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SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.107
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1941-7381 - ISSN (Online) 1941-0921
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1085 journals]
  • Striking a Balance
    • Authors: Edward M. Wojtys
      Pages: 10 - 11
      Abstract: Sports Health, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 10-11, January/February 2020.

      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2020-01-01T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119889627
  • The Demographics of Fractures and Dislocations Across the Entire United
           States due to Common Sports and Recreational Activities
    • Authors: Cory Meixner, Randall T. Loder
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:There exists little nationwide data regarding fracture and dislocation patterns across a wide variety of sporting activities for all ages and sexes.Hypothesis:Participant demographics (age and sex) will vary with regard to fracture and joint dislocation sustained during sport-related activities.Study Design:Descriptive epidemiology study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program data 2005 through 2013 were accessed; 18 common sports and recreational activities in the United States were selected. Statistical software was used to calculate the numbers of fractures and dislocations, and incidence was calculated using US Census Bureau data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined the odds ratios (ORs) for the occurrence of a fracture or dislocation.Results:A fracture occurred in 20.6% and a joint dislocation in 3.6% of the emergency department visits for sports-related injuries; annual emergency department visit incidence was 1.51 for fractures and 0.27 for dislocations (per 1000 people). Most of the fractures occurred in football (22.5%). The OR for fracture was highest for inline skating (OR, 6.03), males (OR, 1.21), Asians, whites, and Amerindians compared with blacks (OR, 1.46, 1.25, and 1.18, respectively), and those older than 84 years (OR, 4.77). Most of the dislocations occurred in basketball (25.7%). The OR for dislocation was highest in gymnastics (OR, 4.08), males (OR, 1.50), Asians (OR, 1.75), and in those aged 20 to 24 years (OR, 9.04). The most common fracture involved the finger, and the most common dislocation involved the shoulder.Conclusion:Inline skating had the greatest risk for fracture, and gymnastics has the greatest risk for joint dislocation.Clinical Relevance:This comprehensive study of the risks of sustaining a fracture or dislocation from common sports activities across all age groups can aid sports health providers in a better understanding of those sports at high risk and be proactive in prevention mechanisms (protective gear, body training).
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-22T04:10:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119882930
  • Targeted Treatment Protocol in Patellofemoral Pain: Does Treatment
           Designed According to Subgroups Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients
           Unresponsive to Multimodal Treatment'
    • Authors: Hayri Baran Yosmaoğlu, James Selfe, Emel Sonmezer, İlknur Ezgi Sahin, Senay Çerezci Duygu, Manolya Acar Ozkoslu, Jim Richards, Jessica Janssen
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Targeted intervention for subgroups is a promising approach for the management of patellofemoral pain.Hypothesis:Treatment designed according to subgroups will improve clinical outcomes in patients unresponsive to multimodal treatment.Study Design:Prospective crossover intervention.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP; n = 61; mean age, 27 ± 9 years) were enrolled. Patients with PFP received standard multimodal treatment 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Patients not responding to multimodal treatment were then classified into 1 of 3 subgroups (strong, weak and tight, and weak and pronated foot) using 6 simple clinical tests. They were subsequently administered 6 further weeks of targeted intervention, designed according to subgroup characteristics. Visual analog scale (VAS), perception of recovery scale (PRS), 5-Level European Quality 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-5L), and self-reported version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs scale (S-LANSS) were used to assess pain, knee function, and quality of life before and after the interventions.Results:In total, 34% (n = 21) of patients demonstrated recovery after multimodal treatment. However, over 70% (n = 29/40) of nonresponders demonstrated recovery after targeted treatment. The VAS, PRS, S-LANSS, and EQ-5D-5L scores improved significantly after targeted intervention compared with after multimodal treatment (P < 0.001). The VAS score at rest was significantly lower in the “weak and pronated foot” and the “weak and tight” subgroups (P = 0.011 and P = 0.008, respectively). Posttreatment pain intensity on activity was significantly lower in the “strong” subgroup (P = 0.006).Conclusion:Targeted treatment designed according to subgroup characteristics improves clinical outcomes in patients unresponsive to multimodal treatment.Clinical Relevance:Targeted intervention could be easily implemented after 6 simple clinical assessment tests to subgroup patients into 1 of 3 subgroups (strong, weak and tight, and weak and pronated foot). Targeted interventions applied according to the characteristics of these subgroups have more beneficial treatment effects than a current multimodal treatment program.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-21T04:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119883272
  • Management of Athletes With G6PD Deficiency: Does Missing an Enzyme Mean
           Missing More Games'
    • Authors: Shane N. Stone, Karl V. Reisig, Heather L. Saffel, Christopher M. Miles
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Context:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is likely the most prevalent enzyme deficiency on the planet, with an estimated 4.9% of people, or approximately 330 million individuals, across the globe affected by the disease. In the United States, 4-7% of the population is likely affected, but each year our nation’s major sport leagues become more international. It is important for medical professionals who treat athletes to understand how this genetic condition can affect the athletes we are working with, especially because exercise in itself results in oxidative stress.Evidence Acquisition:PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1980 to 2018. The search terms G6PD, athletes, military, and sports were used.Study Design:Clinical review.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Results:Though some case reports suggest a potential impact on athlete safety and performance, controlled studies demonstrate limited impact of exercise on oxidative stress in G6PD-deficient individuals. The care of athletes with G6PD deficiency does not drastically differ from the care of athletes without this condition. Most of the medications and supplements that are regularly given to athletes should not negatively affect their health.Conclusion:Although the care of athletes with G6PD deficiency is for the most part no different from the care of other athletes, there are certain situations (visiting areas where malaria is endemic) and medications for which it is important to recognize how your management should change. G6PD deficiency is not regularly screened for but could be considered if an athlete has known sickle cell disease or when traveling to areas where malaria is prevalent. Expanding our knowledge of G6PD deficiency will allow for better care of athletes.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T02:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119877177
  • Effect of Injury Prevention Programs on Lower Extremity Performance in
           Youth Athletes: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Colleen Hanlon, Joseph J. Krzak, Janey Prodoehl, Kathy D. Hall
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Understanding how existing youth injury prevention programs affect specific, modifiable injury risk factors will inform future program development for youth athletes.Objective:To comprehensively evaluate the effects of injury prevention programs on the modifiable intrinsic risk factors associated with lower extremity performance in youth athletes.Data Sources:This systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A systematic search of the literature was performed using multiple databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost [including CINAHL, Medline, and SPORTDiscus] and PEDro). Secondary references were appraised for relevant articles. Article types included randomized or cluster randomized controlled trials and randomized cohort design with youth athletes engaged in organized sports, along with outcomes that included at least 1 physical performance outcome measure.Study Selection:Eight studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers with a third consulted in the case of disagreement, which was not needed.Study Design:Systematic review.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Data Extraction:Included studies underwent review of methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale.Results:The studies included mixed-sex samples of youth athletes who predominantly participated in soccer at different skill levels. The FIFA 11+ series was the most commonly used program. Among studies, the mean percentage of improvement was identified in force generation (11.3%), coordination (5.7%), posture (5.2%), and balance (5.2%). The lowest mean percentage improvement was in speed (2.2%). Endurance was not significantly affected by any of the programs.Conclusion:This systematic review showed that injury prevention programs improve several modifiable intrinsic risk factors of lower extremity performance among youth athletes, particularly force generation. However, several intrinsic risk factors were either not significantly affected or specifically addressed by existing programs.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-08-07T08:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119861117
  • Associations Between the Physical Activity Vital Sign and Cardiometabolic
           Risk Factors in High-Risk Youth and Adolescents
    • Authors: Vicki R. Nelson, Robert V. Masocol, Irfan M. Asif
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The physical activity vital sign (PAVS) is a simple, validated tool for assessing physical activity in adults that has not been previously studied in pediatrics.Hypothesis:Reported physical activity utilizing the PAVS in pediatric patients should vary according to known associations with physical activity, such as age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI).Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:All patients within a family medicine residency clinic were assessed via the PAVS from October 1, 2015, to October 31, 2016, including 255 consecutive pediatric patients aged 5 to 18 years. Associations were examined between PAVS, age, sex, blood pressure, and BMI using 1-way analysis of variance.Results:The average PAVS reported for youth (5-11 years) was 384.9 ± 218.1 minutes per week, with 69.5% reporting sufficient physical activity (≥300 minutes per week). Adolescents (12-18 years) reported a mean PAVS of 278.3 ± 199.6 minutes per week, with 51.1% reporting sufficient physical activity. Physical activity was lower in older participants (P < 0.0001) and was higher in male patients (P < 0.03). Higher BMI was associated with lower PAVS (P < 0.005), while lower systolic blood pressure was associated with a greater number of days per week of physical activity (P < 0.005).Conclusion:The PAVS successfully identifies accepted associations between age, sex, and BMI in a pediatric population.Clinical Relevance:The correlation of the PAVS with age, sex, BMI, and blood pressure may inform future strategies to address and prevent cardiometabolic disease in pediatric patients.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-11T10:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119884083
  • Weight Gain After ACL Reconstruction in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients
    • Authors: Elle M. MacAlpine, Divya Talwar, Eileen P. Storey, Scott M. Doroshow, J. Todd R. Lawrence
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Adolescent athletes who sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear have significantly reduced activity levels during recovery. Activity level is linked to body mass index (BMI); however, it is unclear how recovery from an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) affects relative BMI and if these changes persist after return to activity.Hypothesis:Patients’ BMI percentile will significantly increase after ACLR, but will trend toward baseline after return to activity.Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:A retrospective review of 666 pediatric and adolescent patients who underwent ACLR was performed. Body mass was assessed by evaluating change in BMI percentile at 8 standard-of-care time windows relative to BMI percentile at time of surgery. Linear regression, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were used to assess the effect of time window and other demographic factors on the change in BMI percentile. These analyses were rerun after dividing patients by clinical obesity categorization (underweight, normal, overweight, or obese) at time of surgery to assess the effect of preinjury body-mass levels.Results:BMI percentile of all BMI categories tended to increase postoperatively, peaking 6 to 9 months after surgery with a median increase of 1.83 percentile points. After this peak, BMI approached baseline but remained elevated at 0.95 percentile points 2 years postoperatively. Beginning 3 months after surgery, the normal-weight group had significantly larger changes in BMI percentile at each time window, peaking at 4.15 points above baseline at 9 months. This BMI increase among normal-weight patients persisted in the second postoperative year with a median percentile increase of 2.63 points.Conclusion:Pediatric and adolescent patients, especially those with a normal BMI, undergo significant changes to their BMI during recovery from ACLR.Clinical Relevance:Patients’ failure to return to their presurgical BMI percentile 2 years postoperatively suggests that ACLR may have long-reaching, and often unappreciated, effects on body mass.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-09-05T05:41:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119870192
  • Sport-Specific Associations of Specialization and Sex With Overuse Injury
           in Youth Athletes
    • Authors: Eric G. Post, Kevin M. Biese, Daniel A. Schaefer, Andrew M. Watson, Timothy A. McGuine, M. Alison Brooks, David R. Bell
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Significant evidence has emerged that sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of overuse injury in youth athletes. Several recommendations exist to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports, but the risk of overuse injuries may be dependent on specific movements required by a given sport.Hypotheses:Associations between specialized sport participation and overuse injury will exist in volleyball athletes but not soccer or basketball athletes. Female athletes will be more likely to report an overuse injury in the previous year, regardless of sport.Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Youth athletes between the ages of 12 and 18 years were recruited in-person at club team tournaments, competitions, and events around the state of Wisconsin during the 2016-2017 school year. Participants were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that consisted of (1) participant demographics, (2) sport specialization status, (3) monthly and weekly sport volume, and (4) sport-related injury history in the previous year.Results:A total of 716 youth athletes completed the questionnaire (70.8% female; mean age, 14.21 ± 1.50 years; 43.2% basketball, 19.4% soccer, 37.4% volleyball; 41.8% highly specialized; 32.3% reported overuse injury in the previous year). Sex was associated with overuse injury among basketball athletes, with female basketball athletes nearly 4 times more likely to report an overuse injury compared with male basketball athletes (odds ratio, [OR], 3.7; 95% CI, 2.1-6.6; P < 0.001). High specialization (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9; P = 0.02) and participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P < 0.05) were associated with overuse injury only among volleyball athletes.Conclusion:Specialization and exceeding 8 months per year in a single sport was associated with overuse injury in volleyball, which is one of the most popular youth sports for female athletes. Specialization was not associated with overuse injury in basketball or soccer athletes. Female basketball athletes were nearly 4 times more likely to report a history of overuse injury compared with male basketball athletes. The sex of a youth athlete and the sport that he or she plays may influence the risk of overuse injury associated with sport specialization.Clinical Relevance:Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware that the potential risks of specialization might vary based on the athlete’s sport and sex.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T04:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119886855
  • The Quality, Quantity, and Intraindividual Variability of Sleep Among
           Students and Student-Athletes
    • Authors: Cédric Leduc, Jason Tee, Jonathon Weakley, Carlos Ramirez, Ben Jones
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey.Hypothesis:Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV.Study Design:Case-control study.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Methods:Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days.Results:The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes.Conclusion:This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns.Clinical Relevance:University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-15T05:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119887966
  • Infection Risk Reduction Program on Pathogens in High School and
           Collegiate Athletic Training Rooms
    • Authors: Mark W. LaBelle, Derrick M. Knapik, James W. Arbogast, Steve Zhou, Lisa Bowersock, Albert Parker, James E. Voos
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels.Hypothesis:Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms.Study Design:Cohort study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE).Results:Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room–acquired infections were reported during the study period.Conclusion:A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges.Clinical Relevance:A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119877865
  • 2019-2020 NFL and NFL Physician Society Orthobiologics Consensus Statement
    • Authors: Scott A. Rodeo, Asheesh Bedi
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-18T03:53:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119889013
  • ACL Size and Notch Width Between ACLR and Healthy Individuals: A Pilot
    • Authors: Hsin-Min Wang, Sandra J. Shultz, Scott E. Ross, Robert A. Henson, David H. Perrin, Randy J. Schmitz
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Given the relatively high risk of contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR), there is a need to understand intrinsic risk factors that may contribute to contralateral injury.Hypothesis:The ACLR group would have smaller ACL volume and a narrower femoral notch width than healthy individuals after accounting for relevant anthropometrics.Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Magnetic resonance imaging data of the left knee were obtained from uninjured (N = 11) and unilateral ACL-reconstructed (N = 10) active, female, collegiate-level recreational athletes. ACL volume was obtained from T2-weighted images. Femoral notch width and notch width index were measured from T1-weighted images. Independent-samples t tests examined differences in all measures between healthy and ACLR participants.Results:The ACLR group had a smaller notch width index (0.22 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.01; P = 0.004; effect size, 1.41) and ACL volume (25.6 ± 4.0 vs 32.6 ± 8.2 mm3/(kg·m)−1; P = 0.025; effect size, 1.08) after normalizing by body size.Conclusion:Only after normalizing for relevant anthropometrics, the contralateral ACLR limb had smaller ACL size and narrower relative femoral notch size than healthy individuals. These findings suggest that risk factor studies of ACL size and femoral notch size should account for relevant body size when determining their association with contralateral ACL injury.Clinical Relevance:The present study shows that the method of the identified intrinsic risk factors for contralateral ACL injury could be used in future clinical screening settings.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-09-17T10:23:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119873631
  • Does Overexertion Correlate With Increased Injury' The Relationship
           Between Player Workload and Soft Tissue Injury in Professional American
           Football Players Using Wearable Technology
    • Authors: Ryan T. Li, Michael J. Salata, Sagar Rambhia, Joe Sheehan, James E. Voos
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The relationship of training load on injury using wearable technology has not been investigated in professional American football players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury over the course of a football season utilizing wearable global positioning system (GPS) technology.Hypothesis:Increased training load is associated with a higher incidence of soft tissue injuries.Study Design:Case control study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Player workloads were assessed during practice sessions of the preseason and regular season using GPS tracking and triaxial accelerometry from 2014 to 2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season. Player workload during the week of injury (acute) and average weekly workload during the 4 weeks (chronic) prior to injury were determined for each injury and in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. A matched-pairs t test was used to determine differences in player workload. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury.Results:In total, 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. Of the recorded injuries, 101 injuries with complete GPS and clinical data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in workload during the week of injury over the prior month when compared with uninjured controls. Injured players saw a 111% (95% CI 66%-156%) increase in workload whereas uninjured players saw a 73% (95% CI 34%-112%) increase in workload during the week of injury (P = 0.032). Individuals who had an acute to chronic workload ratio higher than 1.6 were 1.5 times more likely to sustain an injury relative to time- and position-matched controls (64.6% vs 43.1%, P = 0.004).Conclusion:Soft tissue injuries in professional football players were associated with sudden increases in training load over the course of a month. This effect seems to be especially pronounced during the preseason when player workloads are generally higher. These results suggest that a gradual increase of training intensity is a potential method to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury.Clinical Relevance:Preseason versus regular season specific training programs monitored with wearable technology may assist team athletic training and medical staff in developing programs to optimize player performance.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-08-30T07:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119868477
  • A Randomized Study of a Strength Training Program to Prevent Injuries in
           Runners of the New York City Marathon
    • Authors: Brett G. Toresdahl, Kathryn McElheny, Jordan Metzl, Brittany Ammerman, Brenda Chang, James Kinderknecht
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Lower extremity overuse injuries are common among runners, especially first-time marathoners. Hip abductor and quadriceps strengthening is often recommended to reduce running-related injuries.Hypothesis:A 12-week strength training program would decrease the rate of overuse injuries resulting in marathon noncompletion and improve race finishing time.Study Design:Randomized trial.Level of Evidence:Level 2.Methods:Twelve weeks before the New York City Marathon, first-time marathon runners age 18 years and older were randomized into a strength training group or an observation group. The strength training group was instructed to perform a 10-minute program 3 times weekly using written and video instruction. This program targeted the quadriceps, hip abductor, and core muscle groups. Injuries were self-reported through biweekly surveys, with major injuries being those that resulted in marathon noncompletion and minor injuries being those that impaired training or race performance.Results:A total of 720 runners were enrolled (mean age, 35.9 ± 9.4 years; 69.4% female), of whom 583 runners started the marathon and 579 completed it. The incidence of major injury was 8.9% and minor injury was 48.5%. Fifty two of 64 major injuries were overuse, of which 20 were bone stress injuries. The incidence of overuse injury resulting in marathon noncompletion was 7.1% in the strength training group and 7.3% in the observation group (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.57-1.63; P = 0.90). The mean finishing time was 5 hours 1 ± 60 minutes in the strength training group and 4 hours 58 ± 55 minutes in the observation group (P = 0.35).Conclusion:There is a high prevalence of injury among first-time marathon runners, but this self-directed strength training program did not decrease overuse injury incidence resulting in marathon noncompletion.Clinical Relevance:Prevention strategies such as strength training need to be developed and evaluated through clinical trials to reduce the high prevalence of overuse injuries in runners, especially for high-risk populations such as first-time marathon runners.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-10-23T03:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119877180
  • The Musculoskeletal Health Benefits of Tennis
    • Authors: Matthew J. Jackson, Denise M. Roche, Farzad Amirabdollahian, Stefan Koehn, Omid A. Khaiyat
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions is increasing, and although current guidelines for physical activity attempt to combat this, many fail to achieve the recommended targets. The present study sought to investigate whether regular tennis participation is more effective at enhancing MSK function than meeting the current international physical activity guidelines.Hypothesis:Tennis players will display significantly enhanced MSK function when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers.Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Ninety participants (age range, 18-65 years) took part in this study; there were 43 tennis players (18 men, 25 women) and 47 nonplayers (26 men, 21 women). MSK function was assessed by cluster analysis of 3 factors: (1) electromyographic fatigability of prime movers during handgrip, knee extension, and knee flexion; (2) isometric strength in the aforementioned movements; and (3) body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximal oxygen uptake was also assessed to characterize cardiorespiratory fitness.Results:Tennis players displayed significantly greater upper body MSK function than nonplayers when cluster scores of body fat percentage, handgrip strength, and flexor carpi radialis fatigue were compared by analysis of covariance, using age as a covariate (tennis players, 0.33 ± 1.93 vs nonplayers, −0.26 ± 1.66; P < 0.05). Similarly, tennis players also demonstrated greater lower extremity function in a cluster of body fat percentage, knee extension strength, and rectus femoris fatigue (tennis players, 0.17 ± 1.76 vs nonplayers, −0.16 ± 1.70; P < 0.05).Conclusion:The present study offers support for improved MSK functionality in tennis players when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers. This may be due to the hybrid high-intensity interval training nature of tennis.Clinical Relevance:The findings suggest tennis is an excellent activity mode to promote MSK health and should therefore be more frequently recommended as a viable alternative to existing physical activity guidelines.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-11T10:26:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119880862
  • When the Wave Breaks You: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings After
           Surfing Injuries
    • Authors: Bhumin J. Patel, Madison R. Heath, Christian S. Geannette, Peter D. Fabricant, Harry G. Greditzer
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:There are approximately 2.1 million recreational surfers in the United States. However, little has been reported on surfing-related injuries and, to date, no study has utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize injury patterns.Objective:To use MRI to perform a descriptive analysis of surfing injuries in patients who presented to an urban tertiary care musculoskeletal hospital. This was not a hypothesis-driven study.Study Design:Case series.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Methods:A retrospective review of the picture archiving and communication system as well as the electronic medical record was performed to identify patients with surfing-related injuries who presented to a tertiary care musculoskeletal hospital for treatment. The search included participants over a 10-year period who presented between January 1, 2009, and August 1, 2018. Descriptive data analyses were performed to determine frequency of body part injured, diagnosis, and operative versus nonoperative treatment.Results:The search yielded 109 patients with surfing-related injuries and MRIs. A total of 90 patients presented within 6 months of their surfing injury and were included in the final analysis. The median age was 36 years (range, 12-66 years). A majority of the patients included were male (74%; n = 67). Acute surfing injuries were diagnosed via imaging in 72% (n = 65) of patients. The joints injured most commonly were the shoulder (46%; n = 30) and the knee (28%; n = 18). Only 17% (n = 11) of acute surfing injuries required surgery, while 83% (n = 54) were treated nonoperatively.Conclusion:The most common surfing-related injuries occurred in the shoulder and knee.Clinical Relevance:This study helps characterize the risk of injury for surfers and informs healthcare providers on common surfing injuries.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-05T06:19:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119880863
  • The Cost Variability of Orthobiologics
    • Authors: Amit Mukesh Momaya, Andrew Sullivan McGee, Alexander R. Dombrowsky, Alan Joshua Wild, Naqeeb M. Faroqui, Raymond P. Waldrop, Jun Kit He, Eugene W. Brabston, Brent Andrew Ponce
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Mixed results exist regarding the benefit of orthobiologic injections. The purpose of this study was to assess the variability in costs for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cell (SC) injections and evaluate for variables that influence pricing.Hypothesis:There will be significant variability in the cost of PRP and SC injections throughout the United States.Study Design:Descriptive epidemiology study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:Calls were made to 1345 orthopaedic sports medicine practices across the United States inquiring into the availability of PRP or SC knee injections and associated costs. In addition to pricing, the practice type, number of providers, and population and income demographics were recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were used to identify differences in availability and cost between variables.Results:Of the contacted offices that provided information on both PRP and SC availability (n = 1325), 268 (20.2%) offered both treatments, 550 (41.5%) offered only PRP injections, 20 (1.5%) offered only SC injections, and 487 (36.8%) did not offer either treatment. The mean ± SD cost of a PRP injection was $707 ± $388 (range, $175-$4973), and the mean cost of an SC injection was $2728 ± $1584 (range, $300-$12,000). Practices offering PRP and SC injections tended to be larger (PRP, 12.0 physicians per practice vs. 8.1 [P < 0.001]; SC, 13.6 vs 9.7 [P < 0.001]). Practices that offered PRP injections were located in areas with higher median household income (P = 0.047). Variables associated with higher cost of PRP injections included city population (P < 0.001) and median income of residents (P < 0.001).Conclusion:While the majority of sports medicine practices across the United States offer some type of orthobiologic injection, there exists significant variability in the cost of these injections.Clinical Relevance:This study demonstrates the significant variability in costs of orthobiologic injections throughout the country, which will allow sports medicine physicians to appreciate the value of these injections when counseling patients on available treatment options.
      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-10-30T10:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119880256
  • Society News
    • First page: 99
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Sports Health
      PubDate: 2019-11-14T04:26:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119889601
  • Is the Landing Error Scoring System Reliable and Valid' A Systematic
    • Authors: Ivana Hanzlíková, Kim Hébert-Losier
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Context:The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a clinical tool often used in research and practice to identify athletes presenting high injury-risk biomechanical patterns during a jump-landing task.Objective:To systematically review the literature addressing the psychometric properties of the LESS.Data Sources:Three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched on March 28, 2018, using the term “Landing Error Scoring System.”Study Selection:All studies using the LESS as main outcome measure and addressing its reliability, validity against motion capture system, and predictive validity were included. Original English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed. Studies using modified versions of the LESS were excluded.Study Design:Systematic literature review.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Data Extraction:Study design, population, LESS testing procedures, LESS scores, statistical analysis, and main results were extracted from studies using a standardized template.Results:Ten studies met inclusion criteria and were appraised using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. The overall LESS score demonstrated good-to-excellent intrarater (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.82-0.99), interrater (ICC, 0.83-0.92), and intersession reliability (ICC, 0.81). The validity of the overall LESS score against 3-dimensional jump-landing biomechanics was good when individuals were divided into 4 quartiles based on LESS scores. The validity of individual LESS items versus 3-dimensional motion capture data was moderate-to-excellent for most of the items addressing key risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The predictive value of the LESS for ACL and other noncontact lower-extremity injuries remains uncertain based on the current scientific evidence.Conclusion:The LESS is a reliable screening tool. However, further work is needed to improve the LESS validity against motion capture system and confirm its predictive validity for ACL and other noncontact lower-extremity injuries.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119886593
  • Responsiveness of a Balance Assessment Using a Mobile Application
    • Authors: David A. Krause, Sarah E. Anderson, Graeme R. Campbell, Samson J. Davis, Samuel W. Tindall, John H. Hollman
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Balance assessment is used by clinicians as part of athlete concussion screening. The King-Devick (K-D) Balance app is designed to provide an objective balance assessment value. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responsiveness of a balance assessment using the K-D Balance app.Hypothesis:The K-D Balance app will demonstrate acceptable responsiveness for balance assessment.Study Design:Repeated-measures study.Level of Evidence:Level 5.Methods:A convenience sample of 25 participants between the ages of 20 and 25 years completed testing procedures. A battery of balance tests using the K-D Balance app on an iPhone were conducted 1 week apart. After a 5-minute warm-up, 3 stances were assessed: double leg, tandem right, and tandem left. The K-D Balance app guided the test positions and test times. A value representing movement was generated by the app algorithm. Analysis included descriptive statistics along with intraclass correlation coefficient and minimal detectable change (MDC).Results:The median score of the K-D test was 0.5 for session 1 and 0.4 for session 2. The ICC was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.04-0.70), and the MDC was 1.58.Conclusion:The MDC value of 1.58 represents the threshold of meaningful change in balance, as measured with the K-D Balance app.Clinical Relevance:Clinicians can use the results of this study to objectively assess changes in balance over time using the K-D Balance app.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119888656
  • A Comparison of Physical Therapy Protocols Between Open Latarjet Coracoid
           Transfer and Arthroscopic Bankart Repair
    • Authors: Alexander Beletsky, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Brandon J. Manderle, Nabil Mehta, Kevin E. Wilk, Nikhil N. Verma
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Context:Recent studies examining return to sport after traumatic shoulder instability suggest faster return-to-sport time lines after bony stabilization when compared with soft tissue stabilization. The purpose of the current study was to define variability across online Latarjet rehabilitation protocols and to compare Latarjet with Bankart repair rehabilitation time lines.Evidence Acquisition:Online searches were utilized to identify publicly available rehabilitation protocols from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)–accredited academic orthopaedic surgery programs.Study Design:Descriptive epidemiology study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Results:Of the 183 ACGME-accredited orthopaedic programs reviewed, 14 institutions (7.65%) had publicly available rehabilitation protocols. A web-based search yielded 17 additional protocols from private sports medicine practices. Of the 31 protocols included, 31 (100%) recommended postoperative sling use and 26 (84%) recommended elbow, wrist, and hand range of motion exercises. Full passive forward flexion goals averaged 3.22 ± 2.38 weeks postoperatively, active range of motion began on average at 5.22 ± 1.28 weeks, and normal scapulothoracic motion by 9.26 ± 4.8 weeks postoperatively. Twenty (65%) protocols provided specific recommendations for return to nonoverhead sport–specific activities, beginning at an average of 17 ± 2.8 weeks postoperatively. This was compared with overhead sports or throwing activities, for which 18 (58%) of protocols recommended beginning at a similar average of 17.1 ± 3.3 weeks.Conclusion:Similar to Bankart repair protocols, Latarjet rehabilitation protocols contain a high degree of variability with regard to exercises and motion goal recommendations. However, many milestones and start dates occur earlier in Latarjet protocols when compared with Bankart-specific protocols. Consequently, variability in the timing of rehabilitation goals may contribute to earlier return to play metrics identified in the broader literature for the Latarjet procedure when compared with arthroscopic Bankart repair.Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT):Level C.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119887396
  • The Role of Resistance Training Dosing on Pain and Physical Function in
           Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Meredith N. Turner, Daniel O. Hernandez, William Cade, Christopher P. Emerson, John Reynolds, Thomas M. Best
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Context:Dosing parameters are needed to ensure the best practice guidelines for knee osteoarthritis.Objective:To determine whether resistance training affects pain and physical function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, and whether a dose-response relationship exists. Second, we will investigate whether the effects are influenced by Kellgren-Lawrence grade or location of osteoarthritis.Data Sources:A search for randomized controlled trials was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL, from their inception dates, between November 1, 2018, and January 15, 2019. Keywords included knee osteoarthritis, knee joint, resistance training, strength training, and weight lifting.Study Selection:Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials reporting changes in pain and physical function on humans with knee osteoarthritis comparing resistance training interventions with no intervention. Two reviewers screened 471 abstracts; 12 of the 13 studies assessed were included.Study Design:Systematic review.Level of Evidence:Level 2.Data Extraction:Mean baseline and follow-up Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and standard deviations were extracted to calculate the standard mean difference. Articles were assessed for methodological quality using the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 scale and Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias.Results:The 12 included studies had high methodological quality. Of these, 11 studies revealed that resistance training improved pain and/or physical function. The most common regimen was a 30- to 60-minute session of 2 to 3 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions with an initial resistance of 50% to 60% of maximum resistance that progressed over 3 sessions per week for 24 weeks. Seven studies reported Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and 4 studies included osteoarthritis location.Conclusion:Resistance training improves pain and physical function in knee osteoarthritis. Large effect sizes were associated with 24 total sessions and 8- to 12-week duration. No optimal number of repetitions, maximum strength, or frequency of sets or repetitions was found. No trends were identified between outcomes and location or Kellgren-Lawrence grade of osteoarthritis.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119887183
  • Comparing the Effectiveness of Cognitive Functional Treatment and Lumbar
           Stabilization Treatment on Pain and Movement Control in Patients With Low
           Back Pain
    • Authors: Behrouz Khodadad, Amir Letafatkar, Malihe Hadadnezhad, Sadredin Shojaedin
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP) should target both behavioral variables and physical performance factors.Hypothesis:Cognitive functional treatment (CFT) and lumbar stabilization treatment (LST) will result in positive changes in pain and lumbar movement control (LMC) in patients with LBP.Study Design:Pretest-posttest intervention.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:After screening, 52 participants (mean age, 44.3 ± 2.46 years) with chronic LBP were allocated into CFT (n = 17), LST (n = 17), or control (n = 18) groups. Pain and LMC were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of intervention with visual analog scale (VAS) and Luomajoki LMC battery tests, respectively.Results:Compared with baseline, pain and LMC were reduced and improved significantly in both groups after 8 weeks. However, the changes in both variables were not significantly different between groups. Percent change for pain between pretest and posttest values in the LST group was a decrease of 45% (P = 0.003), compared with a decrease of 40% (P = 0.003) in the CFT group. Change in LMC in the LST group was a decrease of 100% (P = 0.026), compared with a decrease of 200% (P = 0.018) in the CFT group. There as no change for both variables in the control group.Conclusion:Both CFT and LST groups improved LMC scores and reduced pain intensity. However, there was no difference between the 2 experimental groups on pain and LMC test results.Clinical Relevance:In this study, intended to construct an intervention for people with chronic LBP, the primary aims were to help individuals “make sense of their pain,” develop effective pain control strategies via body relaxation and extinction of safety behaviors, and adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors to affect cognitive factors known to affect pain sensitivity and disability. These primary aims were achieved through an emphasis on factors such as development of positive beliefs, reduced fear, increased awareness, enhanced understanding and control of pain, adaptive coping, enhanced self-efficacy, confidence, and improved mood through the class-based intervention.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119886854
  • Pectoralis Major Injuries in the National Football League
    • Authors: Shawn Sahota, Daniel B. Gibbs, Cort D. Lawton, Earvin S. Balderama, Caitlin C. Chambers, Christina D. Mack, Kristina Franke, Gordon W. Nuber
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Pectoralis major (PM) injuries are rare, primarily occurring in males during athletic activity. In the current literature, these injuries have not been well described in National Football League (NFL) athletes.Hypothesis:The incidence of PM injuries will be low in NFL athletes, with athletes missing significantly more time after injuries requiring operative management.Study Design:Cohort study.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Methods:All documented PM injuries were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL Injury Surveillance System over a 15-season period. The data were analyzed by season, session, position, activity, and contact type at the time of injury. Additionally, the incidence, treatment, and days missed as a result of injury were assessed.Results:Over 15 consecutive seasons, there were a total of 211 PM injuries. Of these injuries, 132 were classified as strains and 79 as ruptures. The incidence of strains was 0.41 per 10,000 athlete-exposures, compared with 0.25 per 10,0000 athlete-exposures for ruptures (P < 0.01). Players with PM ruptures treated operatively missed significantly more days than players treated nonoperatively (146.7 ± 55.0 vs 77.2 ± 72.9; P < 0.01).Conclusion:NFL athletes miss significantly more time after operative compared with nonoperative management of PM ruptures.Clinical Relevance:PM injuries are rare, with the current literature lacking description of these injuries in NFL athletes. The paucity of data limits physicians from providing adequate counseling and expectations for athletes with this injury. This research represents the largest study assessing PM injuries in NFL athletes.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119885867
  • Play Sports for a Quieter Brain: Evidence From Division I Collegiate
    • Authors: Jennifer Krizman, Tory Lindley, Silvia Bonacina, Danielle Colegrove, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Playing sports has many benefits, including boosting physical, cardiovascular, and mental fitness. We tested whether athletic benefits extend to sensory processing—specifically auditory processing—as measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), a scalp-recorded electrophysiological potential that captures neural activity predominately from the auditory midbrain to complex sounds.Hypothesis:Given that FFR amplitude is sensitive to experience, with enrichment enhancing FFRs and injury reducing them, we hypothesized that playing sports is a form of enrichment that results in greater FFR amplitude.Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Methods:We measured FFRs to the speech syllable “da” in 495 student-athletes across 19 Division I teams and 493 age- and sex-matched controls and compared them on 3 measures of FFR amplitude: amplitude of the response, amplitude of the background noise, and the ratio of these 2 measures.Results:Athletes have larger responses to sound than nonathletes, driven by a reduction in their level of background neural noise.Conclusion:These findings suggest that playing sports increases the gain of an auditory signal by turning down the background noise. This mode of enhancement may be tied to the overall fitness level of athletes and/or the heightened need of an athlete to engage with and respond to auditory stimuli during competition.Clinical Relevance:These results motivate athletics overall and engagement in athletic interventions for populations that struggle with sensory processing, such as individuals with language disorders. Also, because head injuries can disrupt these same auditory processes, it is important to consider how auditory processing enhancements may offset injury.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119892275
  • Epidemiology of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Italian First
           Division Soccer Players
    • Authors: Alberto Grassi, Luca Macchiarola, Matteo Filippini, Gian Andrea Lucidi, Francesco Della Villa, Stefano Zaffagnini
      Abstract: Sports Health, Ahead of Print.
      Background:The burden of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in professional soccer players is particularly relevant as it represents a potentially career-threatening injury.Hypothesis:Our hypotheses were that (1) injury incidence rate would be similar to that reported in the literature, (2) we would identify a uniform distribution of the injuries along the season, and (3) injury incidence rate would be similar in high-ranked and lower ranked teams, based on final placement in the league.Study Design:Descriptive epidemiological study.Level of Evidence:Level 4.Methods:Professional male soccer players participating in the Serie A championship league in 7 consecutive seasons (2011-2012 to 2017-2018) were screened to identify ACL injuries through the online football archive Exposure in matches and training were calculated.Results:There were 84 ACL injuries found (mean player age, 25.3 ± 4.2 years). Overall, 25% of ACL injuries were reruptures (15%) or contralateral injuries (10%). ACL incidence rate was 0.4215 per 1000 hours of play during Serie A matches, 0.0305 per 1000 hours of training (rate ratio [RR], 13.8; 95% CI, 8.4-22.7; P < 0.0001), and 0.0618 per 1000 hours of total play. Injury distribution had a bimodal peak, with the highest number of events in October and March. Alternatively, training injuries peaked in June and July. A significantly higher incidence rate was found for the teams ranked from 1st to the 4th place compared with those ranked 5th to 20th (0.1256 vs 0.0559 per 1000 hours of play; RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6; P = 0.0003). A similar finding was found for injury incidence proportion (3.76% vs 1.64%; P = 0.0003).Conclusion:The overall incidence rate of ACL injuries in Italian Serie A was 0.062 per 1000 hours, with a 14-fold risk in matches compared with training. Relevantly, 25% were second injuries. Most injuries occurred in October and March, and an almost 2-fold incidence rate and incidence proportion were noted in those teams ranked in the first 4 positions of the championship league.Clinical Relevance:Knowing the precise epidemiology of ACL injury in one of the most competitive professional football championship leagues could help delineate fields of research aimed to investigate its risk factors.
      Citation: Sports Health
      DOI: 10.1177/1941738119885642
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