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SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)

Showing 1 - 81 of 81 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Knie Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sport Sciences for Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1825-1234 - ISSN (Online) 1824-7490
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Effects of social distancing on psychological state and physical activity
           routines during the COVID-19 pandemic
    • Abstract: Background The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected the entire world. Since the reporting of the first cases, Italy has quickly become the country hit second firmest in the world by the coronavirus. Governments’ immediate protective restrictions modified the habit of the individuals and included full lockdowns of cities, travel, restricted social congregations, and suspended schools. Objectives The aim of this study was to survey the general community in Italy to better recognize their levels of psychological impact, emotional responses and maintaining their daily exercise or physical activity routines during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods 670 adults were invited to complete an online survey collecting information on demographic data, physical and emotional symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, and keeping regular physical activity. Data analysis was conducted through mixed qualitative and quantitative methods. Results During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, more than half of the respondents reported a significant psychological and physical impact. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic is bringing significant challenges to people, families, and countries. For further studies, these findings can be used to advance psychological interventions to reduce the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2020-09-25
       
  • Effects of high intensity interval training and aging on cardiac muscle
           apoptosis markers in C57BL/6 Mice
    • Abstract: Background Apoptosis is a specific form of programmed cell death that plays an important role in tissue homeostasis and also occurs during aging. In addition, exercise training may alter apoptosis-related signaling in muscles, including the cardiac muscle. However, the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on apoptosis markers in the heart have not yet been studied. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on Bcl-2 and Bax expression protein levels in young and old cardiac muscles. Methods Four and 24-month old C57BL/6J mice were used as our young adult and old groups, respectively. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups: young control (YC), young trained (YT), old control (OC), and old trained (OT). The trained groups performed HIIT 5 sessions per week for 4 weeks. RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA was performed, and Bax and Bcl2 heart gene levels were determined by RT-PCR analysis. Results Training induced significant increases in Bcl-2 gene expression in YT group comparing to the YC group (p = 0.010) and in OT group comparing to OC group (p = 0.002). Training induced non-significant decrease (p > 0.05) in Bax gene expression and in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in YT group comparing to the YC group and in OT group comparing to OC group. Aging showed no significant effect in Bcl-2 gene expression, Bax gene expression, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in CY group comparing to the OC group and in YT group comparing to OT group (p > 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, 4 weeks of HIIT increased Bcl-2 level for young and old heart muscles, and no effect of aging was revealed, indicating that HIIT ameliorated anti-apoptotic signaling in the young and old heart of mice.
      PubDate: 2020-09-21
       
  • Intermittent pneumatic compression changes heart rate recovery and heart
           rate variability after short term submaximal exercise in collegiate
           basketball players: a cross-over study
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of the study is to assess the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on heart rate recovery and heart rate variability (HRV) after submaximal aerobic exercise in collegiate basketball players. Methods Sixteen male collegiate basketball players aged between 18 and 25 years were included in this cross-over design with two groups (IPC group and placebo-control group). All participants performed an incremental treadmill test at submaximal intensity followed by 15 min of different recovery modes application. Heart rate recovery at the first minute (HRR1) and second minute (HRR2) after submaximal exercise testing were observed. HRV measures were obtained from 5-min R-R intervals during 10 min of ECG recording before the exercise (baseline) and after 15 min recovery period post-exercise. Results HRR1 (p = 0.008) showed a significant difference, while HRR2 showed a non-significant difference between IPC and placebo-control groups. There was a significant time effect for all time- and frequency-domain HRV parameters (p < 0.001). Group effect was significant for LF (p = 0.002) and LF/HF (p = 0.001). Also, group × time interaction was found to be significant in all frequency-domain HRV variables (p ≤ 0.003). Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that IPC is a useful recovery tool for faster HRR1 and changing frequency-domain HRV recovery, suggesting positive vagal reactivation after submaximal exercise in collegiate basketball players.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
       
  • Better and early recovery in ACL reconstructed elite players with addition
           of core stability exercises in postoperative rehabilitation program
    • Abstract: Background Role of core stability exercises in ACL rehabilitation program is not well studied. Purpose To study the effect of addition of core stability exercise on outcome of ACL reconstruction surgery. Materials and methods Ninety-two male sportspersons (18–40 years) who underwent ACL reconstruction were enrolled in the study. Sportspersons were divided into two groups depending upon the computer-generated random number sequence—group A (conventional rehabilitation; n = 46) and group B (core stabilization + conventional rehabilitation; n = 46). All sportspersons were assessed at 6, 9 and 12 months for the functional outcome (IKDC score, single hop test, triple hop test, and VAS score), return to sports, and knee laxity (KT-1000). Results IKDC scores were higher in group B as compared to group A at all follow-ups (p < 0.05). Similarly, single and triple hop test jump distances were wider in group B as compared to group A at all the follow-ups (p < 0.05). Incidence of return to sports was significantly higher in group B (35/45) as compared to group A (24/43; p = 0.02). Mean time to return to sports was 10.77 ± 1.7 months in group A and 9.44 ± 1.8 in group B (p = 0.006). There was no difference in knee laxity between the two groups. Conclusion The addition of core stability exercises in the ACL rehabilitation program results in better functional outcome and early return to sports. However, core stability exercises have no effect on knee stability. Study design Level III, prospective observational study.
      PubDate: 2020-09-16
       
  • One-year cessation following resistance training differently affects
           neuromuscular, body composition, and functional capacity in older adults
    • Abstract: Abstract Cessation of resistance training could result in loss of the gains acquired. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to verify the effect of 1-year of detraining following resistance training on body composition, functional capacity, handgrip strength, localized muscular endurance, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) in older adults. Fifteen participants (4 women and 11 men; 65.5 ± 4.3 years) completed all the procedures over the experimental period. The participants were followed up during a 9-week resistance training program and after 1-year detraining. Measurements included body composition, handgrip strength, localized muscular endurance, stair ascent and descent, timed up-and-go, and CMJ. The resistance training resulted in improvements in skeletal muscle mass, stair ascent and descent, handgrip strength, localized muscular endurance, and CMJ variables. After the detraining period, significant reductions were observed in skeletal muscle mass (Δ = − 0.92 ± 0.58 kg) and CMJ height, velocity, and impulse (Δ = − 3.03 ± 1.83 cm, − 0.063 ± 0.042 m/s, − 6.34 ± 8.49 N·s, respectively) compared to the post-training period, returning to the baseline values. Conversely, stair ascent and descent, handgrip strength, and localized muscular endurance did not differ after the detraining period (p > 0.05). Retention of functional capacity, localized muscular endurance, and handgrip strength improvements were observed. However, skeletal muscle mass and CMJ variables decreased after the detraining period.
      PubDate: 2020-09-16
       
  • Time course of changes in range of motion, muscle shear elastic modulus,
           spinal excitability, and muscle temperature during superficial icing
    • Abstract: Purpose The application of superficial icing has often been used in rehabilitation and sport settings. Some previous studies have shown that superficial icing or cooling increased range of motion and muscle stiffness. Considering that previous studies have investigated the effects of superficial icing only after 20 or 30 min, the superficial icing duration needed to increase range of motion has remained unclear. Moreover, another study showed that superficial icing increased spinal excitability, which could consequently increase muscle stiffness, although no study has investigated the relationship between change in muscle stiffness and change in spinal excitability after superficial cooling. The aims of this study was to determine the time required to increase range of motion by investigating changes over time during superficial icing and elucidate the mechanism whereby superficial cooling increased muscle stiffness by investigating the changes in muscle temperature and spinal cord excitability. Methods A total of 19 healthy volunteers participated in 2 experiments, the first of which sought to determine time-course changes in medial gastrocnemius muscle stiffness, dorsiflexion range of motion, passive torque at dorsiflexion range of motion during superficial icing and the second of which sought to investigate the time-course changes in spinal cord excitability in the dominant leg. Results and conclusion Our results showed that more than 5 min of superficial icing is required to increase range of motion, while the increase in muscle stiffness could be attributed to the decrease in muscle temperature and not change in spinal excitability.
      PubDate: 2020-09-12
       
  • Safety procedures for exercise testing in the scenario of COVID-19: a
           position statement of the Società Italiana Scienze Motorie e Sportive
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showed that the virus is mostly conveyed by respiratory droplets that are produced at high intensity especially when an infected subject coughs or sneezes. Therefore, elevated volume ventilations, usually reached during physical efforts and exercise, are a potential source of contamination. On the other hand, the lockdown period which has lasted for nearly 2 months and is actually involving several countries worldwide, obliged a large part of human population to sedentary behaviors, drastically reducing their physical activity level, and reducing their cardiopulmonary fitness. Therefore, cardiopulmonary exercise testing could be beneficial, so that a safe and well-weighted return to pre-lockdown active lifestyle can be efficiently planned. However, specific guidelines on exercise testing safety procedures in the era of COVID-19 are unavailable so far. This article is aimed to provide an overview of safety procedures for exercise testing during and after COVID-19 worldwide pandemic.
      PubDate: 2020-09-11
       
  • Circadian rhythm effect on military physical fitness and field training: a
           narrative review
    • Abstract: Background Disruption of the circadian rhythm also has significant influences on the exercise function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the effects of circadian rhythm on physical fitness and athletic performance in military personnel. Methodology An online search was done in web of science (WoS), Ovid, Scopus and PubMed (MeSH) databases with the following combination of keywords: “chronobiology” AND “performance of military” AND “exercise”. Results A total of articles were identified, physical fitness and sport performance of military forces is severely affected by the science of chronobiology and 24-h circadian rhythm. In humans, these articles showed circadian rhythm with affects on performance of various organs in the body, such that the body temperature, heart rate, hormonal secretion, electrolyte excretion, blood pressure, plasma tyrosine concentrations, free amino acids, cholesterol production and even behavior can affect physical fitness and athletic performance in the military force. Conclusions Based on the analyzed articles, it is concluded that circadian rhythm has a significant effect on exercise performance, aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular endurance and flexibility, and hormonal secretion. For this reason, it is recommended to the organizers of the competitions and coaches should take into consideration the effects of circadian rhythm on the athletic performance of the military, the scheduling of competitions and exercises.
      PubDate: 2020-09-05
       
  • Associations between V peak , vLT and 10-km running performance in
           recreational runners
    • Abstract: Purpose The main aim of the present study was to verify which variable, between peak running velocity (Vpeak) and the velocity at lactate threshold (vLT), better correlates with 10-km running performance. The second aim was to demonstrate the association between these two variables (Vpeak and vLT). Methods Seventeen male, recreational, endurance-trained runners perfomed three tests: incremental exercise test to determine Vpeak and other for vLT determination by maximal deviation method (Dmax), and 10-km running performance. Incremental tests were performed on the treadmill and the 10-km running test on the outdoor track. Incremental tests started with a velocity of 8 km·h−1, which increased by 1 km·h−1 between each successive 3-min stage until exhaustion. For vLT determination it was required pauses for blood samples collection. Results It was found that both Vpeak and vLT were highly correlated with 10-km mean velocity (MV10-km) (r = 0.92 and 0.81, respectively). It was found a high association between Vpeak and vLT (r = 0.91). Conclusion Both Vpeak and vLT were highly associated with MV10-km, in which Vpeak better correlates with performance. In addition, Vpeak and vLT were highly related to each other. In practical application, coaches and runners should use both Vpeak and vLT as parameters to prescribe and monitor running training to provide valuable information on the progress of training and its control.
      PubDate: 2020-09-02
       
  • Comparing the effects of resistance exercise type on serum levels of
           oxidative stress and muscle damage markers in resistance-trained women
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of the current study is to compare the effects of hypertrophy-, strength-, and power-type resistance exercise training types on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total creatine kinase (CK) in resistance-trained women. Methods After determining one-repetition maximum (1-RM), ten resistance-trained women (age 26.30 ± 4.95 years; body mass index 22.07 ± 2.02 kg/m2; body fat 24.64 ± 4.98%) conducted hypertrophy-type (70% of 1-RM), strength-type (90% of 1-RM), and power-type (45% of 1-RM) resistance exercise for three consecutive weeks. The movements included lever leg extension, reverse-grip lat pull-down, horizontal leg press, standing biceps cable curl, lying leg curl, machine bench press, standing cable triceps extension, and seated calf raises. Fasting blood samples were obtained immediately before and immediately after each trial. Statistical analyses were performed using the t test, Wilcoxon, and analysis of covariance. The significance level was set at P < 0.05 level. Results The results indicated that one bout of hypertrophy-, strength-, and power-type resistance exercises had no significant effects on H2O2, MDA, and total LDH levels. However, serum total CK level significantly increased after all the three types of resistance exercise. Power resistance exercise resulted in a higher total CK level than hypertrophy and strength types. Conclusion Although the three types of hypertrophy, strength, and power exercise cause muscle damage, they do not exacerbate oxidative stress in resistance-trained women.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Do sex-related differences and time of intervals affect the skeletal
           muscle glycolytic response to high-intensity interval exercise'‏
    • Abstract: Purpose It may be considered that the duration of intervals of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can affect skeletal muscle biochemical and physiological responses. Also, sex-based differences in muscle biochemistry and physiology play a role in different responses to exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex differences on biochemical parameters involved in muscle glycolysis in response to HIIE protocols with short and long-term intervals. Methods Forty male and female Wistar rats (aged 8 weeks, mean weighting 270 g and 225 g, respectively) were divided into HIIE with short-term interval (HIIESh), HIIE with long-term interval (HIIEL), and control groups. The phosphofructokinase (PFK), glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were evaluated in gastrocnemius muscle after a single bout of exercise. Results The PFK, GYS1, and MCT4 levels were lower in HIIESh and HIIEL groups compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference between sexes (P < 0.05). Moreover, the LDH activity was higher in both male and female HIIE rats compared to the control group. Conclusion It is likely that HIIE with short- and long-term intervals represents similar effects on the glycolytic pathway in both male and female rats.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • The effect of stroboscopic visual training on eye–hand coordination
    • Abstract: Background Stroboscopic visual training (SVT) has been shown to improve cognitive skills and perceptual performance by carrying out events under situations of intermittent vision. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether an SVT training period could improve the eye–hand coordination (EHC) performance on a practiced task for a group of sports participants. Methods Sixty-two male participants were randomly assigned to either a strobe group (SG n = 31), or control group (CG n = 31). The method employed a Sport Vision Trainer™ 80 sensor pad to measure the mean speed of reaction time of participants extinguishing randomly illuminated lights on an electronic board. One trial consists of 20 lights. One week following pre-testing on the Sport Vision Trainer™ (4 × 6 trials), a pre-training baseline assessment of 1 × 6 trials was conducted to measure their abilities to complete the EHC task. Four × six trials (480 lights) were then completed in the training phase with the CG continuing to train with unimpaired vision, whilst the SG wore Nike Vapor Strobe® (controlled rate of 100 ms visible to 150 ms opaque). Post-training assessments were administered immediately, 10 min and 10 days after SVT each consisting of six trials (120 lights). A visual search (VS) non-trained transfer test was also administered pre-SVT and after 10 days. This involved an e-prime programme using a laptop where participants had to identify a target stimulus located amongst distractor stimuli. Results Treatment effects were observed at each time point. Baseline performance was significantly related to retention performance immediately (p = .003), 10-min post (p = .001) and 10 days post-training (p = .002). No significant differences were found for the VS test. Conclusion An acute SVT exposure using stroboscopic goggles significantly improved EHC performance. Future research should explore these mechanisms further using different exposure, frequencies, and focused identification of training drills as a complementary intervention for individual or team sports.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Effects of a resistance training programme in people living with HIV
           in Zimbabwe
    • Abstract: Purpose Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases life expectancy in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, receiving cART coupled with physical inactivity increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) on body composition, laboratory analysis and strength values in PLWH receiving cART in Zimbabwe. Methods One-hundred and twenty-eight PLWH receiving cART, aged 18–45 years were purposely recruited to saturation. Two districts in Zimbabwe were used, participants in Budiriro were randomly assigned for convenience to an experimental (EXP) group (n = 64) performing RT 3 days/week and participants in Mabvuku to a control (CON) group (n = 64) for 12 weeks of no exercise. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat, lean body mass (body composition), laboratory analysis profiles and one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength were measured at baseline (BL) and after 12 weeks (W12) in both groups. Results In the EXP group W12, lean body mass increased (p < .001), fasting blood glucose decreased (p < .001), fasting total blood cholesterol decreased (p < .001), 66% of participants improved resting blood pressure and 1RM muscular strength increased (p < .001). Conclusions These findings highlight the benefits of RT for PLWH receiving cART. This demonstrates the need for additional public health initiatives involving RT in this population in sub-Saharan Africa.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Imagine your body even without seeing it: the effect of physical activity
           upon the physical self-concept in people with and without blindness
    • Abstract: Purpose The physical self-concept (PSC) refers to the knowledge, feelings, memories, and experiences a person refers to his/her body and it is one of the crucial constructs aimed at describing a person’s subjective perception of his/her own fitness, health, appearance, and physical activity (PA). This study had a threefold purpose: (1) to assess the measurement invariance of the PSC across people with and without blindness, (2) to analyze the specific dimensions of the PSC related to global physical self and self-esteem, and (3) to evaluate the relationship between PA and PSC dimensions in participants with and without blindness. Methods Eighty-five people with blindness and 121 persons without blindness voluntarily participated in the study. Participants with blindness were assessed through a structured interview, whereas sighted participants completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Structural equation modeling and MANOVA analyses were performed. Results Measurement invariance of the instrument assessing PSC across people with and without blindness was confirmed. For participants with blindness, global physical self was significantly associated with PA, appearance, and strength, whereas global self-esteem was related to global physical self and appearance. With respect to sighted participants, global physical self was related with appearance, body fat, sport competence, and strength, while global self-esteem was associated with global physical self, appearance, coordination, and health. Finally, participants who practiced PA 2 h/week or more reported higher scores on the PA dimension of PSC, as well as on coordination, and sport competence dimensions if compared with participants engaged in PA for less than 2 h/week both in participants with and without blindness. Conclusions Results proved the PSDQ-S to be a reliable measure to investigate differences among people with and without blindness, and this allowed us to rely on the differences emerged between the two groups. As expected, people with blindness showed a more restricted number of specific PSC dimensions associated with physical self and self-esteem, if compared with sighted persons; PA was positively associated with the PSC dimensions both in participants with and without blindness.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation with eccentric exercise on
           serum interleukin 6 and insulin resistance in overweight men
    • Abstract: Purpose Overweight can lead to the down-regulation of insulin sensitivity and cytokine profile. In this regard, non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise and supplementation are recommended. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation with acute eccentric exercise on serum levels of interleukin-6 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods Thirty subjects (aged 22.8 ± 2.1 years, BMI 27.1 ± 9.6 kg/m2) were randomly divided into three equal groups: exercise [just perform acute eccentric exercise test (AEE)], Chlorella vulgaris (for 7 days and then AEE), placebo (for 7 days and then AEE). Blood sampling was performed in 4 stages: day 1 (before supplementation) and day 7 (after supplementation), after AEE and 24 h after AEE. Subjects of the supplement group received Chlorella vulgaris supplement (300 mg) four times daily for 1 week, and the placebo group consumed similar dextrose tablets. Exercise groups just perform AEE. AEE test included a 20-min treadmill run at a speed of 9 km/h with a negative 10% slope. Serum levels of IL-6, insulin, and glucose were measured by Elisa kit. Also, the hip circumference and knee range of motion (ROM) was measured at four stages. Results At the end of the study, there was a significant decrease in IL-6 levels in the Chlorella vulgaris group compared to the other two groups at 24 h after AEE test (P < 0.01). There was also a significant decrease in insulin resistance levels in the supplement group compared to the other two groups at 24 h after AEE test (P < 0.02). Also, the knee ROM decreased significantly in all three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Chlorella vulgaris with acute eccentric exercise can have a more modulating effect on serum IL-6, insulin resistance and other characteristics in overweight men compared to acute eccentric exercise without chlorella.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Improvement in insulin sensitivity, but without changes in liver enzymes
           in obese women after 12 weeks of a walking exercise program with
           self-selected intensity
    • Abstract: Background Obesity is related to negative changes in insulin resistance and liver enzymes and is associated with the risk factor for the development of type II diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A number of studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise shows promise for disease prevention and treatment in this population. Aim The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a walking exercise program with self-selected intensity on insulin resistance and liver enzymes in obese women. Methods Forty-eight obese women (47.8 ± 8.4 years; 88.1 ± 12.0 kg; 158.0 ± 0.1 cm) were divided into two groups: control group (CG; n = 23) and self-selected walking group (SSWG; n = 25). Before and after the exercise program, all subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected. The intervention consisted of a walking exercise program with self-selected intensity for 12 weeks (3 times/week, totalizing 36 sessions). Results After the exercise program, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA improved only in the SSWG (p < 0.05), but there were no differences between groups (p > 0.05). In addition, there were no differences in liver enzymes after the intervention in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results support that a walking exercise program with self-selected intensity improved insulin resistance in obese women. Thus, exercise programs with self-selected intensity seem to be an interesting alternative for improving health and preventing diseases.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Age-related decrease in performance of male masters athletes in sprint,
           sprint–endurance, and endurance events
    • Abstract: Purpose To investigate the slope of age-related performance decrease of male master athletes competing the 100 m, 400 m, and 10,000 m running events. Methods Sample was composed by official data from World Masters Rankings for years 2013–2016. Age and performance data were collected from 2937 athletes between 30 and 105 years. Performance was plotted against age and calculated a trendline for polynomial regression for each event using three different data dispositions: Top-20—best 20 athletes of each age group, all years of analysis; Top-3—best three athletes of each age group, all years of analysis; and annual Top-3—best three athletes of each age group, each year analyzed separately. The age-related point of substantial performance decline was determined by two mathematical methods, Dmax, and log–log. Results The annual-Top-3 (age group Top-3 athletes in each year) disposition indicated an early performance decline in 10,000 m in comparison with the 100 and 400 m for both methods (p < 0.05). Top-3 (Top-3 athletes of each age group) analysis also indicated an earlier performance decline in 10,000 m (Dmax: 61.2 years/log–log: 67.6 years), followed by 400 m (72.9 years/77.5 years) and 100 m (76.7 years/78.2 years). Conclusion In conclusion, the critical age after which the aging-related decline in masters athletes’ performance is accelerated, and occurs earlier in endurance runners than sprinters.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Effects of vibratory platform training on the histomorphometric parameters
           of the soleus muscle in obese Wistar rats
    • Abstract: Background The increasing of obesity is one of the main challenges of public health, with an incentive to the development of healthy life habits and practise of physical exercise. Among the physical exercises, the use of whole body vibration is highlighted, which can promote gain of muscle strength. Aims This study aimed atevaluating the effects that vibratory platform causes on the histomophometry and fiber types of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats with induced obesity by monosodium glutamate (MSG). Methods Thirty-two male Wistar rats were used, 16 of which were induced by obesity with intradermal injections of MSG, equally randomized into four groups: control (GC), control with intervention (GCP), obese (GO), and obese with intervention (GOP). At the 70 days, the training on vibratory platform was started adapted to a frequency of 60 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm, performed 3 times a week, with a duration of 10 min, during 8 consecutive weeks. At 130 days, the animals were weighed and the nasoanal length was measured; then they were euthanized and the soleus muscles were collected and processed for analysis. Data were statistically analyzed about the homogeneity of variances by the Bartlett’s test, about the normality by Shapiro–Wilk’s test, then ANOVA of two factors and Tukey-HSD follow-up tests, adopting the significance level of 5%. Results Morphometrically, the obese groups presented muscle hypotrophy (p < 0.01) and the training caused increase in the fibers (p = 0.03), increase in the number of nuclei (p < 0.01), and decrease of connective tissue (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, there was no distinction among the muscle fiber types after the training on the vibratory platform, which is composed of oxidative fibers. Conclusion The training on the vibratory platform induced beneficial effects in the muscle tissue of obese rats; however, both obesity and training did not influence on the fiber type of the soleus muscle.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
       
  • Covid-19: high rates of severity and death in elderly and patients with
           chronic diseases reinforces the importance of regular physical activity
    • PubDate: 2020-07-26
       
  • Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on strength parameters during a
           Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu simulated tournament
    • Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to analyze the effects of carbohydrate supplementation on strength parameters during a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) simulated tournament. Methods Fourteen male BJJ amateurs athletes took part in a simulated tournament (3 × 8 min matches, 10-min rest), in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In two different sessions (7-day washout), BJJ athletes ingested 30 g of maltodextrin (CARB) or placebo (PLA). Were evaluated: maximal isometric handgrip strength (MIH), dynamic strength endurance [Kimono grip strength test dynamic (KGSTD)], muscular power [horizontal countermovement jump, (HCMJ)], ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate concentration. Results There was an interaction effect on MIH strength (p = 0.029 in right hand). MIH did not change during the tournament simulation in the CARB group, but decreased in the PLA group in the right-hand post-match. An interaction effect in KGSTD was observed (p = 0.006). Both groups had a decrease in KGSTD performance over the match; however, in the second interval, the CARB group showed higher strength than PLA. There was an interaction effect on HCMJ (p = 0.003). HCMJ increased during the tournament in the both groups. Lactate level and RPE indicated that exercise was intense and similar between the groups. Conclusion Carbohydrate supplementation provides a mild improve in the BJJ athlete’s strength during a simulated tournament. Clinical trials NCT03203785.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
       
 
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