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 Showing 1 - 81 of 81 Journals sorted alphabetically American Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 223) American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine       (Followers: 38) Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport       (Followers: 1) Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy       (Followers: 2) Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology       (Followers: 8) Asian Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 11) B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport       (Followers: 2) Biomedical Human Kinetics       (Followers: 10) BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine       (Followers: 16) British Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 74) Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology       (Followers: 6) Case Studies in Sport Management       (Followers: 7) Ciencia y Deporte       (Followers: 1) Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine       (Followers: 36) Clinics in Sports Medicine       (Followers: 31) Current Sports Medicine Reports       (Followers: 22) European Journal of Sport Science       (Followers: 61) Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews       (Followers: 54) German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training       (Followers: 15) International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science       (Followers: 16) International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism       (Followers: 86) International Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 36) International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance       (Followers: 20) Journal of Aging and Physical Activity       (Followers: 11) Journal of Athletic Enhancement       (Followers: 7) Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology       (Followers: 10) Journal of Education, Health and Sport       (Followers: 4) Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology Journal of Human Kinetics       (Followers: 16) Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity       (Followers: 8) Journal of ISAKOS Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport       (Followers: 1) Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport       (Followers: 34) Journal of Sport & Social Issues       (Followers: 12) Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology       (Followers: 22) Journal of Sport Rehabilitation       (Followers: 16) Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 19) Journal of Sports Science and Medicine       (Followers: 23) Journal of Sports Sciences       (Followers: 36) Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition       (Followers: 58) Knie Journal       (Followers: 2) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise       (Followers: 61) Motor Control       (Followers: 8) OA Sports Medicine       (Followers: 6) Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 16) Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine       (Followers: 1) Physical Therapy in Sport       (Followers: 43) Physician and Sportsmedicine       (Followers: 6) Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal       (Followers: 11) Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte       (Followers: 2) Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano       (Followers: 1) Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte Revista del Pie y Tobillo Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 2) Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports       (Followers: 27) Science & Motricité       (Followers: 1) Science & Sports       (Followers: 10) Science and Medicine in Football South African Journal of Sports Medicine       (Followers: 8) Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches Sport Sciences for Health       (Followers: 5) Sport, Education and Society       (Followers: 13) Sport, Ethics and Philosophy       (Followers: 3) Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology       (Followers: 13) Sport- und Präventivmedizin       (Followers: 3) Sportphysio Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach       (Followers: 4) Sports Medicine       (Followers: 36) Sports Medicine - Open       (Followers: 13) Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review       (Followers: 9) Sports Medicine and Health Science       (Followers: 1) Sports Medicine International Open       (Followers: 2) Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology       (Followers: 17) Sportverletzung · Sportschaden       (Followers: 2) Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine Translational Sports Medicine Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie       (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
 Sports MedicineJournal Prestige (SJR): 3.367 Citation Impact (citeScore): 7Number of Followers: 36      Subscription journal ISSN (Print) 0112-1642 - ISSN (Online) 1179-2035 Published by Adis  [21 journals]
• Sport Integrity Opportunities in the Time of Coronavirus
• PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Comment on: “Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the
Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport
Policies”
• PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Authors’ Reply to Richardson and Chen: Comment on “Sport and
Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to
Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies”
• PubDate: 2020-10-01

• An Examination and Critique of Current Methods to Determine Exercise
Intensity
• Abstract: Abstract Prescribing the frequency, duration, or volume of training is simple as these factors can be altered by manipulating the number of exercise sessions per week, the duration of each session, or the total work performed in a given time frame (e.g., per week). However, prescribing exercise intensity is complex and controversy exists regarding the reliability and validity of the methods used to determine and prescribe intensity. This controversy arises from the absence of an agreed framework for assessing the construct validity of different methods used to determine exercise intensity. In this review, we have evaluated the construct validity of different methods for prescribing exercise intensity based on their ability to provoke homeostatic disturbances (e.g., changes in oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate) consistent with the moderate, heavy, and severe domains of exercise. Methods for prescribing exercise intensity include a percentage of anchor measurements, such as maximal oxygen uptake ( $${\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{{{\text{2max}}}}$$ ), peak oxygen uptake ( $${\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ ), maximum heart rate (HRmax), and maximum work rate (i.e., power or velocity— $${\dot{\text{W}}}_{{\max}}$$ or $${\dot{\text{V}}}_{{\max}}$$ , respectively), derived from a graded exercise test (GXT). However, despite their common use, it is apparent that prescribing exercise intensity based on a fixed percentage of these maximal anchors has little merit for eliciting distinct or domain-specific homeostatic perturbations. Some have advocated using submaximal anchors, including the ventilatory threshold (VT), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), the first and second lactate threshold (LT1 and LT2), the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), critical power (CP), and critical speed (CS). There is some evidence to support the validity of LT1, GET, and VT to delineate the moderate and heavy domains of exercise. However, there is little evidence to support the validity of most commonly used methods, with exception of CP and CS, to delineate the heavy and severe domains of exercise. As acute responses to exercise are not always predictive of chronic adaptations, training studies are required to verify whether different methods to prescribe exercise will affect adaptations to training. Better ways to prescribe exercise intensity should help sport scientists, researchers, clinicians, and coaches to design more effective training programs to achieve greater improvements in health and athletic performance.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Cognitive Fatigue Effects on Physical Performance: The Role of
Interoception
• Abstract: Abstract The consensus of opinion, with regard to the effect of cognitive fatigue on subsequent physical performance, is that there is a small, negative effect, but there is no consensus regarding the mechanisms involved. When glucose levels are normal, undertaking cognitive tasks does not induce energy or neurotransmitter depletion. The adenosine hypothesis is questioned as cognitively induced increases in adenosine release are phasic and transient, while persistent effects of adenosine are tonic. Thus, the most likely explanation for a negative effect of cognitive fatigue would appear to be changes in perceptions of effort, for which there is some evidence from subjective participant feedback, while interoceptive theory would suggest a role for motivation levels. Cognitive fatigue and physical fatigue are dependent on interoceptive mechanisms, in particular the interactions between top-down predictions of effort from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the insula cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial and ventrolateral PFC, and bottom-up feedback from the lamina I spinothalamic pathway, and the vagal and glossopharyngeal medullothalamic pathway. The dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic and the locus coeruleus–noradrenaline pathways are also vital. It would appear that cognitive fatigue leads to different predictions of the expected sensory consequences of undertaking the exercise than in the control condition and there is some evidence that motivation can overcome this. Much more research, in which motivation levels are manipulated, is necessary as the effects are small and the reasons for cognitive fatigue causing changes in predictions of sensory consequences are not clear.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Menthol as an Ergogenic Aid for the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games: An
Expert-Led Consensus Statement Using the Modified Delphi Method
• Abstract: Introduction Menthol topical application and mouth rinsing are ergogenic in hot environments, improving performance and perception, with differing effects on body temperature regulation. Consequently, athletes and federations are beginning to explore the possible benefits to elite sport performance for the Tokyo 2021 Olympics, which will take place in hot (~ 31 °C), humid (70% RH) conditions. There is no clear consensus on safe and effective menthol use for athletes, practitioners, or researchers. The present study addressed this shortfall by producing expert-led consensus recommendations. Method Fourteen contributors were recruited following ethical approval. A three-step modified Delphi method was used for voting on 96 statements generated following literature consultation; 192 statements total (96/96 topical application/mouth rinsing). Round 1 contributors voted to “agree” or “disagree” with statements; 80% agreement was required to accept statements. In round 2, contributors voted to “support” or “change” their round 1 unaccepted statements, with knowledge of the extant voting from round 1. Round 3 contributors met to discuss voting against key remaining statements. Results Forty-seven statements reached consensus in round 1 (30/17 topical application/rinsing); 14 proved redundant. Six statements reached consensus in round 2 (2/4 topical application/rinsing); 116 statements proved redundant. Nine further statements were agreed in round 3 (6/3 topical application/rinsing) with caveats. Discussion Consensus was reached on 62 statements in total (38/24 topical application/rinsing), enabling the development of guidance on safe menthol administration, with a view to enhancing performance and perception in the heat without impairing body temperature regulation.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• The Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Exercise Performance in
Eumenorrheic Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
• Abstract: Background Concentrations of endogenous sex hormones fluctuate across the menstrual cycle (MC), which could have implications for exercise performance in women. At present, data are conflicting, with no consensus on whether exercise performance is affected by MC phase. Objective To determine the effects of the MC on exercise performance and provide evidence-based, practical, performance recommendations to eumenorrheic women. Methods This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four databases were searched for published experimental studies that investigated the effects of the MC on exercise performance, which included at least one outcome measure taken in two or more defined MC phases. All data were meta-analysed using multilevel models grounded in Bayesian principles. The initial meta-analysis pooled pairwise effect sizes comparing exercise performance during the early follicular phase with all other phases (late follicular, ovulation, early luteal, mid-luteal and late luteal) amalgamated. A more comprehensive analysis was then conducted, comparing exercise performance between all phases with direct and indirect pairwise effect sizes through a network meta-analysis. Results from the network meta-analysis were summarised by calculating the Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking curve (SUCRA). Study quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist and a strategy based on the recommendations of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group. Results Of the 78 included studies, data from 51 studies were eligible for inclusion in the initial pairwise meta-analysis. The three-level hierarchical model indicated a trivial effect for both endurance- and strength-based outcomes, with reduced exercise performance observed in the early follicular phase of the MC, based on the median pooled effect size (ES0.5 = − 0.06 [95% credible interval (CrI): − 0.16 to 0.04]). Seventy-three studies had enough data to be included in the network meta-analysis. The largest effect was identified between the early follicular and the late follicular phases of the MC (ES0.5 = − 0.14 [95% CrI: − 0.26 to − 0.03]). The lowest SUCRA value, which represents the likelihood that exercise performance is poor, or among the poorest, relative to other MC phases, was obtained for the early follicular phase (30%), with values for all other phases ranging between 53 and 55%. The quality of evidence for this review was classified as “low” (42%). Conclusion The results from this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that exercise performance might be trivially reduced during the early follicular phase of the MC, compared to all other phases. Due to the trivial effect size, the large between-study variation and the number of poor-quality studies included in this review, general guidelines on exercise performance across the MC cannot be formed; rather, it is recommended that a personalised approach should be taken based on each individual's response to exercise performance across the MC.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Medical Disqualification Following Concussion in Collegiate
Student-Athletes: Findings from the CARE Consortium
• Abstract: Background The absence of evidence-based guidelines make medical disqualification (MDQ) following concussion one of the most challenging decision-making processes faced by sports medicine professionals. Objective We aimed to compare premorbid and postmorbid factors between student-athletes that were and were not medically disqualified from sport following a concussion. Methods Among 1832 student-athletes diagnosed with concussion within the CARE Consortium, 53 (2.9%) were medically disqualified (MDQ +) and 1779 (97.1%) were not medically disqualified (MDQ−). We used contingency tables and descriptive statistics for an initial evaluation of a broad list of premorbid and postmorbid factors. For those factors showing association with MDQ status, we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the odds of being MDQ + in the presence of the identified factor. Results History of 2 (OR: 3.2, 95% CI 1.5, 6.9) or 3 + (OR: 7.4, 95% CI 3.4, 15.9) previous concussions; 1 + headaches in past 3 months (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.0, 3.2); immediate removal from play (OR: 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 4.9); alcohol (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.2, 5.4), tobacco (OR: 3.3, 95% CI 1.1, 9.5), or marijuana use since injury (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 1.5, 19.0); as well as prolonged recovery due to mental health alterations (OR: 5.3, 95% CI 2.0, 14.1) or motivation/malingering (OR: 7.5, 95% CI 3.3, 17.0) increased odds of being MDQ + . The MDQ + group took longer to become asymptomatic relative to the MDQ− group (MDQ + : 23.5 days, 95% CI 15.8, 31.2; MDQ−: 10.6 days, 95% CI 9.5, 11.6; p < 0.001). Conclusions MDQ following concussion was relatively rare. We identified three patterns related to MDQ following concussion: (1) concussion and headache history were the only premorbid factors that differed (2) initial concussion presentation was more severe and more immediate in the MDQ + group, and (3) post-concussion recovery outcomes expressed the greatest differences between groups.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Sports Injury Forecasting and Complexity: A Synergetic Approach
• Abstract: Abstract The understanding that sports injury is the result of the interaction among many factors and that specific profiles could increase the risk of the occurrence of a given injury was a significant step in establishing programs for injury prevention. However, injury forecasting is far from being attained. To be able to estimate future states of a complex system (forecasting), it is necessary to understand its nature and comply with the methods usually used to analyze such a system. In this sense, sports injury forecasting must implement the concepts and tools used to study the behavior of self-organizing systems, since it is by self-organizing that systems (i.e., athletes) evolve and adapt (or not) to a constantly changing environment. Instead of concentrating on the identification of factors related to the injury occurrence (i.e., risk factors), a complex systems approach looks for the high-order variables (order parameters) that describe the macroscopic dynamic behavior of the athlete. The time evolution of this order parameter informs on the state of the athlete and may warn about upcoming events, such as injury. In this article, we describe the fundamental concepts related to complexity based on physical principles of self-organization and the consequence of accepting sports injury as a complex phenomenon. In the end, we will present the four steps necessary to formulate a synergetics approach based on self-organization and phase transition to sports injuries. Future studies based on this experimental paradigm may help sports professionals to forecast sports injuries occurrence.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Relative Proximity of Critical Power and Metabolic/Ventilatory Thresholds:
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
• Abstract: Background Critical power (CP) has been redefined as the new ‘gold standard’ that represents the boundary between the heavy- and severe-exercise intensity domains and hence the maximal metabolic steady state (MMSS). However, several other “thresholds”, for instance, the maximal lactate steady state [MLSS], ventilatory thresholds [VT1, VT2] and respiratory compensation point [RCP]) have been considered synonymous with CP. Objective This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature and perform a meta-analysis to determine the degree of correspondence/difference between CP and MLSS, VT1, VT2 and RCP. Methods A literature search on 2 databases (Scopus and Web of Science) was conducted on October 2, 2019. After analyzing 356 resultant articles, studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) studies were randomized controlled trials, (b) studies included interrelations between CP and VT1, VT2, MLSS, RCP. Articles were excluded if they constituted duplicate articles or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. This resulted in 104 participants. A random effects weighted meta-analysis with correlation coefficients was used to pool the results. Results The pooled correlation coefficient of CP and all thresholds analyzed was r = 0.73 (p > 0.00001). The subgroup analysis for each threshold with CP demonstrated significant correlation coefficients of r = 0.80 (95% CI [0.40; 1.21], Z = 3.90, p = 0.0001) for CP & RCP; r = 0.77 (CI 95% = [0.36; 1.18], Z = 3.71, p = 0.0002) for CP & MLSS; r = 0.76 (CI 95% = [0.31; 1.21], Z = 3.32, p = 0.0009) for CP & VT1. However, CP & VT2, r = 0.39 (CI 95% = [− 0.37; 1.15], Z = 1.01, p = 0.31) were not significantly correlated. Despite the significant correlations between CP and VT1, MLSS and RCP these variables and VT2 under- (VT1, 30%; MLSS, 11%) or over-estimated (RCP, 6%; VT2, 21%) CP. Conclusion Regardless of the presence of significant correlations among CP and ventilatory or metabolic thresholds CP differs significantly from each. Thus, logically, if CP represents the best estimate of the heavy-severe exercise intensity transition none of the thresholds considered (i.e., VT1, VT2, MLSS, RCP), at least as determined in the studies analyzed herein, should be considered synonymous with such.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Subtypes of Sport-Related Concussion: a Systematic Review and Meta-cluster
Analysis
• Abstract: Objective Current clinical guidelines provide a unitary approach to manage sport-related concussion (SRC), while heterogeneity in the presentation of symptoms suggests that subtypes of SRC may exist. We systematically reviewed the available evidence on SRC subtypes and associated clinical outcomes. Data Sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Electronic databases were searched for studies: (i) identifying SRC symptom clusters using classification methodology; or (ii) associating symptom clusters to clinical outcome variables. A total of 6,146 unique studies were identified, of which 75 full texts were independently assessed by two authors for eligibility. A total of 22 articles were included for systematic review. Data Extraction Two independent authors performed data extraction and risk of bias analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Data Synthesis Six studies found evidence for existence of SRC symptom clusters. Combining the available literature through Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) provided evidence for the existence of a migraine cluster, a cognitive–emotional cluster, a sleep–emotional cluster, a neurological cluster, and an undefined feelings cluster. Nineteen studies found meaningful associations between SRC symptom clusters and clinical outcomes. Clusters mapping to the migraine cluster were most frequently reported in the literature and were most strongly related to aspects of clinical outcome. Conclusions The available literature provides evidence for the existence of at least five subtypes in SRC symptomatology, with clear relevance to clinical outcome. Systematically embedding the differentiation of SRC subtypes into prognosis, clinical management, and intervention strategies may optimize the recovery from SRC.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• The Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Exercise Performance in Women: A
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
• Abstract: Background Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are double agents, which downregulate endogenous concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone whilst simultaneously providing daily supplementation of exogenous oestrogen and progestin during the OCP-taking days. This altered hormonal milieu differs significantly from that of eumenorrheic women and might impact exercise performance, due to changes in ovarian hormone-mediated physiological processes. Objective To explore the effects of OCPs on exercise performance in women and to provide evidence-based performance recommendations to users. Methods This review complied with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A between-group analysis was performed, wherein performance of OCP users was compared with naturally menstruating women, and a within-group analysis was conducted, wherein performance during OCP consumption was compared with OCP withdrawal. For the between-group analysis, women were phase matched in two ways: (1) OCP withdrawal versus the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and (2) OCP consumption versus all phases of the menstrual cycle except for the early follicular phase. Study quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black Checklist and a strategy based on the recommendations of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation working group. All meta-analyses were conducted within a Bayesian framework to facilitate probabilistic interpretations. Results 42 studies and 590 participants were included. Most studies (83%) were graded as moderate, low or very low quality, with 17% achieving high quality. For the between-group meta-analysis comparing OCP users with naturally menstruating women, posterior estimates of the pooled effect were used to calculate the probability of at least a small effect (d ≥ 0.2). Across the two between-group comparison methods, the probability of a small effect on performance favouring habitual OCP users was effectually zero (p < 0.001). In contrast, the probability of a small effect on performance favouring naturally menstruating women was moderate under comparison method (1) (d ≥ 0.2; p = 0.40) and small under comparison method (2) (d ≥ 0.2; p = 0.19). Relatively large between-study variance was identified for both between-group comparisons ( $$\tau$$ 0.5 = 0.16 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0.01–0.44] and $$\tau$$ 0.5 = 0.22 [95% CrI 0.06–0.45]). For the within-group analysis comparing OCP consumption with withdrawal, posterior estimates of the pooled effect size identified almost zero probability of a small effect on performance in either direction (d ≥ 0.2; p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions OCP use might result in slightly inferior exercise performance on average when compared to naturally menstruating women, although any group-level effect is most likely to be trivial. Practically, as effects tended to be trivial and variable across studies, the current evidence does not warrant general guidance on OCP use compared with non-use. Therefore, when exercise performance is a priority, an individualised approach might be more appropriate. The analysis also indicated that exercise performance was consistent across the OCP cycle.
PubDate: 2020-10-01

• Developing a New Curvilinear Allometric Model to Improve the Fit and
Validity of the 20-m Shuttle Run Test as a Predictor of Cardiorespiratory
• Abstract: Background and Objectives Doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20-m shuttle-run test (20 mSRT) as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth based on Léger’s equation/model. An alternative allometric model has been published recently that is thought to provide, not only a superior fit (criterion validity) but also a more biologically and physiologically interpretable model (construct validity). The purposes of this study were to explore whether allometry can provide a more valid predictor of CRF using 20 mSRT compared with Léger’s equation/model. Methods We fitted and compared Léger’s original model and an alternative allometric model using two cross-sectional datasets (youth, n = 306; adult n = 105) that contained measurements of CRF ( $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}}$$ / $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2max}}}}$$ ) and 20 mSRT performance. Quality-of-fit was assessed using explained variance (R2) and Bland and Altman’s limits of agreement. Results The allometric models provided superior fits for the youth (explained variance R2 = 71.9%) and adult (R2 = 77.7%) datasets compared with Léger’s equation using their original fixed (R2 = 35.2%) or re-estimated parameter models (R2 = 65.9%), confirming that the allometric models demonstrate acceptable criterion validity. However, the allometric models also identified a non-linear “J-shaped” increase in energy cost ( $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}}$$ / $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2max}}}}$$ ) with faster final shuttle-run speeds (fitted speed exponent = 1.52; 95% CI 1.38–1.65). Conclusion Not only do allometric models provide more accurate predictions of CRF ( $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}}$$ / $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2max}}}}$$ ; ml kg−1 min−1) for both youth and adults (evidence of criterion validity), the “J-shaped” rise in energy demand with increasing final shuttle-run speed also provides the evidence of construct validity, resulting in a more plausible, physiologically sound, and interpretable model.
PubDate: 2020-09-24

• The Relationship Between Actual and Perceived Motor Competence in
Meta-analysis
• Abstract: Background Actual and perceived motor competence are important correlates of various health-related behaviors. As such, numerous studies have examined the association between both constructs in children and adolescents. Objectives The first aim of this review and meta-analysis was to systematically examine, analyze and summarize the scientific evidence on the relationship between actual and perceived motor competence (and by extension more general physical self-perception) in children, adolescents and young adults with typical and atypical development. The second aim was to examine several a priori determined potential moderators (i.e., age, sex, and developmental status of study participants, as well as level of alignment between measurement instruments) of the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. Design This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement and was registered with PROSPERO on August 21st 2017. Data Sources A systematic literature search of five electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and EMBASE) with no date restrictions was conducted. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Eligibility criteria included (1) a study sample of youth aged 3–24 years, (2) an assessment of actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception, and (3) a report of the association between both, using a cross-sectional, longitudinal, or experimental design. Only original articles published in peer-reviewed journals with at least the title and abstract in English were considered. Analyses Meta-analyses were conducted by type of actual motor competence (i.e., overall motor competence, locomotor, object control, stability/balance and sport-specific competence) through univariate and multivariable random-effects meta-regression and clustered random-effects meta-regression models. Results Of the 1643 articles screened, 87 were included for the qualitative review, while 69 remained for the final meta-analyses. All included studies had some risk of bias with only 15% meeting five of the six examined criteria. Significant (p < 0.001) pooled effects were found for overall motor competence (N = 54; r = 0.25; 95% CI [0.20, 0.29]), locomotor (N = 45; r = 0.19; 95% CI [0.13, 0.25]), object control (N = 50; r = 0.22; 95% CI [0.17, 0.27]), stability/balance (N = 8; r = 0.21; 95% CI [0.12, 0.30]), and sport-specific competence (N = 8; r = 0.46; 95% CI [0.28, 0.61]). None of the hypothesized moderators significantly influenced the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. Conclusions The strength of the association between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception in youth is low to moderate, with current data demonstrating that the strength of association does not differ by age, sex, developmental status, or alignment between measurement instruments. However, this review highlights the lack of clarity on the relationship between actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception. Future research should address issues surrounding the design of studies and measurement of actual motor competence and perceived motor competence/physical self-perception as well as explore other potential confounding variables (i.e., product- versus process-oriented assessments, race, culture) that might affect the relationship between these two constructs.
PubDate: 2020-09-24

• Contrary to Popular Belief, the Standard of Care for Elite Athletes and
the General Population is the Same—to do What is Right for the Patient
• PubDate: 2020-09-23

• Effects of Exercise Training on Fear-Avoidance in Pain and Pain-Free
Populations: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
• Abstract: Background Fear of pain and movement is an important factor in the development of hypervigilance and avoidance behaviours. Objective We examined the effectiveness of exercise training on improving fear-avoidance beliefs. Methods A systematic review (data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and metaanalysis of randomised controlled/clinical trials of exercise training in adults versus relevant nonexercise comparators that quantified fear-avoidance was conducted. Results After screening 4603 identified records, 17 (2014 participants) and 13 (1152 participants) studies were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Pairwise meta-analysis showed exercise training was more effective than all non-exercise comparators (standardised mean difference (SMD) [95% CI] − 0.378 [− 0.623, − 0.133], P = 0.002, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation [GRADE]: very low) for reducing fear-avoidance. Exercise training was more effective than true control for reducing fear avoidance (− 0.407 [− 0.750, − 0.065], P = 0.020, GRADE: very low), however it was not more effective than other interventions (− 0.243 [− 0.614, 0.128], P = 0.199, GRADE: very low). In people with low back pain, exercise training was more effective than non-exercise comparator groups for reducing fear-avoidance (− 0.530 [− 0.755, − 0.304], P < 0.001, GRADE: very low). For individuals with neck pain, exercise training was not more effective than non-exercise comparator groups for reducing fear-avoidance (0.061 [− 0.360, 0.482], P = 0.777, GRADE: very low). Conclusion There is very low to low-quality evidence that exercise training is effective for reducing fear-avoidance, including in people with low back pain. Exercise training may be more effective than no intervention for reducing fear avoidance, but there is very low-quality evidence that non-exercise interventions are as effective as exercise for fear avoidance. Few studies with low risk of bias is a limitation. Trail Registration PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42019139678.
PubDate: 2020-09-18

• Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion During
Exercise
• Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this current opinion paper is to describe the journey of ingested carbohydrate from ‘mouth to mitochondria’ culminating in energy production in skeletal muscles during exercise. This journey is conveniently described as primary, secondary, and tertiary events. The primary stage is detection of ingested carbohydrate by receptors in the oral cavity and on the tongue that activate reward and other centers in the brain leading to insulin secretion. After digestion, the secondary stage is the transport of monosaccharides from the small intestine into the systemic circulation. The passage of these monosaccharides is facilitated by the presence of various transport proteins. The intestinal mucosa has carbohydrate sensors that stimulate the release of two ‘incretin’ hormones (GIP and GLP-1) whose actions range from the secretion of insulin to appetite regulation. Most of the ingested carbohydrate is taken up by the liver resulting in a transient inhibition of hepatic glucose release in a dose-dependent manner. Nonetheless, the subsequent increased hepatic glucose (and lactate) output can increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates by 40–50%. The recognition and successful distribution of carbohydrate to the brain and skeletal muscles to maintain carbohydrate oxidation as well as prevent hypoglycaemia underpins the mechanisms to improve exercise performance.
PubDate: 2020-09-16

• Reconceptualizing and Operationalizing Seefeldt’s Proficiency Barrier:
Applications and Future Directions
• Abstract: Abstract In 1980, Seefeldt introduced the concept of a motor skill “proficiency barrier” that provides a conceptual basis for understanding the importance of a motor skill barrier as it relates to critical public health initiatives. While the intent of Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier hypothesis had great potential to advance the field of motor development, the notion of a proficiency barrier was not empirically tested. Instead, this concept lay dormant for several decades. The purpose of this paper was to expand upon Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier concept in greater detail by addressing the following questions: (1) what constitutes a motor proficiency barrier' (2) how do we assess/measure the existence of a proficiency barrier' and (3) how do we break through the proficiency barrier in order to maximize the likelihood of participation in health-enhancing levels of physical activity later on in life' We conclude with a future research suggestion to explore the existence of the proficiency barrier.
PubDate: 2020-09-15

• Asthma in Competitive Cross-Country Skiers: A Systematic Review and
Meta-analysis
• Abstract: Introduction In cross-country skiing, the repetitive ventilation of large amounts of cold and dry air strains the airways. The aim of this systematic review was to establish an overview of the current literature on asthma in cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers. Methods Six databases were searched on August 29, 2019. The search yielded 2161 articles. Thirty articles fulfilled the search criteria and were pooled together for a qualitative synthesis. Eight articles were included in the meta-analysis on the prevalence of asthma and the use of asthma medication. Results According to the meta-analysis, the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma in skiers was 21% (95% CI 14–28%). The onset age of asthma was higher in skiers than in non-skiers with asthma. The prevalence of asthma medication use was on average 23% (CI 95% 19–26%). Several studies reported that asthma was underdiagnosed in skiers, as previously healthy skiers without a prior asthma diagnosis or medication use were frequently found to fulfill diagnostic criteria for asthma according to lung function tests. Studies using bronchial biopsy demonstrated that eosinophilic asthma is not detected in skiers with asthma as often as it is in non-skiers with asthma and that there are signs of airway inflammation even in non-asthmatic skiers. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the accuracy and coverage of diagnosing asthma in skiers has improved over the recent decades. However, the optimal treatment and natural course of asthma in this population remain unclear. Future research should investigate how the intensity of training, airway infections and their treatment affect the development of asthma among skiers. PRD registration number CRD42017070940.
PubDate: 2020-09-11

• Temporal Trends in the Handgrip Strength of 2,592,714 Adults from 14
Countries Between 1960 and 2017: A Systematic Analysis
PubDate: 2020-09-11

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