performance was measured for the abovementioned tests. The tests’ sensitivity to discriminate between impaired vs unimpaired legs was assessed using Boruta’s method.ResultsThe triple hop distance, the magnitude of the mean velocity in the one-legged stance test and the time to perform the rapid heel-toe placement test are the most sensitive variables when performing random forest classifiers. In addition, the study confirms two optimal clusters by Gaussian finite mixture models to represent the athletes’ performance.ConclusionReference scores for the clusters are provided, demonstrating that coordination, balance, and power of the lower limbs are relevant variables for classifying para-athletes with spastic hemiplegia.
  • Bowling loads and injury risk in male first class county cricket: Is
           ‘differential load’ an alternative to the acute-to-chronic workload
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Alexander Tysoe, Isabel S. Moore, Craig Ranson, Steve McCaig, Sean WilliamsAbstractObjectivesMethodological concerns relating to acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR) have been raised. This study aimed to assess the relationship between an alternative predictor variable named ‘differential load’, representing the smoothed week-to-week rate change in load, and injury risk in first class county cricket (FCCC) fast bowlers.DesignProspective cohort study.MethodsBowling loads and injuries were recorded for 49 professional male fast bowlers from six FCCC teams. A range of differential loads and ACWRs were calculated and subjected to a variable selection procedure.ResultsExponentially-weighted 7-day differential load, 9:21-day ACWR, 42-day chronic load, and 9-day acute load were the best-fitting predictor variables in their respective categories. From these, a generalized linear mixed-effects model combining 7-day differential load, 42-day chronic load, and 9-day acute load provided the best model fit. A two-standard deviation (2SD) increase in 7-day differential load (22 overs) was associated with a substantial increase in injury risk (risk ratio [RR] = 2.47, 90% CI: 1.27-4.80, most likely harmful), and a 2SD increase in 42-day chronic load (17.5 overs/week) was associated with a most likely harmful increase in injury risk (RR = 6.77, 90% CI: 2.15-21.33). For 9-day acute load, very low values (≤1 over/week) were associated with a most likely higher risk of injury versus moderate (17.5 overs/week; RR: 15.50, 90% CI: 6.19-38.79) and very high 9-day acute loads (45.5 overs/week; RR: 133.33, 90% CI: 25.26-703.81).ConclusionsDifferential loads may be used to identify potentially harmful spikes in load, whilst mitigating methodological issues associated with ACWRs.
  • A comparison of rolling averages versus discrete time epochs for assessing
           the worst-case scenario locomotor demands of professional soccer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Kieran Ferraday, Samuel P. Hills, Mark Russell, Jordan Smith, Dan J. Cunningham, David Shearer, Melitta McNarry, Liam P. KilduffAbstractObjectivesTo compare fixed epochs (FIXED) and rolling averages (ROLL) for quantifying worst-case scenario (‘peak’) running demands during professional soccer match-play, whilst assessing contextual influences.DesignDescriptive, observational.MethodsTwenty-five outfield players from an English Championship soccer club wore 10-Hz microelectromechanical systems during 28 matches. Relative total and high-speed (>5.5 m s−1) distances were averaged over fixed and rolling 60-s to 600-s epochs. Linear mixed models compared FIXED versus ROLL and assessed the influence of epoch length, playing position, starting status, match result, location, formation, and time-of-day.ResultsIrrespective of playing position or epoch duration, FIXED underestimated ROLL for total (∼7–10%) and high-speed (∼12–25%) distance. In ROLL, worst-case scenario relative total and high-speed distances reduced from 190.1 ± 20.4 m min−1 and 59.5 ± 23.0 m min−1 in the 60-s epoch, to 120.9 ± 13.1 m min−1 and 14.2 ± 6.5 m min−1 in the 600-s epoch, respectively. Worst-case scenario total distance was higher for midfielders (∼9−16 m min−1) and defenders (∼3–10 m min−1) compared with attackers. In general, starters experienced higher worst-case scenario total distance than substitutes (∼3.6–8.5 m min−1), but lower worst-case scenario high-speed running over 300-s (∼3 m min−1). Greater worst-case scenario total and high-speed distances were elicited during wins (∼7.3–11.2 m min−1 and ∼2.7–7.9 m min−1, respectively) and losses (∼2.7–5.7 m min−1 and ∼1.4–2.2 m min−1, respectively) versus draws, whilst time-of-day and playing formation influenced worst-case scenario high-speed distances only.ConclusionsThese data indicate an underestimation of worst-case scenario running demands in FIXED versus ROLL over 60-s to 600-s epochs while highlighting situational influences. Such information facilitates training specificity by enabling sessions to be targeted at the most demanding periods of competition.
  • MRI does not effectively diagnose ulnar-sided wrist pain in elite tennis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Machar Reid, Timothy Wood, Anne-Marie Montgomery, Elissa Botterill, Stephanie Kovalchik, Melanie Omizzolo, Frank Malara, Andrew Rotstein, Gregory HoyAbstractObjectivesUlnar-sided injuries of the non-dominant wrist are common in elite tennis players using a double-handed backhand technique. This study investigated the radiological changes of the non-dominant wrist in elite symptomatic and asymptomatic players using this technique as well as healthy controls. We compared clinical findings to radiological abnormalities.DesignCross-sectional design with blinded radiological assessment, and contemporaneous clinical assessment of symptomatic players.MethodsMagnetic resonance images (MRI) of wrists related to non-dominant ulnar-sided pain, were taken in 14 symptomatic tennis players, 14 asymptomatic tennis players, and 12 healthy controls which were then independently reviewed for abnormalities by blinded radiologists. Total abnormalities and global between-group differences in the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFC), ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and supporting structures, osseous-articular lesions and ganglia were assessed. These were then compared to clinical examinations of the symptomatic players to assess agreement.ResultsSymptomatic players reported a mean 3.64 abnormalities, being exactly 1 abnormality greater than asymptomatic players (2.64) and controls (2.50), suggesting similar asymptomatic lesions in all three groups. Players with pain reported significantly more osseous-articular lesions, ECU tendon and dorsal radio-ulnar ligament abnormalities, while changes to the UCL may reflect an isolated problem in specific wrists. There were no between-group differences in the presence of ganglia, most TFC structures nor ECU subsheath tear and subluxation.ConclusionsClinicians should carefully consider radiological changes alongside their clinical diagnosis of non-dominant wrist pain in tennis players due to possible tennis-related changes and/or asymptomatic findings.
  • The associations of early specialisation and sport volume with
           musculoskeletal injury in New Zealand children
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Jody McGowan, Chris Whatman, Simon WaltersAbstractObjectiveTo investigate associations of early specialisation (highly specialised before age 13 years) and sport participation volume with injury history in New Zealand children.DesignCross-sectional survey study.MethodsChildren attending a national sports competition were invited to complete a questionnaire capturing specialisation level (high, moderate or low), participation volume and injury history. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between variables.ResultsNine hundred and fourteen children (538 female) completed the questionnaire. After adjusting for age, sex and hours of weekly sport participation, the odds of reporting an injury history were not significantly higher for early specialised children compared to children categorised as low specialisation (OR = 0.88; CI = 0.59–1.31; p = 0.53). Participating in more hours of sport per week than age in years (OR = 2.42; CI = 1.27–4.62; p = 0.02), playing one sport for more than 8 months of the year (OR = 1.60; CI = 1.07–2.36; p = 0.02), or exceeding a 2:1 weekly ratio of organised sport to recreational free-play hours (OR = 1.52; CI = 1.08–2.15; p = 0.02), increased the odds of reporting a ‘gradual onset injury’.ConclusionEarly specialisation in one sport did not increase the odds of reporting a history of injury. Exceeding currently recommended sport participation volumes was associated with increased odds of reporting a history of gradual onset injury.
  • Effects of flexibility and strength interventions on optimal lengths of
           hamstring muscle-tendon units
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Shangxiao Li, William E. Garrett, Thomas M. Best, Hanjun Li, Xianglin Wan, Hui Liu, Bing YuAbstractObjectivesThe aim of the present study was to determine the effects of altering both hamstring flexibility and strength on hamstring optimal lengths.DesignControlled laboratory study.MethodsA total of 20 male and 20 female college students (aged 18–24 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to either a flexibility intervention group or a strength intervention group. Passive straight leg raise and isokinetic strength test were performed before and after interventions. Paired T-tests were performed to determine hamstring flexibility or strength intervention effects on hamstring optimal lengths.ResultsMale participants in the flexibility intervention group significantly increased range of hip joint flexion (P = 0.001) and optimal lengths of semimembranosus and biceps long head (P ≤ 0.026). Male participants in the strength intervention group significantly increased hamstring strength (P = 0.001), the range of hip joint flexion (P = 0.037), and optimal lengths of all three bi-articulated hamstring muscles (P ≤ 0.041). However, female participants did not significantly increase their hamstring optimal lengths in either intervention groups (P ≥ 0.097) although both groups significantly increased the range of hip joint flexion and strength (P ≤ 0.009).ConclusionHamstring optimal lengths can be modified through flexibility intervention as well as strength intervention for male participants, but not for female participants in this study. Hamstring optimal lengths should be considered as hamstring flexibility measures in future prospective studies to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for hamstring injury.
  • An evaluation of the training determinants of marathon performance: A
           meta-analysis with meta-regression
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Cailbhe Doherty, Alison Keogh, James Davenport, Aonghus Lawlor, Barry Smyth, Brian CaulfieldAbstractObjectivesMarathoners rely on expert-opinion and the anecdotal advice of their peers when devising their training plans for an upcoming race. The accumulation of results from multiple scientific studies has the potential to clarify the precise training requirements for the marathon. The purpose of the present study was to perform a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of available literature to determine if a dose-response relationship exists between a series of training behaviours and marathon performance.DesignSystematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.MethodsA systematic search of multiple literature sources was undertaken to identify observational and interventional studies of elite and recreational marathon (42.2 km) runners.ResultsEighty-five studies which included 137 cohorts of runners (25% female) were included in the meta-regression, with average weekly running distance, number of weekly runs, maximum running distance completed in a single week, number of runs ≥32 km completed in the pre-marathon training block, average running pace during training, distance of the longest run and hours of running per week used as covariates. Separately conducted univariate random effects meta-regression models identified a negative statistical association between each of the above listed training behaviours and marathon performance (R2 0.38-0.81, p 
  • From accelerometer output to physical activity intensities in breast
           cancer patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Maike G. Sweegers, Laurien M. Buffart, Rosalie J. Huijsmans, Inge R. Konings, Annette A. van Zweeden, Johannes Brug, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, Teatske M. AltenburgAbstractObjectivesWe aimed to investigate accelerometer output corresponding to physical activity intensity cut-points based on percentage of peak oxygen consumption (%VO2peak) and Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) value in women treated for breast cancer.DesignLaboratory study.MethodsFifty female patients shortly after completion of treatment for breast cancer were included. VO2peak was determined during a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Subsequently, patients performed ten activities with different intensities while wearing an accelerometer on the right hip and a mobile oxycon to assess oxygen consumption. We studied the relationship between energy expenditure (expressed as %VO2peak and MET-value) and accelerometer output (in counts per minute (cpm)) with linear regression analyses. We determined accelerometer output corresponding to physical activity intensity cut-points (40% and 60%VO2peak; 3 and 6 MET) using regression equations.ResultsVO2peak was 22.4 mL/kg/min (SD 5.2) and resting metabolic rate was 3.1 mL/kg/min (SD 0.6). Accelerometer output corresponding to the cut-points for moderate (40% VO2peak) and vigorous intensity (60% VO2peak) were 1123 and 1911, respectively. The analyses based on MET-values resulted in accelerometer output of 1189 cpm for the moderate (3 MET) and 2768 cpm for the vigorous intensity cut-point (6 MET).ConclusionsAccelerometer outputs for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity were lower than commonly used cut-points (i.e. 1952 and 5724 cpm), irrespective of the method used to express energy expenditure (%VO2peak versus MET-value). Thus, categorizing physical activity intensities based on general-population cut-points, may underestimate physical activity intensities for women treated for breast cancer.
  • Quantifying cycling as a foundational movement skill in early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Jennifer A. Kavanagh, Johann Issartel, Kieran MoranAbstractObjectivesThe addition of cycling to the fundamental movement phase of the motor development model has been proposed. Lifelong physical activity behaviours, like cycling, are established during childhood and it is vital that research focuses on these skills. In order to determine the position of cycling within this newly proposed model, the learning process of this skill must be examined. The current paper will quantify the skill of cycling as a learning process and investigate cycling’s place as a Foundational Movement Skill. Investigation into whether a composite score could be derived from combining fundamental movement skills proficiency scores and ability on a balance bike (as a measure of the learning process of cycling) will also be conducted.Design and MethodsNinety-seven preschool children were assessed on ability on a balance bike (bike with no pedals) using two separate timed tracks (straight and curved) and fundamental movement skill proficiency. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and principal axis factoring.ResultsStatistically significant correlations were found between ability on a balance bike and all three subcomponents of fundamental movement skills (locomotor, object-control & stability). Principal axis factoring revealed the presence of one component that all four variables could explain.ConclusionAbility on a balance bike is a standalone Foundational Movement Skill and is not a representation of locomotor, object-control or stability. Furthermore, ability on a balance bike can be combined with locomotor, object-control and stability to produce an overall composite score for Foundational Movement Skills.
  • Land- versus water-walking interventions in older adults: Effects on body
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Louise H. Naylor, Barbara A. Maslen, Kay L. Cox, Angela L. Spence, Elisa Robey, Andrew Haynes, Howard H. Carter, Nicola T. Lautenschlager, Nicola D. Ridgers, Carmela Pestell, Daniel J. GreenAbstractObjectivesIncreasing physical activity is a priority worldwide, including for older adults who may have difficulty performing traditional forms of exercise, and for whom retention of muscle mass is an important consideration. Water-based exercise may provide an alternative if benefits are comparable. We compared the impact on body composition of 24-week water- versus land-walking interventions in healthy but inactive older adults.DesignRandomised, controlled trial.Methods72 participants (62.5 ± 6.8 yr) were randomised to a land-walking (LW), water-walking (WW) or control (C) group in a supervised centre-based program. The exercise groups trained 3 times/week at matched intensity (%HRR), increasing from 40–45% to 55–65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip girths were recorded; dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided fat and lean tissue masses. Participants were re-assessed 24 weeks after completion of the intervention.ResultsThere were no significant changes in body mass or BMI following either exercise protocol, however central adiposity was reduced in both exercise groups, and the WW group increased lower limb lean mass. These benefits did not persist over the follow-up period.ConclusionsExercise can confer beneficial effects on body composition which are not evident when examining weight or BMI. Both WW and LW improved body composition. Water walking can be recommended as an exercise strategy for this age group due to its beneficial effects on body composition which are similar to, or exceed, those associated with land-walking. For benefits to persist, it appears that exercise needs to be maintained.
  • Individual, social and neighbourhood correlates of cycling among children
           living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Lisa Bell, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch, Alison CarverAbstractObjectivesTo describe cycling behaviours and examine individual, social and neighbourhood correlates of cycling among children living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.DesignCross-sectional.MethodsMothers of 289 children (46% boys) aged 8–15 (mean 12 ± 2.2) years living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia were surveyed about their child’s cycling frequency and duration in a typical week. Perceptions of cycling, cycling ability, cycling behaviours and road safety were proxy- and self-reported by mothers. Shortest road distance from home to school was determined using a Geographic Information System. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual, social and neighbourhood variables and cycling frequency (>once/week) and duration (>60 min/week).ResultsOverall, 70% of boys and 49% of girls cycled > once/week; rates of cycling for >60 min/week were 60% and 32%, respectively. Children had greater odds of cycling > once/week if they enjoyed cycling for fun (OR = 13.3, 95%CI = 2.0, 86.9). Children had greater odds of cycling for >60 min/week if they enjoyed cycling for fun (OR = 17.1, 95%CI = 1.7, 167.7) or if they were allowed to cycle on main roads (OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 1.1, 9.1). Children who had to cross several roads to access play areas had lower odds of cycling for >60 min/week (OR = 0.3, 95%CI = 0.1, 0.7).ConclusionsFuture research should investigate strategies to increase children’s enjoyment of cycling, independent mobility and safe access by cycling to key destinations such as play areas.
  • Concurrent validity of the ActiGraph GT3X+ and activPAL for assessing
           sedentary behaviour in 2–3-year-old children under free-living
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): João R. Pereira, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Zhiguang Zhang, Dylan P. Cliff, Rute SantosAbstractObjectivesActiGraph accelerometer cut-points are commonly used to classify sedentary behaviour (SB) in young children. However, they vary from 5counts/5 s to 301counts/15 s, resulting in different estimates and inconsistent findings. The aim was to examine the concurrent validity of ActiGraph GT3X + cut-points against the activPAL for measuring SB in 2–3-year-olds during free-living conditions.DesignObservational validation-study.MethodsSixty children were fitted with the activPAL and ActiGraph simultaneously for at least 2 h. Nine ActiGraph cut-points ranging from 60 to 1488 counts per minute were used to derive SB. Bland & Altman plots and equivalent tests were performed to assess agreement between methods.ResultsEstimates of SB according to the different ActiGraph cut-points were not within the activPAL ±10% equivalent interval (-4.05; 4.05%). The ActiGraph cut-points that showed the lower bias were 48counts/15 s (equivalence lower limit: p =  0.597; equivalence upper limit: p 
  • Bone geometry and lower extremity bone stress injuries in male runners
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Kristin L. Popp, Adam C. Frye, Steven D. Stovitz, Julie M. HughesAbstractBone stress injuries (BSI) are common among distance runners and research investigations examining risk factors for BSI among men are limited. Therefore, investigations are needed to determine if men with a history of BSI have skeletal properties that may heighten BSI incidence.ObjectivesTo analyze differences in bone density, bone geometry, and estimates of bone strength in male runners with and without a BSI history.DesignCross-sectional.MethodsWe recruited 36 male distance runners ages 18–41 for this study. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm3), bone geometry (total and cortical bone area, mm2), tibia robustness (total area/tibia length, mm) and estimates of bone strength (section modulus and polar strength-strain index, mm3) at 5 tibial sites.ResultsAfter adjusting for age, the BSI group had more slender tibias (9%), lower stress strain indices (−16%), lower section moduli (−17%) and smaller total cross-sectional (−11%) and cortical areas (−12%) at the 66% site of the tibia compared with controls (P 
  • The peak player load™ of state-level netball matches
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Scott Graham, James Zois, Robert Aughey, Grant DuthieAbstractObjectivesTo investigate the peak accelerometer-derived intensity of state-level netball matches and compare differences between positional groupings. Findings will provide guidance for sport science professionals on how to best replicate the most intense passages of play in training settings.DesignLongitudinal (one season).MethodTwenty-eight netball athletes across three teams from the same club wore an accelerometer (S5 Optimeye, Catapult sports) for all matches, in one season. Raw acceleration data were downloaded and converted into a vector magnitude (Player Load™) we then quantified the peak intensity over 30-s and one to ten-minute time periods. Positional groupings were created based on the number of thirds on a netball court that a particular position can enter, as this was deemed more appropriate for the current study than the traditional combinations based on tactical requirements. A linear mixed-model with fixed and random effects was utilised along with magnitude-based inferences to determine meaningful differences with 90 % confidence limits (CL).ResultsAcross all time periods post 30-s, only one comparison was not meaningfully different i.e. three-thirds v two-thirds at the one-minute timepoint (effect size: 0.27, CL −0.05 to 0.60).ConclusionsFindings justify that netball athletes, depending on positional group defined by this study, should train at different intensities dependent on a specified duration. Conditioning professionals and coaches should design training drills that best replicate the peak intensity of match play. This may improve an athlete’s physical performance capacity during highly exertive periods of competition, which regularly occur at critical moments in play.
  • Harmful association of sprinting with muscle injury occurrence in
           professional soccer match-play: A two-season, league wide exploratory
           investigation from the Qatar Stars League
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Warren Gregson, Valter Di Salvo, Matthew C. Varley, Mattia Modonutti, Andrea Belli, Karim Chamari, Matthew Weston, Lorenzo Lolli, Cristiano EiraleAbstractObjectivesTo investigate the impact of physical efforts performed in the period preceding activity as a potential risk factor of muscle injury during match-play within a sample of professional soccer players.DesignObservational cohort study.MethodsMatch load (running [>14.4–19.8 km/h], high-speed running [>19.8–25.2 km/h], sprinting [>25.2 km/h], leading and explosive sprint type) averaged in 1-min and 5-min periods prior to an event or non event for 29 professional outfield soccer players. Conditional logistic and Poisson regression models estimated the relationship between load and injury for a 2 within-subject standard deviation in match load or 1-action increment in the number of sprinting activities, respectively. Associations were deemed beneficial or harmful based on non-overlap of the 95% confidence intervals against thresholds of 0.90 and 1.11, respectively.ResultsAn increment in sprinting distance [+2-SDs = 11 m] covered over a 1-min period (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95%CI, 1.12 to 1.33) increased the odds of muscle injury.ConclusionsOur study provides novel exploratory evidence that the volume of sprinting during competitive soccer match-play has a harmful association with muscle injury occurrence.
  • Exercise in the first week following concussion among collegiate athletes:
           Preliminary findings
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): David R. Howell, Anna N. Brilliant, Jessie R. Oldham, Brant Berkstresser, Francis Wang, William P. MeehanAbstractObjectivesOur purpose was to examine the association between exercise after concussion with symptom severity, postural control, and time to symptom-resolution.DesignLongitudinal cohort.MethodsCollegiate athletes (n = 72; age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years; 46% female) with concussion completed a symptom questionnaire at initial (0.6 ± 0.8 days post-injury) and follow-up (2.9 ± 1.4 days post-injury) evaluations, and a postural control assessment at follow-up. Participants were grouped into those who exercised in between the time of injury and the follow-up evaluation and those who did not. Decisions regarding post-concussion exercise were made by a sports medicine team consisting of a single team physician and athletic trainers.ResultsThirteen athletes were not included in the current study, resulting in an 85% response rate. Thirteen of the athletes who completed the study exercised between evaluations (18%). There was no symptom resolution time difference between groups (median = 13 [IQR = 7–18] days vs. 13 [7–23] days; p = 0.83). Symptom ratings were similar between groups at the acute post-injury assessment (median PCSS = 18.5 [7.5–26] vs. 17 [14–40]; p = 0.21), but a main effect of group after adjusting for time from injury to assessment indicated the exercise group reported lower symptom severity than the no exercise group across both assessments (p = 0.044). The dual-task gait speed of the exercise group was higher than the no exercise group (0.90 ± 0.15 vs. 0.78 ± 0.16 m/s; p = 0.02).ConclusionsAthletes who were recommended aerobic exercise after concussion did not have worse outcomes than those who were not. Exercise within the first week after concussion does not appear to be associated with detrimental clinical outcomes.
  • A cross-sectional comparison between cardiorespiratory fitness, level of
           lesion and red blood cell distribution width in adults with chronic spinal
           cord injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Tom E. Nightingale, Gurjeet S. Bhangu, James L.J. Bilzon, Andrei V. KrassioukovAbstractObjectivesTo assess; (1) differences in red blood cell distribution width between individuals with chronic (>1 year), motor-complete cervical (n = 21), upper-thoracic (n = 27) and thoracolumbar (n = 15) spinal cord injury and, (2) associations between red blood cell distribution width and cardiorespiratory fitness.DesignProspective multi-center, cross-sectional study.MethodsPeak oxygen uptake was determined using an upper-body arm-crank exercise test to volitional exhaustion and red blood cell distribution width was measured using an automated hematology system.ResultsThere were significant (p 
  • Fitness, level of lesion and red blood cell distribution in chronic spinal
           cord injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Gordon S. Waddington
  • Y balance test: Are we doing it right'
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s): Andrea Fusco, Giuseppe Francesco Giancotti, Philip X. Fuchs, Herbert Wagner, Rubens A. da Silva, Cristina CortisAbstractObjectivesThe multifaceted characteristic and task-specificity of postural control clearly reflects the need of knowing which factors could influence the balance measures in order to provide reliable and unbiased information. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of selected anthropometric characteristics, sex, lower limb’s strength and dominance on the Y balance test (YBT).DesignDescriptive laboratory study.MethodsForty-two young adults performed the YBT. The raw and normalized reach distances values were recorded. ANOVA was used to examine differences between sex and limb dominance, whereas multiple linear regression models were built to identify variables associated with better postural control.ResultsNo significant sex differences were observed, except for the normalized anterior direction (p = 0.0324). No significant differences between limbs emerged. Regression models significantly explained between 8–49% of the variance. Trunk length, strength, and the interaction between sex with strength were the major predictors of the raw measures. Unexpectedly, lower limb length explained only 0.08% of the raw anterior direction variance. Strength and its interaction with sex were positively associated with normalized measures. Surprisingly, the relative lower limb length variable was negatively associated with the normalized measures. Each % point increase in relative lower limb length was associated with a decrease in normalized performance ranging from 1.73 to 4.91%.ConclusionsAnthropometric characteristics, sex and lower limb strength differently influenced the YBT measures, regardless of limb dominance. Consequently, these variables should be controlled to limit the variability for an accurate evaluation of postural balance, especially if different YBT measures are used.
  • Do riders who wear an air jacket in equestrian eventing have reduced
           injury risk in falls' A retrospective data analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Lindsay E. Nylund, Peter J. Sinclair, Peta L. Hitchens, Stephen Cobley
  • Changes in performance markers and wellbeing in elite senior professional
           rugby union players during a pre-season period: Analysis of the
           differences across training phases
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Adam Grainger, Ross Neville, Massimiliano Ditroilo, Paul ComfortAbstractObjectivesTo assess the magnitude of change and association with variation in training load of two performance markers and wellbeing, over three pre-season training blocks, in elite rugby union athletes.DesignObservational.MethodsTwenty-two professional players (age 25 ± 5 years; training age 6 ± 5 years; body mass, 99 ± 13 kg; stature 186 ± 6 cm) participated in this study, with changes in lower (CMJ height) and upper body (bench press mean speed) neuromuscular function and self-reported wellbeing (WB) assessed during an 11-week period.ResultsThere was a small increase in CMJ height (0.27, ±0.17 – likely substantial; standardised effect size, ±95% confidence limits – magnitude-based inference) (p = 0.003), bench press speed (0.26, ±0.15 – likely substantial) (p = 0.001) and WB (0.26, ±0.12 – possibly substantial) (p 
  • Altitude exposure as a training & iron overload management strategy post
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Benjamin G. Serpell, Stephen Freeman, David Ritchie, Philip Choi, Julien D. Périard, Avish P. SharmaAbstractObjectivesTo examine iron stores, hemoglobin mass, and performance before, during and after intermittent altitude exposure in a professional male rugby player experiencing iron overload following blood transfusions for treatment for acute myeloid leukemia.DesignLongitudinal, repeated measures, single case-study.MethodsThe player was followed prior to (control), and during (study), an in-season block of altitude training. During the control period two venesections were performed for a total of 750 mL of blood removal. Internal and external training load, match statistics, blood volume, plasma volume, haemoglobin mass, serum ferritin and reticulocyte count were monitored throughout.ResultsDuring the control period serum ferritin declined following the two venesections (∼51%) as did haemoglobin mass (∼2%), reticulocyte count remained stable. During the study period serum ferritin further declined (∼30%), however haemoglobin mass and reticulocyte count increased (∼4% and ∼14% respectively). Internal training load for the control and study period was similar, however external training load was lower in the study period. Match statistics were not favourable for the player during the control period, however they improved during the study period.ConclusionsThis case supports the theory that individuals with elevated iron availability are well placed to achieve increases in haemoglobin mass. Furthermore, although therapeutic venesections may still be required to manage iron overload, the addition of altitude exposure may be a method to assist in reducing total body iron by means of mobilising available (excessive) iron to incorporate into haemoglobin. Altitude exposure did not hinder the players’ performance. Further research is encouraged.
  • The neuromuscular, endocrine and mood responses to a single versus double
           training session day in soccer players
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): W. Sparkes, A.N. Turner, C.J. Cook, M. Weston, M. Russell, M.J. Johnston, L.P. KilduffAbstractObjectivesThis study profiled the 24 h neuromuscular, endocrine and mood responses to a single versus a double training day in soccer players.DesignRepeated measures.MethodsTwelve semi-professional soccer players performed small-sided-games (SSG’s; 4 vs 4 + goalkeepers; 6 × 7-min, 2-min inter-set recovery) with neuromuscular (peak-power output, PPO; jump height, JH), endocrine (salivary testosterone, cortisol), and mood measures collected before (pre) and after (0 h, +24 h). The following week, the same SSG protocol was performed with an additional lower body strength training session (back-squat, Romanian deadlift, barbell hip thrust; 4 × 4 repetitions, 4-min inter-set recovery; 85% 1 rep-max) added at 2 h after the SSG’s.ResultsBetween-trial comparisons revealed possible to likely small impairments in PPO (2.5 ± 2.2 W kg−1; 90% Confidence Limits: ±2.2 W kg−1), JH (−1.3; ±2.0 cm) and mood (4.6; ±6.1 AU) in response to the double versus single sessions at +24 h. Likely to very likely small favourable responses occurred following the single session for testosterone (−15.2; ±6.1 pg ml−1), cortisol (0.072; ±0.034 ug dl−1) and testosterone/cortisol ratio (−96.6; ±36.7 AU) at +24 h compared to the double session trial.ConclusionsThese data highlight that performance of two training sessions within a day resulted in possible to very likely small impairments of neuromuscular performance, mood score and endocrine markers at +24 h relative to a single training session day. A strategy of alternating high intensity explosive training days containing multiple sessions with days emphasising submaximal technical/tactical activities may be beneficial for those responsible for the design and delivery of soccer training programs.
  • Pterins as diagnostic markers of exercise-induced stress: a systematic
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Angus Lindsay, Steven P. GiesegAbstractObjectivesTo evaluate pterins as diagnostic biomarkers of exercise-induced stress.DesignSystematic review of the literature.MethodsMEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science were searched in March 2019 for relevant literature. We only considered in vivo studies of healthy humans that reported measurement of a pterin(s) in response to exercise or sport with no underlying prior disease or complication. Relevant articles were independently reviewed and resolved by consensus.ResultsWe included 29 studies with 644 participants. We classified articles by running/hiking, cycling, rugby, mixed martial arts (MMA) or other. Eighty-six percent of studies measured a significant increase in a pterin in response to exercise. Changes in pterin concentrations were within 24 h of the exercise-stimulus in 79% of studies and 17% measured a change from baseline greater than 48 h post-exercise (49% did not measure or report beyond 48 h). Neopterin or total neopterin (neopterin + 7,8-dihydroneopterin) were the primary pterin measured (28 studies) and they were equally sensitive to exercise regardless of whether the stimulus was running, cycling, rugby, MMA or other.ConclusionsNeopterin and total neopterin increase in response to exercise-induced stress. Pterins may have limited capacity for monitoring long-term stress beyond 48 h but further research is required.
  • Do the landing mechanics of experienced netball players differ from those
           of trained athletes competing in sports that do not require frequent
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Tyler J. Collings, Adam D. Gorman, Max C. Stuelcken, Daniel B. Mellifont, Mark G.L. SayersAbstractObjectivesThis study examined whether young (15–19 years old) high-performance netball players exhibit different landing mechanics compared to female controls who do not participate in sports requiring frequent landings.DesignComparative, cross-sectional.MethodsLower limb kinematics and kinetics from 23 youth high performance female netball players (age: 17.5 ± 1.7 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, mass: 66.5 ± 6.33 kg, netball experience: 8.5 ± 2.3 years) were compared to data from 23 females (age: 22.0 ± 3.2 years, height: 1.70 ± 0.05 m, mass: 64.4 ± 6.7 kg) who were involved in competitive sport, but had minimal experience playing a jump-landing sport. The jump landing task required participants to perform a countermovement jump and grab a netball suspended at 85% of the participant’s maximum jump height. On random trials the ball was raised rapidly to 100% maximum jump height as the participant initiated her jump.ResultsThe netball group landed with significantly less contribution from the knee extensors to total work for the non-preferred leg (P 
  • Isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on
           performance in the Yo-Yo test: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Jozo Grgic, Alessandro Garofolini, Craig Pickering, Michael J. Duncan, Grant M. Tinsley, Juan Del CosoAbstractObjectivesTo conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies exploring the effects of caffeine and/or sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test.DesignSystematic review and meta-analysis.MethodsA total of six databases were searched, and random-effects meta-analyses were performed examining the isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test.ResultsAfter reviewing 988 search records, 15 studies were included. For the effects of caffeine on performance in the Yo-Yo test, the meta-analysis indicated a significant favoring of caffeine as compared with the placebo conditions (p = 0.022; standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.32; +7.5%). Subgroup analyses indicated that the effects of caffeine were significant for the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test, but not level 1. Four out of the five studies that explored the effects of sodium bicarbonate used the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test. The pooled SMD favored the sodium bicarbonate condition as compared with the placebo/control conditions (p = 0.007; SMD: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.63; +16.0%).ConclusionsThis review demonstrates that isolated ingestion of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in the Yo-Yo test. Given these ergogenic effects, the intake of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate before the Yo-Yo test needs to be standardized (i.e., either restricted or used in the same way before each testing session). Furthermore, the results suggest that individuals competing in sports involving intermittent exercise may consider supplementing with caffeine or sodium bicarbonate for acute improvements in performance.
  • Evaluation of a sport-specific field test to determine maximal lactate
           accumulation rate and sprint performance parameters in running
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Oliver J. Quittmann, Daniel Appelhans, Thomas Abel, Heiko K. StrüderAbstractObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine the reliability of maximal lactate accumulation rate (V˙Lamax) and sprint performance parameters in running and assess different approaches to determine alactic time interval (talac).DesignSixteen competitive runners (female = 5; male = 11) performed three trials (T1, T2 and T3) of an all-out 100-m sprint test separated by 48 h.MethodsTime to cover the 100 m was determined by using a photoelectric light-barrier (t100,LB) and a stop-watch (t100,SW). Throughout the sprints, velocity was measured using a laser velocity guard (LAVEG) to estimate maximal velocity (vmax) and power (Pmax). The talac was calculated as the time when power decreased by 3.5% (tpmax-3.5%) and interpolated based on the sprint time (tinter,LB and tinter,SW). Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error (TE) and smallest worthwhile change (SWC).ResultsAfter initial familiarisation, t100, tinter, vmax, Pmax and V˙Lamax attained excellent reliability (ICC ≥ 0.90), whereas tpmax−3.5% attained moderate reliability (ICC = 0.518). The reliability of V˙Lamax was higher when tinter,LB or tinter,SW were used (ICC = 0.960) compared to using tpmax−3.5% (ICC = 0.928). At T1, V˙Lamax was significantly higher when stop-watch measurements were used. There was no difference between tpmax−3.5% and the interpolated time intervals and the associated V˙Lamax-estimates.ConclusionsIn running, V˙Lamax and sprint performance parameters can easily and high-reliably be measured using this sport-specific field test. Interpolating talac results in similar and more reliable values of V˙Lamax. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the stop-watch estimate, a familiarisation should be performed.
  • Are biomechanical stability deficits during unplanned single-leg landings
           related to specific markers of cognitive function'
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Florian Giesche, Jan Wilke, Tobias Engeroff, Daniel Niederer, Helena Hohmann, Lutz Vogt, Winfried BanzerAbstractObjectivesCognitive skills such as working memory or inhibitory control are suggested to have an impact on injury risk during time-constrained athletic movements. Thus, the aim of this study was to gain further insights into the cognitive processes associated with biomechanical stability in unplanned jump-landings.DesignCross-sectional.MethodsTwenty male participants (27 ± 4 years) performed 70 counter-movement jumps with single-leg landings on a pressure plate. Equally balanced and in randomized order, these were to be performed either planned (landing leg indicated before take-off) or unplanned (visual cue during flight). Biomechanical stability was estimated from vertical peak ground reaction force (pGRF), time to stabilization (TTS), center of pressure path length (COP), and the number of standing errors (ground touch with free leg). In addition, decision-making was assessed as the amount of landing errors (wrong/both feet) in the unplanned condition. Cognitiive function was measured using computerized as well as pen-and-paper-testing.ResultsUnplanned landings produced higher COP values (p 
  • Differences in running biomechanics between a maximal, traditional, and
           minimal running shoe
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): J.J. Hannigan, Christine D. PollardAbstractObjectivesPrevious studies comparing shoes based on the amount of midsole cushioning have generally used shoes from multiple manufacturers, where factors outside of stack height may contribute to observed biomechanical differences in running mechanics between shoes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare ground reaction forces and ankle kinematics during running between three shoes (maximal, traditional, and minimal) from the same manufacturer that only varied in stack height.DesignWithin-participant repeated measuresMethodsTwenty recreational runners ran overground in the laboratory in three shoe conditions (maximal, traditional, minimal) while three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected using a 3D motion capture system and two embedded force plates. Repeated measures ANOVAs (α = .05) compared biomechanical data between shoes.ResultsWhile the loading rate was significantly greater in the minimal shoe compared to the maximal shoe, no other differences were seen for the ground reaction force variables. Peak eversion was greater in the maximal and minimal shoe compared to the traditional shoe, while eversion duration and eversion at toe-off were greater in the maximal shoe.ConclusionsPreviously cited differences in ground reaction force parameters between maximal and traditional footwear may be due to factors outside of midsole stack height. The eversion mechanics in the maximal shoes from this study may place runners at a greater risk of injury. Disagreement between previous studies indicates that more research on maximal running shoes is needed.
  • Validity and reliability assessment of 3-D camera-based capture barbell
           velocity tracking device
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Curtis L. Tomasevicz, Ryan M. Hasenkamp, Daniel T. Ridenour, Christopher W. BachAbstractVelocity-based training (VBT) requires the monitoring of lift velocity plus the prescribed resistance weight. A validated and reliable device is needed to capture the velocity and power of several exercises.ObjectivesThe study objectives were to examine the validity and reliability of the Elite Form Training System® (EFTS) for measures of peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), peak power (PP), and average power (AP).DesignValidity of the EFTS was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained via the Qualisys Track Manager software (C-motion, version 3.90.21, Gothenburg, Sweden) utilizing 6 motion capture cameras (Oqus 400, 240 Hz, Gothenburg, Sweden).MethodsSix participants performed 6 resistance exercises in 2 sessions: power clean, dead lift, bench press, back squat, front squat, and jump squat.ResultsSimple Pearson correlations indicated the validity of the device (0.982, 0.971, 0.973, and 0.982 for PV, AV, PP, and AP respectively) and ranged from 0.868 to 0.998 for the 6 exercises. The test-retest reliability of the EFTS was shown by lack of significant change in the Pearson correlation (
  • Hip adduction and abduction strength and adduction-to-abduction ratio
           changes across an Australian Football League season
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Todd A. Lonie, Carly J. Brade, Mark E. Finucane, Angela Jacques, Tiffany L. GrisbrookAbstractObjectivesPre-season hip strength testing only represents the athlete’s level of conditioning at that time point, and may change over an Australian Football (AF) season. This study aimed to examine if there are changes in hip adduction, abduction and the adduction-to-abduction ratio between preferred and non-preferred kicking legs throughout an AF season. The influence of training load and player characteristics was also examined.DesignCross-sectional repeated measures.Methods38 uninjured elite AF players were included. Maximal isometric hip adduction and abduction strength were measured at four time points: start of pre-season (T1), end of pre-season (T2), mid-season (T3) and post-season (T4) using a hand held dynamometer with external belt fixation.ResultsHip adduction strength and hip-adduction-to-abduction ratio were greater in T3 compared to T1 (adduction by 22.71 N, p 
  • Kicking off the 2020 Olympic year with a bumper sport and exercise science
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Gordon S. Waddington
  • Investigating the reproducibility of maximal oxygen uptake responses to
           high-intensity interval training
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Michael Del Giudice, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Hashim Islam, Nicholas Preobrazenski, Alessandra Amato, Brendon J. GurdAbstractObjectivesTo test the hypothesis that observed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time to fatigue (TTF) responses to two identical periods of standardized high-intensity interval training are reproducible.DesignFourteen recreationally active and healthy young males completed two identical four-week periods of high-intensity interval training (4 × 4-min intervals at 90–95% maximum heart rate [HRmax] separated by 3-min periods of active recovery at 70–75% HRmax). Training periods were separated by a three-month washout period.MethodsVO2max and TTF were assessed via incremental tests with supramaximal verification before and after each training period. Pearson correlation coefficients (r), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and within-subjects coefficients of variation (CV) were used to assess reproducibility of observed VO2max and TTF responses.ResultsVO2max and TTF values before the second training period were not significantly higher than baseline values and there were no significant (p > 0.05) interaction effects (period 1: VO2max: +4.04 ± 2.29 mL/kg/min, TTF: +70.75 ± 35.87 s; period 2: VO2max: +2.83 ± 2.74 mL/kg/min, TTF: +83.46 ± 34.55 s). We found very weak-to-moderate correlations and poor reproducibility for observed VO2max (mL/kg/min: r = 0.40, ICC = 0.369, CV = 74.4) and TTF (r = 0.11. ICC = 0.048, CV = 45.6) responses to training periods 1 and 2.ConclusionsOur ANOVA results confirmed that the three-month washout period returned VO2max and TTF levels to baseline and prevented carryover effects. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results suggest that individual observed VO2max and TTF responses to identical training stimuli are not reproducible.
  • Pain perception and coping strategies influence early outcomes following
           knee surgery in athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 23, Issue 1Author(s): Joshua S. Everhart, Aaron J. Chafitz, Kristie M. Harris, Steven E. Schiele, Charles F. Emery, David C. FlaniganAbstractObjectivesTo determine whether pain perceptions and coping strategies are predictive of the following outcomes after knee surgery in athletes: (1) return to similar level of sport, (2) improvement in symptoms, and (3) improvement in kinesiophobia.DesignProspective cohort study.Methods101 athletes (52 men, 49 women; mean age 32.7 years) at mean 12.1 months follow-up were included. Independent relationships between patient outcomes and pre-operative measures were determined: short form McGill Pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Pain Coping Measure (PCM), and the brief COPE subscales of acceptance, denial, positive reframing, and use of instrumental support. Adjustment was performed for length of follow-up, symptom duration, surgical history, age, activity level, and surgical procedure.ResultsRate of return to similar level of sport was 73%; severe pain catastrophizers (PCS>36 points) had increased odds of not returning to similar level of sport (OR 11.3 CI 1.51, 236; p = 0.02) whereas COPE-use of instrumental support was protective (per point increase: 0.72 CI 0.54, 0.94; p = 0.02). Problem-focused coping positively correlated with improvement in IKDC-S scores (beta 0.032 SE 0.010; p = 0.001). Improvement in kinesiophobia after surgery was less likely with higher pre-operative perceived pain frequency (OR 0.23 CI 0.06, 0.71; p = 0.009) and higher COPE-denial scores (OR 0.43 CI 0.21, 0.88; p = 0.02).ConclusionsAmong athletes undergoing knee surgery, severe pain catastrophizing is negatively associated with return to similar level of sport. Instrumental support and problem-focused coping strategies are associated with improved outcomes. High preoperative pain scores are negatively associated with improvement in kinesiophobia after rehabilitation.
  • Audit of a Cardiac Screening Policy for Elite Australian Cricketers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Jessica J. Orchard, John W. Orchard, Andre La Gerche, Alex Kountouris, Hariharan Raju, Mark Young, Rajesh Puranik, Chris SemsarianAbstractObjectivesTo report the compliance and results of an electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiac screening program in male and female elite Australian cricketers.Designcross-sectional studyMethodsElite cricketers were offered screening in accordance with Cricket Australia policy. Players who consented provided a personal and family history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. An audit (1 February 2019) examined all cardiac screening records for male and female players in all Australian Cricket state squads from 16 years upwards. Data extracted from the Cricket Australia database included the number of players who underwent screening; signed waivers opting out; and had follow-up tests. ECGs were re-reviewed according to the International Criteria.Results710 players were included in the cohort (mean age 20.4 ± 4.9 years, 62% male). 692(97.5%) players underwent recommended cardiac screening or signed a waiver opting out (1.1%). 173(24.4%) players were screened (or signed a waiver) more than once during the period. Follow-up testing was conducted for 59(6.9%) cases. No players were excluded from sport due to a cardiac problem and no major cardiac incidents occurred during the period. Review of 830 ECGs showed benign athlete heart changes, including sinus bradycardia (33.5%), left ventricular hypertrophy (16.3%), and incomplete/partial right bundle branch block (8.4%), were common but abnormal screening ECGs were uncommon (2.0%).ConclusionsAn audit of a cardiac screening program in elite Australian cricketers found excellent compliance. A small proportion required follow-up testing and no player was excluded from sport due to a cardiac problem. ECG analysis suggested cricket is a sport of moderate cardiac demands, with benign athlete heart changes common.
  • Are nutritional supplements a gateway to doping use in competitive team
           sports' The roles of achievement goals and motivational regulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Vassilis Barkoukis, Lambros Lazuras, Despoina Ourda, Haralambos TsorbatzoudisAbstractObjectivesThe study investigated the moderating role of achievement goals and motivation regulations on the association between self-reported nutritional supplement (NS) use, doping likelihood, and self-reported doping behaviour among competitive athletes.MethodFour hundred and ninety seven competitive team sport athletes (64% males;M age = 23.54 years, SD = 5.75) completed anonymous questionnaires measuring self-reported use of prohibited substances and licit NS; beliefs about the "gateway" function of NS; achievement goals; and motivational regulations.ResultsHierarchical linear regression analysis showed that self-reported doping was associated (Adjusted R2 = 33%) with NS use, a stronger belief that NS use acts as a gateway to doping, amotivation, controlled motivation, mastery approach, and performance avoidance goals. Higher likelihood to use doping substances in the future was associated (Adjusted R2 = 41.7%) with current NS use, stronger belief that NS act as a gateway to doping, autonomous motivation, and performance avoidance goals. A series of moderated regression analyses showed that NS use significantly interacted with mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance avoidance goals, autonomous motivation controlled motivation, and with amotivation in predicting self-reported doping. Finally, NS use significantly interacted with mastery approach goals, performance avoidance goals, and controlled motivation in predicting future doping likelihood.ConclusionsAchievement goals and motivational regulations are differentially associated with both doping likelihood and self-reported doping, and may account for the observed association between self-reported NS use and doping substances; thus, providing an alternative explanation to the "gateway hypothesis" that emphasizes the role of motivation.
  • Changes in urinary titin N-terminal fragments as a biomarker of
           exercise-induced muscle damage in the repeated bout effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Shota Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Takayuki Inami, Junichi OkadaAbstractObjectiveMuscle damage symptoms induced by unaccustomed eccentric contraction exercise can be reduced by repeating the experience several times. This phenomenon is termed the repeated bout effect. Although traditional biochemical markers require invasive blood sampling, biochemical measurements have recently been developed that can be non-invasively performed using urinary titin N-terminal fragment (UTF). However, it is unclear whether UTF can reflect the repeated bout effect. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify whether UTF decreased with the repeated bout effect.DesignThis study compared changes in muscle damage markers between bouts of exercise performed for the first and second time.MethodsEight young men performed 30 eccentric exercises of the elbow flexor on the first day of the first week (Bout 1). A second bout of eccentric exercises, same as the first, was performed 2 weeks later, (Bout 2). The dependent variables were muscle soreness (SOR), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), range of motion (ROM), creatine kinase (CK), and UTF. All dependent variables were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance.ResultsNo significant difference was observed in workload or peak torque between the first and second exercise bouts. SOR as well as CK and UTF were significantly lower and ROM and MVIC were significantly higher in Bout 2 in comparison to Bout 1ConclusionThese results suggest that UTF sensitively reflects the repeated bout effect and exercise-induced muscle damage can be non-invasively measured.
  • The availability of task-specific feedback does not affect 20 km time
           trial cycling performance or test-retest reliability in trained cyclists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): David N. Borg, John O. Osborne, Ian B. Stewart, Joseph T. Costello, Jonathon Headrick, Benjamin S. McMaster, Samantha J. Borg, Geoffrey M. MinettAbstractObjectivesThis study examined the influence of the availability of task-specific feedback on 20 km time trial (20TT) cycling performance and test-retest reliability.DesignThirty trained, club-level cyclists completed two 20TT’s on different days, with (feedback, FB) or without (no-feedback, NFB) task-specific feedback (i.e., power output, cadence, gear and heart rate [HR]). Elapsed distance was provided in both conditions.MethodsDuring trials, ergometer variables and HR were continuously recorded, and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was collected every 2 km. Data were analysed using linear mixed-effects models in a Bayesian framework, and Cohen’s d was calculated for standardised differences. The reliability of finish time and mean power output (PO) was determined via multiple indices, including intraclass correlations (ICC).ResultsPerformance, pacing behaviour, and RPE were not statistically different between conditions. The posterior mean difference [95% credible interval] between TT1 and TT2 for FB and NFB was 10 s [−5, 25] and −2 s [−17, 14], respectively. In TT2, HR was statistically higher (∼8 b min−1) in FB compared to NFB after 13 km (d = 2.08–2.25). However, this result was explained by differences in maximal HR. Finish time (FB: ICC =  0.99; NFB: ICC = 0.99) and mean power output (FB: ICC = 0.99; NFB: ICC = 0.99) in each condition were substantially reliable.ConclusionsThe availability of task-specific information did not affect 20TT performance or reliability. Except for elapsed distance, task-specific feedback should be withheld from trained cyclists when evaluating interventions that may affect performance, to prevent participants from recalling previous performance settings.
  • Changes in subjective mental and physical fatigue during netball games in
           elite development athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Suzanna Russell, David Jenkins, Shona Halson, Vincent KellyAbstractObjectivesTo assess the magnitude of changes in, and relationships between, physical and mental fatigue pre-to-post match in elite development netballers.DesignObservational.MethodsTwelve female netballers (21.3 ± 2.9 years) competing in the Australian Netball League reported perceptual measures of mental and physical fatigue pre- and post-match on 12 separate competition occasions. Minutes played, to allow for calculation of weighted changes (ratings proportional to playing time), positional groups and performance analysis variables were also assessed.ResultsPost-match ratings were higher (p 
  • ‘Maths on the Move’: effectiveness of physically-active lessons for
           learning maths and increasing physical activity in primary school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): M Vetter, O’Connor HT, O’Dwyer N, Chau J, Orr RAbstractObjectivesThis study evaluated the benefit of physically-active lessons for learning maths multiplication-tables. The impact of the intervention on general numeracy, physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness, body mass index (BMI) and school-day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was also assessed.DesignRandomised controlled cross-over trial.MethodYear 3 students (n = 172, mean age 8.4 ± 0.3 years, 48% male) were recruited from 10 classes across two urban primary schools. Participants were randomly assigned to a seated classroom (Classroom) group or physically-active lessons in the playground (Playground) and crossed over to the alternative condition in the subsequent school term. The 6-week intervention comprised 3 × 30-min sessions/week. Multiplication-tables (teacher-designed test) and general maths (standardised test) were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Aerobic fitness was assessed via the shuttle-run. Pre- to post-intervention change scores were compared for analysis and effect sizes (ES) calculated. Total PA and MVPA were assessed with accelerometers in a subset of participants.ResultsMultiplication scores improved significantly more in Playground than Classroom groups (ES = 0.23; p = 0.045), while no significant differences were observed in general numeracy (ES = 0.05; p = 0.66). Total PA and MVPA were substantially higher during Playground than Classroom lessons (ES: total PA = 7.4, MVPA = 6.5; p 
  • Validity and reliability of isometric tests for the evidence-based
           assessment of arm strength impairment in wheelchair rugby classification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Barry S. Mason, Viola C. Altmann, Michael J. Hutchinson, Victoria L. Goosey-TolfreyAbstractObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the validity and test-retest reliability of a battery of single-joint isometric strength tests, to establish whether the tests could be used for evidence-based classification in wheelchair rugby (WR).DesignCross-sectional.MethodsTwenty male WR athletes with impaired arm strength and thirty able-bodied (AB) participants (15 male, 15 female) performed four isometric strength tests. Each test required three 5-s efforts and examined maximal isometric force for flexion and extension around the shoulder and elbow joint. Test validity was established by comparing differences (Cohen’s effect sizes [d]) in strength between WR athletes and AB participants. Differences were also explored between male and female AB participants. Twenty AB participants returned for a second visit to establish the test-retest reliability of the test battery.ResultsSignificantly lower force values were observed for all isometric strength measures in WR athletes compared to AB participants (p ≤ 0.0005; d ≥ 2.14). Female AB participants also produced significantly less force than male AB participants for all joint actions (p ≤ 0.0005; d ≥ 1.93). No significant differences were identified between trials for any measure of strength, with acceptable levels of test-retest reliability reported (ICCs ≥ 0.97, SEM ≤ 19.3 N and CV ≤ 8.4%).ConclusionsThe current results demonstrated the validity of a battery of isometric strength tests, suggesting they can be used to reliably infer strength impairment in WR athletes, which is a pre-requisite when working towards evidence-based classification in Paralympic sport.
  • Assessing the whole-match and worst-case scenario locomotor demands of
           international women’s rugby union match-play
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Emily Sheppy, Samuel P. Hills, Mark Russell, Ryan Chambers, Dan J. Cunningham, David Shearer, Shane Heffernan, Mark Waldron, Melitta McNarry, Liam P. KilduffAbstractObjectivesTo profile the distances covered during international women’s rugby union match-play and assess the duration-specific worst-case scenario locomotor demands over 60-s to 600-s epochs, whilst comparing the values determined by fixed epoch (FIXED) versus rolling average (ROLL) methods of worst-case scenario estimation and assessing positional influences.DesignDescriptive, observational.MethodsTwenty-nine international women’s rugby union players wore 10 Hz microelectromechanical systems during eight international matches (110 observations). Total, and per-half, distances were recorded, whilst relative total and high-speed (>4.4 m s−1) distances were averaged using FIXED and ROLL methods over 60–600-s. Linear mixed models compared distances covered between match halves, assessed FIXED versus ROLL, and examined the influence of playing position.ResultsPlayers covered ∼5.8 km match−1, with reduced distances in the second- versus first-half (p 
  • Change and determinants of total and context specific sitting in adults: A
           7-year longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Heini Wennman, Tommi Härkänen, Maria Hagströmer, Pekka Jousilahti, Tiina Laatikainen, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Satu Männistö, Hanna Tolonen, Heli Valkeinen, Katja BorodulinAbstractObjectivesTo assess the stability and determinants of total and context specific sitting in a follow-up of adults.DesignLongitudinal study.MethodsParticipants in the DILGOM cohort (n = 3735, men 45%), reported daily sitting in five contexts (work-related, in vehicle, at home by the TV, at home at the computer, and elsewhere) in 2007 and 2014. Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and health were assessed in 2007. Total sitting comprised the sum of context specific sitting. Changes in, and determinants of context specific sitting, stratified by baseline age into young middle-aged (68 years) were estimated by generalized linear mixed models.ResultsIn 2007, total daily sitting was 7 hours 26 minutes, 6 hours 16 minutes, and 6 hours 3 minutes in young middle-aged, late middle-aged and older-aged groups, respectively. Over 7 years, total sitting decreased on average by 26 minutes. Sitting at the computer increased by 7 -17 minutes. The late middle-aged group also increased sitting by the TV, and decreased total, work-related, vehicle and elsewhere sitting. Occupational status determined context specific sitting, but somewhat differently in young and late middle-aged groups. Poor self-rated health determined less work-related and more sitting by the TV in the young, whereas good health determined less work-related sitting in the late middle-aged group.ConclusionsSelf-reported sitting is a fairly stable behavior, with the exception for the late middle-aged group, where all context specific and total sitting changed significantly. Occupational status and health determined changes in sitting; however, somewhat differently by age group.
  • Relationship between meeting physical activity guidelines and motor
           competence among low-income school youth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Alessandro H. Nicolai Ré, Anthony D. Okely, Samuel W. Logan, Mellina M.L.M. da Silva, Maria T. Cattuzzo, David F. StoddenAbstractObjectivesGlobal health guidelines suggest that youth should accumulate at least 60 minutes of daily, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The relationship between meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines and motor competence (MC) in youth is relatively unknown. This study assessed levels of MVPA and MC among socially vulnerable youth and determined if meeting the PA guidelines was associated with MC.DesignCross-sectional.MethodA total of 1,017 youths aged 3-14 years from three schools participated in the study. Participants wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days to assess PA. Motor competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition and the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. MVPA and MC were compared by sex and school levels (preschool, elementary school and middle school). Binary logistic regression models examined the predictive power of meeting PA guidelines and age on MC.ResultsThe prevalence of meeting PA guidelines declined across school levels among both girls (72% in preschool to 21% in middle school, p 
  • Incidence of Achilles tendinopathy and associated risk factors in
           recreational runners: A large prospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Iris F. Lagas, Tryntsje Fokkema, Jan A.N. Verhaar, Sita M.A. Bierma-Zeinstra, Marienke van Middelkoop, Robert-Jan de VosAbstractObjectivesTo determine the incidence of Achilles tendinopathy in a large group of recreational runners and to determine risk factors for developing AT.DesignObservational cohort study.MethodsRunners registering for running events (5–42 km) in the Netherlands were eligible for inclusion. Main inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, and registration ≥2 months before the running event. The digital baseline questionnaire obtained at registration consisted of demographics, training characteristics, previous participation in events, lifestyle and previous running-related injuries. All participants received 3 follow-up questionnaires up to 1 month after the running event with self-reported AT as primary outcome measure. To study the relationship between baseline variables and AT onset, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.ResultsIn total, 2378 runners were included, of which 1929 completed ≥1 follow-up questionnaire, and 100 (5.2%, 95%CI [4.2;6.2]) developed AT. Runners registered for a marathon (7.4%) had the highest incidence of AT. Risk factors for developing AT were use of a training schedule (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8 (95%Confidence Interval(CI)[1.1;3.0])), use of sport compression socks ((OR = 1.7, 95%CI[1.0;2.8]) and AT in the previous 12 months (OR = 6.3, 95%CI[3.9;10.0]). None of the demographic, lifestyle or training-related factors were associated with the onset of AT.ConclusionOne in twenty recreational runners develop AT. AT in the preceding 12 months is the strongest risk factor for having AT symptoms. Using a training schedule or sport compression socks increases the risk of developing AT and this should be discouraged in a comparable running population.
      Trial registration numberThe Netherlands Trial Register (ID number: NL5843).
  • Predictive modelling of the physical demands during training and
           competition in professional soccer players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): J.V. Giménez, L. Jiménez-Linares, A.S. Leicht, M.A. GómezAbstractObjectivesThe present study aimed to predict the cut-off point-values that best differentiate the physical demands of training and competition tasks including friendly matches (FM), small sided games (SSG), large sided games (LSG), mini-goal games (MG) and ball circuit-training (CT) in professional soccer players.DesignExperimental randomized controlled trial.MethodsFourteen professional players participated in all tasks with the CT, SSG and MG consisting of 8 repetitions of 4-min game play, interspersed by 2-min of active recovery. The training data were compared to the first 32-min of the LSG and two competitive FM per player. All movement patterns from walking to sprint running were recorded using 10 Hz GPS devices while player perception of exertion was recorded via a visual analogue scale, post-task. Decision tree induction was applied to the dataset to assess the cut-off point-values from four training drills (SSG, LSG, MG, and CT) and FM for every parameter combination.ResultsDistance covered during jogging (2.3–3.3 m/s;>436 m), number of decelerations (≤730.5) and accelerations (≤663), and maximum velocity reached (>5.48 m/s) characterized the physical demands during competition (FM) with great variability amongst training drills.ConclusionThe use of these novel, cut-off points may aid coaches in the design and use of training drills to accurately prepare athletes for soccer competition.
  • Differential recovery rates of fitness following U.S. Army Ranger training
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): William R. Conkright, Nicholas D. Barringer, Paula B. Lescure, Kimberly A. Feeney, Martha A. Smith, Bradley C. NindlAbstractObjectivesTo investigate tactically-related physical performance and body composition recovery following U.S. Army Ranger training.DesignProspective cohort.MethodsPhysical performance was comprehensively assessed using a tactically-related performance battery (i.e., Ranger Athlete Warrior assessment) in 10 male Soldiers at baseline (BL) two-weeks (P1), and six-weeks (P2) post-Ranger School. Body composition was determined using DXA. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used followed by Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons when group differences existed (p ≤ 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to establish associations between changes in fitness and body composition.ResultsAll performance domains except the bench press and deadlift worsened following training. Speed/mobility (Illinois agility test, seconds – BL: 16.20 ± 0.86 vs. P2: 18.66 ± 2.09), anaerobic capacity (300-yard shuttle run, seconds – BL: 62.95 ± 6.17 vs. P2: 67.23 ± 5.91), core strength (heel clap, repetitions – BL: 15.80 ± 4.08 vs. P2: 11.50 ± 4.95), and aerobic endurance (beep test, stage – BL: 9.95 ± 2.18 vs. P2: 7.55 ± 1.07) had not recovered by P2. Only upper body muscular endurance and strength (metronome push-up and pull-up, respectively) were similar to BL by P2. Percent body fat increased from 15.62 ± 3.94 (BL) to 19.33 ± 2.99 (P2) (p 
  • The effect of physical education lesson intensity and cognitive demand on
           subsequent learning behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Christina H.H.M. Heemskerk, David Lubans, Steve Strand, Lars-Erik MalmbergAbstractObjectivesTo investigate the effect of (i) physical education (PE) lesson intensity and (ii) skill complexity, and (iii) their interaction on students’ on-task behaviour in the classroom.DesignWithin-subject repeated-measures.MethodsParticipants were children (N = 101, age 7–11) recruited from four elementary schools in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. The experiment consisted of manipulating the aerobic intensity (low/medium/high) and skill complexity (low/high) of PE lessons. Children participated in all six conditions of the experiment: low intensity–low complexity (flexibility), medium intensity–low complexity (health related exercise), high intensity–low complexity (sprinting games), low intensity–high complexity (bi-lateral ball skills), medium intensity–high complexity (ball games), high intensity–high complexity (aerobics). Children’s behaviour in the classroom was observed every 30 s for 25 min before and after each PE lesson and rated as on-task or off-task.ResultsA main effect of intensity on children’s on-task behaviour was found (F(2,51634) = 11.07, p 
  • Exercise-based injury prevention for community-level adolescent cricket
           pace bowlers: A cluster-randomised controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Mitchell R.L. Forrest, Jeffrey J. Hebert, Brendan R. Scott, Alasdair R. DempseyAbstractObjectivesTo investigate if an exercise-based injury prevention program (IPP) can modify risk factors for injury in community-level adolescent cricket pace bowlers.DesignCluster-randomised controlled trial.MethodsEight cricket organisations (training two times per week and no previous involvement in a structured IPP) participated in this cluster-randomised trial. Participants were aged 14–17 years, injury free, and not currently performing a rehabilitation/exercise program. Cricket organisations (clusters) were block-randomised by computerised number generation into an intervention group (performed an eight-week IPP at training) or control group (continued their usual cricket activity). Participants were not blinded to group allocation. Strength, endurance, and neuromuscular control were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models.ResultsSixty-five male adolescent pace bowlers (intervention n = 32 and control n = 33) were randomised. There were significant treatment effects favouring the intervention group for shoulder strength (90°/s) 0.05 (95% CI 0.02–0.09) N m/kg, hamstring strength (60°/s) 0.32 (95% CI 0.13–0.50) N m/kg, hip adductor strength dominant 0.40 (95% CI 0.26–0.55) N m/kg and non-dominant 0.33 (95% CI 0.20–0.47) N m/kg, SEBT reach distance dominant 3.80 (95% CI 1.63–6.04) percent of leg length (%LL) and non-dominant 3.60 (95% CI 1.43–5.78) %LL, and back endurance 20.4 (95% CI 4.80–36.0) seconds. No differences were observed for shoulder strength (180°/s) (p = 0.09), hamstring strength (180°/s) (p = 0.07), lumbopelvic stability (p = 0.90), and single leg squat knee valgus angle (dominant p = 0.06, non-dominant p = 0.15).ConclusionsExercise-based IPPs can modify risk factors for injury in community-level adolescent pace bowlers. Future research is needed to confirm if IPPs can also reduce injury risk in this population.
  • Athletic groin pain patients and healthy athletes demonstrate consistency
           in their movement strategy selection when performing multiple repetitions
           of a change of direction test
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Adrian R. Rivadulla, Shane Gore, Ezio Preatoni, Chris RichterAbstractObjectivesTo report the consistency in movement strategy selection in athletic groin pain patients and to assess whether there are differences in consistency between athletic groin pain patients and healthy athletes.DesignCross sectional exploratory study.MethodsTwenty athletic groin pain patients and 21 healthy athletes performed 15 repetitions of 110° change of direction task. Lower limb and trunk kinematics alongside ground reaction forces were collected. A correlation-to-mean algorithm was used to allocate each trial to a movement strategy using kinematic and kinetic features. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the frequency of the most selected strategy (i.e. consistency) and fuzziness between athletic groin pain patients and healthy athletes. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the strategy selection between athletic groin pain patients and healthy athletes.ResultsThere were no differences between groups in consistency in movement strategy selection (>80%). Athletic groin pain patients tended to select a knee dominant movement strategy whereas healthy athletes preferred an ankle dominant movement strategy.ConclusionsThe consistency observed in athletic groin pain patients supports the implementation of movement strategy assessments to inform AGP rehabilitation programmes tailored to athletes’ deficiencies. Such assessments could help enhance the success of athletic groin pain rehabilitation. Differences in movement strategy selection might not be associated with injury state since there were no differences between athletic groin pain patients and healthy athletes.
  • Can anthropometry and physical fitness testing explain physical activity
           levels in children and adolescents with obesity'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Ryan E.R. Reid, Alicia Fillon, David Thivel, Mélanie Henderson, Tracie A. Barnett, Jean-Luc Bigras, Marie-Eve MathieuAbstractObjectivesAs time with patients and resources are increasingly limited, it is important to determine if clinical tests can provide further insight into real-world behaviors linked to clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine which aspects of anthropometry and physical fitness testing are associated with physical activity (PA) levels among youth with obesity.DesignCross-sectional study.MethodAnthropometry [height, waist circumference, bodyweight, fat percentage], physical fitness [muscular endurance (partial curl-ups), flexibility (sit-and-reach), lower-body power (long-jump), upper-body strength (grip), speed/agility (5 × 5-m shuttle), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2-max)], and PA [light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), MVPA] was assessed in 203 youth with obesity.ResultsThe sample was stratified by age
  • V ˙ +O2max+is+associated+with+anaerobic+alleles&rft.title=Journal+of+Science+and+Medicine+in+Sport&rft.issn=1440-2440&">The plateau at V ˙ O2max is associated with anaerobic alleles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Don R. Keiller, Dan A. GordonAbstractObjectivesThis study tests the hypothesis that individuals who achieve a plateau at V˙ O2max ( V˙ O2plat) are more likely to possess alleles, associated with anaerobic capacity, than those who do not.DesignA literature survey, physiological testing and genetic analysis was used to determine any association between the aerobic and anaerobic polymorphisms of 40 genes and V˙ O2plat.Methods34, healthy, Caucasian volunteers, completed an exercise test to determine V˙ O2max, and  V˙ O2plat. 28 of the volunteers agreed to DNA testing and 26 were successfully genotyped. A literature search was used to determine whether the 40 polymorphisms analysed were associated with aerobic, or anaerobic exercise performance.ResultsThe literature survey enabled classification of the 40 target alleles as aerobic [11], anaerobic [24], or having no apparent association (NAA) [5] with exercise performance. It also found no previous studies linking a genetic component with the ability to achieve V˙ O2plat. Independent t-tests showed a significant difference (p 
  • Determinants of hamstring fascicle length in professional rugby league
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Timothy M. McGrath, Billy T. Hulin, Nathan Pickworth, Alex Clarke, Ryan TimminsAbstractObjectivesInvestigate the determinants of hamstring fascicle length within professional rugby league players.DesignRetrospective cohort study.MethodsThirty-three athletes underwent a testing during the early and late pre-season periods. Fascicle length measurements of biceps femoris, 3D kinematics and elapsed time-periods at thigh angular velocities between 20deg/s to peak velocity during a single-leg eccentric hamstring strength test, GPS-derived running loads, age and previous injury history were all recorded. Fixed effect determinants for fascicle length were analyzed using multiple linear regression.ResultsSignificant determinants of hamstring fascicle length were observed. Multivariate regression analysis showed modifiable factors including chronic running volumes>80% of measured peak speed collectively explained 43% of the variability in the fascicle length data, whilst peak eccentric strength-related and elapsed time under load from 20deg/s to peak thigh angular velocity collectively contributed an additional 44%. Chronic running volumes above 90% of individually measured peak speed and the ‘break angle’ during a Nordic eccentric contraction were not significant contributors to the final model. Non-modifiable risk factors (age and previous injury) contributed the remaining 13%.ConclusionsManaging high speed running exposure as well as eccentric strength training allows for ˜90% of the controllable determinants in fascicle length within elite athlete populations. An important contributor to the explained variability within fascicle length (superseded only by chronic speed exposure and peak eccentric strength) was an athletes ability to achieve a prolonged contraction at long lengths during eccentric strength training rather than the angle of failure during the contraction in itself.
  • Acute performance responses during repeated matches in combat sports: A
           systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of Science and Medicine in SportAuthor(s): Rafael L. Kons, Lucas B.R. Orssatto, Daniele DetanicoAbstractObjectiveInvestigate the acute effects of repeated combat sports matches on vertical jump and handgrip strength performance in grappling and striking modalities.DesignSystematic review.MethodsPubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched. The following eligibility criteria for selecting studies were adopted: Population: Combat sports athletes; Intervention: Official or simulated matches; Comparator: Baseline versus after-matches performance; Outcome: Vertical jump and/or handgrip strength performance. PROSPERO: CRD42019129264ResultsThe systematic search resulted in 13 studies, including Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Greco-Roman, judo, taekwondo, and wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman) modalities, and a diverse number of repeated matches (i.e. 1–5). None of the studies adopted a randomized and controlled design and, consequently, none of them was classified as high quality. Brazilian jiu-jitsu and freestyle wrestling athletes presented an earlier onset of fatigue in upper and lower limbs, while judo and Greco Roman wrestling presented a later onset, from the third match. In taekwondo athletes, no fatigue was observed in the lower limbs, while handgrip strength decreased. However, studies have reported unclear data regarding the time-course of lower and upper limbs’ fatigue following repeated matches in taekwondo.ConclusionBoth upper and lower limbs performance were affected after repeated matches in grappling combat sports when assessed by handgrip strength and vertical jump performance. In taekwondo, the studies have shown unclear results concerning the effects of repeated matches on upper and lower limb performance. There is a lack of studies classified as high-quality and investigations into the neuromuscular mechanisms underpinning fatigue after the repeated matches.
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