Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8679 journals)
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DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (163 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 163 of 163 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Dermato-Venereologica     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Skin & Wound Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of AIDS Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIDS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AIDS Patient Care and STDs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aktuelle Dermatologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Allergo Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Dermatopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaplastology     Open Access  
Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives de Pédiatrie     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives de sciences sociales des religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux - Pratique     Hybrid Journal  
Archives of Dermatological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ästhetische dermatologie & kosmetologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Journal of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Berkala Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin / Periodical of Dermatology and Venereology     Open Access  
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Skin Cancer     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinics in Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contact Dermatitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Dermatology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Fungal Infection Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current HIV Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current HIV/AIDS Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Sexual Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Der Hautarzt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dermatitis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dermato-Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dermatología Venezolana     Open Access  
Dermatologic Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Dermatologic Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Dermatologic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Dermatologic Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dermatologica Sinica     Open Access  
Dermatological Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Dermatology and Cosmetic     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dermatology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dermatology Online Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dermatology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dermatopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Egyptian Journal of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
EMC - Dermatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Experimental Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Expert Review of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forum Dermatologicum     Hybrid Journal  
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Güncel Dermatoloji Dergisi     Open Access  
HautinForm     Full-text available via subscription  
hautnah     Hybrid Journal  
hautnah dermatologie     Hybrid Journal  
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
HIV Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
HIV Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Dermatology Online Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Archives of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Research in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of STD & AIDS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Women's Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International STD Research & Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAAD Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JAIDS : Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
JAMA Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
JMIR Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Clinical and Investigative Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cutaneous Immunology and Allergy     Open Access  
Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dermatological Research     Open Access  
Journal of Dermatological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dermatological Science Supplement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dermatological Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of General-Procedural Dermatology & Venereology Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Investigative Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Sexual Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Skin and Stem Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Skin Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the Dermatology Nurses' Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Egyptian Women’s Dermatologic Society     Partially Free  
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the International AIDS Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Saudi Society of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Karger Kompass Dermatologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Surgical Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nepal Journal of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
OA Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open AIDS Journal     Open Access  
Open Dermatology Journal     Open Access  
Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pigment International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psoriasis : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Internacional de Ciencias Podológicas     Open Access  
SAHARA : Journal of Social Aspects of HIV / AIDS Research Alliance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scars, Burns & Healing     Open Access  
Serbian Journal of Dermatology and Venereology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexually Transmitted Infections     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Appendage Disorders     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Skin Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sri Lanka Journal of Sexual Health and HIV Medicine     Open Access  
Studies in Gender and Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Surgical & Cosmetic Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Journal of Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Rose Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Vestnik dermatologii i venerologii     Open Access  
Veterinary Dermatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Fungal Infection Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.455
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-377X - ISSN (Online) 1936-3761
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Dosing Antifungals in Obesity: a Literature Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To summarize the available evidence regarding antifungal dosing in obese adults as well as to provide meaningful guidance on the dosing of each antifungal agent in obese patients. Recent Findings The pharmacokinetic evidence regarding dosing antifungal agents in obesity is limited. Fluconazole’s volume of distribution (VD) is influenced by BMI. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies provide some insights into dosing voriconazole in obesity, but not with posaconazole. Isavuconazole seems to be unaffected by weight. The available data for echinocandins suggests that increased doses are likely necessary in obese patients. TDM may be beneficial, particularly for azoles when available in a timely manner. Summary Fluconazole and voriconazole dosing should be based on total body weight and adjusted body weight, respectively. Posaconazole may have reduced exposures in obese patients, but data on its new dosage forms is lacking. Isavuconazole appears unaffected by weight. Echinocandin doses likely need to be increased in obese patients, but the exact weight and dosages remain elusive.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Usefulness of Antifungal Reference In Vitro Susceptibility Tests as a
           Guide in Therapeutic Management
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This review provides information on the utility of reference antifungal susceptibility testing methods in the clinical setting. Recent Findings Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)/European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints (BPs) as predictors of therapy response (reported as either “cured” or “failure”) and epidemiological cutoff endpoints (ECVs/ECOFFS) of mutants (harboring specific resistance mechanisms) have been established. Summary Although ECVs are available for other species and agents and for commercial methods, only reference triazole and echinocandin BPs have been established. Therefore, correlations of in vitro/in vivo results in this review were based on BPs or ECVs for Candida spp. and/or Aspergillus fumigatus. We also included CLSI ECVs for the Cryptococcus neoformans complex and tentative values for Candida auris. Overall, BPs/ECVs appear to be useful, but most available data are for correlations between BPs and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for susceptible isolates. Although ECVs can discriminate between MICs for WT (wild type) and mutants (non-WT), an MIC overlap could be present.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Epidemiology of Emerging Fungal Infections in ICU
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Globally, a change has been noticed in the epidemiology of fungal infections in the intensive care units (ICUs). The current review provides an insight into the current epidemiology of emerging fungal infections with special reference to their prevalence, spectrum of pathogen, outbreaks, and emergence of antifungal resistance reported from different ICUs of the world. Recent Findings The ICUs across the world are witnessing multiple changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections including change in prevalence and spectrum of etiological agents, new susceptible risk groups, geographical variations, emergence of novel multi-drug resistant Candida auris, outbreak due to rare fungal species, emergence of antifungal resistance, etc. An understanding of the contemporary local epidemiology of fungal agents in ICU is essential for optimal patient management. Summary Invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis continue to haunt as major pathogens in the ICU, and several new risk factors associated with these infections have surfaced up. There is a contrasting picture for the species distribution of Candida among the different countries of the world. C. auris, the yeast behaving like bacteria, has emerged as a potential threat to ICUs across the five continents. Other mycelial agents like Mucorales, Paecilomyces spp., Fusarium spp., and Cladosporium spp., although encountered infrequently, continue to be reported as serious infections in ICU. The ICUs are also vulnerable sites for fungal infection outbreaks due to several fungi including rare ones like Cryptococcus spp., Pichia anomala, and Kodamaea ohmeri.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Mucormycosis: Pathogenesis and Pathology
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection associated with high mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis and the resultant pathology in various organs enables to improve early diagnosis and treatment options. Recent Findings An immunocompetent host with intact skin/mucosal barrier and innate immunity is usually resistant to the infection; however, natural disasters and trauma account for the disease in healthy hosts. Neutropenia, immunosuppression, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and other factors impair host defenses and make increased serum iron available to the pathogen for its growth. The fungus has special iron assimilation mechanisms. The cell wall composition and genetic alterations allow rapid growth in host environment and evade host defenses. Expression of CotH proteins on the spores and hyphae facilitates adhesion to the receptors on endothelial cells, angioinvasion, and dissemination. Elaboration of lytic enzymes and proteases along with mycotoxins augment fungal invasion. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common clinical form. The pathology hall mark in various organs is angioinvasion resulting in hemorrhage, infarction, and suppurative inflammation. Summary The host defenses and how the risk factors alter and impair the host’s ability to prevent the invasion of the fungus are reviewed. The virulence factors of the fungus to rapidly grow and disseminate in the host by evading recognition, suppressing immune response, manipulate the environment to derive nutrition, and cause disease are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Correction to: Pressing Priorities for Mycetoma Control and Prevention
    • Abstract: In the previously published “A Call to Action for Mycetoma,” the title did not accurately reflect the content scope. Therefore, the title should read as “Pressing Priorities for Mycetoma Control and Prevention” (as shown above).
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • The Southern Endemic Zone of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Epidemiological
           Approach in Northeast Argentina
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most prevalent systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America caused by species of an environmental fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides. In Argentina, the endemic area with the highest incidence is located in the Northeast. This review presents the current aspects of PCM epidemiology influenced by global and particular climatic anomalies. Recent Findings An increase of cases with particularly features, in the diagnosis and clinical manifestations, delaying the diagnosis was observed. Two genotypes of Paracoccidioides are circulating and, probably, are related to a considerable percentage of non-reactive serological tests obtained in proven cases of PCM. Summary The traditional view of the PCM epidemiology in the southern endemic zone area must be reconsidered. A higher level of premonition is now required in Northeast Argentina and, may be, in bordering countries. The particular characteristics both in the clinic and in the diagnosis currently observed suggest a new trend in PCM.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Onychomycosis in Children with Down Syndrome
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Fungal infection of the nail, known as onychomycosis, occurs more frequently in older age, showing a higher prevalence in pediatric age in recent years. A high rate of dermatological infections befalls in patients with Down syndrome, including onychomycosis, due to a decrease in T and B lymphocytes in number and function, resulting in a disarrangement of cellular and humoral immunity. This has led to several investigations on onychomycosis in children with Down syndrome, so the purpose of this review is to show the available evidence. Recent Findings The etiological agents of onychomycosis can be dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds, and yeasts. Most cases are related with dermatophytes; Trichophyton rubrum being the most common cause. In children with Down syndrome, T. rubrum has been reported as the main cause, followed by T. mentagrophytes. Distal lateral subungual onychomycosis is the most common variety of onychomycosis in children. The importance of identifying the fungus lies in selecting the appropriate treatment, since not all antifungals have the same spectrum of action against molds and Candida. Terbinafine has showed to be safe and effective for the treatment of onychomycosis in patients from special populations, including children with Down syndrome. In patients with Down syndrome, treatment for onychomycosis has not been completely studied; so far, terbinafine has shown the best results. Summary The clinical presentations of children with Down syndrome and the rest of the general pediatric population are similar. However, there are few studies about onychomycosis in children with Down syndrome. It is necessary to perform new onychomycosis research in this study population, in order to establish recommendations.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Pityriasis Versicolor: Treatment Update
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To address the latest treatments used for pityriasis versicolor and identify those that have proven to be effective in recent publications. Recent Findings Even though Malassezia spp. have shown resistance to antifungals, classical treatments continue to be effective, and other novelty therapies including light therapies have shown promising results in the treatment of this condition. Summary Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection of the skin. There are numerous and diverse topical and systemic therapeutic options that are successful for the treatment and prophylaxis of this mycosis. New substances that act against the fungus through other mechanisms of action different from those used until now are expected in the near future.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Zygomycete Fungi Infection in Colombia: Literature Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This review summarizes the reports of Zygomycete fungi infection in Colombia, as well as include the geographical distribution, species identification, and treatment of those clinical cases. Recent Findings Zygomycosis is not a new disease. However, the use of molecular tools has allowed the identification of some recently described species as their causal agents. Summary In Colombia, the prevalence of zygomycosis is unclear because reporting is not mandatory and because in many cases the etiological agent was not identified. It is important to establish the mandatory reporting of cases, to know the circulating fungal species, the treatment used, and the outcome of the patients. Regarding the treatment, amphotericin B remains as the best alternative. To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of the published cases of zygomicosis in the country.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Fungal Keratitis: Epidemiological Profile in Argentina
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology and species distribution of fungi-causing keratitis in Argentina during the past 10 years. Recent Findings In Argentina, reports of distribution and frequency of fungal keratitis are scarce and little is known about its current epidemiology. In the present study, a review of the published data on fungal keratitis was done according to the global context focusing on the current situation in our country. Summary Data presented here were obtained in a reference ophthalmological hospital in the Autonomous city of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2017 and represents an approach to the current status of fungal keratitis. However, larger national data is required to assess the actual epidemiological situation in Argentina.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Cryptococcosis in Patients with Hematologic Diseases
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review In this paper, we reviewed the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cryptococcosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. We reviewed all case series of cryptococcosis in different hematologic conditions, and looked at epidemiologic trends considering the new antineoplastic drugs introduced in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recent Findings Case series of cryptococcosis in patients with hematologic malignancies are scarce. We identified an increase in the proportion of cases of cryptococcosis occurring in patients with hematologic malignancies, and many case reports of cryptococcosis in patients receiving ibrutinib, a Bruton kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic lymphoproliferative diseases. Summary Cryptococcosis is uncommon in patients with hematologic malignancies, but its occurrence may be associated with poor outcome. Hematologists should be aware of this complication if patients develop neurologic symptoms or present with pulmonary infiltrates that do not improve with antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Emergence of Resistance to Fluconazole in Candida albicans Isolated From
           Vaginal Discharge
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To provide information about the emergence of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans isolated from vaginal discharge, in a global context, and to update the in vitro susceptibility profile of this species from Argentina. Recent Findings Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection after vaginal bacteriosis. C. albicans remains the prevalent etiological yeast species, and despite antifungal treatment, the rate of recurrence remains high, which may be associated to antifungal resistance. Summary Data here presented were obtained from the study of C. albicans strains isolated from patients with clinical signs of vulvovaginal candidiasis from 1996 to 2017. Data obtained could represent the susceptibility profile of C. albicans strains circulating in Argentina and could be of potential usefulness to monitor and guide therapy, and also suggests the need for greater surveillance programs to detect fluconazole resistance over time.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Association of Malassezia to Atopic Dermatitis
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic, inherited, relapsing, inflammatory skin condition. A multifactorial etiology has been postulated, including genetic and immunological factors, impaired skin barrier function and environmental triggers, all of them are relevant in the pathogenesis. Malassezia spp. is the most common fungi of the skin microbiome. Most of the studies comparing the skin colonization with Malassezia spp. in healthy people and AD patients did not show difference between both groups. This review aims to show the studies carried out in this regard and the reported evidence about the role of Malassezia spp. in the pathogenesis of AD. Recent Findings The rate of IgE-mediated sensitization Malassezia spp. is very high in AD patients, mainly in adult patients and in patients with involvement in the head and neck. Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain the interaction of Malassezia spp. with human skin cells and immune cells and how its interaction contributes to the inflammation process in AD. Systemic and topical azole antifungals have been used with doubtful results showing beneficial effects in some AD patients. Summary There is no clear explanation for the high frequency of Malassezia spp. sensitization in AD patients in relation with healthy individuals. Further research is necessary to determine the specific role of Malassezia in AD and the indication for the use of antifungals in this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Invasive Mold Infections in Patients with Chronic Lymphoproliferative
    • Abstract: Purpose of the Review This review summarizes data about epidemiology, treatment, and risk factors for invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma (MM), and indolent non Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL). Recent Findings Despite advances in the prognosis and treatment of hematological malignancies in recent years, susceptibility to infection remains a significant challenge to patient care. A large amount of data regarding patients with acute leukemias have been published while little information is available on incidence of IFI in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD). Summary The overall incidence of IFI in CLL patients is reported from 1.3 to 7.8% and the main risk factors are related to disease status (high-risk in relapsed/refractory disease), number of previous chemotherapy regimens, and Ig levels. In MM, most of the IFI occurred during refractory or progressive disease. The rate of IFI ranges from 0.5 to 12.3%. Neutropenia is the main risk factor in MM and risk seems to be related to its duration and severity. The overall incidence of IFI in iNHL ranges from 0.5 to 4% and the most important risk factors are disease status (high-risk in relapsed/refractory and advance stage disease) and type of treatment (high-risk for steroid administration, intensive chemotherapy with prolonged neutropenia, use of monoclonal antibodies and purine analogs).
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Diagnosing Invasive Mold Infections: What Is Next
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Currently, microbiological diagnosis of invasive mold infections is based largely on culture, direct microscopy, PCR, or antigen (such as β-D-glucan or galactomannan)-based tests. In this review, we look at novel and experimental diagnostic tests for invasive mold infections. Recent Findings Several new techniques have been proposed, and are in different stages of development. The JF5-antibody-based lateral flow device has recently been commercialized, and is closest to uptake in routine care. Other tests, such as the MAb476-antibody-based urine lateral flow device, gliotoxin or bis(methylthio)gliotoxin, mold-specific T cells, exhaled breath analysis, siderophores, mass spectrometry serum disaccharide, or cytokine analysis, are at an earlier stage of development. Summary Most proposed diagnostic tests for invasive mold infections are in the experimental stage and are not ready for routine clinical use. They still require further characterization and analytical and clinical validation by independent research groups.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies: How Are They at Risk for Fungal
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review In this review, we focus on the inborn errors of immunity known to render the host susceptible to fungal infections, including candidias, aspergillosis, dermatophytosis, phaeohyphomycosis, pneumocystosis, fusariosis, cryptococcosis, and endemic mycoses. Recent Findings Classically, the burden of fungal disease in humans is believed to be carried by patients with a secondary immunodeficiency, either due to malignancy, to chemotherapy, to an immunocompromised state post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or to treatment with anti-cytokine therapies. However, in the last decade, the study of patients affected by fungal infections without any overt risk factors has led to the unraveling of several monogenic defects of human immunity to fungi. The study of these inborn errors of immunity has added vastly to our comprehension of antifungal immunity. For example, the role of IL-17 immunity in human defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis has been extensively characterized through the analysis of IL-17F, IL-17RA, IL-17Rc, ACT1, RORγT and, indirectly, CARD9 deficiency. Summary Many monogenic causes of susceptibility to superficial and/or invasive fungal infections have been recently unraveled. Most of these inborn errors of immunity associate with a specific type of fungal infection, and such a defect should always be suspected and sought in patients affected by fungal infection in the absence of predisposing factors.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Emerging Antifungal Drug Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and Among
           Other Species of Aspergillus
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent findings on antifungal resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus (the major causative agent of aspergillosis) and sibling Aspergillus species, which can be hidden agents of aspergillosis. Recent Findings Azole resistance by Cyp51A mutation in A. fumigatus is a growing problem worldwide. The resistance can occur in patients or in the environment. The former occurs by drug selection in the host, inducing mutations in Cyp51A. The latter is characterized by a tandem repeat in the promoter region of cyp51A gene and mutation(s) in Cyp51A. Environmental resistant strains are prevailing rapidly and globally. Moreover, efflux pump and biofilm formation are closely related with antifungal resistance of A. fumigatus. Finally, sibling species of Aspergillus are described with regard to antifungal resistance. Summary Environmental azole-resistant strains have newly emerged and been dispersed globally, and continuous survey and countermeasures are urgently needed against these strains. Although the contributions of Cyp51A and efflux pumps to antifungal resistance are becoming clear, other resistance mechanisms remain unclear. Further investigations including genome comparisons will help to clarify the novel resistant mechanisms and to develop countermeasures or novel antifungal drugs against resistant strains of A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus species that have low susceptibility to antifungal therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • A Call to Action for Mycetoma
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Here, we discuss the current needs and priorities for mycetoma control and prevention, highlight lessons learned from leprosy and podoconiosis, and motivate an urgent need to accelerate progress toward reducing the burden of mycetoma in endemic areas. Recent Findings In 2015, the World Health Assembly (WHA) added mycetoma, a progressively debilitating disease caused by fungi and bacteria, to the World Health Organization (WHO) list of priority neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Designation of other diseases as NTDs has raised awareness, enabled global partnerships, and advanced the capacity to combat disease through integrated programming. Although key mycetoma etiologic agents have been identified, many questions remain and mycetoma may similarly benefit from NTD designation. Summary In collaboration with experts at WHO and elsewhere, we formed a global mycetoma working group to connect partners from a variety of sectors and specialties. We envision that this group will evolve into a formalized partnership that can prioritize strategic planning, advocacy, and research needs, identify funding sources, and coordinate activities related to mycetoma and other NTDs affecting the skin. The experiences gained from other NTDs can help to guide the global mycetoma working group’s activities to better address the goals set forth in the WHA resolution.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus spp.: a Current Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The incidence of onychomycosis by Aspergillus has shown an increase in recent years, representing 34–60% of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte molds. At least 26 species of Aspergillus causing onychomycosis have been reported, some of which may be morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct, even in their susceptibility profile to antifungals. So in the diagnosis of this pathology, it is necessary to use both conventional and molecular methods to get to the identification of the fungus at the species level and thus establish the appropriate treatment. Recent Findings The current taxonomy of the genus Aspergillus includes sections that are made up of species whose morphology is almost identical but have different patterns of susceptibility to antifungals. Advances in the taxonomy of these fungi reveal the need to combine phenotypic methods (analysis of microscopic and macroscopic characteristics) with molecular ones (amplification and sequencing of fragments of the β-tubulin and calmodulin genes) to achieve their correct identification at the level of species. Summary From the demonstration of Aspergillus as the primary agent of onychomycosis, an increase in the incidence of this pathology worldwide has been reported, whose treatment is usually complicated. Various species of Aspergillus can cause nail infection but may respond differently to antifungal treatment, so it is important to know their epidemiology, clinical characteristics, etiologic agents, diagnostic methods, and treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Tinea Capitis: Current Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This review summarizes the fungal literature currently available for tinea capitis (TC), as well as providing data for clinical utility. Recent Findings Available studies in TC are scarce; however, they provide important information about efficacy and outcome in clinical practice. Summary Treatment of TC is effective; however, it requires a minimum of 1 month. Systemic treatment is often required to favor enhance drug penetration into the deep part of the hair follicle. The newest oral antifungal has higher efficacy rates than conventional therapy, as well as much shorter duration of treatment but at higher costs. We perform a review of the literature including treatment schemes.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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