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SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sport Sciences for Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1825-1234 - ISSN (Online) 1824-7490
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Imagine your body even without seeing it: the effect of physical activity
           upon the physical self-concept in people with and without blindness
    • Abstract: Purpose The physical self-concept (PSC) refers to the knowledge, feelings, memories, and experiences a person refers to his/her body and it is one of the crucial constructs aimed at describing a person’s subjective perception of his/her own fitness, health, appearance, and physical activity (PA). This study had a threefold purpose: (1) to assess the measurement invariance of the PSC across people with and without blindness, (2) to analyze the specific dimensions of the PSC related to global physical self and self-esteem, and (3) to evaluate the relationship between PA and PSC dimensions in participants with and without blindness. Methods Eighty-five people with blindness and 121 persons without blindness voluntarily participated in the study. Participants with blindness were assessed through a structured interview, whereas sighted participants completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Structural equation modeling and MANOVA analyses were performed. Results Measurement invariance of the instrument assessing PSC across people with and without blindness was confirmed. For participants with blindness, global physical self was significantly associated with PA, appearance, and strength, whereas global self-esteem was related to global physical self and appearance. With respect to sighted participants, global physical self was related with appearance, body fat, sport competence, and strength, while global self-esteem was associated with global physical self, appearance, coordination, and health. Finally, participants who practiced PA 2 h/week or more reported higher scores on the PA dimension of PSC, as well as on coordination, and sport competence dimensions if compared with participants engaged in PA for less than 2 h/week both in participants with and without blindness. Conclusions Results proved the PSDQ-S to be a reliable measure to investigate differences among people with and without blindness, and this allowed us to rely on the differences emerged between the two groups. As expected, people with blindness showed a more restricted number of specific PSC dimensions associated with physical self and self-esteem, if compared with sighted persons; PA was positively associated with the PSC dimensions both in participants with and without blindness.
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
  • Opinion of community-dwelling elderly obese about the barriers and
           facilitators to engage physical exercise
    • Abstract: Objective Adherence of elderly population to physical exercise programs is scarce. Our objective was to identify perceived barriers and facilitators reported by obese older adults to engage in regular physical activity and to explore their association with poor active life. Study design A cross-sectional survey was performed. Methods One hundred and eighty community-dwelling, obese (BMI > 30 and < 40), 65–75-year-old adults were recruited. Participants were asked to answer the “barriers and facilitators for exercise” survey and to report their usual physical activity. Results Approximately 60% of obese older adults engaged in poor physical activity. Lack of motivation/willpower and pain were the most reported reasons not to exercise, but significant differences exist between sexes. Women were more likely not to exercise due to pain or fatigue, while lack of time was more frequently reported in men. Age, female sex, pain, and lack of motivation and willpower were independent risk factors for not exercising, while the desire to go outdoors and to the nature was an independent protective factor for exercising. Conclusion There are some important barriers which prevent obese older people to exercise. These aspects should be taken into account when designing physical exercise programs for the elderly, since considering patient’s preferences and personal limitations would improve adherence to such programs and their effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
  • The effect of stroboscopic visual training on eye–hand coordination
    • Abstract: Background Stroboscopic visual training (SVT) has been shown to improve cognitive skills and perceptual performance by carrying out events under situations of intermittent vision. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether an SVT training period could improve the eye–hand coordination (EHC) performance on a practiced task for a group of sports participants. Methods Sixty-two male participants were randomly assigned to either a strobe group (SG n = 31), or control group (CG n = 31). The method employed a Sport Vision Trainer™ 80 sensor pad to measure the mean speed of reaction time of participants extinguishing randomly illuminated lights on an electronic board. One trial consists of 20 lights. One week following pre-testing on the Sport Vision Trainer™ (4 × 6 trials), a pre-training baseline assessment of 1 × 6 trials was conducted to measure their abilities to complete the EHC task. Four × six trials (480 lights) were then completed in the training phase with the CG continuing to train with unimpaired vision, whilst the SG wore Nike Vapor Strobe® (controlled rate of 100 ms visible to 150 ms opaque). Post-training assessments were administered immediately, 10 min and 10 days after SVT each consisting of six trials (120 lights). A visual search (VS) non-trained transfer test was also administered pre-SVT and after 10 days. This involved an e-prime programme using a laptop where participants had to identify a target stimulus located amongst distractor stimuli. Results Treatment effects were observed at each time point. Baseline performance was significantly related to retention performance immediately (p = .003), 10-min post (p = .001) and 10 days post-training (p = .002). No significant differences were found for the VS test. Conclusion An acute SVT exposure using stroboscopic goggles significantly improved EHC performance. Future research should explore these mechanisms further using different exposure, frequencies, and focused identification of training drills as a complementary intervention for individual or team sports.
      PubDate: 2020-01-18
  • Motivation to CrossFit training: a narrative review
    • Abstract: Introduction Considering the ongoing growth of CrossFit training, it is pertinent to examine the motivational characteristics of individuals who engage in this type of training modality. Purpose This study aimed to examine the motivational characteristics displayed by individuals participating in CrossFit training through a narrative review. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched from their inception to June 2019, with search criteria including terms related to motivation and exercise. We selected only original articles that investigated motivation among CrossFit training participants. Results Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The individuals’ motivation was mainly characterized by more autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation (identified and integrate regulations). The role of extrinsic motives is explained by the possibility of improving physical abilities/skills, health-related factors and well-being, and performance and competition affective responses. Compared with other forms of resistance training, motivational characteristics of individuals engaged in CrossFit training seem to be different, whereby those engaged in CrossFit training exude a high level of self-determination, and may experience a greater sense of satisfaction and pleasure. Conclusion The present narrative review adds to the limited evidence related to CrossFit training and suggests that participation in CrossFit training is conducted with a great sense of belief and identify. Moreover, CrossFit training seems to provide inherent rewards, which may influence exercise adherence. Future studies should explore motivations and reasons as to why individuals dropout of participating in CrossFit training.
      PubDate: 2020-01-18
  • Seasonal changes in body composition and cardiometabolic health biomarkers
           in professional soccer players: a longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Background Variations in body composition and cardiometabolic health biomarkers may affect the physical performance of elite athletes throughout the season. Aims To investigate the changes in body composition, cardiometabolic health biomarkers and food consumption throughout the season of male professional soccer players. Methods Implementing a longitudinal design, sixteen athletes (25.8 ± 3.1 years, 181.0 ± 6.1 cm, 79.2 ± 6.2 kg) underwent anthropometric and biochemical evaluation in three different moments (T0, T1 and T2) every 16 weeks throughout the season and food consumption was evaluated in the end season. Results There was a significant reduction in body fat at the end of the season (T1 vs T2: 11.4 ± 1.5% vs 10.8 ± 1.3%; p = 0.007) and a modest increase in fat-free mass at the same point (T1 vs T2: 48.7 ± 1.4% vs 49.0 ± 1.2%; p = 0.016) with no changes in weight. There was a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose at the end of season (T1 vs T2: 86.6 ± 3.72 mg/dl vs 77.2 ± 4.2 mg/dl; p = 0.000).A reduced hemoglobin concentration was found (T0 vs T2: 15.7 ± 0.8 mg/dl vs 15.0 ± 0.7 mg/dl; p = 0.008), but no changes in hematocrit were observed during the season (p = 0.955). The food consumption of the athletes presented a reduced intake in cereals and pasta (p = 0.000), fruits (p = 0.026) and vegetables (p = 0.000) at the end of the season. Conclusion Elite soccer players presented modest improvement or sustained values in body composition and cardiometabolic health biomarkers during the season, despite nutritional inadequacies being observed.
      PubDate: 2020-01-18
  • Greater postexercise hypotension response in low-load and high-volume
           resistance training versus high-load and low-volume resistance training
    • Abstract: Background The post-exercise hypotension response (PEH) has been shown to be dependent on the load and volume of a resistance training (RT) prescription. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the PEH between a low-load and high-volume and a high-load and low-volume RT session. Methods Ten young men with more than 2 years of RT experience participated in the study. All subjects were submitted to 5 and 15 repetition maximum tests, in counterbalanced order, for the following exercises: back squat, chest press, leg press and wide grip pulldown. Then, the subjects performed two protocols (P5 and P15) that consisted of three sets to volitional failure with 2-min rest intervals between sets and exercises. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after 60 min following each session at 10-min time points. Results Significantly greater total training volume was observed for all exercises in P15 (p < 0.05), whereas a significantly greater load was observed in P5 (p < 0.05). It was observed that the P15 session stimulated a greater PEH, with small to large effect sizes at various time points post-exercise, while the effect sizes for the P5 session were trivial in magnitude. Additionally, a significantly greater HR response was observed for the P15 versus the P5 during the recovery period. Conclusion Low-load and high-volume RT stimulated greater PEH compared to high-load and low-volume RT, suggesting the importance of RT volume in promoting healthy BP.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
  • Physical activity behaviour in children and adolescents before, during and
           after cancer treatment
    • Abstract: Purpose Childhood cancer survivors show reduced physical activity (PA) levels which may considerably impact child development, quality of life, social participation and sequelae such as functional and cardiovascular health. This study aims to evaluate different aspects of PA behaviour in patients with childhood cancer (PaC) before (bT), during (dT) and after (aT) cancer treatment. Methods In this cross-sectional, multicentre study, 114 PaC and 37 healthy controls between 4 and 20 years of age were enrolled. PA behaviour was assessed using an adapted questionnaire which included items asking about PA level, PA intensity and domains of PA. Results Patients reported lower PA levels and less minutes of PA at moderate-intensity dT than aT and bT (P ≤ 0.05). Healthy controls reported higher PA levels than patients aT (P ≤ 0.05). At school, 41.7% of PaC did not participate in physical education aT or bT. Lastly, 45.6% of PaC who were engaged in sport club activities bT did no more participate in sport club activities aT. Conclusion Patients reported different PA behaviours dT and aT than bT. Therefore, monitoring of PA should be considered to increase PA levels in PaC. Future studies also need to examine how PA behaviour can be influenced in a positive way in PaC.
      PubDate: 2019-12-18
  • Age-related decrease in performance of male masters athletes in sprint,
           sprint–endurance, and endurance events
    • Abstract: Purpose To investigate the slope of age-related performance decrease of male master athletes competing the 100 m, 400 m, and 10,000 m running events. Methods Sample was composed by official data from World Masters Rankings for years 2013–2016. Age and performance data were collected from 2937 athletes between 30 and 105 years. Performance was plotted against age and calculated a trendline for polynomial regression for each event using three different data dispositions: Top-20—best 20 athletes of each age group, all years of analysis; Top-3—best three athletes of each age group, all years of analysis; and annual Top-3—best three athletes of each age group, each year analyzed separately. The age-related point of substantial performance decline was determined by two mathematical methods, Dmax, and log–log. Results The annual-Top-3 (age group Top-3 athletes in each year) disposition indicated an early performance decline in 10,000 m in comparison with the 100 and 400 m for both methods (p < 0.05). Top-3 (Top-3 athletes of each age group) analysis also indicated an earlier performance decline in 10,000 m (Dmax: 61.2 years/log–log: 67.6 years), followed by 400 m (72.9 years/77.5 years) and 100 m (76.7 years/78.2 years). Conclusion In conclusion, the critical age after which the aging-related decline in masters athletes’ performance is accelerated, and occurs earlier in endurance runners than sprinters.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
  • Test–retest repeatability of the NX-16: a three-dimensional (3D)
           body scanner in a male cohort
    • Abstract: Purpose Whole-body three-dimensional scanning is a tool utilised for the collection of body girths, volume, and surface area measurements. Few studies have investigated the validity and repeatability of this technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the test retest variability of the NX-16 body scanner (NX-16, TC2, Cary, North Carolina, USA). Methods Phase one involved the measurement of a mannequin on 300 occasions (30 scans over 10 sessions). In phase two, 13 apparently healthy male participants were recruited; each participant was scanned a total of four times (two scans over two sessions). Stature, body mass, and body fat % were obtained. Fourteen girth measurements were obtained (chest, underbust, stomach, waist, seat, hip, R/L bicep, R/L thigh, R/L mid-thigh, and R/L calf). Coefficient of variation was calculated for measurements obtained. Results Coefficient of variation for phase one ranged from 0.0% for the R calf, to 3.3% for the L thigh measurement. For phase two, values were higher, ranging from 0.5% for calf and chest to 4.6% for thigh measurements. Conclusions Test–retest variability of the measurements provided by the NX-16 body scanner varied according to body location. However, variability within measurements was low using a mannequin or human participant. The NX-16 body scanner (TC2, Cary, North Carolina, USA) may be a useful tool for tracking changes in body composition over time during large population studies.
      PubDate: 2019-12-13
  • Effect of chronotype on rating of perceived exertion in active young
    • Abstract: Purpose The study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronotype on aerobic performance, heart rate (HR) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE). Methods The Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to determine the chronotype’s students of the School of Exercise Sciences, University of Milan. To investigate the effect of chronotype on aerobic performance, HR and RPE, 22 participants (11 M-types, 11 E-types) performed the Cooper test at 9:00 a.m. and at 5:00 p.m. Before and after the Cooper test, the RPE was detected using the Borg Scale CR 0–10. Results The two-way ANOVA showed an interaction between chronotype, time span and RPE. Specifically, M-types perceived less effort in the morning compared to the afternoon session (p < 0.05), both before (CR-10: 1.1 ± 0.8 vs 2.5 ± 1.3) and after exercise (CR-10: 7.4 ± 1 vs 8.6 ± 1). E-types felt more fatigued in the morning than in the afternoon session (p < 0.05), both before (CR-10: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.1) and after exercise (CR-10: 8.4 ± 0.6 vs 7.5 ± 0.7). Moreover, in the morning session, E-types had a greater perception of the effort (CR-10: 2.4 ± 1.4 vs 8.4 ± 0.6) than M-types (CR-10: 1.1 ± 0.8 vs 7.4 ± 1). Instead, in the afternoon session, M-types showed higher RPE values (CR-10: 2.5 ± 1.3 vs 8.6 ± 1) than E-types (CR-10: 1.1 ± 1.1 vs 7.5 ± 0.7). Cooper Test and HR results did not show statistically significant differences. On the other hand, no interaction was found between chronotype, day time and performance or HR. Conclusions M-types perceive higher effort in the afternoon session; by contrast, E-types show an opposite trend and are more fatigued in the morning session. These findings may be useful to the coach to plane tailored training programs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-07
  • Physical activity and supervised exercise among hypertensives and
           normotensives: status and barriers
    • Abstract: Purpose Physical activity (PA) is considered central to hypertension prevention and management. The main purpose of this article is to compare supervised exercise (SE) patterns among hypertensive and normotensive Portuguese adults. Methods A total of 966 participants aged between 15 and 90 years old (mean 41.9; SD 19.5) were surveyed face-to-face in public places across Portugal. Participants were considered hypertensives (n = 144) if they have systolic and diastolic blood pressure higher than 160 and 90 mmHg or report taking antihypertensive medication. PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test for associations and t test for independent samples were used to analyze data. Results Hypertensive individuals show a higher prevalence of sedentary lifestyle than normotensive (31% vs 20%). About 40% of hypertensive patients have a high level of physical activity. Several significant differences were found between hypertensives and normotensives regarding the causes for non-participation, information sources and motivation to participate. For infrastructures, only the quality of the equipment (p = 0.032), innovative activities (p = 0.027), and the opportunity to socialize (p = 0.000) are capable of differentiating the two groups. Conclusions This study shows the prevalence of sedentary behavior among the hypertensive population. Hypertensives and normotensive behavior reveal different patterns on the barriers, sources of information, and perception regarding the structures. Service providers seem incapable to make hypertensives aware of the risks associated with PA and the benefits associated with SE. More information is needed to make hypertensives aware of the benefits of SE programs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
  • A pilot study: session-RPE method for quantifying training load in judo
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to verify the relationship between perceived exertion (session-RPE) and heart rate (HR) methods when quantifying internal training loads in different judo training sessions. Nine male judo athletes performed two training sessions lasting 60 min with a 48 h interval between them: (1) randori and (2) technical–tactical. The internal training load was quantified through the session-RPE (CR 0–10) and the HR methods, as suggested elsewhere (Banister’s and Edwards methods). The Pearson’s linear correlation was used to verify the relationship between session-RPE and HR methods (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between session-RPE and HR method as suggested by Banister’s (r = 0.93; p < 0.001) or Edwards methods (r = 0.81; p = 0.007) in randori session. Accordingly, session-RPE was also correlated with HR of Banister’s (r = 0.90; p = 0.001) and Edwards methods (r = 0.81; p = 0.008) in technical–tactical session. Results of the present study suggested that the session-RPE may be reliable to quantify training load during judo training randori and technical–tactical when compared to different HR methods.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The influence of environment potentiality (affordances) on motor
           development in 6–9 years old children with intellectual disability
    • Abstract: Background Affordance is the tendency to encouraged of growth changes. It involves providing critical assistances and encouraging or training learners. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental affordances on motor development in children with intellectual disability. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study. Target population included 175 children (6–9 years old) with intellectual disability living in Babol in 2017. Among them, 50 children were conveniently recruited and randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control group (25 per each group). The experimental group went under a specific program including the environmental affordances, such as facilities, training, and exercises focusing on motor skills development of children. The intervention lasted for 36 weeks, three sessions per week, and 30–45 min per session. Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to assess the motor skills development of participants. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the collected data. Results The obtained results revealed that affordances had impact on upper parts of the body coordination (p = 0.02), agility (p = 0.04), balance (p = 0.04), response rate (p = 0.6) and power (p = 0.03). Also, results of the study showed that affordance had no impact on the variables of motor–visual, speed and dexterity of the upper parts in the study (p = 0.13). Conclusion In conclusion, there should be special attention to the environmental affordances for enhancing motor skills development in children with intellectual disability. Considering the benefits of the assigned protocol in the present study, it could be used as a complementary and alternative medicine for motor skills development in children with intellectual disability without the side effects owing to medication.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Differences in electromechanical delay components induced by sex, age and
           physical activity level: new insights from a combined electromyographic,
           mechanomyographic and force approach
    • Abstract: Background Electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force (F) signals combined analysis represents an interesting approach to partition the electrochemical and mechanical events contributing to total electromechanical delay, i.e., the time lag existing between the muscle activation and the onset of force generation. Aim The study sought to assess the differences in electromechanical delay due to sex, age, and physical activity level. Methods Electromechanical components were assessed on vastus lateralis muscle during a maximum voluntary contraction and electrically evoked contractions in 180 participants. During each contraction, the EMG, MMG and F signals were recorded. Electromechanical delays and its two components (Δt EMG-MMG, mainly electrochemical component; and Δt MMG-F, mainly mechanical component) were computed. Measurements’ reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC) and sensitivity (minimum detectable changes at 95% confidence as a percentage, MDC95%) were also calculated. Results ICC spanned from 0.89 to 0.97 with a percentage change of the standard error of the measurement (SEM%) ranging from 1.6 to 4.9%. MDC95% values ranged between 3.1 and 9.8%. Longer electromechanical delay values were observed in: (1) women compared to men; (2) 40–45 years old compared to 30–35 years and 20–25 years; and (3) sedentary than active participants. Differences were accompanied by increments in Δt MMG-F but not in Δt EMG-MMG values. Conclusions The alterations in the whole electromechanical delay induced by sex, age, and physical activity level could be ascribed to the difference in the duration of the mechanical events included in the electromechanical delay, possibly due to modifications in the muscle–tendon unit characteristics.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effects of physical exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers in
           hypertensive animals and non-diabetic subjects with
           prehypertension/hypertension: a review
    • Abstract: Background Oxidative stress (OS) is a condition that alters different functions of the organism inducing high blood pressure (HBP). Although physical exercise is recommended for the treatment of HBP, it is not clear which exercise method is more efficient to reduce OS biomarkers in subjects with HBP and non-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this review aimed to determine the effect of physical exercise on the OS biomarkers of HBP animal models and non-T2DM prehypertensive/hypertensive human adults. Methodology An online search was done in WoS, Scopus and PubMed (MeSH) databases with the following combination of keywords: “hypertension” AND “oxidative stress” AND “exercise”. Results A total of 1128 articles were identified, from which only six articles on animal research and six on human research fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In animal models, exercise reduced OS biomarkers and decreased systolic blood pressure. In humans, five of these articles showed a significant decrease in OS biomarkers along with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and a single study found an increase in OS biomarkers co-occurring with a decrease in SBP/DBP. Conclusions Based on the analyzed articles, it is concluded that physical exercise, in its different modalities, allows the reduction of OS biomarkers, together with a significant decrease in SBP/DBP. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise presents a higher body of evidence compared to resistance training and flexibility training. For this reason, it is recommended to conduct more randomized clinical trials with these last two methods.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The effect of physical exercise on anxiety among the victims of child
    • Abstract: Background The victims of child abuse show more maladaptive behaviors compared to the normal children due to the behavioral problems such as anxiety and isolation consistent with their conditions. Aims The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of physical exercise on anxiety among the victims of child abuse. Methods The research method was quasi-experimental of pretest–posttest type with a control group. The statistical population of this research included all the students who were the victims of child abuse in Tehran during 2017–2018. Among them, 22 individuals were selected through random cluster sampling method and were randomly assigned into test (experimental) and control group. A pre-test was performed for both groups and then the physical exercise was applied for 8 weeks on the test group; while the control group did not receive any intervention. In the end, a post-test was performed for both groups. Data collection was conducted using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) along with using SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results The results indicated that physical exercise has reduced anxiety among the victims of child abuse (p < 0.01). Conclusion Therefore, consistent with the findings that confirm the effect of physical exercise on anxiety reduction among children who were victims of child abuse, it is recommended to design and implement physical exercise and extracurricular sport activities in order to reduce anxiety of these people.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Acute effects of aerobic exercise duration on blood pressure, pulse wave
           velocity and cerebral blood flow velocity in middle-aged adults
    • Abstract: Purpose It is important to understand acute dose-response relationships on cardiovascular health and brain health. Thus, we evaluated the acute effects of 10- and 30-min exercise bout on blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv). Methods Fifteen adults (mean age 45.4 ± 8.9 years, 87% female) participated in this randomized crossover study comprised of three acute experimental sessions: a 10-min exercise bout (EX10), a 30-min exercise bout (EX30) and a sitting control (SIT). Exercise consisted of walking on a treadmill at 70–75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. BP, PWV and CBFv were measured 30 and 60 min after each experimental session. BP was obtained at the brachial artery while PWV was measured at the carotid-femoral and carotid-radial sites. CBFv was measured at the middle cerebral artery using a 2 MHz transcranial Doppler. Results Compared to SIT, BP was lower following EX10, and even lower following EX30 (P < 0.05). Though EX30 and SIT resulted in similar PWV responses (P > 0.05), EX10 resulted in a higher carotid-femoral PWV vs. EX30 and SIT at 30 min (both P = 0.02) and a lower carotid-radial PWV vs. SIT at 60 min (P = 0.004). CBFv did not differ across conditions (all P > 0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that 10- and 30-min aerobic exercise bouts have differential effects on BP and PWV. CBFv did not change in the hour following either bout. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and effects of 10- vs 30-min bouts of exercise.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • High-intensity interval ergometer training improves aerobic capacity and
           fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis
    • Abstract: Background Moderate endurance training leads to a significant improvement of aerobic fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have not systematically investigated. Aim To determine the effects of short-term HIIT on aerobic fitness and fatigue in MS patients. Design Prospective monocentric, randomized, simple blinded cohort study. Settings Participants exercised for 8 weeks on a bicycle ergometer three times weekly for 8 weeks. Population Forty patients with relapsing–remitting MS and an extended disability status score (EDSS) of < 3.5 participated. Methods For 8 weeks, participants exercised three times weekly for 30 min according to two different protocols (HIIT versus moderate endurance training). Measurements were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Individual aerobic fitness (VO2peak) was assessed via a stepwise ramp protocol, fatigue by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and ambulation was measured by the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test (T25-FW). Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat (ITT) approach. Results Aerobic fitness increased significantly in the HIIT group (pre: 26.7 ± 6.1, post: 29.7 ± 6.6 ml/min/kg; p < 0.04). No changes with regard to FSS and T25FW were detected in both groups. However, sub-group analysis revealed a significant decrease of fatigue in patients with elevated baseline fatigue (pre: 5.00 ± 0.7, post: 4.7 ± 1.2; p = 0.03). Conclusions HIIT is a promising time-efficient approach in subjects with MS leading to rapid improvement of aerobic fitness.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Depressive symptoms, sleep quality, physical fitness, and fatigue among
           adult women with different obesity status
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms, sleep quality, objectively assessed physical fitness, and fatigue, among a sample of adult women with different obesity status. Methods One hundred and ninety-four volunteer adult women (36.1 ± 11.1 years) participated in the study. Based on body mass index (BMI), the participants were allocated into three groups: normal weight (n = 134), overweight (n = 32), and obese (n = 25). Physical fitness-related parameters such as aerobic fitness, flexibility, lower limb explosive strength, isometric handgrip strength, and sprint performance were assessed with a battery of field tests. Total body fat and trunk fat levels were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck depression inventory, sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg sleep quality index, and fatigue levels were examined using the fatigue severity scale. Results Obese women experienced a significantly worse score regarding depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, the obese and overweight women were found to exhibit lower levels of aerobic fitness compared to women with normal BMI (p < 0.05). All examined body composition variables were shown to be inversely associated with the score on all physical fitness tests as well as with poor sleep, depressive symptoms, and fatigue levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions Depressive symptoms and performance on various physical fitness tests were found to be significantly impaired in obese and overweight adult women indicating the negative impact of increased body weight in health and well-being.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Very light physical activity amount in FTO genetically predisposed obese
    • Abstract: Purpose Fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism has a role in body mass index (BMI) increase and in predisposing to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our aim was to investigate if a very light physical activity could counteract weight gain and MetS in obese subjects bearing the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism from Southern Italy. Methods Data of fitness components, anthropometry, clinical-biochemical parameters and FTO polymorphism in 78 unrelated morbid obese subjects from Southern Italy (15–30 years) were examined. Physical activity energy expenditure was monitored by a SenseWear Pro 3 Armband for 24 h/day for 2 consecutive weekdays in all enrolled individuals. Results Sedentary obese subjects had higher waist circumference (124.8 vs 117.9 cm, P < 0.05), BMI (43.4 vs 37.7 kg/m2, P < 0.0001) and fat mass (49.2 vs 44.5%, P < 0.0001) compared to lightly active ones. Further, lightly active obese subjects bearing the rs9939609 FTO minor allele had a lower BMI than polymorphic sedentary ones (37.1 vs 45.3 kg/m2, respectively, P < 0.01), and did not differ in metabolic syndrome presence. Conclusion Our results suggest that a very light amount of physical exercise is associated with a lower BMI in obese subjects bearing the minor allele of the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism.
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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