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SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)

Showing 1 - 81 of 81 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sports Medicine - Open
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2199-1170 - ISSN (Online) 2198-9761
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [262 journals]
  • Reducing Injuries in Soccer (Football): an Umbrella Review of Best
           Evidence Across the Epidemiological Framework for Prevention

    • Abstract: Abstract Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. Expectedly, the incidence of soccer-related injuries is high and these injuries exert a significant burden on individuals and families, including health and financial burdens, and on the socioeconomic and healthcare systems. Using established injury prevention frameworks, we present a concise synthesis of the most recent scientific evidence regarding injury rates, characteristics, mechanisms, risk and protective factors, interventions for prevention, and implementation of interventions in soccer. In this umbrella review, we elucidate the most recent available evidence gleaned primarily from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further, we express the exigent need to move current soccer injury prevention research evidence into action for improved player outcomes and widespread impact through increased attention to dissemination and implementation research. Additionally, we highlight the importance of an enabling context and effective implementation strategies for the successful integration of evidence-based injury prevention programs into real-world soccer settings. This narrative umbrella review provides guidance to inform future research, practice, and policy towards reducing injuries among soccer players.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21
  • The relationship between physical fitness attributes and sports injury in
           female, team ball sport players: a systematic review

    • Abstract: Background Understanding the relationships between physical fitness characteristics and sports injury may assist with the development of injury minimisation programs. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between physical fitness attributes and sports injury in female, team ball sport players. Methods Four scientific databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus) and reference lists of relevant research were searched for eligible studies up to September 2, 2019. Full-text articles examining the relationship between physical fitness and sports injury in female, team ball sport players were included. A modified Downs and Black checklist was used to assess methodological quality. Data synthesis determined summary conclusions based on the number of significant relationships divided by the total relationships investigated and reported as a percentage. Level of certainty was identified for summary conclusions based on level of evidence. Sub-analyses regarding competition level, age, and single injury types were also conducted. Results A total of 44 studies were included. Data synthesis revealed no associations (low to moderate certainty) between body composition (1/9; 11%), flexibility (18–20%), and balance (2/8; 25%) and ‘any injury’ classification. No associations (mostly of moderate certainty) were found between flexibility (0–27%), muscular strength (0–27%), and body composition (14–33%) and various body region injury classifications, whereas mixed summary conclusions were shown for balance (0-48%). Many associations between physical fitness and sports injury were deemed ‘unknown’ or with an insufficient level of certainty. Sub-analyses revealed no association between strength and noncontact ACL injuries (0/5; 0%) or ankle sprains (0/12; 0%), and between flexibility and ankle sprains (1/5; 20%); however, insufficient certainty of these results exists. Clear associations were concluded between balance and lower body injuries in female, non-elite (10/16; 63%) and junior (9/12; 75%) team ball sport players, with moderate and insufficient certainty of these results, respectively. Conclusion Limited evidence is available to demonstrate relationships between physical fitness and sports injury in female, team ball sport players. High-quality evidence investigating the multifactorial nature of sports injury, including the interactions physical fitness qualities have with other injury determinants, is needed to better understand the role of physical fitness in minimising sports injuries in female, team ball sport players. Trial Registration CRD42017077374 (PROSPERO on September 14, 2017).
      PubDate: 2020-09-14
  • An Investigation into the Relationship Between Heart Rate Recovery in
           Small-Sided Games and Endurance Performance in Male, Semi-professional
           Soccer Players

    • Abstract: Background The ability to recover in the shortest possible time plays an important role especially in intermittent sports such as soccer. Evidence suggests that a well-developed endurance performance has positive effects on the repeated-sprint ability and thus also on the short-term recovery. However, it has not been clarified whether these relationships still exist in a soccer-specific situation. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of semi-professional soccer players to recover during standardized small-sided games (SSGs) as an endurance performance indicator. Methods Eighteen male semi-professional soccer players (age, 23.5 ± 3.7 years) performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT) to determine their running velocity and heart rate at a fixed lactate threshold of 4 mmol L−1 (v4). Two days later, the players carried out six bouts of 4 vs. 4 SSGs (duration, 90 s; load to rest ratio, 1:1). A GPS-based tracking system was used to determine distances covered at four fixed speed zones (i.e., < 7.2 km/h, 7.2–14.4 km/h, 14.4–19.8 km/h, > 19.8 km/h) and total distance covered during the SSGs. Furthermore, the frequency of occurrence of accelerations (> 1.54 m s−2) was calculated. SSGs’ internal load was quantified by average heart rate and blood lactate concentration after the SSGs. Their recovery ability was evaluated using heart rate recovery (HRR) after the last bout of the SSGs. Results A very large correlation (r = − .91) with an explained variance of 84% was found between HRR and v4. Further, a better performance in the ITT was also related with a higher number of accelerations executed during SSGs (r = .60). The total distance and distances in predefined speed zones did not show any association to v4. Conclusions This study showed a strong relationship between HRR after standardized 4 vs. 4 SSGs and the soccer players’ endurance performance in a laboratory setting. Thus, besides being associated with endurance capacity, v4 seems sufficient to evaluate the sport-specific ability to recover in soccer players.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10
  • Reasons for and Consequences of Low Energy Availability in Female and Male
           Athletes: Social Environment, Adaptations, and Prevention

    • Abstract: Abstract Low energy availability (LEA) represents a state in which the body does not have enough energy left to support all physiological functions needed to maintain optimal health. When compared to the normal population, athletes are particularly at risk to experience LEA and the reasons for this are manifold. LEA may result from altered dietary behaviours that are caused by body dissatisfaction, the belief that a lower body weight will result in greater performance, or social pressure to look a certain way. Pressure can also be experienced from the coach, teammates, and in this day and age through social media platforms. While LEA has been extensively described in females and female athletes have started fighting against the pressure to be thin using their social media platforms, evidence shows that male athletes are at risk as well. Besides those obvious reasons for LEA, athletes engaging in sports with high energy expenditure (e.g. rowing or cycling) can unintentionally experience LEA; particularly, when the athletes’ caloric intake is not matched with exercise intensity. Whether unintentional or not, LEA may have detrimental consequences on health and performance, because both short-term and long-term LEA induces a variety of maladaptations such as endocrine alterations, suppression of the reproductive axis, mental disorders, thyroid suppression, and altered metabolic responses. Therefore, the aim of this review is to increase the understanding of LEA, including the role of an athlete’s social environment and the performance effects related to LEA.
      PubDate: 2020-09-10
  • Solar Ultraviolet Exposure in Individuals Who Perform Outdoor Sport

    • Abstract: Background Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA. Therefore, it is important to review the contribution of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to skin cancer in individuals with the highest risk. Documenting the relationship between outdoor sports solar ultraviolet exposure and their risk of skin cancer along with appropriate risk mitigation strategies can help inform clinicians of practical information for counseling sun protective behaviors in this population. Methods We conducted a review of the current evidence using PubMed to answer the following research questions: (1) How is ultraviolet radiation measured' (2) What is the modern utility of the ultraviolet index in modifying recreational sun protection behaviors' (3) What is the risk of developing skin cancer for outdoor sport participants' (4) What is the prevalence of skin cancer in sport participants' and (5) Is the number of nevi and solar lentigines elevated in outdoor sport participants' Results Based on the literature, individuals who practice outdoor sport-related activities receive high ultraviolet radiation exposure, have a high risk for skin cancer, have a high prevalence for pigmented lesions, and may benefit from electronic sun protection educational interventions. Conclusions Individuals who practice outdoor sports experience substantially higher ultraviolet radiation exposure, routinely exceed the recommended exposure limits, and are at a higher risk of developing skin cancer. Therefore, those who are frequently engaged in outdoor leisure activities should be coached about efficient sun protective practices and relevant mobile technologies that may facilitate adherence.
      PubDate: 2020-09-03
  • United States Under-19 Rugby-7s: Incidence and Nature of Match Injuries
           During a 5-year Epidemiological Study

    • Abstract: Background There is a lack of injury data for the new Olympic sport of Rugby-7s, particularly for involved youth. Objective To determine injury rates and characteristics for players participating in U.S. Rugby-7s U19 (under 19 years of age) tournaments. Methods Injury data were collected, using the Rugby Injury Survey & Evaluation report methodology, at 24 U.S. Rugby-7 s U19 tournaments over 30 tournament days (2010–2014). Tournament medical-attention injuries and time-loss injuries (days absent before return to training/competition including post tournament) were recorded. Results During the 2101 playing hours (3072 males, aged 17.2 ± 1.5 years; 732 females, 16.6 ± 1.3 years of age), there were 173 tournament injuries with an overall injury incidence of 82.4/1000 player-match-hours (ph) (CI 70.5–95.6). Acute injuries (79.5/1000 ph) occurred during tackling (56.2/1000 ph) and involved joints/ligaments (32.8/1000 ph) of lower extremities (31.9/1000 ph). Head and neck injuries, including concussions, were common (males 21.9/1000 ph; females 22.0/1000 ph). Medical-attention injury incidences (49.5/1000 ph; n = 104; 95% CI 40.5–60.0) were higher than time loss (32.8/1000 ph; n = 69; 95% CI 25.5–41.6). Overall, injury incidences found no difference between sex (RR 0.78; p = 0.369). Time-loss injuries resulted in an average of 35.5 d to return to sport. Discussion This study is the first to report match injury incidences for U19 participants in Rugby-7s. Overall, match injury incidence among U.S. U19 Rugby-7s tournaments was similar compared to adult U.S. community Rugby-7s. Recurrent injury risk was notable in this population. Community injury surveillance studies are essential to understand risk from participation in amateur sports. Knowledge of these injury patterns in U19 Rugby-7s will help identify areas to direct resources to enable growth of Rugby-7s in youths and emerging countries being exposed to Rugby-7 s. Age-based injury frequency and patterns in rugby and its various formats are needed for the development of evidence-based, sport-specific, and population-specific injury prevention initiatives. Conclusions The match injury incidence of U19 participants in U.S. Rugby-7s was similar to the incidence among adult participants. Recurrent match injury risk was high at 23%. There were no significant differences in injury incidences between males and females. The first three matches of a tournament day result in the most injuries.
      PubDate: 2020-08-27
  • Muscle-strengthening Exercise Epidemiology: a New Frontier in Chronic
           Disease Prevention

    • Abstract: Abstract This current opinion provides an overview of the emerging discipline of muscle-strengthening exercise epidemiology. First, we define muscle-strengthening exercise, and discuss its recent addition into the global physical activity guidelines, which were historically mainly focused on aerobic physical activity (walking, running, cycling etc.). Second, we provide an overview of the current clinical and epidemiological evidence on the associations between muscle-strengthening exercise and health, showing a reduced mortality risk, and beneficial cardiometabolic, musculoskeletal, functional and mental health-related outcomes. Third, we describe the latest epidemiological research on the assessment, prevalence, trends and correlates of muscle-strengthening exercise. An overview of recent population estimates suggests that the proportion of adults meeting the current muscle-strengthening exercise guideline (10-30%; ≥ 2 sessions/week) is far lower than adults reporting meeting the aerobic exercise guideline (~ 50%; ≥ 150 min/week). Fourth, we discuss the complexity of muscle-strengthening exercise promotion, highlighting the need for concurrent, coordinated, and multiple-level strategies to increase population-level uptake/adherence of this exercise modality. Last, we explore key research gaps and strategies that will advance the field of muscle-strengthening exercise epidemiology. Our objective is to provide a case for increased emphasis on the role of muscle-strengthening exercise for chronic disease prevention, and most importantly, stimulate more research in this currently understudied area of physical activity epidemiology.
      PubDate: 2020-08-26
  • The Influence of Exercise-Induced Fatigue on Inter-Limb Asymmetries: a
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background Non-contact injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament ruptures often occur during physical load toward the end of a match. This is ascribed to emerging processes due to exercise-induced fatigue. Moreover, non-contact injuries often occur during dynamic actions such as landing or cutting movements. Inter-limb asymmetries are suggested as one possible cause for those injuries based on findings indicating that asymmetries between limbs are associated with a higher injury risk. Hence, assessing inter-limb asymmetry during physical load in the condition of exercise-induced fatigue is warranted to identify potentially relevant precursors for non-contact injuries. Objective The objective of this study was to overview the current state of evidence concerning the influence of exercise-induced fatigue on inter-limb asymmetries through a systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using the databases Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, SURF, and SPONET to identify studies that assessed inter-limb asymmetries of healthy people, calculated with an asymmetry equation, before and after, or during a loading protocol. Results Thirteen studies were included in the systematic review. The loading protocols involved running, race walking, jumping, squatting, soccer, rowing, and combinations of different exercises. Moreover, different tasks/procedures were used to assess inter-limb asymmetries, e.g., squats, single-leg countermovement jumps, gait analysis, or isokinetic strength testing. The results seem to depend on the implemented loading protocol, the tasks/procedures, and the measured parameters. Conclusions Future research needs more systematization and consistency, assessing the effect of exercise-induced fatigue on inter-limb asymmetries. Moreover, the emergence of inter-limb asymmetries should be regarded in the context of sport-specific movements/tasks. Testing before, after, and during a physical loading protocol is advisable to consider the influence of exercise-induced fatigue on sport-specific tasks and to identify the possible mechanisms underlying load-dependent inter-limb asymmetries with regard to risk of non-contact injury.
      PubDate: 2020-08-26
  • Assessment of exercise-induced stress by automated measurement of salivary
           cortisol concentrations within the circadian rhythm in Japanese female
           long-distance runners

    • Abstract: Background Overtraining syndrome, caused by prolonged excessive stress, results in reduced performance and cortisol responsiveness in athletes. It is necessary to collect saliva samples sequentially within circadian rhythm for assessing exercise stress by measuring cortisol concentrations, and automated cortisol measurements using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) may be useful for measuring a large number of saliva samples. In this study, we evaluated the appropriate use of cortisol-based exercise stress assessment within the circadian rhythm, which may diagnose and prevent overtraining syndrome in athletes. Methods We collected saliva and sera from 54 healthy participants and analyzed the correlation between salivary cortisol concentrations measured by ECLIA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or serum cortisol analysis. We also collected saliva continuously from 12 female long-distance runners on 2 consecutive days involving different intensities and types of exercise early in the morning and in the afternoon and measured salivary cortisol concentrations using ECLIA. Each exercise intensity of runners was measured by running velocities, Borg Scale score, and rate of change in the pulse rate by exercise. Results ECLIA-based salivary cortisol concentrations correlated positively with those detected by ELISA (ρ = 0.924, p < 0.001) and serum cortisol (ρ = 0.591, p = 0.001). In long-distance runners, circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol, including the peak after waking and the decrease promptly thereafter, were detected on both days by continuous saliva sampling. The rates of change in salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly lower after an early morning exercise than after an afternoon exercise on both days (day 1, p = 0.002, and day 2, p = 0.003). In the early morning exercise, the rate of change in salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2 (p = 0.034), similar to a significant difference in running velocities (p = 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that automated ECLIA-based salivary cortisol measurements are able to detect the athletes’ circadian rhythm and compare the exercise stress intensities at the same times on different days, even in the early morning, possibly leading to the prevention of overtraining syndrome.
      PubDate: 2020-08-17
  • The effect of exercise on baseline SCAT5 performance in male professional
           Rugby players

    • Abstract: Background Rugby Union requires annual baseline testing using the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT5) as part of its head injury assessment protocols. Scores achieved during baseline testing are used to guide return-to-play decisions at the time of head impact events during matches, and concussion diagnosis during subsequent diagnostic screens. Baseline values must be valid, accurate representations of a player’s capability in the various SCAT5 sub-modes, including symptom report, cognitive function and balance. The extent to which prior exercise may affect performance is an important consideration, and the present cross-sectional study aimed to explore how SCAT5 performance differs when assessed at rest (RSCAT) compared to after 30 min of exercise (EXSCAT) in 698 male professional rugby players for whom paired exercise and rest SCAT5 data were available. Results Symptom endorsement was greater when assessed after exercise than at rest. Fatigue/Low energy was 1.5 times more likely to be reported when assessed during EXSCAT. Orientation score was improved during SCAT5s performed after exercise, but only when rest and exercise SCAT5s were conducted on the same day, suggesting a learning effect. Concentration score was impaired during EXSCAT. No other cognitive sub-modes were affected by exercise. Total errors during Modified Balance Error Scoring System (MBESS) increased during EXSCAT, as a result of increased errors made during single leg balance, irrespective of testing sequence, with 42% of players making more errors in EXSCAT, compared to 28% making more errors in RSCAT. Conclusions Symptoms, cognitive sub-modes and balance sub-modes are all affected by exercise. These may be the result of learning effects that improve cognitive performance, and the direct effects of exercise on sub-mode performance. The clinical implications of these changes may be assessed in the future through a study of diagnostic screens in players after head impact events, to confirm whether an exercise baseline screen is required annually, or whether specific sub-modes of the SCAT5 should be obtained at rest and after exercise.
      PubDate: 2020-08-15
  • Theory to Practice: Performance Preparation Models in Contemporary
           High-Level Sport Guided by an Ecological Dynamics Framework

    • Abstract: Abstract A fundamental challenge for practitioners in high-level sporting environments concerns how to support athletes in adapting behaviours to solve emergent problems during competitive performance. Guided by an ecological dynamics framework, the design and integration of competitive performance preparation models that place athlete-environment interactions at the heart of the learning process may address this challenge. This ecological conceptualisation of performance preparation signifies a shift in a coach’s role; evolving from a consistent solution provider to a learning environment designer who fosters local athlete-environment interactions. However, despite the past decades of research within the ecological dynamics framework developing an evidence-based, theoretical conceptualisation of skill acquisition, expertise and talent development, an ongoing challenge resides within its practical integration into sporting environments. This article provides two case examples in which high-level sports organisations have utilised an ecological dynamics framework for performance preparation in Australian football and Association Football. A unique perspective is offered on experiences of professional sport organisations attempting to challenge traditional ideologies for athlete performance preparation by progressing the theoretical application of ecological dynamics. These case examples intend to promote the sharing of methodological ideas to improve athlete development, affording opportunities for practitioners and applied scientists to accept, reject or adapt the approaches presented here to suit their specific ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2020-08-14
  • Collateral Health Issues Derived from the Covid-19 Pandemic

    • PubDate: 2020-08-08
  • Reliability of a Robotic Knee Testing Tool to Assess Rotational Stability
           of the Knee Joint in Healthy Female and Male Volunteers

    • Abstract: Background Several clinical tests exist to assess knee laxity. Although these assessments are the predominant tools of diagnosis, they are subjective and rely on the experience of the clinician. The robotic knee testing (RKT) device has been developed to quantitatively and objectively measure rotational knee laxity. The purpose of this study was primarily to determine the intra-tester reliability of rotational knee laxity and slack, the amount of rotation occurring between the two turning points of the load deformation curve, measured by the RKT device and investigate the differences between female and male measurements. Methods Ninety-one healthy and moderately active volunteers took part in the study, of which twenty-five participated in the reliability study. Tibial rotation was performed using a servomotor to a torque of 6 N m, while measurements of motion in all 6° of freedom were collected. Reliability measurements were collected over 5 days at similar times of the day. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values and standard error of measurement (SEM) were determined across the load deformation curves. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to further assess the reliability of the measurement of external and internal tibial rotation using features of the curve (internal/external rotational laxity and slack). Measurements of internal/external rotational laxity and slack were compared between the sexes using the Student t test. Results Pointwise axial rotation measurements of the tibia had good reliability [ICC (2,1) 0.83–0.89], while reliability of the secondary motions ranged between poor and good [ICC (2,1) 0.31–0.89]. All SEMs were less than 0.3°. Most of the variation of the curve features were accounted for by inter-subject differences (56.2–77.8%) and showed moderate to good reliability. Comparison of the right legs of the sexes revealed that females had significantly larger amounts of internal rotation laxity (females 6.1 ± 1.3° vs males 5.6 ± 0.9°, p = 0.037), external rotation laxity (females 6.0 ± 1.6° vs males 5.0 ± 1.2°, p = 0.002) and slack (females 19.2 ± 4.2° vs males 16.6 ± 2.9°, p = 0.003). Similar results were seen within the left legs. Conclusions Overall, the RKT is a reliable and precise tool to assess the rotational laxity of the knee joint in healthy individuals. Finally, greater amounts of laxity and slack were also reported for females.
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
  • Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Responses to Training in Adolescent
           Athletes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Background Several studies have highlighted the substantial role of the athlete’s redox and inflammation status during the training process. However, many factors such as differences in testing protocols, assays, sample sizes, and fitness levels of the population are affecting findings and the understanding regarding how exercise affects related biomarkers in adolescent athletes. Objectives To search redox homeostasis variables’ and inflammatory mediators’ responses in juvenile athletes following short- or long-term training periods and examine the effect size of those variations to training paradigms. Methods A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The entire content of PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, and Science Direct were systematically searched until December 2019. Studies with outcomes including (1) a group of adolescent athletes from any individual or team sport, (2) the assessment of redox and/or inflammatory markers after a short- (training session or performance testing) or longer training period, and (3) variables measured in blood were retained. The literature search initially identified 346 potentially relevant records, of which 36 studies met the inclusion criteria for the qualitative synthesis. From those articles, 27 were included in the quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) as their results could be converted into common units. Results Following a short training session or performance test, an extremely large increase in protein carbonyls (PC) (ES 4.164; 95% CI 1.716 to 6.613; Z = 3.333, p = 0.001), a large increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (ES 1.317; 95% CI 0.522 to 2.112; Z = 3.247, p = 0.001), a large decrease in glutathione (GSH) (ES − 1.701; 95% CI − 2.698 to − 0.705; Z = − 3.347, p = 0.001), and a moderate increase of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level (ES 1.057; 95% CI − 0.044 to 2.158; Z = 1.882, p = 0.060) were observed. Following more extended training periods, GSH showed moderate increases (ES 1.131; 95% CI 0.350 to 1.913; Z = 2.839, p = 0.005) while TBARS displayed a small decrease (ES 0.568; 95% CI − 0.062 to 1.197; Z = 1.768, p = 0.077). Regarding cytokines, a very large and large increase were observed in IL-6 (ES 2.291; 95% CI 1.082 to 3.501; Z = 3.713, p = 0.000) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) (ES 1.599; 95% CI 0.347 to 2.851; Z = 2.503, p = 0.012), respectively, following short-duration training modalities in juvenile athletes. Conclusions The results showed significant alterations in oxidative stress and cytokine levels after acute exercise, ranging from moderate to extremely large. In contrast, the variations after chronic exercise ranged from trivial to moderate. However, the observed publication bias and high heterogeneity in specific meta-analysis advocate the need for further exploration and consistency when we deal with the assessed variables to ascertain the implications of structured training regimes on measured variables in order to develop guidelines for training, nutritional advice, and wellbeing in young athletes. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42020152105
      PubDate: 2020-08-03
  • The Influence, Barriers to and Facilitators of Anterior Cruciate Ligament
           Rehabilitation Adherence and Participation: a Scoping Review

    • Abstract: Background Outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are considered poor. There are many factors which may influence patient outcomes. As such, the purpose of this review was to report on the influence, barriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation adherence and participation after ACL reconstruction, providing information to help clinicians and patients make quality decisions to facilitate successful rehabilitation. Methods A systematic search of five electronic databases was undertaken in identifying studies from inception to 18 July 2019. The search included English language articles reporting on the influence, barriers to and facilitators of adherence and participation in rehabilitation of patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Data extraction and synthesis of included studies were undertaken. Results Full text articles (n = 180) were assessed for eligibility following screening of titles and abstracts (n = 1967), yielding 71 studies for inclusion. Forty-four articles investigated ‘rehabilitation prescription and participation’ and 36 articles investigated ‘rehabilitation barriers and facilitators’. The results indicate that a moderately or minimally supervised rehabilitation program is at least as effective as a fully supervised high-frequency rehabilitation program, although a longer duration of supervised rehabilitation is associated with improvement in a multitude of functional outcomes. A number of psychological factors associated with rehabilitation adherence were also identified. The most commonly investigated concepts were self-motivation, athletic identity and social support. Patients perceived the therapeutic relationship, interaction with family and friends, self-motivation, fear of reinjury, organisation/lack of time and interpersonal comparison as the most common barriers to and facilitators of rehabilitation. Conclusions A longer duration of supervised rehabilitation is associated with an increased chance of meeting functional and return to sport criteria; however, the optimal supervised rehabilitation frequency is yet to be determined. Identification of the barriers to and facilitators of adherence and participation in ACL rehabilitation provides an opportunity for further research to be conducted to address personal, environmental and treatment-related factors, with the aim to improve rehabilitation outcomes.
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
  • Test–Retest Reliability of the One-Repetition Maximum (1RM) Strength
           Assessment: a Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background The test–retest reliability of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test varies across different studies. Given the inconsistent findings, it is unclear what the true reliability of the 1RM test is, and to what extent it is affected by measurement-related factors, such as exercise selection for the test, the number of familiarization trials and resistance training experience. Objectives The aim of this paper was to review studies that investigated the reliability of the 1RM test of muscular strength and summarize their findings. Methods The PRISMA guidelines were followed for this systematic review. Searches for studies were conducted through eight databases. Studies that investigated test–retest reliability of the 1RM test and presented intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and/or coefficient of variation (CV) were included. The COSMIN checklist was used for the assessment of the methodological quality of the included studies. Results After reviewing 1024 search records, 32 studies (pooled n = 1595) on test–retest reliability of 1RM assessment were found. All the studies were of moderate or excellent methodological quality. Test–retest ICCs ranged from 0.64 to 0.99 (median ICC = 0.97), where 92% of ICCs were ≥ 0.90, and 97% of ICCs were ≥ 0.80. The CVs ranged from 0.5 to 12.1% (median CV = 4.2%). ICCs were generally high (≥ 0.90), and most CVs were low (< 10%) for 1RM tests: (1) among those without and for those with some resistance training experience, (2) conducted with or without familiarization sessions, (3) with single-joint or multi-joint exercises, (4) for upper- and lower-body strength assessment, (5) among females and males, and (6) among young to middle-aged adults and among older adults. Most studies did not find systematic changes in test results between the trials. Conclusions Based on the results of this review, it can be concluded that the 1RM test generally has good to excellent test–retest reliability, regardless of resistance training experience, number of familiarization sessions, exercise selection, part of the body assessed (upper vs. lower body), and sex or age of participants. Researchers and practitioners, therefore, can use the 1RM test as a reliable test of muscular strength.
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
  • The Impact of Health Consciousness on the Association Between Walking
           Durations and Mental Health Conditions After a Disaster: a Cross-Sectional

    • Abstract: Background In communities affected by a disaster, walking can be a feasible form of physical exercise to improve physical and mental health conditions. However, there is limited evidence to support relationships between walking habits and mental health conditions in post-disaster settings. Cross-sectional epidemiological data obtained from a questionnaire survey (conducted in October 2017) of a community affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) was analyzed to evaluate the relationships. Methods Participants included individuals over 20 years of age (N = 718) from Shichigahama town in Miyagi prefecture, whose houses were significantly damaged by the GEJE. Their mental health conditions were assessed by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, the questionnaire asked the participants spent duration walking on average and their walking purpose by the following items: (1) longer than 60 min per day, (2) between 30 and 60 min per day, or (3) less than 30 min per day, and whether they walked to maintain healthy living habits (health-conscious walkers) or merely for transportation without considering health consequences (non-health-conscious walkers). These information and mental health indicators were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Among the three walking duration groups of health-conscious walkers, there were significant differences in CES-D and K6 scores (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04), but not in IES-R scores, considering age, gender, and alcohol drinking habits as covariates. CES-D score was significantly higher among short walkers (p = 0.004). Among the three walking duration groups of non-health-conscious walkers, there were significant differences in avoidance symptoms, the subdomain of IES-R (p = 0.01), but not in CES-D, K6, and total IES-R scores, considering the variants. Conclusion Our study suggests that walking durations may positively affect mood, but not PTSR, only when walking is performed with the purpose of maintaining healthy living habits. Walking durations were negatively associated with avoidance symptoms among non-health-conscious walkers in the community affected by the GEJE, indicating that the disaster may have had a long-lasting impact on walking habits.
      PubDate: 2020-07-16
  • Should Heartbeats/Training Session Be Considered When Comparing the
           Cardiovascular Benefits of High-Intensity Interval Aerobic and
           Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training' A Critical Appraisal

    • Abstract: Abstract The prescription of physical training as a therapeutic measure in the treatment and control of chronic degenerative diseases, mainly cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, is an increasingly used clinical approach, often preceding the pharmacological prescription. Despite the advances in exercise physiology and cardio functional performance in recent decades, the main challenge is to identify the most appropriate modality, intensity, and training volume for each pathophysiological situation. In this case, the superiority of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) over moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been questioned, since many studies have shown similar results in the different physiological parameters evaluated, especially regarding cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular autonomic control, and cardiac morpho functionality. The cause of conflicting results observed by different studies may be related to standardization, application, and comparison of the two protocols. HIIT would have a higher number of heartbeats compared to MICT, when maintaining high heart rate is disregarded. In this since, our hypothesis for the greatest gains in cardiorespiratory fitness and in the autonomic and cardiovascular adaptations promoted by HIIT is based on the higher volume of training performed as a function of the higher number of heartbeats per unit of time, since the intermittence was calculated based on a percentage of maximum heart rate or reserve heart rate. Nevertheless, the intermittency between the established heart rate percentages is not necessarily accompanied by the intermittent heart rate. Therefore, considering and matching the number of heartbeats performed per training session in both models seems to be a more appropriate way to compare the two training protocols.
      PubDate: 2020-07-15
  • Training or Synergizing' Complex Systems Principles Change the
           Understanding of Sport Processes

    • Abstract: Abstract There is a need to update scientific assumptions in sport to promote the critical thinking of scientists, coaches, and practitioners and improve their methodological decisions. On the basis of complex systems science and theories of biological evolution, a systematization and update of theoretical and methodological principles to transform the understanding of sports training is provided. The classical focus on learning/acquiring skills and fitness is replaced by the aim of increasing the diversity/unpredictability potential of teams/athletes through the development of synergies. This development is underpinned by the properties of hierarchical organization and circular causality of constraints, that is, the nestedness of constraints acting at different levels and timescales. These properties, that integrate bottom-up and top-down all dimensions and levels of performance (from social to genetic), apply to all types of sport, ages, or levels of expertise and can be transferred to other fields (e.g., education, health, management). The team as the main training unit of intervention, the dynamic concept of task representativeness, and the co-adaptive and synergic role of the agents are some few practical consequences of moving from training to synergizing.
      PubDate: 2020-07-13
  • Cannabidiol and Sports Performance: a Narrative Review of Relevant
           Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research

    • Abstract: Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa. CBD initially drew scientific interest due to its anticonvulsant properties but increasing evidence of other therapeutic effects has attracted the attention of additional clinical and non-clinical populations, including athletes. Unlike the intoxicating cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), CBD is no longer prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency and appears to be safe and well-tolerated in humans. It has also become readily available in many countries with the introduction of over-the-counter “nutraceutical” products. The aim of this narrative review was to explore various physiological and psychological effects of CBD that may be relevant to the sport and/or exercise context and to identify key areas for future research. As direct studies of CBD and sports performance are is currently lacking, evidence for this narrative review was sourced from preclinical studies and a limited number of clinical trials in non-athlete populations. Preclinical studies have observed robust anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and analgesic effects of CBD in animal models. Preliminary preclinical evidence also suggests that CBD may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with inflammation and promote healing of traumatic skeletal injuries. However, further research is required to confirm these observations. Early stage clinical studies suggest that CBD may be anxiolytic in “stress-inducing” situations and in individuals with anxiety disorders. While some case reports indicate that CBD improves sleep, robust evidence is currently lacking. Cognitive function and thermoregulation appear to be unaffected by CBD while effects on food intake, metabolic function, cardiovascular function, and infection require further study. CBD may exert a number of physiological, biochemical, and psychological effects with the potential to benefit athletes. However, well controlled, studies in athlete populations are required before definitive conclusions can be reached regarding the utility of CBD in supporting athletic performance.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
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Heriot-Watt University
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