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SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sports Medicine - Open
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2199-1170 - ISSN (Online) 2198-9761
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [259 journals]
  • Quantifying the Collision Dose in Rugby League: A Systematic Review,
           Meta-analysis, and Critical Analysis

    • Abstract: Background Collisions (i.e. tackles, ball carries, and collisions) in the rugby league have the potential to increase injury risk, delay recovery, and influence individual and team performance. Understanding the collision demands of the rugby league may enable practitioners to optimise player health, recovery, and performance. Objective The aim of this review was to (1) characterise the dose of collisions experienced within senior male rugby league match-play and training, (2) systematically and critically evaluate the methods used to describe the relative and absolute frequency and intensity of collisions, and (3) provide recommendations on collision monitoring. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) using keywords was undertaken. A meta-analysis provided a pooled mean of collision frequency or intensity metrics on comparable data sets from at least two studies. Results Forty-three articles addressing the absolute (n) or relative collision frequency (n min−1) or intensity of senior male rugby league collisions were included. Meta-analysis of video-based studies identified that forwards completed approximately twice the number of tackles per game than backs (n = 24.6 vs 12.8), whilst ball carry frequency remained similar between backs and forwards (n = 11.4 vs 11.2). Variable findings were observed at the subgroup level with a limited number of studies suggesting wide-running forwards, outside backs, and hit-up forwards complete similar ball carries whilst tackling frequency differed. For microtechnology, at the team level, players complete an average of 32.7 collisions per match. Limited data suggested hit-up and wide-running forwards complete the most collisions per match, when compared to adjustables and outside backs. Relative to playing time, forwards (n min−1 = 0.44) complete a far greater frequency of collision than backs (n min−1 = 0.16), with data suggesting hit-up forwards undertake more than adjustables, and outside backs. Studies investigating g force intensity zones utilised five unique intensity schemes with zones ranging from 2–3 g to 13–16 g. Given the disparity between device setups and zone classification systems between studies, further analyses were inappropriate. It is recommended that practitioners independently validate microtechnology against video to establish criterion validity. Conclusions Video- and microtechnology-based methods have been utilised to quantify collisions in the rugby league with differential collision profiles observed between forward and back positional groups, and their distinct subgroups. The ball carry demands of forwards and backs were similar, whilst tackle demands were greater for forwards than backs. Microtechnology has been used inconsistently to quantify collision frequency and intensity. Despite widespread popularity, a number of the microtechnology devices have yet to be appropriately validated. Limitations exist in using microtechnology to quantify collision intensity, including the lack of consistency and limited validation. Future directions include application of machine learning approaches to differentiate types of collisions in microtechnology datasets.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
  • The effects of short-term combined exercise training on telomere length in
           obese women: a prospective, interventional study

    • Abstract: Background Telomere length is inversely associated with the senescence and aging process. Parallelly, obesity can promote telomere shortening. Evidence suggests that physical activity may promote telomere elongation. Objective This study’s objective is to evaluate the effects of combined exercise training on telomere length in obese women. Design and Methods Twenty pre-menopausal women (BMI 30–40 kg/m2, 20–40 years) submitted to combined training (strength and aerobic exercises), but only 13 finished the protocol. Each exercise session lasted 55 min/day, three times a week, throughout 8 weeks. Anthropometric data, body composition, physical performance (Vo2max), and 8-h fasting blood samples were taken before and after 8 weeks of training. Leukocyte DNA was extracted for telomere length by RT-qPCR reaction, using the 2−ΔΔCt methodology. Results After the training intervention, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in telomere length (respectively before and after, 1.03 ± 0.04 to 1.07 ± 0.04 T/S ratio), fat-free mass (46 ± 7 to 48 ± 5 kg), Vo2max (35 ± 3 to 38 ± 3 ml/kg/min), and waist circumference (96 ± 8 to 90 ± 6 cm). In addition, an inverse correlation between waist circumference and telomere length was found, before (r = − 0.536, p = 0.017) and after (r = − 0.655, p = 0.015) exercise training. Conclusion Combined exercise promoted leukocyte telomere elongation in obese women. Besides, the data suggested that greater waist circumference may predict shorter telomere length. Clinical Trial Registration, NCT03119350. Retrospectively registered on 18 April 2017
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
  • Performance Analysis in Rugby Union: a Critical Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background Performance analysis in rugby union has become an integral part of the coaching process. Although performance analysis research in rugby and data collection has progressed, the utility of the insights is not well understood. The primary objective of this review is to consider the current state of performance analysis research in professional rugby union and consider the utility of common methods of analysing performance and the applicability of these methods within professional coaching practice. Methods SPORTDiscus electronic database was searched for relevant articles published between 1 January 1997 and 7 March 2019. Professional, male 15-a-side rugby union studies that included relevant data on tactical and performance evaluation, and statistical compilation of time-motion analysis were included. Studies were categorised based on the main focus and each study was reviewed by assessing a number of factors such as context, opposition analysis, competition and sample size. Results Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies measured performance through the collection and analysis of performance indicators. The majority did not provide context relating to multiple confounding factors such as field location, match location and opposition information. Twenty-nine performance indicators differentiated between successful match outcomes; however, only eight were commonly shared across some studies. Five studies considered rugby union as a dynamical system; however, these studies were limited in analysing lower or national-level competitions. Conclusions The review highlighted the issues associated with assessing isolated measures of performance, lacking contextual information such as the opposition, match location, period within match and field location. A small number of studies have assessed rugby union performance through a dynamical systems lens, identifying successful characteristics in collective behaviour patterns in attacking phases. Performance analysis in international rugby union can be advanced by adopting these approaches in addition to methods currently adopted in other team sports.
      PubDate: 2020-01-15
  • Nordic walking training in elderly, a randomized clinical trial. Part II:
           Biomechanical and metabolic adaptations

    • Abstract: Background Nordic walking is an attractive method of endurance training. Nevertheless, the biomechanic response due to the additional contribution of using poles in relation to free walking training has been less explored in the elderly. Purpose: This randomized parallel controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of 8 weeks of Nordic walking and free walking training on the walking economy, mechanical work, metabolically optimal speed, and electromyographic activation in elderly. Methods Thirty-three sedentary elderly were randomized into Nordic walking (n = 16) and free walking group (n = 17) with equalized loads. Submaximal walking tests were performed from 1 to 5 km h−1 on the treadmill. Results Walking economy was improved in both free and Nordic walking groups (x2 4.91, p = 0.014) and the metabolically optimal speed was increased by approximately 0.5 km h−1 changing the speed-cost profile. The electromyographic activation in lower and upper limbs, pendular recovery, and total, external, and internal mechanical work remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Interestingly, the internal mechanical work associated with arm movement was higher in the Nordic walking group than in the free walking group after training, while the co-contraction from upper limb muscles was reduced similarly to both groups. Conclusions Eight weeks of Nordic walking training effectively improved the walking economy and functionality as well as maintained the gait mechanics, similar to free walking training in elderly people. This enhancement in the metabolic economy may have been mediated by a reduction in the co-contraction from upper limb muscles. Trial registration NCT03096964
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
  • The performance of the World Rugby Head Injury Assessment Screening Tool:
           a diagnostic accuracy study

    • Abstract: Background Off-field screening tools, such as the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), have been recommended to identify possible concussion following a head impact where the consequences are unclear. However, real-life performance, and diagnostic accuracy of constituent sub-tests, have not been well characterized. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed in elite Rugby Union competitions between September 2015 and June 2018. The study population comprised consecutive players identified with a head impact event undergoing off-field assessments with the World Rugby Head Injury Assessment (HIA01) screening tool, an abridged version of the SCAT3. Off-field screening performance was investigated by evaluating real-life removal-from-play outcomes and determining the theoretical diagnostic accuracy of the HIA01 tool, and individual sub-tests, if player-specific baseline or normative sub-test thresholds were strictly applied. The reference standard was clinically diagnosed concussion determined by serial medical assessments. Results One thousand one hundred eighteen head impacts events requiring off-field assessments were identified, resulting in 448 concussions. Real-life removal-from-play decisions demonstrated a sensitivity of 76.8% (95% CI 72.6–80.6) and a specificity of 86.6% (95% CI 83.7–89.1) for concussion (AUROC 0.82, 95% CI 0.79–0.84). Theoretical HIA01 tool performance worsened if pre-season baseline values (sensitivity 89.6%, specificity 33.9%, AUROC 0.62, p < 0.01) or normative thresholds (sensitivity 80.4%, specificity 69.0%, AUROC 0.75, p < 0.01) were strictly applied. Symptoms and clinical signs were the HIA01 screening tool sub-tests most predictive for concussion; with immediate memory and tandem gait providing little additional diagnostic value. Conclusions These findings support expert recommendations that clinical judgement should be used in the assessment of athletes following head impact events. Substitution of the tandem gait and 5-word immediate memory sub-tests with alternative modes could potentially improve screening tool performance.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
  • A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis Resulting in a Typology of
           Elementary Classroom Movement Integration Interventions

    • Abstract: Background/Objective Movement integration (MI) involves infusing physical activity into normal classroom time. A wide range of MI interventions have succeeded in increasing children’s participation in physical activity. However, no previous research has attempted to unpack the various MI intervention approaches. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically review, qualitatively analyze, and develop a typology of MI interventions conducted in primary/elementary school settings. Subjects/Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to identify published MI interventions. Irrelevant records were removed first by title, then by abstract, and finally by full texts of articles, resulting in 72 studies being retained for qualitative analysis. A deductive approach, using previous MI research as an a priori analytic framework, alongside inductive techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Four types of MI interventions were identified and labeled based on their design: student-driven, teacher-driven, researcher-teacher collaboration, and researcher-driven. Each type was further refined based on the MI strategies (movement breaks, active lessons, other: opening activity, transitions, reward, awareness), the level of intrapersonal and institutional support (training, resources), and the delivery (dose, intensity, type, fidelity). Nearly half of the interventions were researcher-driven, which may undermine the sustainability of MI as a routine practice by teachers in schools. An imbalance is evident on the MI strategies, with transitions, opening and awareness activities, and rewards being limitedly studied. Delivery should be further examined with a strong focus on reporting fidelity. Conclusions There are distinct approaches that are most often employed to promote the use of MI and these approaches may often lack a minimum standard for reporting MI intervention details. This typology may be useful to effectively translate the evidence into practice in real-life settings to better understand and study MI interventions.
      PubDate: 2020-01-06
  • Assessment of Physical Activity Indicators for Children and Youth in
           Ethiopia: Evidence from the Global Matrix 3.0 Study (2017–2018)

    • Abstract: Background Regular physical activity is vital for children’s health, well-being, and development. However, evidence is scant about physical activity indicators for children and youth in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess physical activity indicators among children and youth in Ethiopia. Methods This study was conducted as part of the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s “Global Matrix 3.0” which included 49 countries. Data were collected from December 2017 to April 2018. The country research team included different disciplines related to physical activity. Data were retrieved from pre-reviewed literature, government policy documents, and an expert interview panel. Data were analyzed using the ten physical activity indicators for children and youth. The grading system was done through a harmonized process and the standard grading rubric of the Global Matrix 3.0 study ((A = ≥ 80%, B = 60%–79%, C = 40%–59%, D = 20%–39%, F = < 20%, INC = incomplete data). Results For the overall physical activity indicator, 28% of children and youth in Ethiopia met the recommended physical activity of 60 min per day which resulted in a “D” grade. Likewise, the school and government indicator received a “D” grade. Almost 32% of schools in Ethiopia had access to infrastructures and multipurpose spaces for physical activity including outdoor play. The government policy partially existed in the non-communicable diseases agenda but had less focus on children and youth. The active play indicator scored the highest grade of “B.” About 71% of children and youth were involved in active play for at least 2 h a day before, during, and after school. About 50% of children and youth were engaging in organized sport participation, and this indicator was graded a “C.” Similarly, 48% of children and youth walked to and from school as a means of active transportation resulting in a “C” for this indicator. Three indicators (sedentary behavior, family and peers, and community and environment) were graded as an “F.” Approximately 8% of children and youth were living in communities and environments that did not support opportunities for physical activity. Only 13% of children and youth spent less than 2 h per day in sedentary screen time. There was no adequate information to grade the physical fitness indicator. Conclusion This study showed that Ethiopian’s children and youth have received low grades for majority of physical activity indicators. Therefore, urgent actions should be taken by the government, policymakers, researchers, and key stakeholders to address the suggested priority areas.
      PubDate: 2019-12-30
  • A survey of mathematical models of human performance using power and

    • Abstract: Abstract The ability to predict the systematic decrease of power during physical exertion gives valuable insights into health, performance, and injury. This review surveys the research of power-based models of fatigue and recovery within the area of human performance. Upon a thorough review of available literature, it is observed that the two-parameter critical power model is most popular due to its simplicity. This two-parameter model is a hyperbolic relationship between power and time with critical power as the power-asymptote and the curvature constant denoted by W′. Critical power (CP) is a theoretical power output that can be sustained indefinitely by an individual, and the curvature constant (W′) represents the amount of work that can be done above CP. Different methods and models have been validated to determine CP and W′, most of which are algebraic manipulations of the two-parameter model. The models yield different CP and W′ estimates for the same data depending on the regression fit and rounding off approximations. These estimates, at the subject level, have an inherent day-to-day variability called intra-individual variability (IIV) associated with them, which is not captured by any of the existing methods. This calls for a need for new methods to arrive at the IIV associated with CP and W′. Furthermore, existing models focus on the expenditure of W′ for efforts above CP and do not model its recovery in the sub-CP domain. Thus, there is a need for methods and models that account for (i) the IIV to measure the effectiveness of individual training prescriptions and (ii) the recovery of W′ to aid human performance optimization.
      PubDate: 2019-12-27
  • Effect of Different Physical Training Forms on Change of Direction
           Ability: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Background The ability to perform a rapid change of direction (COD) is a critical skill in numerous court- and field-based sports. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of different physical training forms on COD performance. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the following databases: PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Google Scholar. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: (1) a COD test measuring performance before and after the training intervention, with specific description of the test in terms of length and number of changes in a direction with specified angles, (2) involve training intervention like plyometric, strength, sprint, specific COD training, or a combination of these training forms targeting the lower extremities, (3) the study had to state training background in terms of which sport they participated in and their competitive level and a detailed methodological description. Non-English articles were excluded. Percentage difference and effect sizes were calculated in order to compare the effects of different training interventions. Results A range of studies performing plyometrics, strength, sprint, specific COD training, training with post-activation potentiation or a combination of these training forms were examined. The percentage of change and effect size (ES) were calculated. Seventy-four studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 132 experimental groups and 1652 unique subjects. The review revealed no clear consensus on which training form is optimal to develop COD performance. All training forms resulted in an increase in performance from almost no ES to large ES. Conclusions The results of the study indicate that COD ability is a specific skill, whereas the COD task, the sports require determines which training form is the most effective to develop COD ability. Training targeting improvement in COD performance should address the duration of the training in line with which energy system is utilized. The complexity of the COD task with respect to the individual athlete must be considered. Consequently, the number of changes in direction and the angles of the task are relevant when organizing training.
      PubDate: 2019-12-19
  • Physical Activity Reduces Epilepsy Incidence: a Retrospective Cohort Study
           in Swedish Cross-Country Skiers and an Experimental Study in Seizure-Prone
           Synapsin II Knockout Mice

    • Abstract: Background Epilepsy patients commonly exercise less than the general population. Animal studies indicate beneficial effects of physical activity in established epilepsy, while its effect on the development is currently less known. Methods Here, we investigated the incidence of epilepsy during 20 years in a cohort of participants from the long-distance Swedish cross-country ski race Vasaloppet (n = 197,685) and compared it to the incidence of non-participating-matched controls included in the Swedish population register (n = 197,684). Individuals diagnosed with diseases such as stroke and epilepsy before entering the race were excluded from both groups. Experimentally, we also determined how physical activity could affect the development of epilepsy in epilepsy-prone synapsin II knockout mice (SynIIKO), with and without free access to a running wheel. Results We identified up to 40–50% lower incidence of epilepsy in the Vasaloppet participants of all ages before retirement. A lower incidence of epilepsy in Vasaloppet participants was seen regardless of gender, education and occupation level compared to controls. The participants included both elite and recreational skiers, and in a previous survey, they have reported a higher exercise rate than the general Swedish population. Sub-analyses revealed a significantly lower incidence of epilepsy in participants with a faster compared to slower finishing time. Dividing participants according to specified epilepsy diagnoses revealed 40–50% decrease in focal and unspecified epilepsy, respectively, but no differences in generalized epilepsy. Voluntary exercise in seizure-prone SynIIKO mice for 1 month before predicted epilepsy development decreased seizure manifestation from > 70 to 40%. Brain tissue analyses following 1 month of exercise showed increased hippocampal neurogenesis (DCX-positive cells), while microglial (Iba1) and astrocytic activation (GFAP), neuronal Map2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B intensity were unaltered. Continued exercise for additionally 2 months after predicted seizure onset in SynIIKO mice resulted in a 5-fold reduction in seizure manifestation (from 90 to 20%), while 2 months of exercise initiated at the time of predicted seizure development gave no seizure relief, suggesting exercise-induced anti-epileptogenic rather than anti-convulsive effect. Conclusion The clinical study and the experimental findings in mice indicate that physical activity may prevent or delay the development of epilepsy.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
  • The Challenge of Applying and Undertaking Research in Female Sport

    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years there has been an exponential rise in the professionalism and success of female sports. Practitioners (e.g., sport science professionals) aim to apply evidence-informed approaches to optimise athlete performance and well-being. Evidence-informed practices should be derived from research literature. Given the lack of research on elite female athletes, this is challenging at present. This limits the ability to adopt an evidence-informed approach when working in female sports, and as such, we are likely failing to maximize the performance potential of female athletes. This article discusses the challenges of applying an evidence base derived from male athletes to female athletes. A conceptual framework is presented, which depicts the need to question the current (male) evidence base due to the differences of the “female athlete” and the “female sporting environment,” which pose a number of challenges for practitioners working in the field. Until a comparable applied sport science research evidence base is established in female athletes, evidence-informed approaches will remain a challenge for those working in female sport.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Liver-Metabolizing Genes and Their Relationship to the Performance of
           Elite Spanish Male Endurance Athletes; a Prospective Transversal Study

    • Abstract: Background The genetic profile that is needed to define an endurance athlete has been studied during recent years. The main objective of this work is to approach for the first time the study of genetic variants in liver-metabolizing genes and their role in endurance performance by comparing the allelic and genotypic frequencies in elite endurance athletes to the non-athlete population. Methods Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined in 123 elite endurance athletes (75 professional road cyclists and 48 endurance elite runners) and 122 male non-athlete subjects (sedentary). Genotyping of cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6 (CYP2D6 rs3892097), glutathione-S transferase mu isoform 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP rs1695) and glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT) genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The combination of the polymorphisms for the “optimal” polygenic profile has been quantified using the genotype score (GS). Results Statistical differences were found in the genetic distributions between elite endurance athletes and non-athletes in CYP2D6 (p < 0.001) and GSTT (p = 0.014) genes. The binary logistic regression model showed a favourable OR (odds ratio) of being an elite endurance runner against a professional road cyclist (OR: 2.403, 95% CI: 1.213–4.760 (p = 0.002)) in the polymorphisms studied. Conclusions Genotypic distribution of liver-metabolizing genes in elite endurance athletes is different to non-athlete subjects, with a favourable gene profile in elite endurance athletes in terms of detoxification capacity.
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • The Biomechanics and Applications of Strongman Exercises: a Systematic

    • Abstract: Background The sport of strongman is becoming increasingly popular, catering for females, lightweight, and Masters competitors, with strongman exercises also being used by strength and conditioning coaches for a range of athletic groups. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to examine researchers’ current understanding of the biomechanics of strongman exercises, with a view to improve strongman athlete performance, provide biomechanical evidence supporting the transferability of strongman exercises to strength and conditioning/rehabilitation programs, and identify gaps in the current knowledge of the biomechanics of strongman exercises. Methods A two-level search term strategy was used to search five databases for studies relevant to strongman exercises and biomechanics. Results Eleven articles adherent to the inclusion criteria were returned from the search. The studies provided preliminary biomechanical analysis of various strongman exercises including the key biomechanical performance determinants of the farmer’s walk, heavy sled pull, and tire flip. Higher performing athletes in the farmer’s walk and heavy sled pull were characterized by a greater stride length and stride rate and reduced ground contact time, while higher performing athletes in the tire flip were characterized by a reduced second pull phase time when compared with lower performing athletes. Qualitative comparison of carrying/walking, pulling and static lifting strongman, traditional weight training exercises (TWTE), and common everyday activities (CEA), like loaded carriage and resisted sprinting, were discussed to further researchers’ understanding of the determinants of various strongman exercises and their applications to strength and conditioning practice. A lack of basic quantitative biomechanical data of the yoke walk, unilateral load carriage, vehicle pull, atlas stone lift and tire flip, and biomechanical performance determinants of the log lift were identified. Conclusions This review has demonstrated the likely applicability and benefit of current and future strongman exercise biomechanics research to strongman athletes and coaches, strength and conditioning coaches considering using strongman exercises in a training program, and tactical operators (e.g., military, army) and other manual labor occupations. Future research may provide a greater understanding of the biomechanical determinants of performance, potential training adaptations, and risks expected when performing and/or incorporating strongman exercises into strength and conditioning or injury rehabilitation programs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • Monitoring the Athlete Match Response: Can External Load Variables Predict
           Post-match Acute and Residual Fatigue in Soccer' A Systematic Review
           with Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Background Monitoring athletes’ external load during a soccer match may be useful to predict post-match acute and residual fatigue. This estimation would allow individual adjustments to training programs to minimize injury risk, improve well-being, and restore players’ physical performance and inform the recovery process. Methods Using a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, the aim is to determine which monitoring variables would be the strongest predictors of acute (immediately) and residual (up to 72 h) fatigue states in soccer. PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched (until September 2018). Studies concurrently examining soccer match-related external load metrics and subjective and/or objective measures were selected to determine pooled correlations (\( \overline{r} \)) with confidence intervals (CI). The quality and strength of the findings of each study were evaluated to identify overall levels of evidence. Results Eleven studies were included (n = 165 athletes). Acute (\( \overline{r} \) = 0.67; 95% CI = [0.40, 0.94]) and residual (24 h post-match, \( \overline{r} \) = 0.54; 95% CI = [0.35, 0.65]) changes in muscle damage markers and countermovement jump peak power output (CMJPPO) were, with moderate to strong evidence, largely correlated with running distance above 5.5 m s−1. No other external load metric was largely correlated with both biochemical and neuromuscular markers. For every 100-m run above 5.5 m·s−1, CK activity measured 24 h post-match increased by 30% and CMJPPO decreased by 0.5%. Conversely, the total distance covered did not present any evidence of a clear relationship with any fatigue-related marker at any time-point. Conclusions Running distance above 5.5 m·s−1 represents the most sensitive monitoring variable characterizing biochemical and neuromuscular responses, at least when assessed during the initial 24 h (not at 48 h/72 h) post-match recovery period. In addition, total distance covered is not sensitive enough to inform decision-making during the fatigue monitoring process.
      PubDate: 2019-12-09
  • Enhancing the value of accelerometer-assessed physical activity:
           meaningful visual comparisons of data-driven translational accelerometer

    • Abstract: Abstract The lack of consensus on meaningful and interpretable physical activity outcomes from accelerometer data hampers comparison across studies. Cut-point analyses are simple to apply and easy to interpret but can lead to results that are not comparable. We propose that the optimal accelerometer metrics for data analysis are not the same as the optimal metrics for translation. Ideally, analytical metrics are precise continuous variables that cover the intensity spectrum, while translational metrics facilitate meaningful, public-health messages and can be described in terms of activities (e.g. brisk walking) or intensity (e.g. moderate-to-vigorous physical activity). Two analytical metrics that capture the volume and intensity of the 24-h activity profile are average acceleration (volume) and intensity gradient (intensity distribution). These allow investigation of independent, additive and interactive associations of volume and intensity of activity with health; however, they are not immediately interpretable. The MX metrics, the acceleration above which the most active X minutes are accumulated, are translational metrics that can be interpreted in terms of indicative activities. Using a range of MX metrics illustrates the intensity gradient and average acceleration (i.e. 24-h activity profile). The M120, M60, M30, M15 and M5 illustrate the most active accumulated minutes of the day, the M1/3DAY the most active accumulated 8 h of the day. We demonstrate how radar plots of MX metrics can be used to interpret and translate results from between- and within-group comparisons, provide information on meeting guidelines, assess individual activity profiles relative to percentiles and compare activity profiles between domains and/or time periods.
      PubDate: 2019-12-05
  • Mental Health In Elite Athletes: Increased Awareness Requires An Early
           Intervention Framework to Respond to Athlete Needs

    • Abstract: Abstract The current ‘state of play’ in supporting elite athlete mental health and wellbeing has centred mostly on building mental health literacy or awareness of the signs of mental ill-health amongst athletes. Such awareness is necessary, but not sufficient to address the varied mental health needs of elite athletes. We call for a new model of intervention and outline the backbone of a comprehensive mental health framework to promote athlete mental health and wellbeing, and respond to the needs of athletes who are at-risk of developing, or already experiencing mental health symptoms or disorders. Early detection of, and intervention for, mental health symptoms is essential in the elite sporting context. Such approaches help build cultures that acknowledge that an athlete’s mental health needs are as important as their physical health needs, and that both are likely to contribute to optimising the athlete’s overall wellbeing in conjunction with performance excellence. The proposed framework aims at (i) helping athletes develop a range of self-management skills that they can utilise to manage psychological distress, (ii) equipping key stakeholders in the elite sporting environment (such as coaches, sports medicine and high-performance support staff) to better recognise and respond to concerns regarding an athlete’s mental health and (iii) highlighting the need for specialist multi-disciplinary teams or skilled mental health professionals to manage athletes with severe or complex mental disorders. Combined, these components ensure that elite athletes receive the intervention and support that they need at the right time, in the right place, with the right person.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
  • Acceptability, Feasibility and Preliminary Evaluation of a Novel,
           Personalised, Home-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Chronic Heart
           Failure (Active-at-Home-HF): a Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Purpose Less than 10% of heart failure patients in the UK participate in cardiac rehabilitation programmes. The present pilot study evaluated feasibility, acceptability and physiological effects of a novel, personalised, home-based physical activity intervention in chronic heart failure. Methods Twenty patients (68 ± 7 years old, 20% females) with stable chronic heart failure due to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (31 ± 8 %) participated in a single-group, pilot study assessing the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week personalised home-based physical activity intervention aiming to increase daily number of steps by 2000 from baseline (Active-at-Home-HF). Patients completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with non-invasive gas exchange and haemodynamic measurements and quality of life questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Patients were supported weekly via telephone and average weekly step count data collected using pedometers. Results Forty-three patients were screened and 20 recruited into the study. Seventeen patients (85%) completed the intervention, and 15 (75%) achieved the target step count. Average step count per day increased significantly from baseline to 3 weeks by 2546 (5108 ± 3064 to 7654 ± 3849, P = 0.03, n = 17) and was maintained until week 12 (9022 ± 3942). Following completion of the intervention, no adverse events were recorded and quality of life improved by 4 points (26 ± 18 vs. 22 ± 19). Peak exercise stroke volume increased by 19% (127 ± 34 vs. 151 ± 34 m/beat, P = 0.05), while cardiac index increased by 12% (6.8 ± 1.5 vs. 7.6 ± 2.0 L/min/m2, P = 0.19). Workload and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold also increased by 16% (49 ± 16 vs. 59 ± 14 watts, P = 0.01) and 10% (11.5 ± 2.9 vs. 12.8 ± 2.2 ml/kg/min, P = 0.39). Conclusion The Active-at-Home-HF intervention is feasible, acceptable and effective for increasing physical activity in CHF. It may lead to improvements in quality of life, exercise tolerance and haemodynamic function. Trial Registration NCT0367727. Retrospectively registered on 17 September 2018.
      PubDate: 2019-11-27
  • The Training and Development of Elite Sprint Performance: an Integration
           of Scientific and Best Practice Literature

    • Abstract: Abstract Despite a voluminous body of research devoted to sprint training, our understanding of the training process leading to a world-class sprint performance is limited. The objective of this review is to integrate scientific and best practice literature regarding the training and development of elite sprint performance. Sprint performance is heavily dependent upon genetic traits, and the annual within-athlete performance differences are lower than the typical variation, the smallest worthwhile change, and the influence of external conditions such as wind, monitoring methodologies, etc. Still, key underlying determinants (e.g., power, technique, and sprint-specific endurance) are trainable. In this review, we describe how well-known training principles (progression, specificity, variation/periodization, and individualization) and varying training methods (e.g., sprinting/running, technical training, strength/power, plyometric training) are used in a sprint training context. Indeed, there is a considerable gap between science and best practice in how training principles and methods are applied. While the vast majority of sprint-related studies are performed on young team sport athletes and focus on brief sprints with maximal intensity and short recoveries, elite sprinters perform sprinting/running over a broad range of distances and with varying intensity and recovery periods. Within best practice, there is a stronger link between choice of training component (i.e., modality, duration, intensity, recovery, session rate) and the intended purpose of the training session compared with the “one-size-fits-all” approach in scientific literature. This review provides a point of departure for scientists and practitioners regarding the training and development of elite sprint performance and can serve as a position statement for outlining state-of-the-art sprint training recommendations and for generation of new hypotheses to be tested in future research.
      PubDate: 2019-11-21
  • Smoothness: an Unexplored Window into Coordinated Running Proficiency

    • Abstract: Abstract Over the expanse of evolutionary history, humans, and predecessor Homo species, ran to survive. This legacy is reflected in many deeply and irrevocably embedded neurological and biological design features, features which shape how we run, yet were themselves shaped by running. Smoothness is a widely recognised feature of healthy, proficient movement. Nevertheless, although the term ‘smoothness’ is commonly used to describe skilled athletic movement within practical sporting contexts, it is rarely specifically defined, is rarely quantified and remains barely explored experimentally. Elsewhere, however, within various health-related and neuro-physiological domains, many manifestations of movement smoothness have been extensively investigated. Within this literature, smoothness is considered a reflection of a healthy central nervous system (CNS) and is implicitly associated with practiced coordinated proficiency; ‘non-smooth’ movement, in contrast, is considered a consequence of pathological, un-practiced or otherwise inhibited motor control. Despite the ubiquity of running across human cultures, however, and the apparent importance of smoothness as a fundamental feature of healthy movement control, to date, no theoretical framework linking the phenomenon of movement smoothness to running proficiency has been proposed. Such a framework could, however, provide a novel lens through which to contextualise the deep underlying nature of coordinated running control. Here, we consider the relevant evidence and suggest how running smoothness may integrate with other related concepts such as complexity, entropy and variability. Finally, we suggest that these insights may provide new means of coherently conceptualising running coordination, may guide future research directions, and may productively inform practical coaching philosophies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Retraction Note: Assessing cardiorespiratory fitness of soccer players: is
           test specificity the issue'–a review

    • Abstract: The editors have retracted this article [1] because it contains substantial text and figure overlap with the following articles [2–5].
      PubDate: 2019-10-17
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Heriot-Watt University
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