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SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)

Showing 1 - 79 of 79 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
B&G Bewegungstherapie und Gesundheitssport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
British Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinics in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Current Sports Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Athletic Therapy & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology     Open Access  
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of ISAKOS     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery Open     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Sport & Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sports Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Motor Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
OA Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte     Open Access  
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Hekimliği Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport Sciences for Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport, Education and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sport, Ethics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sports Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sports Medicine - Open     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Sports Medicine and Health Science     Open Access  
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Translational Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Science & Sports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.274
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0765-1597
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3148 journals]
  • Analyse d’articles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s):
       
  • Short-term training based on small-sided games improved physical and match
           performance in young football players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): Rodrigo. Aquino, Luiz Guilherme Cruz Gonçalves, Rafael Bagatin, Gregory Halé Petiot, Enrico Fuini Puggina
       
  • Muscular adaptations to periodized resistance-training in older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): Z. Murlasits, J. ReedSummaryObjectivesDue to skeletal muscle wasting (sarcopenia) older adults rely on a larger proportion of their remaining skeletal muscle to generate force and power for everyday activities. As a consequence, premature fatigue and a cycle of further inactivity and disability ensue. Thus, different fitness components, such as muscular strength and endurance may need to be targeted to counteract functional decline. Although, resistance training periodization has been shown to result in superior muscle strength adaptations in younger populations, the effects are less clear in older adults.Equipment and methodsWe recruited previously trained, older male and female subjects (n = 15,> 60 years of age) for a ten-week pre- post-test design, two days/week periodized resistance training program. The program consisted of one day high-intensity/low volume [∼85% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum (RM) with 6 repetitions] and one day low-moderate intensity/high volume (∼67% of the estimated 1RM with 12 repetitions) training.Results1RM increased significantly (P = 0.000) for both the leg press and chest press exercises after resistance training by 17.9 and 17.3%, respectively. Moreover, the subjects completed more repetitions with the higher load (60% of post-training 1RM) after training, thus volume load (VL) (number of repetitions × 60% of 1RM load) increased significantly (P = 0.000) in both the leg press (43.3%) and the chest press (21.6%) exercises. Chest press strength and endurance improvements showed a significant (P = 0.017) moderate correlation (r = 0.59). On the other hand, no changes were detected in body composition and lean mass as a result of the program. Resistance training periodization is a feasible strategy in older populations to improve muscular strength and muscular endurance simultaneously. The results indicate that exercise professionals can utilize even low frequency periodization training to improve muscle strength and endurance in active older adults in a time-efficient manner.RésuméObjectifsEn raison de la diminution de leur masse musculaire (sarcopénie), les personnes âgées utilisent une portion plus importante de leur masse musculaire disponible pour générer la force et la puissance nécessaires à l’accomplissent de leurs activités quotidiennes. En conséquence, une fatigue prématurée et un cycle d’inactivité et d’invalidité supplémentaires s’ensuivent. Ainsi, différentes composantes de l’aptitude physique, telles que la force musculaire et l’endurance, doivent être ciblées pour contrer le déclin fonctionnel.Matériels et méthodesNous avons recruté des hommes et des femmes seniors (n = 15,> 60 ans), préalablement entraînés à l’effort physique, pour un programme périodisé d’entraînement en résistance de deux jours par semaine sur une durée de 10 semaines, comprenant un pré-test et un post-test. Le programme entraînement alternait un jour d’effort à forte intensité/faible volume (6 répétitions à ∼85 % de la répétition maximale [RM] estimée) et un jour d’effort à intensité faible-modérée/volume élevé (12 répétitions à ∼67 % de la RM estimée).RésultatsÀ la suite du programme d’entraînement, la RM a augmenté de façon significative (p = 0,000) de 17,9 % et 17,3 % pour les exercices de développé des jambes et de développé-couché, respectivement. De plus, les sujets ont accompli plus de répétitions avec une charge plus élevée (60 % de la RM post-entraînement) après l’entraînement, ainsi le volume de la charge (VC) (nombre de répétitions × 60 % de la charge de RM) a augmenté significativement (p = 0,000) aux exercices de développé des jambes (43,3 %) et de développé-couché (21,6 %). La périodisation de l’entraînement en résistance représente une stratégie réalisable chez les personnes âgées pour améliorer la force et l’endurance musculaires simultanément. Les résultats indiquent que les professionnels de l’exercice peuvent utiliser l’entraînement de périodisation à basse fréquence pour améliorer la force musculaire et l’endurance chez les personnes âgées actifs dans l’optique d’une utilisation efficace du temps.
       
  • Effect of high-intensity interval training on clinical and laboratory
           parameters of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): R. Soori, F. Goodarzvand, A. Akbarnejad, M. Effatpanah, A. Ramezankhani, A.L. Teixeira, A. GhramSummaryPurposeThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on clinical, as assessed by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and anthropometric measures, and laboratory parameters of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).MethodsForty-three adolescents with ADHD diagnosis were randomly assigned into two groups: Intervention group (male/female, n = 9/17) and Control group (male/female, n = 11/6). Intervention group performed 20 m running program repetitions with 20–30 s resting between intervals at 85% max heart rate for 6 weeks. Anthropometric and body composition measures (body mass index-Z-score; BMI-Z-score, body fat mass; BFM), Interleukin-13 (IL-13), Interleukin-16 (IL-16), lactate, and CPRS were evaluated at baseline and after 6 weeks. Data were analyzed by means of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, two-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD post-hoc test. The statistical significance was set at P 
       
  • Effect of during of tapering on anaerobic power and capacity in road
           cyclists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): L.S. Fortes, B.D.V. Costa, S.T. Paes, A.J. Perez, F. DiefenthaelerSummaryThe linear tapering method duration can be determinant for sport performance.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to analyze the effect of linear tapering duration method on anaerobic power and capacity in road cyclists.Materials and methodsSeventeen male road cyclists, aged between 18 and 30 years were randomly selected within the study criteria. Participants performed 16 weeks of training, adopting the undulating periodization with weekly variation of the training load. The tapering phase lasted 4 weeks, using the linear tapering method, reducing only the training volume: 85% in the first, 70% in the second, 55% in the third and 40% in the fourth week. The Wingate test was used to evaluate anaerobic power and capacity. Wingate was performed by the cyclists before the start of the season, at the end of the last week of each mesocycle (Preparatory I, Specific I and Specific II) and at the end of each week in the tapering phase.ResultsThe results revealed a time effect for anaerobic power (P 
       
  • Effects over 12 weeks of different types and durations of exercise
           intervention on body composition of young women with obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): J. Zeng, L. Peng, Q. Zhao, Q.G. ChenSummaryObjectiveTo provide basis for effective exercise intervention for young obese women through comparative study of three types of exercise intervention effects, namely, maximum fat oxidation intensity continuous aerobic training (FATmax AT), high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT), on body composition in different intervention durations.MethodsFifty-four eligible young obese women (BF% > 30%) aged 22.14 ± 1.32 years old were randomized to FATmax AT, HIIT or RT group. They respectively completed continuous aerobic, high intensity intermittent or anti-resistance exercise 3 sessions per week (45 min per session) for 12 weeks. Body fat rate (BF%), body fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle mass (MM) were measured at pre-mid- and post-intervention.Results(1) Significant interactions of group × time on BF% (F = 18.35, P = 0.00), FM (F = 13.96, P = 0.00), FFM (F = 21.55, P = 0.00) and MM (F = 8.17, P = 0.00) were found, but there is no main effect in either group or time factors. (2) BF% and FM of the participants in FATmax AT, HIIT and RT group decreased significantly when compared to pre-exercise session (P 
       
  • Examination of exercise load for recovering decreased muscle strength
           caused by static stretching
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): T. Yamamoto, Y. Urabe, N. MaedaSummaryObjectivesSeveral studies have demonstrated that muscle strength decreased immediately after static stretching (SS). Therefore, additional exercise is encouraged when SS is performed for warm-up. However, the recommended level of intensity for the additional exercise is unknown. This study aimed to examine the exercise intensity necessary for recovering muscle strength loss following SS.Equipment and methodsEighteen healthy men of recreation sports level (21.4 ± 2.0 years, 173.8 ± 4.5 cm, 67.4 ± 7.7 kg) participated in a randomized crossover trial comprising rest task and two exercise tasks (high- and low-load task). SS comprised left ankle joint plantar flexion for 90 s at an angle of 80% of the maximum angle. Three tasks were set after SS; Rest task and high-load task (120°/s of isokinetic exercise) and low-load task (240°/s of isokinetic exercise). The isokinetic torque of ankle joint plantar flexion and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) were measured before stretching (pre-stretching), immediately after stretching (post-stretching), and 5 min after stretching (after 5 min). The three tasks were performed between post-stretching and after 5 min.ResultsCompared with pre-stretching measurements, isokinetic torque during rest task was significantly lower after 5 min. No significant difference was observed in isokinetic torque between pre-stretching and after 5 min measurements during high-load task. In addition, isokinetic torque of high-load tasks at after 5 min was significantly higher than rest task (P 
       
  • Physical fitness modulates mucosal immunity and acceleration capacity
           during a short-term training period in elite youth basketball players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): R. Valvassori, M. Saldanha Aoki, D. Conte, G. Drago, A. MoreiraSummaryThis study aimed to investigate the effect of physical fitness level (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [Yo-Yo IR 1]) and initial stress level (salivary cortisol [SC]) on salivary immunoglobulin A secretion rate (SIgArate), and the influence of physical fitness on accelerations (external training load; eTL) and training impulse (TRIMP; internal training load; iTL), in 20 elite youth male basketball players (14.5 ± 0.5 years; height, 177 ± 10 cm; body mass, 69 ± 13 kg) following a short-term training stress (two daily consecutive basketball-training sessions). Saliva samples were collected before and after the experimental period. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the Yo-Yo IR 1 and SC as independent variables, and changes in SIgArate as dependent variable. The Yo-Yo IR 1 was the only statistically significant variable (R = 0.73; P = 0.001). Participants were divided a posteriori into high fitness (HFG) and low fitness (LFG) groups according to the median-split technique, taking the Yo-Yo IR 1 performance into account, to compare the eTL and iTL. HFG performed a higher total eTL (34 ± 13 vs. 17 ± 7 accelerations; t = 3.4; P = 0.003) but no difference between fitness groups was observed for TRIMP (t = 0.33; P = 0.74). The results suggest that physical fitness level may play a role on mucosal immunity responses from short-term training stress in youth basketball players. Players with greater level of physical fitness are likely to perform a higher training load without inducing higher stress levels.RésuméCette étude vise à investiguer l’effet du niveau de condition physique (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [Yo-Yo IR 1]) et du niveau initial de stress (cortisol salivaire [CS]) dans le taux de sécrétion de l’immunoglobuline A salivaire [SIgArate]), et l’influence du niveau de condition physique sur les accélérations (la charge d’entraînement externe ; eTL) et sur l’impulsion d’entraînement (TRIMP ; la charge d’entraînement interne ; iTL), de 20 jeunes joueurs de basket-ball d’élite masculin (14,5 ± 0,5 années ; taille, 177 ± 10 cm; poids, 69 ± 13 kg), après un stress d’entraînement à court terme (deux jours consécutifs de séance d’entraînement de basket-ball). Les recueils salivaires ont été effectués avant et après la période expérimentale. Une analyse de régression linéaire multiple a été conduite avec Yo-Yo RI 1 et CS comme des variables indépendants et les changements dans SIgArate comme la variable dépendante. La variable Yo-Yo RI 1 a été le seule variable statistiquement significative (R = 0,73 ; p = 0,001). Les participants ont été séparés a posteriori en groups condition physique élevé (CPE) et condition physique faible (CPF) selon la technique median-split, tenant compte de la performance du Yo-Yo RI 1, comparer le eTL et iTL. CPE a réalisé un total plus élevé de la eTL (34 ± 13 vs 17 ± 7 accélérations ; t = 3,4; p = 0,003), mais aucune différence n’a été enregistrée entre les groups pour le iTL (TRIMP; t = 0,33 ; p = 0,74). Les résultats suggèrent que la condition physique pourrait jouer un rôle dans les réponses immunitaires du stress d’entraînement à court terme des jeunes joueurs de basket-ball. Les joueurs ayant un meilleur niveau de condition physique sont aptes de réaliser une charge d’entraînement plus élevée sans induire des niveaux de stress plus élevés.
       
  • Effects of essential amino acids supplementation on muscle damage
           following a heavy-load eccentric training session
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): S. Vieillevoye, J.R. Poortmans, A. CarpentierSummaryAimUnaccustomed physical exercise, particularly repeated eccentric muscle contractions, induces muscle soreness and alterations on muscle cellular structure. An increase in myofibrillar protein accretion can occur in the early post-exercise period and be potentiated by essential amino acid ingestion. We hypothesized that essential amino acid supplementation could reduce the efflux of indirect markers of muscle damage and delay the onset of muscular soreness in the week following a heavy-load eccentric training session.MethodsTwenty-three randomly assigned young males performed a bench press exercise under eccentric condition. They were subdivided into a placebo group (n = 11) and an essential amino acids group (n = 12). The effect of the training session was assessed by analysing two indirect markers of muscle damage, namely plasma concentrations of creatine kinase and myoglobin measured before, immediately after, and post-workout day 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7. Muscle soreness was evaluated by a visual analogy scale at the same time point as the markers of muscle damage.ResultsThe training session induced a significant increase in muscle soreness in both placebo and essential amino acids groups. Plasma creatine kinase release increased significantly at D+3 and D+4 while myoglobin efflux rose at D+3 in placebo group only. No statistical differences were observed between groups for the two indirect markers of muscle damage. Gaussian distribution was found to be the best-fit model for the plasma myoglobine and creatine kinase concentration curves. F-test support that individual curves were statistically distinguishable as comparing to the best-fit values of the three parameters (area, SD and mean) between placebo and essential amino acids group data sets (P 
       
  • Étude de la cinétique per-effort des paramètres des gaz du sang veineux
           au cours d’un ultra-trail
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): B. Alves, B. Mauvieux, S. Besnard, B. Lemarchand, L. Mallet, R. Jouffroy
       
  • Fitness and anthropometric profiles of Serbian elite Greco-Roman wrestlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): R. Roklicer, T. Trivic, I. Milovanovic, S.M. Ostojic, P. Drid
       
  • Effects of passive versus active recovery at different intensities on
           repeated sprint performance and testosterone/cortisol ratio in male senior
           basketball players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): S. Brini, S. Ahmaidi, A. BouassidaSummaryObjectiveThis study examines the effects of passive vs. active recovery at different percentages of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) on performance in a repeated sprint test and testosterone/cortisol ratio in basketball.MethodsSixteen basketball players performed a 20 m shuttle run test and randomly 4 repeated 10 × 30 m shuttle sprint tests with different types of recovery: passive and active at 50%, 35% and 20% of the MAS. Heart rate, RPE, Cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and blood lactate concentrations were measured during the sprint tests.ResultsThe results showed that the total time (TT) and best time (BT) for repeated sprints are significantly higher during the passive recovery than the active ones. The performance recorded during active recovery at 20% of the MAS is significantly higher than those obtained at 35 and 50% of the MAS. There was no significant difference in lactate concentrations and T/C ratio between passive and active recovery. Significant correlations (r2 > 50%) were recorded between total time and MAS for both types of recovery.ConclusionPassive recovery provides the best performance in repeated sprints. Also by comparing active recoveries, those of intensity below 35% of the MAS lead to a better performance in basketball players.RésuméObjectifCette étude examine les effets de la récupération passive par rapport à la récupération active à différents pourcentages de vitesse aérobie maximale (VMA) sur les performances lors d’un test de sprint répété et le rapport testostérone/cortisol au basketball.MéthodesSeize joueurs de basket ont effectué un test de navette de 20 m et 4 tests de sprint de navette répétés de 10 × 30 m avec des types de récupération différents: passif et actif à 50 %, 35 % et 20 % du VMA. La variation de la fréquence cardiaque, l’ RPE, le cortisol (C), la testostérone (T) et du lactate dans le sang ont été mesurées pendant et après les tests de sprint.RésultatsLes résultats ont montré que le temps total (TT) et le meilleur temps (BT) pour les sprints répétés sont significativement plus élevés pendant la récupération passive que pour les récupérations actives. La performance enregistrée lors de la récupération active à 20 % de la VMA est nettement supérieure à celle obtenue à 35 et 50 % de la VMA. Il n’y avait pas de différence significative dans les concentrations de lactate et le rapport T/C entre la récupération passive et active. Des corrélations significatives (r2 > 50 %) ont été enregistrées entre le temps total et la VMA pour les deux types de récupération.ConclusionLa récupération passive offre la meilleure performance en sprints répétés. Aussi, en comparant les récupérations actives, celles d’intensité inférieure à 35 % de la VMA mènent à une performance meilleure chez basketteurs.
       
  • Is creatine hydrochloride better than creatine monohydrate for the
           improvement of physical performance and hormonal changes in young trained
           men'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M. Tayebi, H. AraziSummaryObjectivesThe production and sale of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) with annual increase in number and diversity have now become a beneficial industry. At present, there is a kind of creatine supplement, called as creatine hydrochloride (CHCL), which is claimed to have a much higher absorption compared to creatine monohydrate (CRM) supplementation and does not require a loading period. However, this claim has not been fully examined yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the effects of two types of creatine (CHCL and CRM) on physical activity, plasma levels of testosterone (T), and cortisol (Cor) in trained young men.Equipment and methodsThe statistical population of this study included 36 healthy subjects selected by purposive sampling method and with at least six months of resistance training. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups (Group 1: 20 g of CRM, Group 2: 3 g of CRM, Group 3: 3 g of CHCl per day for a week, and Group 4: placebo). The supplements were given to subjects by double-blind manner. Physical performance variables were evaluated on the morning of the first day and before the supplementation, and blood samples (5 cc) were taken in fasting conditions (8–10 hours) to measure the plasma levels of T and Cor. The blood samples were taken again after seven days for physical performance measurements.ResultsThe results showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of 3 and 20 g of CRM and 3 g of CHCL on the vigor, power, plasma levels of T and Cor, and T/C ratio. In other words, 3 g of CHCL did not result in improved performance and hormonal changes compared to 20 g of CRM.ConclusionAccording to the results, the multi-day period of supplementation with CHCL in comparison to CRM cannot have much effect on performance and improve the hormonal status of individuals in the short term.RésuméObjectifLa production et la vente de compléments alimentaires sont une industrie en plein essor. Actuellement, une nouvelle présentation de créatine complémentaire a été développée, et est présentée comme ayant une meilleure absorption digestive que la créatine monohydrate (MRC) et ne nécessitant pas une période de charge. Ce supplément est appelé chlorhydrate de créatine (CHCL). Cette propriété alléguée n’a pas été complètement étudiée. Par conséquent, la présente étude visait à comparer les effets de deux types de Créatine (CHCL et CRM) sur l’activité physique, et les taux plasmatiques de testostérone (T) et de cortisol (Cor) chez de jeunes hommes.Méthode de rechercheTrente-six sportifs en bonne santé ont participé à cette recherche avec un entraînement de résistance de six mois au moins. Les sujets ont été répartis au hasard en 4 groupes: (groupe 1: 20 gr de CRM, groupe 2: 3 gr de CRM, groupe 3: 3 gr CHCL par jour pendant une semaine et le groupe IV: placebo (PL)). Des suppléments ont été administrés aux sujets en double aveugle. Le matin du premier jour, avant l’administration des compléments aux sujets, les variables de la performance physique ont été évaluées et puis des échantillons de sang de 5 ml ont été prélevés de chaque sujet à jeun (8 à 10 heures) pour mesurer les taux plasmatiques de T et de Cor. Après 7 jours, les échantillons de sang ont été prélevés à nouveau et la performance physique a été mesurée.RésultatsLes résultats obtenus ont montré qu’il n’y avait pas de différence significative entre les effets de 3 et 20 gr de CRM et de 3 gr de CHCL sur la performance, les taux plasmatiques de T et Cor et le rapport T/C. En d’autres termes, 3 gr de CHCL n’ont pas abouti à l’amélioration de la performance et aux changements hormonaux par rapport à 20 gr de CRM.ConclusionD’après les résultats obtenus, on peut conclure qu’une période de quelques jours de supplémentation en CHCL comparée au CRM ne permet pas d’affecter la performance et l’amélioration du concentrations de T et de Cor à court terme.
       
  • Haematological parameters of Malaysian junior athletes during an out of
           competition season
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M.N.F. Abdul Latif, A. Mohd Rodhi, S.A. Salim, S. Muhamad Salhimi, N. Abdul Manaf, M.N. IsmailSummaryObjectivesReference values of hematologic parameters are imperative not only in clinical applications but also for monitoring of banned substances in sports. Since the values can be highly influenced by sexes, genetic origins and geographical factors, we assessed the haematological parameters of junior athletes from the Malaysian population. This study aimed to establish local haematological reference values of athletes and to compare the variation of these values between several sub-populations.MethodsComplete blood count and erythropoietin level quantification were performed on a total of 126 subjects from 3 major ethnic groups to measure 11 haematology parameters. Independent Sample T-Test and Analysis of Variance were done in order to access the variation between several sub-populations.ResultsResults showed that 7 out of 11 haematology parameters were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) among groups of gender and ethnicity. The variations between genders were seen in the red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell haemoglobin corpuscular, platelet and OFF-Score values. The values of mean corpuscular volume and mean cell haemoglobin corpuscular were found to be significantly different between ethnic groups. We also found that our haematological reference ranges for junior athletes fall within the previously established local population ranges.ConclusionsThe hematologic parameters have been proven to be highly influenced by sex and ethnicity of athletes. In this work, we managed to establish the reference ranges of hematologic parameters among Malaysian junior athletes. The data also included the values for reticulocytes, OFF-Score and serum erythropoietin that have never been reported before for the local population.RésuméObjectifsLes valeurs de référence des paramètres hématologiques sont très importantes non seulement dans les applications cliniques, mais également dans la surveillance des substances interdites dans le sport. Comme les valeurs peuvent être fortement influencées par les sexes, les origines génétiques et les facteurs géographiques, nous avons évalué les paramètres hématologiques des athlètes juniors de la population malaisienne. Les objectifs de cette étude étaient d’établir des valeurs de référence hématologiques locales pour les athlètes et de comparer la variation de ces valeurs entre plusieurs sous-populations.MéthodesUne numération sanguine complète et une quantification du taux d’érythropoïétine ont été effectuées sur un total de 126 sujets appartenant à 3 groupes ethniques principaux afin de mesurer 11 paramètres hématologiques. Un test t d’échantillons indépendant et une analyse de la variance ont été effectués afin d’accéder à la variation entre plusieurs sous-populations.RésultatsLes résultats ont montré que 7 paramètres hématologiques sur 11 étaient significativement différents (p ≤ 0,05) entre les groupes de sexe et d’origine ethnique. Les variations entre les sexes ont été observées dans les globules rouges, l’hémoglobine, l’hématocrite, l’hémoglobine cellulaire moyenne, les valeurs plaquettaire et OFF. Les valeurs de volume globulaire moyen et d’hémoglobine cellulaire moyenne corpusculaire se sont révélées être significativement différentes entre les groupes ethniques. Nous avons également constaté que nos gammes de références hématologiques pour les athlètes juniors se situaient dans les gammes de population locales précédemment établies.ConclusionsIl a été prouvé que les paramètres hématologiques étaient fortement influencés par le sexe et l’ethnie des athlètes. Dans ce travail, nous avons réussi à établir les plages de référence des paramètres hématologiques chez les athlètes juniors malaisiens. Les données comprenaient également les valeurs pour les réticulocytes, le score OFF et l’érythropoïétine sérique qui n’avaient jamais été rapportées auparavant pour la population locale.
       
  • Soccer injuries documented by F-MARC guidelines in 13- and 14-year old
           national elite players: A 5-year cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): A. Fouasson-Chailloux, O. Mesland, P. Menu, M. DautySummaryObjectivesThe incidence of injuries – in adults, especially professional soccer players – occurring during soccer practice is well-known, but few studies have been conducted on children. We aimed to determine the incidence of injuries in French elite groups aged 13 and 14.Materiel and methodsWe studied a cohort of 161 French elite soccer players aged 13 and 14 in a French Regional Academy. Injuries have been documented following the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre guideline (F-MARC) during 5 seasons. Players were divided into 2 groups based on age: U14 (from 13 to 
       
  • Muscle strength particularity of Grand Tour cyclists from knee isokinetic
           assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M. Dauty, P. Menu, O. Mesland, A. Fouasson-ChaillouxSummaryObjectivesTo take part in a Grand Tour, the selection of the cyclists is not easy despite a link between isokinetic knee muscle strength and sprinting power. This study aimed to measure knee muscle strength among professional cyclists and to explore the difference in lower limb force between the rouleur/sprinter and the puncher/climber cycling tactic profiles.Materials and methodsThirty nine professional cyclists, who participated in at least one Grand Tour, were assessed at knee level with an isokinetic dynamometer. The relative peak torques normalised to the body mass at the 60, 180 and 240°/s angular speeds and the Limb Symmetry Index, were assessed. Four parameters of the Fatigue testing were studied: total work/kg of extensors and flexors, Fatigue slopes, breakpoint and angle.ResultsAll knee extensors isokinetic parameters, excepted extensor LSI, were different between the 2 groups. The best prediction to identify rouleurs/sprinters was found with 2 parameters: knee extensors strength at 240°/s (Odd-ratios: 1440; P = 0.03) and extensors fatigue slope (ORs: 2.57; P = 0.02). The Receiver Operating Characteristic curves areas were respectively 0.851 and 0.840.ConclusionIsokinetic knee extensors strength and fatigue slope of rouleurs/sprinters are different from those of climbers/punchers. Isokinetic knee extensor's force could represent a new tool to select rouleurs/sprinters for a Grand Tour.RésuméObjectifsConcernant la participation à un Grand Tour, la sélection des cyclistes n’est pas aisée malgré le lien existant entre la force musculaire isocinétique au genou et la puissance au sprint. Cette étude avait pour objectif de mesurer la force isocinétique au genou chez des cyclistes professionnels, afin d’explorer les différences de force musculaire entre les rouleurs/sprinteurs et les punchers/grimpeurs.Matériels and méthodesTrent neuf cyclistes professionnels ayant participé à au moins 1 Grand Tour ont été évalués au niveau du genou par un dynamomètre isocinétique. Les pics de force rapportés aux poids ont été évalués à la vitesse angulaire de 60, 180 et 240°/s, ainsi que l’index de symétrie des membres (LSI). Quatre paramètres du test de fatigue ont été évalués: travail total/kg des extenseurs et fléchisseurs, pentes de fatigues, point d’arrêt et angle.RésultatsTous les paramètres isocinétiques, excepté le LSI des extenseurs, étaient différents entre les 2 groupes. La meilleure prédiction pour identifier les rouleurs/sprinteurs était retrouvée pour 2 paramètres: la force des extenseurs au genou à 240°/s (odds-ratio: 1440; p = 0,03) et la pente de fatigue des extenseurs (odds-ratio: 2,57; p = 0,02). Les aires sous la courbe ROC étaient respectivement de 0,851 et 0,840.ConclusionLa force isocinétique des extenseurs du genou et la pente de fatigue des rouleurs/sprinteurs sont différentes de celles des puncheurs/grimpeurs. La force isocinétique au genou pourrait représenter un nouvel outil pour sélectionner les rouleurs/sprinteurs pour un Grand Tour.
       
  • Efficacite d’un programme d’entraînement individualise base sur la
           mesure directe du VO2max chez les malades porteurs de maladies
           chroniques ; le protocole PEP’C
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): Y. Abitteboul, M.E. Rougé Bugat, H. Le Naoures, S. Lassoued, S. Oustric, D. RiviereRésuméObjectifL’objectif principal est de mesurer l’impact d’un programme d’entraînement personnalisé en créneaux sur les capacités aérobies des patients en affection de longue durée et sur leur qualité de vie.Matériels et méthodeÉtude prospective utilisant une mesure directe du VO2max avant et après 20 séances d’activités physiques individualisées. La qualité de vie est évaluée par le questionnaire MOS SF36.RésultatsLe VO2max des 153 patients inclus augmente de près de 10 % (p 
       
  • Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in physically active and
           inactive Portuguese middle-aged adults: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M.-R.G. Silva, H.-H. Silva, S. Capkauskiene, V. Rosado-Marques, A.M. Machado-Rodrigues, H. Nogueira, C. PadezSummaryObjectiveThis study aims to assess cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Portuguese middle-aged adults according to gender and level of PA.Equipment and methodsThis cross-sectional study evaluated cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in 275 Portuguese adults (33.0 ± 7.3 years old) according to gender and level of physical activity. Subjects’ body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were assessed. Body mass index was subsequently calculated and body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance.ResultsThe majority of inactive men was obese (69.7%) and 21.7% was overweight; 71.2% of the inactive women were obese (33.3 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 28.8% was overweight. There were no inactive women presenting normal BMI. Although there were no significantly differences in age (P ≥ 0.05) between active and inactive participants, there were significant differences (P 
       
  • The effect of a new geometric bicycle saddle on the genital-perineal
           vascular perfusion of female cyclists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): N. Piazza, G. Cerri, G. Breda, A. PaggiaroSummaryPurposeFemale cyclists undergo a perineal compression of the pudendal nerve and genital-perineal area, with underexplored effects on genital injuries and sexual dysfunctions. This study tests the effects of a new geometric bicycle saddle (SMP) on perineal compression, blood perfusion, genital sensation and sexual function.MethodsThirty-three professional female athletes were monitored when using both the new saddle and a traditional professional saddle, in a randomized order. Short-term effects are estimated by measuring the partial pressure of vagina transcutaneous oxygen (PtcO2) before using the saddle, after 10 minutes of static sitting, after riding 20 minutes. Long-term effects are estimated by measuring athletes Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) before using the new saddle and after 6 months using it.ResultsFrom an initial average of 70 mmHg, PtcO2 decreases by 30 mmHg after riding on a traditional saddle, 10 mmHg on the new saddle (respectively 20 and 7 after just sitting). When using the traditional saddle all FSDS scores are well over the 12 “normality” threshold, with an average of 41, while after using the new saddle the average falls to 12. All differences between the saddles are strongly significant: paired t-tests > 6; P 
       
  • Effects of hydrogymnastics practice for 45 weeks on the lipid,
           hemodynamic and anthropometry profile of elderly when untrained for
           30 days in the intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): E.G. Moura, W.M.S. Nunes, L.M. Pinto, N.G. Santos, G. V de Oliveira, D.A. GrossSummaryAimsPhysical exercise has been widely recommended by a wide range of health professions, such as a prophylactic agent for diseases, a health provider and as a non-medical treatment, especially for the elderly. Several studies have been devoted to ascertaining the positive impact of hydrogymnastics on young and old individuals. However, the long-term effects related to the lipid profile, mainly to anthropometry, remain inconclusive. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of chronic aquatic practice on the lipid and anthropometric profile of participants of hydrogymnastics classes, for a total period of 45 weeks, with a pause in their practice for 30 days.MethodsFor this, 11 volunteers, 2 men and 9 women, with a total average age of 67.64 ± 4.31 years, height 1.58 ± 0.089 m and body mass 72.7 ± 19.54 kg, participated in this study. For 45 weeks, participants performed hydrogymnastics, with a 30-day break between the 20th and 24th week. Data were collected regarding the lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C), hemodynamic (arterial pressure) and anthropometric (percent of total and visceral body fat, BMI, and waist hip ratio) using the colorimetric method, brachial pressure, bioimpedance and perimetry, respectively.ResultsThe results showed that total cholesterol concentrations were reduced after 9 (P 
       
  • Effects of Ramadan fasting on match-related changes in skill performance
           in elite Muslim badminton players
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): A.R. Aziz, D.S.L. Lim, S. Sahrom, A.M. Che Muhamed, M. Ihsan, O. Girard, M.Y.H. ChiaSummaryWe examined the extent to which Ramadan fasting affects badminton skill performance under simulated (i.e., competitive) match play conditions. Ten male Muslim national-level badminton players performed a 40-minute (2 sets × 20 minutes per set in each match) badminton single-matches in a non-fasted (CON) and in Ramadan-fasted (RAM) state on separate occasions. Skills assessment involved performing eight low-serves and eight overhead smashes at baseline, at the end of set 1 and set 2 (mid- and end-match, respectively). Players’ pre-match diet was standardised between conditions and consumed either at ∼12:00 or at ∼05:00 for CON and RAM, respectively. There were no differences in the accuracy, consistency and speed of the low-serve between CON and RAM at the three match play time-points (all P > 0.05). Likewise, accuracy and consistency of the overhead smash were not affected by RAM (P > 0.05), but overhead smash velocity was slower in RAM than CON at the mid- (−7.3 ± 7.1%; P = 0.016) and end-match (−5.3 ± 4.4%; P = 0.007). Blood glucose, blood lactate, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were similar throughout the match play protocol (all P > 0.05). No differences were observed between conditions in players’ overnight sleep, daytime nap duration and level of daytime sleepiness (all P > 0.05), whereas pre-match perceived tiredness and fatigue ratings were higher in RAM (both P  0,05). De même, la condition RAM n’était pas associée à une modification de la précision ou de la cohérence du service (p > 0,05), alors que la vitesse du smash était plus lente pour la condition RAM comparativement à CON, ceci aussi bien au milieu (−7,3 ± 7,1 %, p = 0,016) qu’à la fin (−5,3 ± 4,4 %, p = 0,007) du match. Le taux de glucose dans le sang, la lactatémie sanguine, la fréquence cardiaque et la perception de l’effort étaient similaires tout au long du match (p > 0,05). Aucune différence existait entre les conditions concernant le sommeil la nuit, la durée de la sieste en journée et l’état de somnolence (p > 0,05). En revanche, que les sensations de fatigue avant et pendant le match étaient plus élevées pour la condition RAM (p 
       
  • Iron in polish female soccer players–dietary intake and
           questionnaire validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): H. Dobrowolski, D. WłodarekSummaryObjectivesThe aim of the study was to evaluate dietary iron intake by professional female soccer players and to estimate the possible risk of iron deficiency.Equipment and methodsThe research was completed by 38 professional soccer players of the three soccer leagues: Ekstraleague, I League, and II League. The participants had their height and body mass measured. The data food consumption and iron intake was obtained through the method of a systematic recording of results conducted throughout a 3-day long period and food frequency questionnaire, adapted to evaluation of intake of this particular micronutrients (IRONIC-FFQ).ResultsThe age of the participants was 21 ± 5 years, the height was 167 ± 5 cm, and the body mass median was 59,2 kg. Most common iron sources in study group were cereal products (31,8%), meats (14,1%) and vegetables (9,9%). Iron intake with using IRONIC-FFQ method was 8,06 mg, while using 3-day dietary food record method was 8,8 mg. After comparing both method with each other we found a correlation (P 
       
  • L’union fait la force ! Le réseau francophone ReFORM est reconnu par
           le CIO pour faire avancer la prévention des blessures et la protection de
           la santé des athlètes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): P. Edouard, F. Bieuzen, J. Cabri, J.-L. Croisier, J.-R. Filliard, B. Forthomme, G. Guilhem, D. Hannouche, J.-F. Kaux, S. Leclerc, S. Le Garrec, P. Le Van, R. Seil, P. Thoreux, J.-F. Toussaint, P. Tscholl, A. Urhausen
       
  • Cluster training sets is an important stimulus for promoting gains in
           muscle power regardless of resistance training program design in older
           women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M.A.S. Carneiro, G.N. de Oliveira Júnior, J.F.R. de Sousa, M.V.C. Souza, F.L. OrsattiSummaryObjectiveThe purpose of study was to compare the effects of strength training (ST) and power training (PT) with a configuration of cluster training sets (CS) gains in muscle power, force, and velocity in older women.MethodsEach leg of 14 volunteers was randomly allocated into two groups: ST (n = 14 legs) and PT (n = 14 legs). Both groups performed a twice-weekly training, during 8 weeks. The ST performed three sets of four repetitions at 90% of one repetition maximum (1RM), 3s per muscle action. The PT performed three sets of six repetitions at 40% of 1RM, 3s of eccentric muscle action and, as fast and strongly as possible of concentric muscle action. Both groups performed 30 s interrepetition rest periods and 1.5-min rest interval between sets.ResultsBoth groups increased thigh muscle cross-sectional area, maximal muscle strength (1RM), muscle power at 40% and 50% of 1RM and maximal muscle power (time effect, P 
       
  • Do sex and body structure influence spatiotemporal step characteristics in
           endurance runners'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): L.E. Roche-Seruendo, P.Á. Latorre-Román, V.M. Soto-Hermoso, F. García-PinillosSummaryObjectivesTo examine the influence of sex and anthropometric characteristics of recreationally-trained endurance athletes on spatiotemporal parameters during running at a constant velocity.Equipments and methodsIn all, 97 runners (52 men and 45 women) performed a running protocol on a treadmill at 12 km.h−1. Spatiotemporal parameters were measured using the OptoGait system and anthropometric characteristics were assessed by determining body mass, height, leg length and torso length.ResultsPartial correlation analysis, adjusted by sex, revealed some significant correlations between anthropometric and spatiotemporal characteristics. Cluster k-means analysis grouped participants according to the body height, leg length and body mass. A 1-way Anova showed no between sex differences (P ≥ 0.05) in any spatiotemporal parameters; whereas some differences were found between created sub-groups. Shorter contact time (CT) and step length (SL) and higher step frequency (SF) were obtained by the shorter group (P 
       
  • Profil musculaire isocinétique des athlètes de haut niveau en fonction
           de la pratique de sports différents : le football, le basketball, le
           handball, le volleyball, et le cyclisme
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): E. Menager, M. DautyRésuméObjectifDéterminer et comparer les profils musculaires isocinétiques des cuisses en fonction de la pratique de haut niveau du basketball, du handball, du volleyball, du football, et du cyclisme.MéthodeCent dix-neuf sportifs professionnels ont été inclus. Trente pratiquaient le basketball (10 en Ligue A, 10 en Ligue B et 10 en National Ligue 1), vingt et un pratiquaient le handball (Ligue 1), 13 pratiquaient le volleyball (Ligue A), trente pratiquaient le cyclisme (Continental Pro Tour) et vingt-cinq pratiquaient le football (Ligue 1). L’âge des sportifs professionnels était de 26 ± 4 ans [18–38] pour une taille de 186 ± 13 cm [167–213] et un poids de 84 ± 14 Kg [63–120], soit un indice de masse corporelle (IMC) de 23,8 ± 1,9 kg/cm2 [19,2–28,6]. La force musculaire des genoux a été mesurée à l’aide d’un dynamomètre isocinétique CybexNorm® en début de saison sportive. La force maximale des quadriceps et ischio-jambiers a été rapportée au poids du corps pour les comparaisons. Les ratios conventionnels (Ischio-jambiers/Quadriceps) et bilatéraux (quadriceps/quadriceps et ischio-jambiers/ischio-jambiers) ont été calculés pour les vitesses angulaires de 60 et 180°/s.RésultatsL’âge, la taille et le poids étaient différents en fonction des sports pratiqués. La vitesse angulaire de 180°/s a permis la meilleure identification des profils musculaires en fonction des sports pratiqués. La force relative des quadriceps des footballeurs était supérieure à celle des basketteurs, handballeurs et cyclistes. La force relative des ischio-jambiers des footballeurs était supérieure à celle des autres sports étudiés excepté les handballeurs. Les ratios conventionnels et bilatéraux n’étaient pas différents en fonction des sports pratiqués.ConclusionNotre étude a permis de chiffrer et de comparer les caractéristiques anthropométriques ainsi que les valeurs isocinétiques des sportifs de haut niveau. Les footballeurs ont un profil isocinétique différent des autres sports, probablement en lien avec la spécificité de ce sport. Ces résultats pourront servir aux entraîneurs, aux kinésithérapeutes et aux médecins du sport qui encadrent les sports individuels et collectifs qui ont été étudiés.SummaryObjectiveTo determine and compare the knee isokinetic profiles in accordance with the high level practice of basketball, handball, volleyball, cycling or football.MethodOne hundred and nineteen professional athletes were included. Thirty practiced basketball (10 in A League, 10 in B League and 10 in First National League), twenty-one practiced handball (First League), thirteen practiced volleyball (A League), thirty practiced cycling (Continental Pro Tour) and twenty-five practiced soccer (First League). The age was 26 ± 4 years old [18–38] for 186 ± 13 cm height [167–213], 84 ± 14 kg weight [63–120], and 23.8 ± 1.9 kg/cm2 Body Mass Index [19.2–28.6]. The knee strength was measured using a CybexNorm® isokinetic dynamometer at the beginning of sport season. Quadriceps and hamstring maximal strength was reported to the body weight for comparison. The isokinetic conventional ratios (hamstring-to-quadriceps) and the bilateral (quadriceps-to-quadriceps and hamstring-to-hamstring) ratios were calculated for the 60 and 180°/s angular speed.ResultsAge, height and weight were different depending on the sports practiced. The 180°/s angular speed allowed a better identification of muscle profiles according to the sports practiced. The quadriceps relative strength of soccer players was greater than basketball, handball players and cyclist's ones. The hamstrings relative strength of soccer players was superior to the other sports except the handball players. The conventional and bilateral ratios were not different in accordance with the sport practice.ConclusionOur study has quantified and compared the anthropometric characteristics and isokinetic values of high level athletes. Soccer players have an isokinetic profile different from other sports players, probably related to the specificity of this sport practice. These results can be used by coaches, physiotherapists and reference sports physicians in relation to the individual and collective sports that have been studied.
       
  • Conséquences de l’absence d’un programme en activités physiques
           adaptées sur la condition physique d’enfants et adolescents
           sédentaires avec déficience intellectuelle
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): T. Bofosa, B. Miangindula, E. Kam, C. Nkiama, G. BumokoRésuméObjectifÉvaluer le niveau de la condition physique d’enfants et adolescents sédentaires avec déficience intellectuelle (DI) qui fréquentent les centres pour personnes handicapées à Kinshasa.Matériel et méthodesCent-dix enfants ont pris part à cette étude dont 60 avec DI (12,4 ± 4 ans) et 50 sans DI (11,6 ± 4 ans). Les tests de souplesse articulaire du tronc, de force explosive, de force de préhension, d’endurance abdominale et l’endurance cardiorespiratoire ont été administrés. Ils sont complétés par la mesure des caractéristiques anthropométriques.RésultatsLes mesures de force explosive, force isométrique et de distance de marche sont significativement supérieures chez les garçons en comparaison à celles des filles (p 
       
  • L’activité physique mesurée par podomètre chez les hémodialysés
           chroniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): H. Rafik, T. Aatif, A. Bahadi, M. Azizi, D. El KabbajRésuméObjectifsLa sédentarité est un facteur de risque de mortalité chez les patients en hémodialyse chronique, mais le niveau d’activité physique est peu étudié dans cette population. Plusieurs études ont évalué l’activité physique par des méthodes subjectives basées sur des questionnaires. Notre travail avait pour objectif de mesurer le niveau d’activité physique par le recueil du nombre de pas quotidiens à l’aide d’un podomètre et de déterminer les facteurs impliqués dans la réduction de l’activité physique.Matériels et méthodesC’est une étude transversale en simple aveugle ayant inclue quarante-trois hémodialysés chroniques. L’activité physique a été évaluée à l’aide d’un podomètre (podomètre multifonction modèle ONWALK 900, GEONAUTE) en enregistrant quotidiennement le nombre de pas pendant sept jours consécutifs.RésultatsQuarante-trois patients étaient colligés d’âge médian de 56 ans [40–68], avec une prédominance masculine sexe ratio H/F : 1,26. L’activité physique médiane était de 4769 pas/jour [1597–8364]. Le niveau d’activité physique était au-dessous du niveau recommandé (10 000 pas/jour) chez 90,7 % des patients et 51,2 % étaient considérés comme sédentaires (
       
  • Retractation notice to “A comparison of bioelectrical impedance analysis
           and skinfold measurements with Medix DR Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
           for assessment of body fat percentage” [Sci. Sports 34 (2019)
           173.e1–173.e5]
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s):
       
  • Total body water and water compartments assessment in athletes: Validity
           of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): C.N. Matias, F.A. Noujeimi, L.B. Sardinha, V.H. Teixeira, A.M. SilvaSummaryBioelectrical impedance provides an affordable assessment of the body's water compartments: total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). However, little is known of its validity in athletes. We aim to validate TBW, ECW, and ICW obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (MFBIA), using dilution techniques as reference (REF) in athletes. Thirty-six elite athletes (17males and 19females) with a mean age of 18.5 ± 4.1 years were evaluated. TBW, ECW, and ICW were assessed by MFBIA (Tanita MC-180MA) and dilution techniques. TBWREF and ECWREF were obtained by deuterium and bromide dilution techniques, respectively, while ICWREF was calculated as their difference. MFBIA underestimated ECW (∼1.3 kg) and overestimated TBW (∼1 kg) and ICW (∼3.5 kg), in relation to criterion. MFBIA explained 96%, 81%, and 83% of the total variability of results obtained from the reference for TBW, ECW, and ICW respectively. Standard error of the estimates ranged between 1.6 kg (ECW) and 2.9 kg (ICW). Bland-Altman analyses revealed 95% confidence intervals: −3.1 to 5.1 kg for TBW, −5.0 to 2.3 kg for ECW, and −2.5 to 9.6 kg for ICW. Although methods are highly associated, these findings highlight that the MFBIA used is of limited accuracy at an individual level to estimate TBW, ECW and ICW, in an athletic population.RésuméL’impédance bioélectrique fournit une évaluation abordable des compartiments de l’eau du corps : l’eau totale du corps (ETC), l’eau extracellulaire (EEC) et l’eau intracellulaire (EIC). Cependant, on sait peu de sa validité chez les athlètes. Nous visons à valider ETC, EEC, et EIC obtenus par impédance bioélectrique multifréquence (BIAMF), en utilisant des techniques de dilution comme référence (REF) chez les athlètes. Trente-six athlètes d’élite (17 garçons et 19 filles) âgés en moyenne de 18,5 ± 4,1 ans ont été évalués. ETC, EEC et EIC ont été évalués par BIAMF (Tanita MC-180MA) et des techniques de dilution. ETC_REF et EEC_REF ont été obtenus par des techniques de dilution de deutérium et de bromure, respectivement, tandis que EIC_REF a été calculé comme leur différence. Le BIAMF a sous-estimé EEC (∼ 1,3 kg) et surestimé ETC (∼1 kg) et EIC (∼3,5 kg), par rapport au critère. BIAMF a expliqué 96 %, 81 % et 83 % de la variabilité totale des résultats obtenus à partir de la référence pour ETC, EEC et EIC respectivement. L’erreur-type des estimations variait entre 1,6 kg (EEC) et 2,9 kg (EIC). Les analyses de Bland-Altman ont révélé des intervalles de confiance de 95 % : −3,1 à 5,1 kg pour ETC, −5,0 à 2,3 kg pour EEC, et −2,5 à 9,6 kg pour EIC. Bien que les méthodes soient fortement associées, ces résultats soulignent que la BIAMF utilisée est d’une précision limitée au niveau individuel pour estimer ETC, EEC et EIC, dans une population sportive.
       
  • Les corps cétoniques et les performances en endurance. Qu’en
           penser en 2019 '
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): X. BigardRésuméObjectifsLa nutrition joue un rôle indéniable pour l’excellence des performances dans les sports d’endurance. Les réserves en glucose de l’organisme sous forme de glycogène étant limitées, toute épargne du glycogène et tout substrat alternatif au glucose peuvent être utiles pour les performances. C’est ainsi que ces dernières années, les stratégies nutritionnelles destinées à augmenter la disponibilité en corps cétoniques ont bénéficié d’un certain engouement. L’objectif de cette revue est de faire l’état des connaissances actuelles sur l’intérêt que peuvent représenter les régimes cétogènes (RCet) ou les compléments alimentaires à base de corps cétoniques (CC) sur les performances dans les sports d’endurance.ActualitésLes RCet sont mal tolérés par les sportifs, ce qui justifie le développement de compléments alimentaires à base de sels ou d’esters de CC (ECC). Les ECC assurent une bonne disponibilité plasmatique de β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), le principal CC métabolisable, avec un effet dose ; celle-ci reste cependant très dépendante des apports en glucose qui doivent être réduits au maximum. La consommation de sels ou d’ECC augmente la part prise par les CC dans la fourniture d’énergie au cours de l’exercice, ce qui entraîne une baisse de la glycolyse. Compte tenu des effets décrits des CC sur le métabolisme énergétique, certaines des réponses permettent de penser que les CC peuvent améliorer les performances au cours d’exercices uniques en endurance, et d’autres qui tendent à conclure à l’inverse. La prise de compléments alimentaires de sels de CC altère ou au mieux n’améliore pas les performances en endurance. Les études actuellement disponibles ne permettent pas d’attribuer aux ECC des effets favorables pour les performances. Tout au plus, les ECC permettent de limiter la fatigue induite par un cycle de surcharge de travail à l’entraînement, mais sans améliorer pour autant les performances en endurance. Les sels et esters de CC sont fréquemment à l’origine de troubles digestifs qui sont en relation avec la dose ingérée ; dans certaines études, tous les sujets ont présenté des troubles digestifs, certes de gravité variable, mais qui sont toujours pénalisants pour les performances.PerspectivesLes effets potentiels des CC sur les fonctions cognitives devraient être étudiés de manière plus précise, avec une indication potentielle dans certains sports comme les sports collectifs. Il en est de même des effets des CC sur la régulation épigénétique de certains gènes importants pour les réponses à l’entraînement.SummaryObjectivesNutrition plays a key role for performance in endurance sports. Because the glucose stores of the body, i.e. muscle and liver glycogen, are limited, any preservation of glycogen stores and any alternative substrate to glucose can be useful for the physical performances. Some recent nutritional strategies aimed at increasing the availability of ketone bodies have been viewed with some enthusiasm. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on the interest that can be represented by ketogenic diets (RCet) or ketone dietary supplements (CC) on performance in endurance sports.NewsRCet are poorly tolerated by athletes, which justifies the development of exogenous ketone supplements as ketone salts or ketone esters (ECC). ECCs provide good plasma availability of β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), the main CC used by oxidation, with a dose effect ; however, the CC oxidation remains highly dependent on glucose intake which must be reduced to a minimum. The ketone salts or ECC intakes increase the rate of CCs in the energy supply during exercise, which leads to a decrease in the glycolytic activity and glucose use. Given the well-known effects of CC on energy metabolism, some of these responses suggest that CCs may improve performance during single endurance exercises, and others tend to conclude the opposite. Ketone salts are now known to either alter or at the best not improve endurance performance. On the other hand, the currently available studies do not support positive effects of ECC for performance during endurance exercises. At best, ECCs could limit the fatigue induced by a training cycle of marked increased workload, but without improving performance in endurance exercises. Both ketone and ester salts are frequently at the origin of gut disorders that also are related to the dose ingested ; in some studies, all the subjects presented gut disorders, of varying intensity, but which are always deleterious for endurance performances.Prospects and projectsThe potential effects of CC on cognitive functions should be studied more precisely, with a potential interest in some sports such as team sports. The effects of CC on the epigenetic regulation of some genes important for the responses to endurance training should also be studied in further experiments.
       
  • Analyse d’articles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s):
       
  • Bone mark changes after an eight-month intervention in an osteogenic sport
           and in physical education in low-income children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): D. Costa, J. Brugnara Mello, L. Filipe Lemos, Í. Aires, E. Sena, A. Reis Gaya, J. Mota, C. MartinsSummaryAimRegular physical activity and/or sports practice play an important role in peak bone mass. However, the role of different physical-sportive approaches on bone health is not fully understood, especially in low-income children. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in bone markers (bone mineral density–BMD and bone metabolism) promoted by two different exercise programs (osteogenic sport and Physical Education–PE) in low-income children.MethodsAn 8-month intervention program in children (8.07 ± 1.38 years at baseline) was conducted in two groups, Martial Arts (G1, n = 14) and PE (G2, n = 12). BMD was obtained by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. To determine bone metabolism, serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were collected as indicators of bone formation. General Linear Model (GLM) - ANOVA was used to analyze longitudinal effects in repeated measures with adjustments for maturational stages, calcium consumption and serum vitamin D.ResultsThe within the groups analysis highlighted significant differences for BMD at the arms and spine, and for serum ALP for both groups. After the interventions, G1 presented significant changes in BMD of the total body, femoral neck, proximal total femur and spine (P ≤ 0.05), while G2 presented statistically significant changes in serum ALP levels. The group × time analysis showed significant differences in BMD at the arms (Δ% G1 = 8.1 vs. Δ% G2 = 3.7), and at the spine (Δ% G1 = 5.7 vs. Δ% G2 = 5.0). and in serum ALP (Δ% G1 = 61.1 vs. Δ% G2 = 171.0).ConclusionBoth exercise programs increased BMD in the arms and the spine and increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels of low-income children, even after adjustments for potential confounders.RésuméObjectifUne activité physique régulière et/ou une pratique sportive jouent un rôle important dans le pic de masse osseuse. Cependant, le rôle des différentes approches physico-sportives sur la santé des os n’est pas entièrement compris, en particulier chez les enfants à faible revenu. Le but de cette étude était d’analyser les modifications des marqueurs osseux (densité minérale osseuse–DMO et métabolisme osseux) favorisées par deux programmes d’exercices différents (sport ostéogénique et éducation physique–EF) chez des enfants à faible revenu.MéthodesUn programme d’intervention de 8 mois chez les enfants (8,07 ± 1,38 ans au début) a été mené en deux groupes, Arts martiaux (G1, n = 14) et EF (G2, n = 12). La DMO a été obtenue par absorptiométrie à rayons X à double énergie. Pour déterminer le métabolisme osseux, de l’ostéocalcine et de la phosphatase alcaline (PAL) sériques ont été recueillies en tant qu’indicateurs de la formation osseuse. Modèle linéaire général (GLM)–Anova a été utilisée pour analyser les effets longitudinaux dans des mesures répétées avec ajustements pour les stades de maturation, la consommation de calcium et la vitamine D sérique.RésultatsL’analyse au sein des groupes a mis en évidence des différences significatives pour la DMO au niveau des bras et de la colonne vertébrale, et pour la PAL sérique pour les deux groupes. Après les interventions, G1 a présenté des modifications significatives de la DMO du corps total, du col fémoral, du fémur total proximal et de la colonne vertébrale (p ≤ 0,05), tandis que G2 a présenté des modifications statistiquement significatives des taux sériques de PAL. L’analyse groupe × temps a montré des différences significatives de DMO au niveau des bras (Δ % G1 = 8,1 vs G % G2 = 3,7) et de la colonne vertébrale (Δ % G1 = 5,7 vs Δ % G2 = 5,0). PAL sérique (Δ % G1 = 61,1 vs % G2 = 171,0).ConclusionLes deux approches d’interventions différentes (sports ostéogéniques et classes d’EP) produisent des changements positifs à la fois en DMO et en phosphatase alcaline chez l’enfant, même après ajustement pour les facteurs de confusion potentiels.
       
  • A comparison of static and dynamic balance performance in adolescent male
           wrestlers and judoists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): O.A. Gencay, S. Gencay, E. GencaySummaryObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to compare the dominant and non-dominant legs in respect of dynamic and static balance and to examine the effect of sport type, sportive experience and BMI on the static and dynamic balance of adolescent male judoists and wrestlers. The results of the study could be beneficial for the prevention of injury to the athletes and could be applied to training management.MethodsThe study included 54 healthy, male, adolescent wrestlers and judoists (mean age: 15.81 ± 0.87 years; height: 165.01 ± 8.73 cm; weight: 62.01 ± 11.94 kg). Static and dynamic balance were assessed using the flamingo balance test (FBT) and the star excursion balance test (SEBT) in an institution-based sports sciences department.ResultsNo statistically significant differences were determined between the dominant and non-dominant leg in the normalized SEBT reach distances (P > 0.05). The static balance performance scores were compared between the groups and the judoists were found to have higher static balance performance than the wrestlers (P  0,05). Les scores de performance de l’équilibre statique ont été comparés entre les groupes et les judoistes ont montré des performances d’équilibre statique plus élevées que les lutteurs (p 
       
  • Nitric oxide involvement in post-exercise proteinuria of sedentary young
           men
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): O. Kuru, Filiz Basralı, G. Koçer, Ü.K. ŞentürkSummaryObjectivesPost-exercise proteinuria is generally characterised based on the alterations in renal hemodynamics. The present study was focused on the role of nitric oxide in post-exercise proteinuria; nitric oxide is a biomolecule involved in mechanisms that affect renal hemodynamics and is a mediator that rises during exercise bouts.MethodsHealthy human subjects performed three high-intensity exercise sessions with a one-week interval; control, NO donor (isosorbide mononitrate) and vasodilator that unrelated nitric oxide (diltiazem). Urine samples obtained immediately before and 30 and 120 minutes after the exercise session were examined for proteinuria. The alterations in systemic blood pressure induced by the drugs were evaluated by performing blood pressure measurements.ResultsBoth the agents that were administered caused a significant decrease in the systolic or diastolic blood pressure; however, the extent of reduction was not different between the two agents. Exercise session induced apparent proteinuria at 30 minutes post-exercise during all the protocols. Exercise-induced rise in urinary protein excretion was significantly reduced by isosorbide mononitrate, while a similar effect was not observed for diltiazem.ConclusionOur results revealed that exogenous nitric oxide could alter the hemodynamic changes during exercise and thus reduce post-exercise proteinuria. Further, endogenous nitric oxide may prevent excessive elevation in the post-exercise proteinuria during normal physiological conditions.RésuméObjectifsUne protéinurie après un exercice physique est généralement caractérisée par une altération de l’hémodynamique rénale. La présente étude s’est concentrée sur le rôle du monoxyde d’azote dans le cas d’une protéinurie après exercice physique. Le monoxyde d’azote est une biomolécule qui participe aux mécanismes qui affectent l’hémodynamique rénale, il est aussi un médiateur qui augmente lors d’une séance d’exercices longs et intenses.MéthodesDes sujets sains exécutent trois séances d’exercice de forte intensité à intervalles d’une semaine; contrôle, donneur de monoxyde d’azote (mononitrate d’isosorbide) et vasodilatateur sans rapport avec le monoxyde d’azote (diltiazem). Les échantillons d’urine obtenus immédiatement 30 minutes avant la séance d’exercices et 120 minutes après ont été examinés pour la protéinurie. Les altérations de la pression artérielle induites par les médicaments ont été contrôlées par des mesures de la pression artérielle.RésultatsLes deux agents administrés entrainent une diminution significative de la pression artérielle systolique ou diastolique; toutefois, le niveau de réduction obtenu n’était pas différent pour les deux agents. Les séances d’exercices induisent une protéinurie apparente après 30 minutes d’exercice pour tous les protocoles. La protéinurie d’effort était significativement plus basse après prise de mononitrate d’isosorbide, alors qu’aucun effet similaire n’a été observé avec le diltiazem.ConclusionNos résultats ont révélé que le monoxyde d’azote pouvait changer les modifications hémodynamiques au cours de l’exercice et ainsi réduire la protéinurie après exercice. De plus, le monoxyde d’azote endogène peut prévenir une élévation excessive de la protéinurie après exercice dans des conditions physiologiques normales.
       
  • Knee side-to-side strength asymmetry and hamstring-to-quadriceps strength
           ratios in professional street skateboarding athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): C. Pietta-Dias, C.V. Ruas, R. Bortoluzzi, R. Radaelli, F. Minozzo, R.S. Pinto, C.L. Tiggemann
       
  • Injury assessment in circus student-artists population; preliminary study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): H. Hakim, F. Puel, W. BertucciSummaryObjectiveThe purpose of our study was to investigate probable causes of injury occurrence among circus student-artists as well as develop the most appropriate injury prevention and performance optimization programs to preserve their health. We correlated the general warm-up quality, the injury rates, and levels of severity.MethodsThirty-one healthy adults (14 women and 17 men, 22.5 ± 2 years, 170 ± 6.4 cm, 64.5 ± 7.5 kg) participated voluntarily in this study. These student-artists were divided into two groups: 15 aerials and (dangling trapeze, stated trapeze, outfielders, Chinese mast, aerial fabrics, aerial webbing, smooth rope, and flying rope) 16 non-aerials (banquine, bascule, carried acrobatic, cyr wheel, acrobatics, and acrobatic juggling). A prospective report of injury was established. Both an observation and a description of the details and habits of the general warm-up of each student-artist were carried out before the specialty sessions.ResultsForty-four percent of injuries affect the lower limbs, 32% the upper limbs, 16% the trunk, and 8% the neck. Sixty-eight percent of lower limb injuries are at the ankle and 27% affect the knee. In the upper limb, the shoulder is the most affected with 50% of total injuries. Injuries are spread almost equally between aerial and non-aerial groups. Seventy percent of injuries were recorded in those who do not perform endurance exercises to induce cardiorespiratory activation during their general warm-ups. Seventy percent of injuries were recorded among those who practice passive, static, and long-term stretching during their general warm-ups. Eighty-five percent of minor injuries were recorded in the latter. Sixty-seven percent of severe injuries were noted among those who practice this type of stretching.ConclusionThe injury occurrence rates and severities seem to have a relation with the way student-artists practice their warm-ups just before their specialty sessions; taking into account the fact that all injuries were recorded during these sessions.RésuméObjectifLe but de notre étude était d’investiguer les causes probables d’apparition de blessures chez les étudiant-artistes de cirque afin de concevoir les programmes les plus appropriés de prévention des blessures et d’optimisation de la performance permettant de préserver leur santé. L’étude consistait à établir une corrélation entre la qualité générale de l’échauffement, le taux de blessures et les degrés de leurs gravités.MéthodesTrente et un adultes en bonne santé (14 femmes et 17 hommes, 22,5 ± 2 ans, 170 ± 6,4 cm, 64,5 ± 7,5 kg) ont participé volontairement à cette étude. Ces étudiant-artistes ont été divisés en deux groupes : 15 aériens (trapèze ballant, trapèze fixe, voltigeurs, mât chinois, tissus aérien, sangles aériennes, corde lisse, corde volante) et 16 non-aériens (banquine, bascule, portés acrobatiques, roue acrobatique, acrobatie, jonglage acrobatique). Un rapport prospectif des blessures a été établi. Une observation et une description des détails et des habitudes de l’échauffement général de chaque étudiant-artiste ont été réalisées avant les séances de spécialité.RésultatsParmi les blessures, 44 % touchent le membre inférieur, 32 % le membre supérieur, 16 % le tronc et 8 % le cou. Parmi les blessures du membre inférieur, 68 % sont à la cheville et 27 % au genou. En ce qui concerne le membre supérieur, l’articulation de l’épaule est la plus touchée avec 50 % des blessures. Parmi les blessures, 70 % ont été enregistrées chez les étudiant-artistes qui n’effectuaient pas d’exercices d’endurance pour induire une activation cardiorespiratoire au cours de leurs échauffements généraux. Aussi, 70 % des blessures ont été enregistrées chez ceux qui pratiquaient des étirements passifs, statiques et de longue durée lors de leurs échauffements généraux. Parmi, 85 % des blessures mineures et 67 % des blessures graves ont été enregistrées chez ceux pratiquant ce type d’étirements. Les étudiant-artistes du Cnac ont les mêmes types et le même pourcentage de blessures qu’ils soient filles ou garçons et toutes disciplines confondues.ConclusionLe taux et la gravité des blessures semblent avoir un lien direct avec la façon dont les étudiant-artistes pratiquent l’échauffement juste avant les séances de spécialités, en tenant compte du fait que toutes les blessures ont été enregistrées au cours de ces séances.
       
  • Climbers! Don’t stretch your forearm muscles before climbing: Effect of
           static stretching on a finger strength in various grip positions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): K. Sas-Nowosielski, K. Kandzia
       
  • Time structure and EMG parameters during the sprint start depending on the
           sprinters’ physical preparation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): K. Piechota, Z. Borysiuk, M. KoniecznySummaryObjectiveThe primary of the study was to identify relations between motor preparation and speed parameters in the group of experts-sprinters and in the group of novices-students. Interdependence was examined between speed and force factors and indicators of EMG movement structure: bioelectric muscle voltage and muscle activation timing.Material and methodsThe participants were of 20 1st and 2nd sport class sprinters and a group of 35 students-novices. Force and jumping ability preparation tests were used in the study (standing long jump, standing triple jump and both feet jump with the use of Kistler platform), speed preparation test (30 m run from start block) and EMG signal recording.ResultsIn the post-start phase, the sprinter's group was triggered lower limb muscle groups appropriate for the given sprint start phase (front muscle group: VL: vastus lateralis; RF: rectus femoris; GAS. MED.: gastrocnemius medialis and the back muscle group: STN: semitendinosus and BF: biceps femoris), while the student group demonstrated an advantage in activation of muscles of the upper limbs: BB: biceps brachii and TB: triceps brachii in the same phase.ConclusionsOn the basis of the present research, a low start motion pattern was created, which enables proper selection of appropriate sprinter technique exercises. It has also been demonstrated that the effectiveness of sprinters’ start technique is affected by factors from the area of coordination conditions. But in the group of students – the sprint start depends mainly on physical preparation (force-speed predispositions).RésuméObjectifLe principal objectif de l’étude était d’identifier les relations entre la préparation motrice et les paramètres de vitesse dans le groupe des experts-sprinters et dans le groupe des novices-étudiants. L’interdépendance a été examinée entre les facteurs de vitesse et de force et les indicateurs de la structure du mouvement EMG: tension du muscle bioélectrique et synchronisation de l’activation musculaire.Matériel et méthodesLes participants étaient de 20 sprinters de 1re et 2e classe sportive et un groupe de 35 élèves-novices. Des tests de préparation de force et de saut ont été utilisés dans l’étude (saut en longueur, triple saut debout et saut de pieds à l’aide de la plate-forme Kistler), test de préparation de vitesse (30 m de départ) et enregistrement EMG.RésultatsDans la phase de post-démarrage, le groupe du sprinter a déclenché des groupes musculaires des membres inférieurs appropriés pour la phase de démarrage du sprint (groupe musculaire avant : VL : vastus lateralis ; RF : rectus femoris ; GAS. MED. :gastrocnemius medialis et le groupe musculature du dos: STN : semitendinosus et BF : biceps femoris), tandis que groupe d’étudiants a démontré un avantage dans l’activation des muscles des membres supérieurs: BB : biceps brachii et TB : triceps brachii dans la même phase.ConclusionsSur la base de la présente recherche, un modèle de mouvement de démarrage faible a été créé, ce qui permet une sélection appropriée des exercices de technique sprinter appropriés. Il a également été démontré que l’efficacité de la technique de démarrage des sprinters est affectée par des facteurs provenant de la zone de coordination. Mais dans le groupe des étudiants – le début du sprint dépend principalement de la préparation physique (prédispositions force-vitesse).
       
  • Short term creatine loading without weight gain improves sprint, agility
           and leg strength performance in female futsal players
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): M.M. Atakan, M.B. Karavelioğlu, H. Harmancı, M. Cook, S. BulutSummaryObjectivesFutsal game requires players to perform frequent bouts of high-intensity activity with limited rest periods that are not sufficient for full recovery. Therefore, creatine supplementation may enhance performance by improving recovery rate. Along with this, the number of studies conducted to determine the effects of creatine on performance in the females is scarce. Thus, the main aim of this study is to identify the effects of short-term (7/day) creatine supplementation on leg strength, velocity and agility in young female futsal players.Equipment and methodsA total of thirty of young female futsal players (aged: 19.83 ± 1.13 years) participated in the study which was designed as randomized and double-blind, on a voluntary basis. Participants were randomly assigned either to creatine (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) group. Over 7 days, creatine group received 0.25 g/kg/day micronized pure creatine monohydrate (Creapure, Hardline Nutrition, Kavi Gıda Istanbul, Turkey) and placebo group did not take any supplements, apart from maltodextrin (Fantomalt, Nutricia, United Kingdom). Before and after 7 days of loading creatine supplementation, body weight, leg strength, velocity and agility performance of the participants were determined. The data obtained were analysed with ANCOVA statistical model.ResultsCreatine supplementation significantly improved 10 m, 20 m and 30 m speed performances (P 
       
  • Effects of different stretching methods on speed and agility performance
           in young tennis players
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Science & Sports, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): B. Kilit, E. Arslan, Y. SoyluSummaryPurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods on speed and agility performance in young tennis players according to conditioning level.MethodsTwenty-six young tennis players participated in this study voluntarily. Stretching methods were divided into five groups: static, dynamic, static + dynamic, dynamic + static, and control (no-stretching). The protocols included 8-min warm-up, a 3-min rest, 30-s stretching program (except for the no-stretching group), a 2-min rest, followed by the T-drill agility and 20-m sprint (with 10-m split times) test. Stretching protocols consisted of 6 different stretching exercises for 6 lower muscle groups.ResultsDynamic and static + dynamic stretching methods induced significant differences in the 10-m acceleration, 20-m sprint and agility test time compared with static and static + dynamic stretching protocols (P 
       
  • Analyse d’articles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s):
       
  • Anthropometric equations to estimate the thigh muscle cross-sectional area
           by magnetic resonance imaging in young men
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M.A.S. Carneiro, L.C. Barcelos, P.R.P. Nunes, L.R.M.F. de Souza, E.P. de Oliveira, F.L. OrsattiSummaryIntroductionIt is difficult to establish the best anthropometric equation to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). The aim of this study was to determine the best anthropometric equation to estimate thigh muscle/lean CSA by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in young men.Summary of facts and resultsForty-four adult men underwent MRI to determine the thigh lean and muscle CSA, as well as circumference and skinfold assessment. Five anthropometric equations were solved and statistically compared with MRI. Mean values of anthropometric equations were different from the mean values of MRI (P 
       
  • Diabète de type 1 et sport de haut niveau/professionnel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): R.P. Radermecker, S. Systermans, S. Bekka, J.F. KauxRésuméObjectifLa pratique sportive engendre un stress métabolique supplémentaire chez les personnes atteintes de diabète de type 1. L’objectif de cet article est de décrire différents principes indispensables à la réalisation de performances sportives de hauts niveaux chez les diabétiques de type 1, tels que : les différents schémas de délivrance de l’insuline et la réglementation s’y référant, les différentes méthodes de mesure de la glycémie, la co-médication, le type d’exercice, le timing de l’exercice, la nutrition, l’éducation nécessaire de l’entourage.Matériel et méthodeRecherche dans PubMed à l’aide des mots clés suivants : Type 1 diabètes, Sport, Athlète, Insuline, Glycaemia.RésultatsL’obtention de performances sportives de hauts niveaux est possible malgré les contraintes supplémentaires fournies par le diabète de type 1. Ces performances ne peuvent être atteintes qu’en cas de prise en charge active, par le sportif et son entourage, de différents paramètres importants. Chaque athlète diabétique de type 1 est unique et évolue de manière individuelle, il semble par conséquent difficile de fournir une seule série de recommandations convenant à tous les diabétiques de type 1 qui souhaitent faire de l’exercice. En conclusion, ce n’est qu’au travers une série d’essais incluant de nombreux paramètres endogènes et exogènes, imparfaitement maîtrisables pour une partie d’entre eux, qu’un équilibre glycémique pourra être trouvé et des performances sportives de hauts niveaux réalisées.SummaryObjectiveSports practice in people with type 1 diabetes generates increased metabolic stress. The present article aims at describing various principles that are essential to achieve a high levels of athletic performance in type 1 diabetics, such as: various regimes of insulin delivery and their corresponding regulation, different methods for measuring blood glucose, co-medication, type of exercise, timing of exercise, nutrition, and relatives involvement.Material and methodPubMed search using the following keywords, Type 1 diabetes, Sport, Athlete, Insulin, Glycaemia.ResultsSports performances at higher level is possible despite the additional constraints imposed by type 1 diabetes. The athlete can however only reach these performances if he and his relatives are actively taking various important parameters under careful consideration. Each type 1 diabetic athlete is unique and evolves individually, making it difficult to provide a single set of recommendations for all type 1 diabetics who want to practice sport. In conclusion, it is only through a series of tests taking many endogenous and exogenous parameters into account, some of which are hardly controllable, that a glycemic balance can be attained and high level sports performances can be achieved.
       
  • Relationship between oxygen pulse and arteriovenous oxygen difference in
           healthy subjects: Effect of exercise intensity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): N. Gmada, B. Al-Hadabi, R. Haj Sassi, B. Abdel Samia, E. BouhlelSummaryAimsAims were to assess: (1) the relationships between oxygen pulse and areteriovenous oxygen difference; and (2) the reproducibility of cardiac output and stroke volume values during submaximal and maximal exercises.MethodsTwelve healthy male participated in the study. They were tested on five occasions, separated by periods of 3 days. After tests familiarization, they performed a duplicate progressive maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer to measure maximal oxygen uptake, maximal aerobic power, maximal cardiac output, maximal Stroke Volume and maximal Heart rate. At the fourth and fifth visits, subjects performed two graded submaximal physical exercises. Values collected during duplicated submaximal and maximal exercises were used for the assessment of the reliability of cardiovascular measurements.ResultsWe found no significant differences between cardiac output and stroke volume values in both first and second trial. All coefficients of variation were under 10% and intra class correlation coefficients values were high than 0.90 during submaximal and maximal exercises. The linear regression analyses indicated high r-squared between oxygen pulse and areteriovenous oxygen difference until 50% of maximal aerobic power. However, at 60% and 100% of maximal aerobic power, this relationship was not found. We found significant increases of stroke volume (P 
       
  • The physical profile do not predict success in alpine skiing world cup
           disciplines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): G. Lippi, C. Mattiuzzi
       
  • Rupture du tendon du long adducteur
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): E. Sahuguet, J.-C. Murison
       
  • Time course of biochemical variables and comparisons between internal and
           external load responses in tethered swimming
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): J.P. Loures, C.A.K. Filho, E.Z. Campos, M. Papoti
       
  • Suivi des troubles métaboliques induits par un ultra trail pendant
           28 jours
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): J. Sudrial, B. Plaisancie, C. Ferdynus, B. Guihard, L. Huiart, X. CombesRésuméObjectifsLe but de ce travail était d’évaluer l’impact métabolique d’un ultra trail durant une période de 28 jours. L’objectif principal était la mesure des variations du taux sérique de Selenium, les objectifs secondaires étaient l’étude des variations des taux de zinc, vitamine B12, du ionogramme sanguin et des éléments marqueurs de l’inflammation durant 28 jours.Matériels et méthodeNous avons mené notre étude sur des coureurs participants à un ultra trail de 170 km et près de 10 000 mètres de dénivelé positif. Cent six coureurs ont été suivis de la veille de la course jusqu’à 28 jours après la course. Des questionnaires et des échantillons de sang ont été recueillis à l’inclusion (j0), à l’arrivée de la course (j1), a j7 et j28.RésultatsLes modifications des différents paramètres biologiques ont été analysés en utilisant des modèles mixtes linéaires. Le niveau de sélénium a diminué de 12,7 % (p 
       
  • The combinatory effects of combined training (endurance–resistance) and
           garlic supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant adaptations in
           untrained boys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): N. Khoobkhahi, R. Delavar, S.H. NayebifarSummaryObjectivesPhysical activity and exercise have been regarded as beneficial and therapeutic strategies in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of a variety of medical disorders and diseases, even before advanced medical therapies are prescribed. The aim of this study was to characterize the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense adaptations in untrained boys after a regimen of combined training alone or together with garlic administration.MethodsIn the present quisi-experimental study, 46 untrained volunteer boys were randomly assigned into 4 groups: garlic + train (n = 13), placebo + train (n = 13), garlic (n = 10), and control (n = 10). The combined training protocol comprised of endurance training (60–80% HRmax, running) and resistance training (40–85% 1RM, weight training) for 8 weeks. Capsules containing 250 mg garlic were administered on a daily basis in the garlic and train + garlic groups for 8 weeks. The two-way ANOVA test was employed to determine within-group and between-group differences. The Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test was performed to locate the differences. Data were analyzed by SPSS v.20 with a significance level of P 
       
  • Effect of weight-control practices of high-level female judokas over
           competition period on body composition and factors of performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): M. Gallot, H. Zorgati, F. Prieur, N. Rebot-Vibarel, K. Collomp, N. RiethSummaryPurposeThis study was conducted to estimate the impact of the food practices of high-level judokas on body composition, muscle performance and food habits.MethodsThirteen elite judokas were distributed in two groups: a group with weight-control practice (group D, n = 6) and a group without it (group ND, n = 7). Eating habits, sport performance and body composition were evaluated three times during the experiment: out (ES), pre (PRE C) and post-competitive (POST C) periods.ResultsFor the D group, we observed a decrease of body mass index, of the sum of skin folds thickness and of circumference of thigh between ES and PRE C periods, and an increase between PRE C and POST C periods. For the ND group, no difference was observed whatever the considered period. For strength tests, there is no difference between groups and between the different periods. Total energy intake and macronutrient intake of the D group decreased between ES and PRE C periods. This decrease concerned mainly fat intake. These parameters increased between PRE and POST C periods.ConclusionIn this study carried out on elite female judoka, changes in body composition and total energy intake had no effect on muscle performance and did not cause eating disorders.RésuméObjectif Cette étude a pour but d’évaluer l’effet d’une restriction alimentaire sur la composition corporelle, des facteurs de performance et le comportement alimentaire chez des judokates de haut niveau en période de compétition.MéthodesTreize judokates d’élite sont divisées en 2 groupes, le groupe D (n = 6) qui suit un régime et le groupe ND (n = 7) qui n’en suit pas. Le comportement alimentaire, les facteurs de la performance et la composition corporelle ont été étudiés au cours de 3 périodes: hors (ES), pré (PRE C) et post (POST C) compétition.RésultatsPour le groupe D, nous observons entre les périodes ES et PRE C une diminution de l’indice de masse corporelle, de la somme des plis cutanés et de la circonférence de la cuisse; et une augmentation de ces paramètres entre les périodes PRE et POST C. Pour le groupe ND, nous n’observons aucune différence quelle que soit la période considérée. Les tests de force ne montrent aucune différence intra ou inter-groupes. Les apports énergétiques totaux et en macronutriments du groupe D diminuent entre les périodes ES et PRE C. Cette diminution concerne principalement les lipides. Ces paramètres augmentent fortement entre PRE et POST C.ConclusionChez des judokates de haut niveau, les changements de composition corporelle et d’apports énergétiques causés par une restriction alimentaire n’ont pas eu d’impact sur la performance musculaire et n’ont provoqué aucun trouble du comportement alimentaire.
       
  • Impact of a HIIT protocol on body composition and VO2max in
           adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): D. Alonso-Fernández, R. Fernández-Rodríguez, Y. Taboada-Iglesias, Á. Gutiérrez-SánchezSummaryObjectivesAdolescents are an increasingly sedentary population segment, which has negative repercussions on their health. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of high-intensity interval training based on functional exercises on body fat percentage and cardiorespiratory capacity in a group of adolescents.MethodsAn experimental pretest–posttest study was carried out, with two intervention groups, in physical education warm-ups over 7 weeks. Twenty-six schoolchildren were randomly assigned to an experimental group and to a control group. During the warm-up, the EG performed functional HIIT training and the control group the planned standardised warm-up. The HIIT workouts were based on functional bodyweight exercises with a work-to-rest ratio of 20/10s. The repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse whether or not differences exist between the variables before and after the protocol period.ResultsThe experimental group significantly increased its cardiorespiratory capacity (t = −5.11, d = 2.01, P 
       
  • Plasma iron status in elite weightlifters after four weeks of intensive
           training
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): R. Khlif, R. Marrakchi, K. Jamoussi, Z. Sahnoun, H. Chtourou, N. SouissiSummaryWith or without anemia, iron deficiency, is a common disorder among athletes and it can decrease both physical and mental performances. Actually, no previous study has investigated the effects of weightlifting training on iron status responses. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of four weeks of intensive training on plasma iron status of elite weightlifters. Sixteen participants (a group of eight men and a group of eight women) from the elite Tunisian team took part in the present study. Blood levels of some hematological, iron, anemia and inflammation parameters were assessed before (pre) and after four weeks (Post) of intensive training during a precompetitive phase. For both groups, ferritin concentrations and plasma Creatine kinase activity increased significantly at post-compared to pre-training (P 
       
  • Does changing the bike frame influence pedal force pattern in mountain
           bike cyclists'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): S. Devys, D. Bertin, G. RaoSummaryObjectivesIn cycling, the interaction between the athlete and his bike is crucial for the resulting performance with frame geometry and bike-setup being known to affect the biomechanical and physiological outputs. Road and Olympic cross-country (XCO) bike frames are routinely used in training programs, despite having different frame configurations. The present study compared biomechanical indices of the pedalling techniques between road and off-road bike frames.Equipment and methodsTen XCO mountain bikers of national level performed two sessions on their personal bikes. For each frame, the athletes achieved one-minute tests at 65%, 90% and 115% of their maximal aerobic power (MAP) while recording 3D pedal forces. Together with various frame and bike-setup measurements, the peak of effective force, corresponding crank angle, global and instantaneous index of efficiency were compared for Power and Frame statistical effect.ResultsThe frame geometry and bike-setup showed significant differences between the road and XCO frames. The Power factor significantly (P 
       
  • Recovery sector of the Ironman triathlon race: Pain profile of triathletes
           and sector organization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): G.S. Nunes, F. Sprada de Menezes, M. Karloh, C. Neis Machado, M. Prado Barbosa, A.M.A. LaurentinoSummaryIntroductionTriathletes exhibit a number of clinical conditions during races. Knowledge of pain prevalence and most affected body regions after finishing Ironman races could guide preventive programs. The objective of the study was to describe the pain profile of triathletes after finishing long-distance Ironman triathlon races based on the prevalence of pain complaints of the triathletes who sought treatment at the recovery sector.Summary of facts and results5,292 triathletes were treated during nine race editions. Previous to treatment, triathletes answered: “What parts of your body do you feel the worst pain'” and “Did you have any cramps during the race' If yes, where'”. The prevalence of triathletes who sought for recovery assistance was 33% and odds of a triathlete who starts the race seeks the recovery sector is 49:100. In all, 1.4% of the triathlete sought the recovery sector in pain absence, the odds is 1:100. The highest prevalence and odds of pain complaints were for anterior thigh, posterior leg, and posterior thigh regions. The highest prevalence and odds for cramps were in posterior thigh region.ConclusionApproximately one-third of the triathletes starting a long-distance Ironman race sought treatment at the recovery sector with high prevalence of pain in the thighs and posterior region of legs.RésuméIntroductionLors de courses de longues distances, les triathletes présentent de nombreux symptômes cliniques. La connaissance de la prévalence de la douleur et des régions du corps affectées par celle-ci après une couse, telle un Ironman, peut permettre de mettre en place un programme préventif et ainsi éviter ces douleurs. L’objectif de cette étude a été de décrire le profil de douleurs des triathlètes ayant achevé une course de longue distance, telle un Ironman. Ce profil a été identifié en se basant sur la prévalence des douleurs ressenties par les triathlètes qui ont cherché un traitement de récupération.Synthèse des faits et résultats5292 triathlètes ont été traités au cours de neuf éditions de courses. Avant le traitement, ces triathlètes ont répondu au questionnaire suivant : « Quelles parties de votre corps ressentez-vous le plus de douleur ' » et « Avez-vous eu des crampes pendant la course ' si oui, ou se situaient-elles ' ». La prévalence des triathlètes qui ont demandé une assistance pour leur récupération était de 33 % tandis que les chances d’un triathlète qui commence la course en cherchant un traitement de récupération sont de 49/100. Au total, 1,4 % des triathlètes ont désiré un traitement en l’absence de douleur, les chances étant de 1 sur 100. La prévalence et les probabilités de douleur les plus élevées concernaient principalement les régions de la cuisse antérieure, de la jambe postérieure et de la cuisse postérieure. Concernant les crampes, la prévalence et les probabilités les plus élevées ont été observées dans la région de la cuisse postérieure.ConclusionEnviron un tiers des triathlètes qui se sont engagés dans un Ironman ont cherché un traitement de récupération ciblant particulièrement des douleurs dans les cuisses et la région postérieure des jambes.
       
  • Effect of astaxanthin and exercise on antioxidant capacity of human body,
           blood lactic acid and blood uric acid metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Science & SportsAuthor(s): L. Wu, Z. Sun, A. Chen, X. Guo, J. WangSummaryObjectiveWe investigated the effects of astaxanthin supplementation and acute high intensity exercise on serum antioxidant capacity of human body, blood lactic acid and serum uric acid metabolism.MethodsSixteen subjects were trained 28 days and were randomly divided into two groups: group A (experimental) and B (control). Four weeks later, all subjects underwent exercise on power bike.ResultsImmediately after exercise, the anti-oxidative capacity decreased in 2 groups, the lactic acid values of blood significantly increased, but compared with the group B the antioxidant capacity of the A group was significantly higher and blood lactate value lower.Conclusion(1) Exercise can temporarily reduce the body's antioxidant capacity, increase blood lactic acid content, and slightly decrease blood uric acid content. (2) Astaxanthin intake can eliminate free radicals produced in the body, significantly reducing the increase in blood lactic acid and reducing blood uric acid value after acute high-intensity exercise.RésuméObjectifNous avons étudié les effets de la supplémentation en astaxanthine et de l’exercice aigu de haute intensité sur la capacité antioxydante sérique de l’organisme, de la lactatémie et de l’uricémie.MéthodesSeize sujets ont été entraînés pendant 28 jours et ont été répartis de façon randomisée en deux groupes: groupe A (expérimental) et B (témoin). Quatre semaines plus tard, tous les sujets ont réalisé un exercice sur ergocycle.RésultatsImmédiatement après l’exercice, la capacité anti-oxydante a diminué dans 2 groupes, la lactatémie a considérablement augmenté, mais par rapport au groupe B, la capacité antioxydante du groupe A était significativement plus élevée et la lactatémie était plus basse.Conclusion(1) L’exercice de haute intensité peut réduire temporairement la capacité antioxydante de l’organisme, augmenter la lactatémie et légèrement l’uricémie. (2) La consommation d’astaxanthine peut éliminer les radicaux libres produits dans le corps, réduisant de façon significative l’augmentation de lactatémie et d’uricémie après exercice aigu de haute intensité.
       
 
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