for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 6473 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (181 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (65 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (260 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (20 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (180 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (194 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (130 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (74 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (117 journals)
    - EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE, LABORATORY TECHNIQUE (76 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (28 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY (141 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (105 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (132 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (90 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (60 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (1796 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (255 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (153 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (308 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (101 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (107 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (51 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (92 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (209 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (116 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (657 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (157 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (85 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (56 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (65 journals)
    - SURGERY (288 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (120 journals)

DENTISTRY (194 journals)                  1 2     

Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica     Open Access  
Acta Odontológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Actualités Odonto-Stomatologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Angle Orthodontist     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Dental Research & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access  
Brazilian Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Dental Science     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin du Groupement International pour la Recherche Scientifique en Stomatologie et Odontologie     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene     Full-text available via subscription  
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Clínica e Pesquisa em Odontologia - UNITAU     Open Access  
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dental Cadmos     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics     Open Access  
Dental Protection Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Dentistry     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription  
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access  
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Implant Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Prosthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Adhesive Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Oral Science     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Periodontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Craniomandibular Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2     

Journal Cover   Saudi Dental Journal
  [SJR: 0.138]   [H-I: 4]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1013-9052
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • The effect of orthodontic bands or tubes upon periodontal status during
           the initial phase of orthodontic treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Saud A. Al-Anezi
      Introduction Orthodontic bands cause periodontal inflammation. In theory, the use of a buccal tube (bond) instead of a band should prevent or minimize periodontal changes because the bonds are positioned away from the gingival margins. Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the periodontal status of orthodontic bands compared with bonds in the first three months of orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods Twenty-four orthodontic patients (mean age=12.6years) were enrolled in this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Using the cross-mouth technique, bands and bonds were used in opposite quadrants. Periodontal parameters including the presence or absence of Bleeding On Probing (BOP) and Probing Depths (PDs) were taken at the start and three months into treatment. Results Bands caused a statistically significant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P =0.001 and 0.021) and bonds displayed a statistically insignificant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P =0.125 and 1.00) for the upper and lower arch. The difference in Probing Depths (PDs) between bands and bonds was also statistically significant (P =0.001). Conclusion Molar bands are associated with greater periodontal inflammation compared with molar bonds in the first three months of fixed orthodontic treatment.


      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:57:36Z
       
  • Academic advising and student support: help- seeking behaviors among Saudi
           dental undergraduate students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Asim Al-Ansari , Maha El Tantawi , Maha AbdelSalam , Fahad Alharbi
      Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the use of and satisfaction with the academic-advising and student-support systems available to undergraduate students in the College of Dentistry at the University of Dammam. In addition, the study aimed to also identify factors that explained the help-seeking behavior students used to solve academic issues. Materials and Methods Students enrolled in the five-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) program in 2012-13 and any 2013-14 first-year students were invited to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. Results The results showed that 66.2% of students had discussed academic issues with their advisor at least once, with a frequency ranging from zero to six times. Most students reported that their advisors were readily available, listened intently to their needs and questions, and helped them solve their problems. However, only 7.6% of students relied primarily on advisors for help with academic issues, whereas 51% depended first on colleagues and 13.8% did not seek help and relied on themselves. In total, 17.2% of students were very or somewhat satisfied with the academic advising system. Males had lower odds of discussing issues with their advisors, but higher odds with advisors who were more available (OR = 0.25 and 3.74, respectively). Alerting students to important dates in the academic calendar significantly increased the odds that a student would depend primarily on academic advisors for advice related to academic issues (OR = 6.53). Conclusions Few students were satisfied with the academic support system. We need to providing training to academic advisors to help them develop their skills and knowledge and to enable them to provide the support needed by the students.


      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:57:36Z
       
  • Prevalence and severity of tempromandibular disorders among university
           students in riyadh

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Syed Rashid Habib , Mohammad Qasim Al Rifaiy , Kamran Habib Awan , Abdulaziz Alsaif , Abdulaziz Alshalan , Yasser Altokais
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among male university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The role of relevant medical and dental histories in the assessment of TMD in this Arab population was also addressed. Methods Required information was collected via questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was used to obtain the medical and dental histories of participants. The second part included 10 questions regarding common TMD symptoms. Fonseca’s anamnestic index (FAI) was used to classify TMD severity as “no dysfunction”, “light dysfunction”, “moderate dysfunction”, or “severe dysfunction”. Results Of the 600 distributed questionnaires, 400 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 66.6%). Mean age of eligible participants was ' years. Psychological stress was the most commonly reported item on the medical history (30.5%). The most commonly reported item for past dental treatments was direct restoration (77%). According to the FAI, 48.5% of participants were classified as having no dysfunction, followed by light (38.8%), moderate (11.8%), and severe dysfunction (1%). Conclusions Based on the FAI, mild to moderate prevalence of TMD appears to exist among male university students in Riyadh. Histories of psychological stress and dental treatment were evident among these students. Information obtained from the FAI may be helpful in assessing the prevalence of TMD and has important implications for the early diagnosis of TMD and the prevention of future TMD-related complications.


      PubDate: 2015-02-06T10:02:25Z
       
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Dermatoglyphics in Different Classes of
           Malocclusion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Garima Jindal , Ramesh Kumar Pandey , Sameer Gupta , Meera Sandhu
      Aim To study associations of dermatoglyphic features with malocclusion in Indian children, thereby furthering future research and aiding treatment planning for the prevention of malocclusion. Material and methods A total of 237 children aged 12–16 years were selected. Finger and palm prints were collected, and fingertip pattern frequencies, total ridge counts (TRCs), and atd angles (formed by the triradii below the first and last digits and that in the hypothenar region of the palm) were calculated. Scores for asymmetry between the right and left hands were calculated for each of the three dermatoglyphic measures. Result Although no fingerprint pattern was found to be specific for a particular class of occlusion, increased tendencies toward high frequencies of whorls in subjects with class II malocclusion and plain arches in those with class III malocclusion were observed. Significant differences in atd angle and TRC were observed among malocclusion types (p = 0.0001). Asymmetry scores did not differ significantly. Conclusion Dermatoglyphic analysis can be used as an indicator of malocclusion at an early age, thereby aiding the development of treatments aiming to establish favorable occlusion. Inheritance and twin studies, as well as those conducted in different ethnic groups, are required to examine these relationships further.


      PubDate: 2015-02-06T10:02:25Z
       
  • Knowledge and attitude of tobacco use and cessation among dental
           professionals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): KH Awan , MK Hammam , S. Warnakulasuriya
      Aim Smoking is the one of the most preventable causes of death worldwide. Dental professionals may play an important role in anti-smoking campaigns. The aim of this study was to evaluate current knowledge of and attitudes toward smoking and its cessation among dental professionals. Materials and Methods This questionnaire-based study was carried out among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental students in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes toward tobacco use and cessation. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18.0; IBM) and the Mann–Whitney U-test, with a significance level of p < 0.001. Results A total of 342 participants (130 GDPs, 212 dental students) with the mean age of 24 (standard deviation, 5) years participated in the study. One-third (33.8%, n = 44) of GDPs and 30.2% (n = 64) of dental students were smokers; small percentages (GDPs, 13.6% [n = 6]; dental students, 10.9% [n = 7]) were heavy smokers. The majority of participants rated both smoking cessation and prevention together as a very important preventive measure. Families were rated as the most important factor responsible for smoking cessation, whereas general practitioners were rated as the most important factor for providing assistance with cessation. Conclusion More meaningful participation of dental professionals in tobacco cessation is needed, with implications for related curriculum changes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Introducing CREATING, a plan for dental higher education in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Nicola Cirillo



      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Perceived pain and discomfort during the initial stage of active fixed
           orthodontic treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Hamid Rakhshan , Vahid Rakhshan
      Background and Objectives As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have studied pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 female; age range: 18–32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Results Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort, and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Conclusions Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Susan Hattar , Muhanad M. Hatamleh , Faleh Sawair , Mohammad Al-Rabab’ah
      Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the α = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Clinical evaluation of implant survival based on size and site of
           placement: A retrospective study of immediate implants at single rooted
           teeth sites

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sundar Ramalingam , Maryam Al-Hindi , Raniah Abdullah Al-Eid , Nasser Nooh
      Objectives This retrospective clinical study sought to evaluate the survival of immediate implants placed at maxillary and mandibular single-rooted tooth extraction sites and to determine the relationship among implant size, placement site, and implant survival. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2011, 85 patients (33 males, 52 females; mean age: 45 years) underwent immediate implant placement after extraction of single-rooted teeth. All implants were restored between 12 and 14 weeks after implant placement. The implant survival and its relationship with implant size and implantation site were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). Results Implants were placed at the following sites: upper central incisor (UCI, n = 35), upper lateral incisor (ULI, n = 27), upper second premolar (U2ndP, n = 36), lower incisor (LI, n = 53), and lower premolar (LP, n = 22). Implants of the following sizes were used: 5 × 10 mm (n = 24), 5 × 8 mm (n = 21), 4.3 × 10 mm (n = 77), 4.3 × 8 mm (n = 36), 3.5 × 10 mm (n = 12), and 3.5 × 8 mm (n = 3). After a mean follow-up time of 47 months, the overall implant survival rate was 96%. Survival rate was highest at the LI site (98.1%) and lowest at the ULI site (92.6%). All of the 5-mm implants survived (100%), as did most of the 4.3 × 10 mm implants (96.1%). Implants of 4.3 × 8 mm and 3.5 × 10 mm were the least successful (91.7%). Mandibular implants had a better survival rate (97.3%) than maxillary implants (94.9%). There was no significant OR of increased survival for any particular implant size or site. Conclusions Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets can give predictable clinical outcomes, regardless of the implant size and site of placement.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • A clinical investigation of the relationship between the quality of
           conventional complete dentures and the patients’ quality of life

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sara A. Alfadda , Hayam A. Al-Fallaj , Hajar A. Al-Banyan , Ruba M. Al-Kadhi
      Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the clinical quality of conventional complete dentures and patient quality of life. Materials and Methods This study included a random sample of 32 completely edentulous patients (15 males and 17 females) who were treated with conventional complete dentures. Using a validated questionnaire, three investigators evaluated the dentures independently on the basis of seven clinical parameters: aesthetics (lip support and lower lip line), retention and stability of the maxillary and the mandibular dentures, and occlusion. Patients completed the validated Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) questionnaire. Correlations were determined by using the point-biserial correlation coefficient. Results Clinicians rated the overall clinical quality of the dentures satisfactory in 80.3% of patients. The mean (± standard deviation) total OHIP-20 score was 56.3 ± 15.9 out of a possible 120 maximum. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the stability of the maxillary and mandibular dentures and the total OHIP-20 score (p = 0.009 and 0.0023, respectively). A negative correlation between the total OHIP-20 score and the retention of the mandibular denture approached significance (p = 0.092). Aesthetics, retention of the maxillary denture, and occlusion were not correlated with patient quality of life (p > 0.169). Conclusion Stability of the maxillary and mandibular dentures is the denture quality parameter that can most significantly affect patient quality of life.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • The Prevalence of Specific Dental Anomalies in a Group of Saudi Cleft Lip
           and Palate Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ghada H. Al-Kharboush , Khalid M. Al-Balkhi , Khalid Al-Moammar
      Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. Design This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Results Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Conclusions Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed
           lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Fatemeh A. Amir Rad , Faysal G. Succaria , Steven M. Morgano
      Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and Methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n=8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n=8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n=8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs MC (P=.0001), MO vs VZ (P=.0001), and VZ vs MC (P=.012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in-vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 27, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-12-23T10:29:33Z
       
  • Therapeutic Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Head and Neck
           Disorders

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ahmad Alshadwi , Mohammed Nadershah , Timothy Osborn
      Objective The aim of this article is to review the mechanism of action, physiological effects, and therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in the head and neck area. Study design An extensive literature search was performed using keywords. The resulting articles were analyzed for relevance in four areas: overview on botulinum neurotoxins, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of salivary secretory disorders, the role of botulinum neurotoxins in the management of facial pain, and the role of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck movement disorders. Institutional review board approval was not needed due the nature of the study. Results Botulinum neurotoxin therapy was demonstrated to be a valuable alternative to conventional medical therapy for many conditions affecting the head and neck area in terms of morbidly, mortality, and patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes. Conclusion Botulinum neurotoxin therapy provides viable alternatives to traditional treatment modalities for some conditions affecting the head and neck region that have neurological components. This therapy can overcome some of the morbidities associated with conventional therapy. More research is needed to determine the ideal doses of botulinum neurotoxin to treat different diseases affecting the head and neck regions.


      PubDate: 2014-12-15T09:50:59Z
       
  • Women with more severe degrees of temporomandibular disorder exhibit an
           increase in temperature over the temporomandibular joint

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho , Ana Cláudia de Souza Costa , Amanda Carine Packer , Ester Moreira de Castro , Delaine Rodrigues-Bigaton
      Aim The purpose of the present study was to correlate the degree of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) severity and skin temperatures over the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Materials and methods This blind cross-sectional study involved 60 women aged 18–40 years. The volunteers were allocated to groups based on Fonseca anamnestic index (FAI) score: no TMD, mild TMD, moderate TMD, and severe TMD (n = 15 each). All volunteers underwent infrared thermography for the determination of skin temperatures over the TMJ and masticatory muscles. Results Weak, positive, significant associations were found between FAI score and skin temperatures over the left TMJ (rs = 0.195, p = 0.009) and right TMJ (rs = 0.238, p = 0.001). Temperatures over the right and left TMJ were significantly higher in groups with more severe TMD (p < 0.05). Conclusion FAI score was associated with skin temperature over the TMJ, as determined by infrared thermography, in this sample. Women with more severe TMD demonstrated a bilateral increase in skin temperature.


      PubDate: 2014-12-15T09:50:59Z
       
  • Orthodontic Treatment and Referral Patterns: A Survey of Pediatric
           Dentists, General Practitioners, and Orthodontists

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdullah M. Aldrees , Nada E. Tashkandi , Areej A. AlWanis , Munerah S. AlSanouni , Nasir H. Al-Hamlan
      Objective This study aims to assess the orthodontic diagnostic skills, referral patterns, and the perceptions of orthodontic benefits of pediatric and general dentists in comparison with orthodontists. Materials and Methods Two online surveys were e-mailed to pediatric dentists, general dentistry practitioners, and orthodontists registered as members of the Saudi Dental Society and the Saudi Orthodontic Society. The surveys included questions about the type of orthodontic treatment provided, referral trends, and timing; presumed benefits associated with successful orthodontic treatment; and diagnosis and treatment plans of seven cases representing different malocclusions. Results In total, 25 orthodontists, 18 pediatric dentists, and 14 general practitioners completed the survey. Only 38.8% of pediatric dentists and 7.1% of general practitioners reported that they practiced orthodontics clinically. The perceptions of the three groups towards the benefits of orthodontic treatment were comparable in the psychosocial areas. However, the orthodontists perceived significantly lesser effects of orthodontic treatment on the amelioration of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms. Pediatric dentists tended to rate the need and urgency of treatment higher, while general practitioners tended to rate the need of treatment lower. The selected treatment plans for three early malocclusion cases showed the greatest discrepancies between the orthodontists and the other two groups. Conclusions The orthodontists consistently and significantly downplayed the perceived benefit of orthodontic treatment to reduce TMD symptoms. Also, while there was a similarity in the diagnosis, there were notable differences in the proposed treatment approaches, perceived treatment need, and timing of intervention between the three groups of practitioners.


      PubDate: 2014-12-11T17:20:34Z
       
  • The Association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell
           disease; A pilot case-control study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Haidar Al-Alawi , Abdulfatah Al-Jawad , Mahdi Al-Shayeb , Ali Al-Ali , Khalifa Al-Khalifa
      Objective This case-control study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal conditionsina population of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods The decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, community periodontal index (CPI), and plaque index were recorded for 33 patients with SCD and 33 age- and sex-matched controlsubjects(age range, 18–38 years) in Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors were recorded. Disease severity wasclassified for all patients with SCD. Results Decayed teeth weresignificantly more prevalentin individuals with SCD than in control subjects(p=0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD than in control subjects(p=0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment. No difference inDMFT index, CPI, or plaque index was observed between groups. Conclusion The data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD.


      PubDate: 2014-11-28T22:21:33Z
       
  • Enhancement of orthodontic anchorage and retention by the local injection
           of strontium: An experimental study in rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Munad J. Al-Duliamy , Nidhal H. Ghaib , Omar A. Kader , Bashar H. Abdullah
      Objectives To examine the clinical and histological effects of locally injected strontium on the anchoring unit of a rat model of an experimental relapsed tooth movement. Materials and methods Thirty-six 10-week-old male Wister rats were randomly divided into two groups of 18 animals that were then randomly divided into three subgroups of six animals corresponding to three observation periods: T1=1week, T2=2weeks, and T3=3weeks. In the first experiment, both the right and left maxillary first molars were moved buccally with a standardized expansive spring. Strontium chloride solution was injected every 2days into the subperiosteal area buccal to the left maxillary first molar (the experimental side). The right-sided first molar was injected with distilled water as a control. In the second experiment, maxillary first molars were moved buccally with the spring. After 3weeks, the spring was removed. Two days before the spring removal, strontium chloride was injected into the palatal side of left-sided maxillary first molar and distilled water was injected into the palatal side of the right-sided maxillary first molar as in experiment 1. Results At the end of the experimental period, significant levels of inhibition were noted in terms of both tooth movement and relapse movement in strontium-injected sides. Histological examinations showed that strontium enhanced the number of osteoblasts and reduced the number of osteoclasts. Conclusion The local injection of strontium can inhibit the degree of experimental and relapsed tooth movement in a rat model.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T21:01:36Z
       
  • Determinants Factors of Yemeni Maxillary Arch Dimensions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Nabil Muhsen Al-Zubair
      Objective Information about maxillary arch and palatal dimensions in human populations is important for clinical orthodontics. This study was conducted to assess the determinants of maxillary arch dimensions in a sample of Yemeni individuals aged 18–25 years. Materials and Methods The study sample comprised 214/765 adults (101 women, 113 men) who underwent clinical examination and fulfilled the study criteria. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure maxillary arch and palatal dimensions. Results The majority of mean maxillary arch dimensions were significantly greater in men than in women, with inter–second molar distance showing the greatest difference and palatal depth showing the least difference. Conclusion Measurements of palatal depth and relationships of the canines to one another and to other teeth thus had the widest ranges, implying that these dimensions are the strongest determinants of maxillary arch size.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T21:01:36Z
       
  • CBCT imaging – A boon to orthodontics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Genevive L. Machado
      The application of innovative technologies in dentistry and orthodontics has been very interesting to observe. The development of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a preferred imaging procedure for comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of particular interest. The information obtained from CBCT imaging provides several substantial advantages. For example, CBCT imaging provides accurate measurements, improves localization of impacted teeth, provides visualization of airway abnormalities, it identifies and quantifies asymmetry, it can be used to assess periodontal structures, to identify endodontic problems, to plan placement sites for temporary skeletal anchorage devices, and to view condylar positions and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony structures according to the practitioner’s knowledge at the time of orthodontic diagnosis. Moreover, CBCT imaging involves only a minimal increase in radiation dose relative to combined diagnostic modern digital panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of CBCT imaging, including its technique, advantages, and applications in orthodontics.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T21:01:36Z
       
  • How important is pharmacognosy for doctors and dentists'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi



      PubDate: 2014-11-15T21:01:36Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 26, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-11-15T21:01:36Z
       
  • Subjective image quality comparison between two digital dental
           radiographic systems and conventional dental film

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Muhammed Ajmal , Mohamed I. Elshinawy
      Objectives Digital radiography has become an integral part of dentistry. Digital radiography does not require film or dark rooms, reduces X-ray doses, and instantly generates images. The aim of our study was to compare the subjective image quality of two digital dental radiographic systems with conventional dental film. Materials & methods A direct digital (DD) ‘Dexis’ system by Sirona, a semi-direct (SD) digital system by Vista-scan, and Kodak ‘E’ speed dental X-ray films were selected for the study. Endodontically-treated extracted teeth (n =25) were used in the study. Details of enamel, dentin, dentino-enamel junction, root canal filling (gutta percha), and simulated apical pathology were investigated with the three radiographic systems. The data were subjected to statistical analyzes to reveal differences in subjective image quality. Results Conventional dental X-ray film was superior to the digital systems. For digital systems, DD imaging was superior to SD imaging. Conclusion Conventional film yielded superior image quality that was statistically significant in almost all aspects of comparison. Conventional film was followed in image quality by DD, and SD provided the lowest quality images. Conventional film is still considered the gold standard to diagnose diseases affecting the jawbone. Recommendations Improved software and hardware for digital imaging systems are now available and these improvements may now yield images that are comparable in quality to conventional film. However, we recommend that studies still use more observers and other statistical methods to produce ideal results.


      PubDate: 2014-09-03T11:50:15Z
       
  • The effects of light curing units and environmental temperatures on CC
           conversion of commercial and experimental bonding agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh-Kashi , Mohmmad Erfan , Salmeh Kalbasi , Malihe Ghadiri , Vahid Rakhshan
      Background and purpose Polymerization of bonding agents (BA) is a critical factor in determining the success of bonded restorations. We aimed to assess the effects of two light curing units and two temperatures on the extent of polymerization (EP) of a commercial BA and an experimental BA. Methods Forty BA specimens were randomly divided into 8 subgroups of n =5 to compare the polymerization of two BAs (experimental/Scotchbond) based on the variables: temperature (23/37°C) and light-curing unit (quartz-tungsten-halogen/light-emitting diode). The EP (%) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and analyzed using the t-test, two- and three-way analyses of variance (ANOVA), and the Bonferroni test (α =0.05). Results There were significant differences between the EP results between the two BAs (P =0.012) and due to the different temperatures (P =0.001), but not between the different light-curing units (P =0.548). The interaction between BA and temperature was significant (P <0.001). The other interactions were nonsignificant. Conclusions The two light-curing units had similar effects on the EP. The EP values were better when curing was performed at human body temperature.


      PubDate: 2014-08-08T22:46:19Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 26, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Metallurgical characterization of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Argyro Ntasi , Youssef S. Al Jabbari , Nick Silikas , Sara M. Al Taweel , Spiros Zinelis
      Aim To characterize microstructure, hardness and thermal properties of experimental Ag-based soldering alloys for dental applications. Materials and methods Ag12Ga (AgGa) and Ag10Ga5Sn (AgGaSn) were fabricated by induction melting. Six samples were prepared for each alloy and microstructure, hardness and their melting range were determined by, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers hardness testing and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results Both alloys demonstrated a gross dendritic microstructure while according to XRD results both materials consisted predominately of a Ag-rich face centered cubic phase The hardness of AgGa (61±2) was statistically lower than that of AgGaSn (84±2) while the alloys tested showed similar melting range of 627–762°C for AgGa and 631–756°C for AgGaSn. Conclusion The experimental alloys tested demonstrated similar microstructures and melting ranges. Ga and Sn might be used as alternative to Cu and Zn to modify the selected properties of Ag based soldering alloys.


      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Influence of phase I periodontal therapy on levels of matrix
           metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Pallavi S. Ghodpage , Rajashri A. Kolte , Abhay P. Kolte , Madhur Gupta
      Background Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of a family of enzymes that can degrade most extracellular matrix macromolecules. Extracellularly, MMPs are controlled by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and by mechanisms of pro-MMP activation. Levels of MMPs and TIMPs change during healing, inflammation, and normal tissue turnover. Herein we aimed to evaluate the levels of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from periodontally healthy patients (control group) and chronic periodontitis patients before and after phase 1 therapy. Methods In this study we examined 30 patients who had chronic periodontitis with probing depth sites ⩾5mm and a clinical attachment level (CAL) ⩾5mm. We included 30 periodontally healthy patients as a control. Clinical measurements such as plaque (PI) and gingival (GI) indices, papillary bleeding index (PBI), probing depths (PD), and CAL were recorded both before treatment (BT) and after phase I periodontal treatment (AT). Assays for MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were performed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results All clinical parameters were significantly reduced at the post-therapy visit. MMP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients BT than the controls; however, the patients AT were not statistically different than the controls. TIMP-1 levels in patients BT were significantly lower than in the controls and significantly lower than patients AT. We observed a significant positive correlation between GCF volume and MMP-1 levels. Furthermore, TIMP-1 levels were significantly negatively correlated with both GCF volume and all clinical parameters. Conclusions We observed that as the extent of periodontal destruction increases, MMP-1 concentration increases and TIMP-1 concentration decreases in GCF. When chronic periodontitis patients were treated by scaling and root planing (SRP), the average MMP-1 concentrations decreased and TIMP-1 concentrations increased in GCF.


      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Influence of extended light exposure curing times on the degree of
           conversion of resin-based pit and fissure sealant materials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Nazish Fatima
      Purpose The aim of present study was to evaluate extended curing times on the degree of conversion (DC) of filled and unfilled resin-based materials used as pit and fissure sealants. Materials and methods The materials examined were a flowable composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT Flowable) and a pit and fissure sealant (Clinpro™ Sealant). Thirty disks of each material were prepared. The 30 disks made of the flowable composite were divided into three groups (n =10 each) according to the three different curing times studied: 20s (group 1), 40s (group 2), and 60s (group 3). Similarly, the 30 disks made of the pit and fissure sealant were divided into three groups (n =10 each) according to the three different curing times: 20s (group 4), 40s (group 5), and 60s (group 6). After polymerization, the disks were removed from the mold and stored in dry, lightproof containers in an incubator at 37°C for 24h. The DC was obtained using an Avatar 320 FTIR spectrometer. Then the data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and the Fisher’s least significant difference post hoc test for multiple comparisons (alpha=0.05). Results DC values for the flowable composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) were higher (p =0.002) than those for the pit and fissure sealant (Clinpro™ Sealant). Group 2 and group 5 showed significantly higher DC values than group 1 and group 4, respectively. There was no difference between groups 2 and 3 or between groups 5 and 6 (p =2.93). Conclusion An extended curing time improves the DC to some extent for both materials.


      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Bushra Karim , Devanand Gupta
      Introduction Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen–antibody reactions in their bloodstream. Aim To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. Objective To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. Methodology In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi’s classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I′ (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. Result No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. Conclusion No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique.


      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Intraoral management of displaced root into submandibular space under
           local anaesthesia – A case report and review of literature

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Satnam Singh Jolly , Vidya Rattan Chaudhary , Sachin Kumar Rai
      Accidental displacement of an impacted third molar, either a root fragment, crown, or the entire tooth, is a rare complication that occurs during exodontia. The most common sites of dislodgment of an impacted mandibular third molar fragment are the sublingual, submandibular, and pterygomandibular spaces. Removal of a displaced root tip from these spaces may be complex due to poor visualization and limited access. A thorough evaluation of all significant risk factors must be performed in advance to prevent complications. This paper reports the case of a patient who presented with a mandibular third molar root that was displaced into submandibular space. The case was managed intraorally under local anaesthesia and review of the literature.


      PubDate: 2014-07-26T16:34:17Z
       
  • Smoking among Dental Students at King Saud University: Consumption
           Patterns and Risk Factors

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdullah S. AlSwuailem , Majed K. AlShehri , Salwa Al-Sadhan
      Objectives To assess the smoking prevalence among dental students at King Saud University (KSU) and determine possible risk factors for tobacco use among dental students. Methods A self-addressed invitation letter was sent to all dental students (males and females) at KSU requesting participation in this study. Data on smoking habits and associated risk factors as well as demographic factors, such as age, marital status, residency status, the student’s study year and grade point average were collected using an electronic self-administered questionnaire. This survey was sent via email to students who volunteered to participate. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Significant differences between different groups were assessed using Pearson Chi-Square test at α=0.05. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and determine the effect of different risk factors on students smoking habits. Results There was a 67% response rate which represented 400 out of the 600 registered dental students (230 males, 170 females). The prevalence of students who were current smokers was significantly higher among male dental students (27.6%) compared to female dental students (2.4) (p<0.001). The majority of current dental smokers were using shisha tobacco only (N=35, 51.5%), followed by both shisha tobacco and cigarettes (N=17, 25%) and cigarettes only (N=16, 23.5%).Male dental students were about 4 times more likely to be smokers if all or the majority of their friends were smokers compared to students who had some friends who smoked (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.9-7.7). A high proportion of current smokers (47.8%) reported stress as the main reason for smoking. Twenty-six percent of dental students (N=87) who are currently non-smokers reported that they have used tobacco at one point in their lives. Over two-thirds of the sampled students (63%) believed that public tobacco usage is not well addressed in the current college curriculum. Conclusions Approximately, one in every four male dental students at KSU is a smoker. Having friends who are smokers was the most important risk factor associated with dental students who smoke. There is a general belief among dental students that public tobacco use is not well addressed in dental college curriculum.


      PubDate: 2014-05-14T16:15:42Z
       
  • Knowledge, Attitudes And Experience Of Dentists Living In Saudi Arabia
           Towards Child Abuse And Neglect

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): R. Al-Dabaan , JT. Newton , K. Asimakopoulou
      Aim To analyze the experience and knowledge of dental practitioners in Saudi Arabia regarding the identification of child abuse and neglect (CAN), to identify barriers that prevent the reporting of suspected cases of child maltreatment by dental practitioners, and to assess the need for training dentists in child protection. Method A self-administered, web-based questionnaire was emailed to all of the members of the Saudi Dental Society (n = -). Results The respondents (n = 121) demonstrated good knowledge of the forms and indicators of CAN. Moreover, a large proportion (59%) had experienced a case of child abuse or neglect in their practice over the previous five years. However, only about 20% of the respondents reported taking action in response to their suspicions. Fear of family reprisal, lack of certainty about the diagnosis of child maltreatment, and uncertainty about case management were critical barriers to the reporting of the suspected child maltreatment. In addition, only 20.9% of the respondents reported having knowledge of a child protection policy in their workplace. Conclusions Based on the results of this survey, it appears that the level of knowledge amongst the respondents regarding the forms and indicators of CAN is good. However, a large proportion of respondents did not take action regarding suspected cases of CAN in their practice over the past five years. Therefore, additional resources and training are needed to support the identification and management of cases of child maltreatment by dental practitioners.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • The effect of laterally positioned flap-revised technique and 24% EDTA
           root conditioning on root coverage: A case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Jagmohan Singh , Vipin Bharti
      Complete root coverage is considered the true goal of treatment of gingival recession defects because only complete coverage assures recovery from the hypersensitivity and esthetic defects associated with recession areas. Previous studies have shown that the laterally positioned flap (LPF) technique or root surface biomodification yield a higher percentage of complete root coverage upon gingival recession treatment. This article highlights the use of the laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique (LPFRT) as a modification of the LPF technique, along with 24% EDTA gel as a root surface biomodification agent, in the management of localized gingival recession defects. Clinical examination revealed a Miller class II recession defect on the buccal aspect of the lower right central incisor, as well as the presence of aberrant frenum pull adjacent to the recession defect. The LPFRT, together with 24% EDTA gel, was speculated to cover the gingival recession defect. The frenectomy, along with periosteal fenestration, was planned simultaneously with LPFRT. After 6 months of therapy, the clinical condition was stable with complete root coverage and satisfactory healing of the gingival tissues at both the donor and recipient sites with no signs of inflammation.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • Pre-operative assessment of relationship between inferior dental nerve
           canal and mandibular impacted third molar in Saudi population

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): S. Shujaat , H.M. Abouelkheir , K.S. Al-Khalifa , B. Al-Jandan , H.F. Marei
      Objective To study the correlation between the position of the inferior dental (ID) nerve canal and the angulation of impacted mandibular third molars using dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods The study considered 100 impactions in 85 patients (60 males, 25 females), for whom an initial panoramic radiographic assessment had revealed that the ID canal and the lower 3rd molar were in close proximity. A CBCT scan of each patient was carried out to assess how the ID nerve canal position influenced the class and position of impaction, angulation of impaction, and bone contact. Results Class I position B impactions were found in the majority of cases, where the position of the ID canal was approximate to the lingual plate and inferior to the 3rd molar (85.7%). The results were statistically significant (p =0.001). 96% of the ID canals showed bone contact. Of these, 77.1% of ID canals exhibited lingual bone contact, inferior to impaction. The results were statistically significant (p =0.001). Horizontally angulated impactions were most common in the mandible, and significantly associated with lingual and inferior positioning of the ID canal (76.2%). Conclusions Our sample population most commonly exhibited horizontally angulated class I position B impactions of the mandible. The position of the ID canal significantly influenced the type of impaction and bone contact.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • Attitude and Awareness of Dentist Towards Resin Bonded Bridges in Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Fahim Ahmed Vohra , Muhammed Ayedh Al-Qahtani
      Statement of the Problem Resin bonded bridges (RBBs) offer a conservative approach to tooth replacement. However, the use of this approach has been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of dentists in Saudi Arabia, including general dental practitioners (GDPs) and prosthodontic and restorative specialists (SPs), towards RBBs. Methods In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires designed to survey knowledge of RBB performance factors were distributed to GDPs and SPs (n = 400). Specifically, opinions of GDPs and SPs regarding clinical, mechanical, technique- and patient-dependent performance factors of RBBs were obtained. Average significance and Chi-square tests were used to identify the frequency, pattern, and significance of the response variables identified. Results A majority (65.3%) of the subjects reported using RBBs in less than 10% of their prosthodontic cases. The most common reason for the limited clinical application of RBBs was perceived poor retention (23.45%). In addition, SPs regarded the influence of enamel structure, number of pontics, cement type, RBB design, and surface treatment as “very significant” factors with respect to RBB survival. Overall, a statistically significant difference was observed between the responses of GDPs and SPs regarding their knowledge of performance factors for RBBs. Conclusion In comparison to SPs, GDPs reported greater disagreement with current standards for RBB success factors. Moreover, 60% of SPs and 71% of GDPs used RBBs for less than 10% of their prosthodontic cases. Therefore, continuing education opportunities are needed for practicing dentists, and undergraduate students need to receive greater exposure to the clinical application of RBBs.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • Agreement between Orthodontist’s and Patients’ Perception
           using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Tania Arshad Siddiqui , Attiya Shaikh , Mubassar Fida
      Objectives The primary objective of the study was to assess the agreement between orthodontist and patient perception regarding the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Need (IOTN-AC) at pre-orthodontic treatment levels. The secondary objective was to determine how well the subjective assessment of malocclusion (IOTN-AC) correlated with the normative Dental Health Component of the IOTN (IOTN-DC). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on patients between the ages of 16-25, presenting for initiation of orthodontic treatment with no history of prior orthodontic treatment. The mean age of the total sample population was 19.50 ± 3.15 years. The mean age of the males was 19.05 ± 3.09 years and for females it was 19.75 ± 3.18 years. The sample consisted of 41 males and 80 females. Patients were shown their pretreatment monochrome intraoral frontal photographs to rate according to the IOTN-AC. Simultaneously, the orthodontist reviewed the photographs with each patient. The IOTN-DHC of pretreatment casts was also recorded by the orthodontist. The frequency of specific traits that had led to increased severity of malocclusion was also identified. All readings were recorded manually on a data collection form. The data were assessed using the chi-square test, Spearman’s correlation and Cohen’s kappa test. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was assessed using Spearman’s correlation. Results A significant positive relationship (p < 0.05) was observed between orthodontist and patient perception (r = 0.516), orthodontist perception and the normative need (r = 0.430), and between the patients’ perception and the normative need (r = 0.252). A statistically significant level of agreement was observed between orthodontist and patient perception (kappa = 0.339, p ⩽ 0.001, 95% CI, 0.207 – 0.470) and between orthodontist perception and the normative need (kappa = 0.331, p ⩽ 0.001, 95% CI, 0.197 – 0.424). A weak and insignificant level of agreement was observed between patients’ perception and normative treatment need (kappa = 0.107, 95% CI, 0.02 – 0.187). Conclusions Patients’ understanding of their treatment need or aesthetic classification may not always be as accurate as that of orthodontists. This may be a cause for concern when an orthodontist finds a certain condition to be severe, and a patient who does not agree may limit their treatment needs.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • Prevalence of Dental Caries Among 12 to 14 Year Old Children in Qatar

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Mohammed Al-Darwish , Walid El Ansari , Abdulbari Bener
      Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12-14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12-14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (± 3.2), 4.79 (± 3.5), and 5.5 (± 3.7), for 12-, 13-, and 14-year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where female children were at increased risk for dental caries. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas were at higher risk for dental caries than children living in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.


      PubDate: 2014-05-09T16:15:22Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 26, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T16:16:53Z
       
  • Papillon–Lefevre syndrome: Reporting consanguinity as a risk factor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Aasim Farooq Shah , Pradeep Tangade , Swatantra Agarwal
      Papillon–Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis associated with severe early-onset periodontitis and premature loss of primary and permanent teeth. This report describes two cases of PLS in 28-year-old female and 16-year-old male siblings with consanguineously married parents. The patients presented to the Department of Public Health Dentistry of a dental education and research institute in India with thickening, flaking, and scaling of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. On oral examination, the female patient presented completely resorbed maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges with retention of only the third molars. The male patient retained only teeth 18, 13, 28, 38, and 45. Based on complete histories and clinical examination findings, a final diagnosis of PLS was made and treatment was initiated using an interdisciplinary dental approach in both cases.


      PubDate: 2014-04-24T16:52:28Z
       
  • Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients
           undergoing orthodontic treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): AL-Dany A. Atwa , Ramadan Y. AbuShahba , Marwa Mostafa , Mohamed I. Hashem
      Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the following: (1) the effects of chewing honey on plaque formation in orthodontic patients, (2) the effect of chewing honey on dental plaque bacterial counts, (3) determine if honey possesses antibacterial effects on bacteria recovered from plaques. Methods Female orthodontic patients (n =20, 12–18years of age) participated in this randomized controlled study. The effects of honey were compared to treatment with either 10% sucrose or 10% sorbitol that served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The pH of plaque was measured using a digital pH meter prior to baseline and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30min after chewing honey or rinsing with control solutions and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and Prophymonas gingivalis in respective plaques were determined. The antibacterial activity of honey was tested against commonly used antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results Significant differences in pH were observed in the honey and sucrose groups compared to the pH observed in the sorbitol group (P ⩽0.001). The maximum pH drop occurred at 5min in both the honey and sucrose groups; however the pH in the honey group rapidly recovered 10–20min after exposure and did not drop below the critical decalcification pH of 5.5. On the other hand, the pH following sucrose exposure fell <5.5 and was associated with a 30min recovery time. The pH observed for the sorbitol group did not change over time. Bacterial counts were significantly reduced in the honey group compared to the other treatment groups (P ⩽0.001) and honey significantly inhibited the growth of all studied strains compared to inhibition observed with antibiotics (P ⩽0.001). Conclusions Honey can be used as an alternative to traditional remedies for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis following orthodontic treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-04-24T16:52:28Z
       
  • Porcelain laminate veneers: Clinical survey for evaluation of failure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Diemah F. Alhekeir , Rana A. Al-Sarhan , Abdulmohsen F. Al Mashaan
      Objective To investigate the association of the failure of porcelain laminate veneers with factors related to the patient, material, and operator. Methods This clinical survey involved 29 patients (19 women and 10 men) and their dentists, including undergraduate and postgraduate dental students and dental interns. Two questionnaires were distributed to collect information from participants. All patients were clinically examined. Criteria for failure of the porcelain laminate veneers included color change, cracking, fracture, and/or debonding. Results A total of 205 porcelain laminate veneers were evaluated. All of the restorations were fabricated from IPS e.max Press and cemented with Variolink Veneer (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Principality of Liechtenstein) or RelyX veneer cement (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The preparations were generally located in enamel (58.6%), and most veneers had an overlapped design (89.7%). Ten patients (34.48%) showed veneer failure, most often in terms of color change (60%). Overall, 82.8% of patients were satisfied with their restorations. Conclusion Insufficient clinical skills or operator experience resulted restoration failure in one-third of patients.


      PubDate: 2014-03-29T15:16:50Z
       
  • Brown Tumor in a Patient with Ectopic Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma: A
           Case Report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Faiza A Qari
      Brown tumors are uncommon focal giant-cell lesions that arise as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients that have hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism could be caused by ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas. The occurrence of lesions is explainable on embryologic basis. We present a 55-year-old Saudi woman with a rare case of brown tumor of the maxilla due to ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.


      PubDate: 2014-03-24T12:30:59Z
       
  • Accuracy and Reproducibility of Probe Forces during Simulated Periodontal
           Pocket Depth Measurements

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): K.N. Al Shayeb , W. Turner , D.G. Gillam
      Aim The aim of the present study was to measure the accuracy and reproducibility of probe forces in simulated assessments of periodontal pocket depth. The study included experienced and inexperienced examiners and used manual and pressure-sensitive probes. Materials and Methods Sixty-one participants were divided into seven groups and asked to probe selected anterior and posterior sites with three different probes (Williams 14W, Chapple UB-CF-15, and Vivacare TPS probes). The model was positioned on a digital electronic balance to measure force, which was recorded initially and after 15 minutes. Probe preferences were recorded. Accuracy was measured by comparing to a standardized 25 g force, and reproducibility was calculated for all duplicate measurements. Results The Vivacare probe produced the most accurate and most reproducible forces, whereas the Williams probe produced the least accurate and least reproducible forces. Probe forces were lighter at anterior sites compared to posterior sites at baseline. Probe forces were reduced at both sites after 15 minutes compared to baseline. Conclusions Vivacare TPS periodontal probes are more accurate and reproducible than Chapple and Williams probes. Many clinicians in this study preferred the Chapple probe.


      PubDate: 2014-03-19T12:36:12Z
       
  • Tooth-bleaching procedures and their controversial effects: A Literature
           Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Mohammed Q. Alqahtani
      Aim This review article will help clinicians improve their understanding of the history of bleaching procedures, bleaching types, components, mechanisms, and their effects on soft tissue, tooth structures, resin composite, and bonding. Methods The controversial issues about bleaching procedures and their effects are reviewed. Additionally, the consequences of pre- and post-bleaching on the bonding potential of composite resin restorations to tooth structure are discussed. Conclusion The overall goal of the paper is to help reduce risks for patients.


      PubDate: 2014-03-14T12:27:42Z
       
  • An unusual case of atrophic mandible fracture in a patient with
           osteogenesis imperfecta and on oral bisphosphonate therapy: Case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdulrahman Al-Osaimi , Mahmood Samman , Mohammad Al-Shakhs , Faisal Al-Suhaim , Sundar Ramalingam
      Fractures of severely atrophic (height<10mm) edentulous mandibles are infrequent and challenging to manage. Factors such as sclerotic bone and decreased vascularity combined with systemic diseases complicate the management of such fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of type I collagen metabolism. Patients with OI characteristically present with histories of long bone fractures, deformities, blue sclerae, and opalescent dentin. However, fractures of the facial skeleton are rare. Bisphosphonate therapy has been proven to effectively reduce the fracture risk in patients with OI. The purpose of this clinical report is to present an unusual case of spontaneous fracture of the atrophic mandible in a patient with OI. Despite open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with miniplate osteosynthesis, the patient developed a second fracture at a screw placement site distal to the first fracture. The patient was successfully treated with ORIF using locking reconstruction plates fixed in the symphyseal and angle regions. Bone healing following ORIF was normal, and no clinical sign of osteonecrosis as a result of bisphosphonate therapy was observed. Patients with OI can present with spontaneous fractures of already weakened mandibles. Although such fractures can be managed with care using established protocols, further research is required to examine the effects of concomitant medication, such as bisphosphonates.


      PubDate: 2014-03-14T12:27:42Z
       
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 26, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-02-07T12:26:38Z
       
  • The effect of mechanical and chemical polishing techniques on the surface
           roughness of heat-polymerized and visible light-polymerized acrylic
           denture base resins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2014
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdul Aziz Abdullah Al-Kheraif
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mechanical polishing (MP) and chemical polishing (CP) on the average (mean) surface roughness (Ra) of heat-cured (HC) and light-cured (LC) denture base acrylic resins. Methods A total of 120 specimens (30×15×3mm) were prepared from one HC and one LC acrylic resin. To remove nodules and gross surface irregularities, all specimens were finished with a lathe-mounted small acrylic bur and 360-grit sandpaper. Ten finished specimens of each acrylic resin were randomly assigned to each of six polishing techniques: Resilit High-luster Polishing Liquid (RHPL), Universal Polishing Paste, Abraso-star K50, pumice, Jet Seal Liquid, or Acrypoint. MP was performed with an automatic polishing machine for 2min, under 50rpm and 500g of load. CP was performed by immersing the HC and LC specimens in preheated methyl methacrylate at 75±1°C for 10s. The surface roughness of the acrylic resin specimens was measured with a contact profilometer. The Ra values were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, post hoc Scheffe test, and paired t-test (p ⩽0.05). Polished and tested acrylic resin surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results MP was more effective than CP. The smoothest surface was obtained with the use of the RHPL on the LC (0.05±0.01μm) or HC (0.07±0.01μm) acrylic resin. Two-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between MP and CP. Conclusions MP produced the smoothest surface of denture base acrylic resin. The mean surface roughness values after MP and CP were not influenced by the type of acrylic resin.


      PubDate: 2014-02-07T12:26:38Z
       
  • A review of the effect of various ions on the properties and the clinical
           applications of novel bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2013
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Saqib Ali , Imran Farooq , Kefi Iqbal
      Bioactive glass is a novel material that dissolves and forms a bond with bone when exposed to body fluids. Bioactive glasses are silicate-based, with calcium and phosphate in identical proportions to those of natural bone; therefore, they have high biocompatibility. Bioactive glasses have wide-ranging clinical applications, including use as bone grafts, scaffolds, and coating materials for dental implants. This review will discuss the effects of ions on the various compositions of bioactive glasses, as well as the clinical applications of bioactive glasses in medicine and dentistry.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T05:14:47Z
       
  • Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2013
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Deepa G Kamath , Sangeeta Umesh Nayak
      Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus.


      PubDate: 2013-12-19T05:14:47Z
       
  • A literature review on “low levels of caries in aggressive
           periodontitis”: A lesser known and lesser stressed factor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2013
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): S.R. Srinivas
      Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged < 30 years (older individuals can also be affected) and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis are discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is also discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-12-14T23:42:02Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015