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DENTISTRY (226 journals)                  1 2 3     

Ação Odonto     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica     Open Access  
Acta Odontológica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Actualités Odonto-Stomatologiques     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Dental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Angle Orthodontist     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Periodontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Australian Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Odontoestomatologia     Open Access  
Avances en Periodoncia e Implantología Oral     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avicenna Journal of Dental Research     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Dental Research & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Dental Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Dental Science     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Oral Research     Open Access  
British Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin du Groupement International pour la Recherche Scientifique en Stomatologie et Odontologie     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene     Full-text available via subscription  
Caries Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
City Dental College Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clínica e Pesquisa em Odontologia - UNITAU     Open Access  
Clinical Advances in Periodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Clinical and Experimental Dental Research     Open Access  
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Oral Implants Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Oral Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Oral Health Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Dental Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Dental Cadmos     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Dental Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dental Forum     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dental Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dental Protection Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dental Traumatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Dentistry     Open Access  
Dentistry 3000     Open Access  
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Dentistry Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Der Freie Zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
der junge zahnarzt     Hybrid Journal  
Die Quintessenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disease-a-Month     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ENDO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Endodontic Topics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Endodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Dental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Esthetic Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of General Dentistry     Open Access  
European Journal of Oral Implantology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Oral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Prosthodontics     Open Access  
Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Evidence-Based Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Faculty Dental Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Implant Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Implantologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Dentistry     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie     Hybrid Journal  
International Dental Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Endodontic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computerized Dentistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Implant Dentistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Odontostomatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Oral Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Saudi Dental Journal
  [SJR: 0.138]   [H-I: 4]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1013-9052
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Association between Anterior Alveolar Dimensions and Vertical Facial
           Pattern among Saudi Adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Adel M. Al-Hadlaq
      Objective To establish the anterior alveolar dimensions among a sample of Saudi subjects with different vertical facial heights. Materials and methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 63 Saudi subjects (30 males and 33 females) were included in this retrospective study. The sample was divided into high angle (SN-MP ⩾ 39°), low angle (SN-MP ⩽ 28°) and average angle (30° < SN-MP < 37°) groups. The anteroposterior and vertical dimensions of the alveolus surrounding the root apex of upper and lower incisors were calculated. Results The anterior alveolar dimensions exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) between the different vertical facial height groups. The males and females demonstrated significant differences (p<0.05) in the anterior alveolar dimensions for the same vertical jaw relationship. Conclusions Both gender and the vertical jaw relationship can be factors for different height and thickness of the anterior alveolus. Clinicians must be aware of differences in the anterior alveolar dimensions for safe and sound orthodontic tooth movement.

      PubDate: 2016-02-11T20:58:26Z
  • Neurogenic Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Oral and Maxillofacial
           Region: a Clinicopathological Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ohoud Alotaibi, Manal Al Sheddi
      Objective Oral and maxillofacial lesions of neural origin are rare soft tissue neoplasms. The aim of the present study is to review the epidemiological data of oral and maxillofacial neurogenic lesions submitted for diagnosis to our laboratory over a 31-year period (August 1984- March 2015). Materials and Methods The available formalin-fixed embedded specimens, Hematoxylin and Eosin slides, demographic and clinical data were retrieved. Results Thirty-one cases were included in this study, representing 0.6% of the 5161 biopsies submitted. Most of the diagnosed cases 11 (35.5%) were traumatic neuromas. The other cases included 2 (6.5%) solitary circumscribed neuromas, 2 (6.5%) melanotic neuroectodermal tumors of infancy, 2 (6.5%) Schwannomas, 5 (16.1%) granular cell tumors, and 9 (29%) neurofibromas. The patients’ ages ranged from 5 months to 78 years. Among these cases, 16 were males (51.61%) and 15 were females (48.38%). Conclusion This analysis showed that neural lesions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region were rare and mostly benign in nature. Such lesions should be carefully diagnosed because of their association with life-threatening syndromes and the possibility of malignant transformation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-11T20:58:26Z
  • Toxin Yet Not Toxic: Botulinum Toxin In Dentistry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): M.S. Archana
      Paracelsus contrasted poisons from nonpoisons, stating that “All things are poisons, and there is nothing that is harmless; the dose alone decides that something is a poison”. Living organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, constitute a huge source of pharmaceutically useful medicines and toxins. Depending on their source, toxins can be categorized as phytotoxins, mycotoxins, or zootoxins, which include venoms and bacterial toxins. Any toxin can be harmful or beneficial. Within the last 100 years, the perception of botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) has evolved from that of a poison to a versatile clinical agent with various uses. BTX plays a key role in the management of many orofacial and dental disorders. Its indications are rapidly expanding, with ongoing trials for further applications. However, despite its clinical use, what BTX specifically does in each condition is still not clear. The main aim of this review is to describe some of the unclear aspects of this potentially useful agent, with a focus on current research in dentistry.

      PubDate: 2015-12-25T09:06:20Z
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2015-12-13T02:58:20Z
  • Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with indirect
           composite inlay and onlay restorations – In vitro study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ibraheem F. Alshiddi, Amjad Aljinbaz
      Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance and fracture mode of extensive indirect inlay and onlay composite resin restorations performed for endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods A total of 55 extracted maxillary premolars were randomly divided into four groups. The first group (n = 15) remained untreated to serve as a positive control; the second group (n = 15) was endodontically treated with inlay cavities prepared and restored with indirect composite inlay restorations; the third group (n = 15) was also endodontically treated with onlay cavities prepared and restored with indirect composite onlay restorations; and the fourth group (n = 10) was endodontically treated with mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) cavities prepared and left unrestored to serve as negative controls. Dual cure indirect composite resin was used to fabricate the inlay and onlay restorations performed for the second and third groups, respectively. All teeth were subjected to compressive axial loading test using a metal ball (6 mm in diameter) in a universal testing machine (Instron 1195) with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until a fracture occurred. Statistical analysis of fracture resistance and fracture mode were performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05) and Kruskal-Wallis (α = 0.05) tests, respectively. Results For the four treatment groups, the mean fracture resistance values were 1326.9 N, 1500.1 N, 1006.1 N, and 702.7 N, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between the mean fracture resistance of the intact tooth group and the inlay restoration group (p > 0.05), while significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance of all the other groups (p < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences between the fracture modes of the four groups. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, endodontically treated teeth were successfully restored with indirect composite inlay and onlay restorations. However, the fractures that accompanied the inlay restorations were more severe and were unable to be restored.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T00:12:54Z
  • Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking
           procedure for complete denture construction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Alaa’a M. Salloum
      Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n =15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T00:12:54Z
  • Testing the Arabic short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers
           Perceptions Questionnaire and the Family Impact Scale in Oman

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): I.A. Al-Riyami, W.M. Thomson, L.S. Al-Harthi
      Short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS) have been developed for use as measures of oral health-related quality of life in dental research. Objectives (1) To translate the original English short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS and examine their validity, and (2) to describe the impact of early childhood caries on oral health-related quality of life in young Omani children and their families. Methods Parents/caregivers of children awaiting treatment for early childhood caries completed the P-CPQ and FIS at the Military Dental Center in Oman. Data were obtained from 191 families (representing a 94.1% participation rate). A global Oral Health Quality of Life (OHRQoL) item was used concurrently to examine the scales’ validity. Results The cross sectional concurrent validity of the short form version of the P-CPQ was apparent in the significant gradient across the response categories of the global OHRQoL item, but the FIS short form version did not perform as well. Conclusion The P-CPQ appears to be valid, but further investigation of the FIS is required, along with examination of the scales’ responsiveness to change.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T22:55:45Z
  • Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sageena George, S. Anandaraj, Jyoti S. Issac, Sheen A. John, Anoop Harris
      Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T22:55:45Z
  • Association between periodontal diseases and systemic illnesses: A survey
           among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Kehinde A. Umeizudike, Sandra O. Iwuala, Obianuju B. Ozoh, Patricia O. Ayanbadejo, Olufemi A. Fasanmade
      Objective To assess internal medicine residents’ knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients’ periodontal health. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among internal medicine residents attending the Faculty of Internal Medicine 2014 Update Course organized by the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. Participants came from all over the country. Data on respondents’ demographic characteristics, periodontal disease knowledge, knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients’ periodontal health were collected. Data were analyzed using Epi INFO software. The Pearson chi square test was used to measure significant association between categorical variables such as the knowledge of periodontal disease and gender, age group and designation of the participants (p ⩽0.05). Results Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 123 were returned (82% response rate); 109 questionnaires were completed properly and included in the analysis. The most common source of residents’ information on oral health was television (59.4%). Only 11.2% of respondents were aware that gingival bleeding was the earliest sign of periodontal disease. Respondents correctly identified periodontal disease as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (45.9%), stroke (43.5%), hospital-acquired pneumonia (53.2%), diabetes mellitus (13.8%), and preterm birth (11%). Increased age (p =0.032) and male gender (p =0.022) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as a risk factor for stroke. Higher designation (p =0.002) and longer duration in residency training (p =0.004) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The majority (90.9%) of respondents had positive attitudes toward the referral of their patients for regular periodontal care. Conclusions Knowledge of periodontal disease as a risk factor for systemic illnesses among medical residents in Nigeria is inadequate. These relationships should be emphasized in continuing medical education courses.

      PubDate: 2015-11-11T18:51:05Z
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 27, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2015-11-11T18:51:05Z
  • Factors affecting student participation in extra-curricular activities: A
           comparison between two Middle Eastern dental schools

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Asim Al-Ansari, Fahad Al-Harbi, Wafaa AbdelAziz, Maha AbdelSalam, Maha M. El Tantawi, Ismail ElRefae
      Objective This study was conducted to assess the level of participation of dental undergraduate students in extracurricular activities (ECAs) and the factors affecting this participation. Methods The study included dental students enrolled in undergraduate programs at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, and the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed to collect background information about students, their participation in ECAs, and time allocated for these activities. Students were asked about their perceptions of the relationship between ECAs and academic studies, and their reasons for participating in and satisfaction with ECAs. Results The study included 199 students from Alexandria and 146 students from Dammam, with response rates of 99.5% and 73%, respectively. The percentages of those reporting ECA participation were 27.1% and 43.8%, respectively, mostly in community service, sports, and social activities. About 60% of students did not think that ECAs affected their studies, although the perceived difficulty of balancing ECAs and academics was associated with lower odds of participation (odds ratio=0.51). Most students participated in ECAs to socialize and make friends, and the majority was dissatisfied with school-organized ECAs (52% and 59%, respectively). Gender and/or perceived relation between ECAs and academic studies affected actual participation in ECAs in one school but not the other. Conclusions ECA participation among these students was low. Gender and perception of ECAs in relation to academic studies affected ECA participation differently in the two schools. Better planning and management of ECAs that incorporate students’ preferences and reasons for participation is needed. Gender issues and the relationship between ECAs and academic performance should be addressed in relation to school and social characteristics.

      PubDate: 2015-11-11T18:51:05Z
  • Evaluation of the Fit of Preformed Nickel Titanium Arch Wires on Normal
           Occlusion Dental Arches

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Rakhn G. Al-Barakati, Nasser D. Alqahtani, Abdulaziz AlMadi, Sahar F. Albarakati, Eman A. ALKofide
      Aim To determine the fits of preformed nickel titanium (NiTi) archwires on dental arches with normal occlusion. Methods Forty sets of upper and lower plaster models were obtained from men and women with Class I occlusions. Preformed 0.016” × 0.022” NiTi archwires from Rocky Mountain Orthodontics (RMO), 3M Unitek, Ormco, and Dentaurum were evaluated in terms of their fits on dental arches from male, female, and combined cases. Data were analyzed by using fourth- and sixth-order polynomial equations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Duncan post hoc test. Results In the upper arches, the best fit and least error were obtained with RMO Ovoid and Ormco Orthos Large archwires for male cases, but with 3M Orthoform LA archwires for female and combined cases. In the lower arches, the best fit and least error were obtained with Ormco Orthos Large for male cases, with 3M Orthoform LA and RMO Normal for female cases, and with 3M Orthoform LA, RMO Normal, Ormco Orthos Large, and Ormco Orthos Small for combined cases. When both dental arches were matched, Ormco Orthos Large was the best wire for male cases. 3M Orthoform LA was the best wire for female and combined cases. Conclusions Using an archwire form with the best fit to the dental arch should produce minimal changes in the dental arch form when NiTi wires are used and require less customization when stainless-steel wires are used.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T18:45:59Z
  • Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in
           riyadh, saudi arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): M.A. AlSarheed
      Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children.

      PubDate: 2015-09-02T08:23:50Z
  • A Finite Element Study on Stresses Distribution of Two Different
           Attachment Designs under Implant Supported Overdenture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Mohamed I. El-Anwar, Salah A. Yousief, Tarek A. Soliman, Mahmoud M. Saleh, Wael S. Omar
      Objective This study aimed to evaluate stress patterns generated within implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained by two different attachment types: ball and socket and locator attachments. Materials and methods Commercial CAD/CAM and finite element analysis software packages were utilized to construct two 3D finite element models for the two attachment types. Unilateral masticatory compressive loads of 50, 100, and 150 N were applied vertically to the overdentures, parallel to the longitudinal axes of the implants. Loads were directed toward the central fossa in the molar region of each overdenture, that linear static analysis was carried out to find the generated stresses and deformation on each part of the studied model. Results According to FEA results the ball attachment neck is highly stressed in comparison to locator one. On the other hand mucosa and cortical bone received less stresses under ball and socket attachment. Conclusions Locator and ball and socket attachments induce equivalent stresses on bone surrounding implants. Locator attachment performance was superior to that of the ball and socket attachment in the implants, nylon caps, and overdenture. Locator attachments are highly recommended and can increase the interval between successive maintenance sessions.

      PubDate: 2015-09-02T08:23:50Z
  • A Comparative Study of Oral Health amongst Trisomy 21 Children Living In
           Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 Caries, Malocclusion, Trauma

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): M. AlSarheed
      Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a genetic disorder stemming from a chromosomal abnormality and characterized by general and mental retardation. Depending on the population, T21 is known to affect 1 in every 600 to 2,000 live births. The current literature provides a mixed view on the oral health status of T21 individuals. Aim To establish the prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma amongst children with T21 compared with non-T21 children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods This cross-sectional study recruited non-T21 and T21 children between the ages of 7–15 years who were studying at the Saut Society. After informed consent was obtained from parents and both groups were matched by age and gender, trained examiners screened children at the dental clinic of King Saud University to record the presence of dental caries, malocclusion, and trauma in both groups. Results While there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regards to the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index (2.66 for T21 versus 3.11 for controls), T21 children had a higher prevalence of incisal fractures compared to the control group (24.73% versus 4.95%, respectively) and that was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were also highly significant group differences concerning the prevalence of malocclusion. Therein, 45% of T21 children had a Class III incisor relationship compared with 8% of control children, and 50% of T21 children had a Class III molar relationship compared with 8% of control children. Conclusions While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population.

      PubDate: 2015-09-02T08:23:50Z
  • Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of
           interim fixed partial dentures

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): N. Gopichander, K. V.Halini Kumarai, M. Vasanthakumar
      Background The different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Methods Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim FPD materials. Specimens were tested with a universal testing machine (UTM). The modulus of elasticity and flexural strength were recorded in MPa. The compressive strength and degree of deflection were calculated from the obtained values, and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance. Results The polyester fiber reinforcement increased the mechanical properties. The modulus of elasticity for heat-polymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was 624 MPa, compared to 700.2 MPa for the reinforced heat-cured sample. The flexural strengths of the bis-acrylic and cold-polymerized reinforced samples increased significantly to 2807 MPa and 979.86 Mpa, respectively, compared to the nonreinforced samples. The mean compressive strength of the reinforced cold-polymerized PMMA samples was 439.17 MPa; and for the reinforced heat-polymerized PMMA samples, it was 1117.41 MPa. The degree of deflection was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the reinforced bis-acrylic sample (5.03 MPa), compared with the nonreinforced bis-acrylic sample (2.95 MPa). Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

      PubDate: 2015-09-02T08:23:50Z
  • Oral cancer in libya and development of regional oral cancer registries: A

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): E. BenNasir, M. El Mistiri, R. McGowan, R.V. Katz
      The aims of this paper are three-fold: 1) to summarize the current epidemiological data on oral cancer in Libya as reported in the published literature and as compared to other national oral cancer rates in the region; 2) to present both the history of the early development, and future goals, of population-based oral cancer tumor registries in Libya as they partner with the more established regional and international population-based cancer tumor registries; and, 3) to offer recommendations that will likely be required in the near future if these nascent, population-based Libyan oral cancer registries are to establish themselves as on-going registries for describing the oral cancer disease patterns and risk factors in Libya as well as for prevention and treatment. This comprehensive literature review revealed that the current baseline incidence of oral cancer in Libya is similar to those of other North Africa countries and China, but is relatively low compared to the United Kingdom, the United States, and India. The recently established Libyan National Cancer Registry Program, initiated in 2007, while envisioning five cooperating regional cancer registries, continues to operate at a relatively suboptimal level. Lack of adequate levels of national funding continue to plague its development…and the accompanying quality of service that could be provided to the Libyan people.

      PubDate: 2015-08-20T05:18:50Z
  • Incidence of postoperative pain after use of calcium hydroxide mixed with
           normal saline or 0.2% chlorhexidene digluconate as intracanal medicament
           in the treatment of apical periodontitis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ifeoma Nkiruka Menakaya , Ilemobade Cyril Adegbulugbe , Olabisi Hajarat Oderinu , Olufemi Peter Shaba
      Objective To compare the incidence of postoperative pain after the use of calcium hydroxide powder mixed with normal saline or 0.2% chlorhexidene digluconate as intracanal medicament. Participants Fifty five subjects aged 17 to 60 years with teeth diagnosed to have apical periodontitis. Intervention Two-visit conventional root canal treatment of the seventy teeth. The teeth were divided by randomization (balloting) into two groups: control group and experimental group, each with thirty five teeth treated with calcium hydroxide mixed with normal saline or with 0.2% chlorhexidene digluconate as intracanal medicament respectively. Incidence of postoperative pain was assessed using the universal pain assessment tool and whether or not analgesic was taken. Main outcome measured Incidence of post-operative pain. Result Postoperative pain occurred only at 1-day and 1-week reviews. In the control group, the overall incidence of pain was the same at both review periods (5.7%), while the experimental group showed a slight decrease in incidence between 1-day (17.2%) and 1-week (11.4%) reviews. Incidence of flare-ups was more in the experimental group (11.4%) than in the control group (5.7%). No significant statistical differences between the two groups P>0.05. Conclusion The incidence of postoperative pain was lower in the normal saline treatment group, but the difference was not statistically significant.

      PubDate: 2015-07-13T19:15:45Z
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 27, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:34:37Z
  • Comparative evaluation of the calcium release from mineral trioxide
           aggregate and its mixture with glass ionomer cement in different
           proportions and time intervals – An in vitro study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Surbhi Sawhney , A.R. Vivekananda Pai
      Background Addition of glass ionomer cement (GIC) has been suggested to improve the setting time and handling characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study evaluated the effect of adding GIC to MTA in terms of calcium release, an issue that has not been previously studied. Materials and methods The study comprised four groups with five samples each: a control group of MTA alone and experimental groups I (1MTA:1GIC), II (2MTA:1GIC), and III (1MTA:2GIC) based on the mixture of MTA and GIC powders in the respective proportions by volume. Calcium release from the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 15min, 6h, 24h, and 1week after setting. The level of statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results Groups I (1MTA:1GIC) and III (1MTA:2GIC) released significantly less calcium than the control group at all time periods, except at 15min for group I. Group II (2MTA:1GIC) showed no significant difference in calcium release compared to the control at any time period. Group II exhibited greater calcium release than group I or III at all time periods, with significant differences between groups I and II at 1week and between groups I and III at 24h and 1week. There were no statistical differences in calcium release between groups I and III. Conclusions Adding GIC to improve the setting time and handling properties of the MTA powder can be detrimental to the calcium-releasing ability of the resultant mixture, depending on the proportion of GIC added. Adding MTA and GIC at a proportion of 2:1 by volume did not impact calcium release from the mixture. These findings should be verified through further clinical studies.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:34:37Z
  • Adaptation and validation of the Moroccan Arabic version of the
           Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): F. Bourzgui , Z. Serhier , M. Sebbar , S. Diouny , M. Bennani Othmani , P.I. Ngom
      Objective The aims of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the PIDAQ native English version into Moroccan Arabic, and to assess the psychometric characteristics of the version thereby obtained. Materials and Methods The PIDAQ original English version was sequentially subjected to translation into Moroccan Arabic, back-translation into English, committee review, and pre-testing in 30 subjects seeking orthodontic treatment. Results The final Moroccan Arabic version further underwent an analysis of psychometric properties on a random sample of 99 adult subjects (84 females and 15 males, aged 20.97±1.10 years). The intraclass coefficient correlation of the scores of the responses obtained after administration of the questionnaire twice at a 1-month interval to a random sample of 30 subjects ranged from 0.63 for “Self-confidence” to 0.85 for “Social Impact”. Cronbach α coefficients ranging from 0.78 for “Aesthetic Concerns” to 0.87 for “Self-confidence” were obtained; the different subscales of the Moroccan Arabic version of the PIDAQ showed good correlation with the perception of aesthetics and orthodontic treatment need. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the Moroccan Arabic version of the PIDAQ obtained following thorough adaptation of the native form is both reliable and valid. It is able to capture self-perception of orthodontic aesthetic and treatment need and is consistent with normative need for orthodontic treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-06-26T04:21:29Z
  • Soft versus hard occlusal splint therapy in management of
           temporomandibular disorders (tmd)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sameh A Seifeldin , Khaled A. Elhayes
      Aim To compare between soft and hard occlusal splint therapy for the management of myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD) or internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with reciprocal clicking. Patients and methods This study included 50 patients (age range: 24–47 years) who had been diagnosed with MPD or ID of the TMJ in the form of reciprocal clicking. Patients were divided into two groups. They were treated for 4 months with either a vacuum-formed soft occlusal splint constructed from 2-mm-thick elastic rubber sheets (soft splint group) or a hard flat occlusal splint fabricated from transparent acrylic resin (hard splint group). Monthly follow-up visits were performed during the treatment period. Before treatment and 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after treatment, the dentist measured all parameters of TMJ function (pain visual analogue scores, tenderness of masticatory muscles, clicking and tenderness of the TMJ, and range of mouth opening). Results All parameters of TMJ function showed significant improvement in both groups during the follow-up period, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 4-month follow-up visit. Conclusions Both forms of occlusal splints (soft and hard) improved TMJ symptoms in patients with MPD or ID of the TMJ. However, the soft occlusal splints exhibited superior results after 4 months of use.

      PubDate: 2015-06-26T04:21:29Z
  • Is Alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial' (Review of

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sameh Ahemd Seifeldin
      Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting materials.

      PubDate: 2015-06-26T04:21:29Z
  • Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal, Volume 27, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2015-06-04T18:01:35Z
  • For dentists and doctors: The neglected concepts about the factors
           influencing the effects of drugs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Abdelaziz Ghanemi

      PubDate: 2015-05-28T12:41:13Z
  • Combination of bone allograft, barrier membrane and doxycycline in the
           treatment of infrabony periodontal defects: a comparative trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ashish Agarwal , N.D. Gupta
      Aim The purpose of the present study was to compare the regenerative potential of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects treated with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and barrier membrane with or without local doxycycline. Methods This study included 48 one- or two-wall infrabony defects from 24 patients (age: 30–65 years) seeking treatment for chronic periodontitis. Defects were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with a combination of DFDBA and barrier membrane, either alone (combined treatment group) or with local doxycycline (combined treatment+doxycycline group). At baseline (before surgery) and 3 and 6 months after surgery, the pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), radiological bone fill (RBF), and alveolar height reduction (AHR) were recorded. Analysis of variance and the Newman–Keuls post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results In the combined treatment group, the PPD reduction was 2.00 ± 0.38 mm (32%), CAL gain was 1.25 ± 0.31 mm (17.9%), and RBF was 0.75 ± 0.31 mm (20.7%) after 6 months. In the combined treatment+doxycycline group, these values were 2.75 ± 0.37 mm (44%), 1.5 ± 0.27 mm (21.1%), and 1.13 ± 0.23 mm (28.1%), respectively. AHR values for the groups without and with doxycycline were 12.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Conclusion There was no significant difference in the regeneration of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects between groups treated with DFDBA and barrier membrane with or without doxycycline.

      PubDate: 2015-05-28T12:41:13Z
  • Dental age assessment of Western Saudi Children and Adolescent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Amin M. Alshihri , Estie Kruger , Marc Tennant
      Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed of orthopantomograms (OPG’s) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs.145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe.

      PubDate: 2015-05-19T02:43:24Z
  • A needs assessment survey of dental public health graduate education in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Dania Ebrahim Al Agili
      Objectives The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) is planning to develop a master’s program in dental public health (DPH). To develop a curriculum for this program, a needs assessment was conducted in order to identify the level of DPH expertise that currently exists in Saudi Arabia, to identify gaps in knowledge, and to explore current perceptions regarding this type of program. Methods A competency-based survey instrument was administered to private and government affiliated dental practitioners in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants’ knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in DPH were assessed. In addition, questions were submitted that addressed preferred strategies of teaching, curriculum delivery methods, course content, and prerequisites for DPH. These data were combined with data previously collected from dentists holding academic positions at KAU (n =146) and were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System version 9.3 software. Mean values and frequencies were calculated for the study variables. Proportional odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated to assess differences in educational preferences and DPH competencies according to age, gender, and qualification. Results Most of the participants (95%) reported a need for a DPH graduate program. The respondents had a basic knowledge of DPH and moderate experience in DPH competencies. A variety of preferred educational strategies and methods were identified and differences in educational preferences according to age, gender, and qualification of the respondents were identified. The responses obtained also acknowledged skills and competencies that the participants considered most important for a DPH practice and that would be important for students accepted into a DPH graduate program. Conclusions This needs assessment survey represents a preliminary step in establishing a DPH graduate program that addresses current gaps in knowledge and in the practice of public health dentistry. This survey also provided valuable feedback regarding the development of course content for a graduate education program in DPH.

      PubDate: 2015-05-11T01:29:51Z
  • Accelerated Osteogenic OrthodonticsTM for retreatment of a patient with
           diminished root length and absence of the maxillary central incisor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): F. Armando Montesinos , T. Silvanna Linares , B. Marisol Pérez-Gasque
      An 18-year-old female patient visited a university orthodontics department with a chief complaint of an unaesthetic appearance of her teeth, including a protruded upper central incisor and unsatisfactory results from previous orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment records showed a Class II skeletal and dental relation with proclined upper and lower incisors, replacement of an absent upper left central incisor with the left upper cuspid, presence of the upper left deciduous cuspid, mild crowding, and 4 mm of overbite and overjet. The panoramic radiograph showed shortened roots of multiple teeth. Accelerated Osteogenic OrthodonticsTM (AOOTM) was recommended as an approach to reduce the treatment time and the risk of further root shortening. Despite being more expensive and requiring a surgical procedure, this treatment option was very attractive to the patient. The overall treatment time was 14 months. Facial balance was improved, and good occlusal relationships were achieved from the functional and aesthetic perspectives. In conclusion, surgically facilitated orthodontics (specifically, AOOTM) is an efficient and safe therapeutic tool for treating or retreating orthodontic patients with diminished root length.

      PubDate: 2015-05-06T00:25:16Z
  • Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): K.H. Awan , S. Khan , Z. Abadeen , T. Khalid
      Aims Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity. Material and methods Second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students completed a self-administered questionnaire. An ethics committee approved the study. Participants were asked questions focused on three areas: (i) knowledge, (ii) perceptions, and (iii) attitudes about obesity. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20. Results Among the dental students, 78.9% received 0–1h of formal education about obesity. The mean score of the total time allocated for obesity-related education was 1.31±0.23h. Eighty-nine percent of the dental students agreed that obesity is a chronic medical condition, 46.2% agreed that they would modify their equipment and office furniture to accommodate obese patients, and 46.8% were interested in learning more about obesity in dental school. Conclusion Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health.

      PubDate: 2015-05-06T00:25:16Z
  • The fit accuracy of metal partial removable dental prosthesis frameworks
           fabricated by traditional or light curing modeling material technique: an
           in-vitro study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Mohammad Tarek M. Anan , Mohannad H. Al-Saadi
      Objective The aim of this study was to compare the fit accuracies of metal partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) frameworks fabricated by the traditional technique (TT) or the light-curing modeling material technique (LCMT). Materials and methods A metal model of a Kennedy class III modification 1 mandibular dental arch with two edentulous spaces of different spans, short and long, was used for the study. Thirty identical working casts were used to produce 15 PRDP frameworks each by TT and by LCMT. Every framework was transferred to a metal master cast to measure the gap between the metal base of the framework and the crest of the alveolar ridge of the cast. Gaps were measured at three points on each side by a USB digital intraoral camera at ×16.5 magnification. Images were transferred to a graphics editing program. A single examiner performed all measurements. The two-tailed t-test was performed at the 5% significance level. Results The mean gap value was significantly smaller in the LCMT group compared to the TT group. The mean value of the short edentulous span was significantly smaller than that of the long edentulous span in the LCMT group, whereas the opposite result was obtained in the TT group. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the fit of the LCMT-fabricated frameworks was better than the fit of the TT-fabricated frameworks. The framework fit can differ according to the span of the edentate ridge and the fabrication technique for the metal framework.

      PubDate: 2015-04-27T09:37:13Z
  • Dental management of a patient fitted with Subcutaneous Implantable
           Cardioverter Defibrillator Device and concomitant Warfarin treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Altaf Hussain Shah , Hesham Saleh Khalil , Mohammed Zaheer Kola
      Automated Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (AICD), simply known as an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), has been used in patients for more than 30 years. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator that is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or any such related event. Typically, patients with these types of occurrences are on anticoagulant therapy. The desired International Normalized Ratio (INR) for these patients is in the range of 2-3 to prevent any subsequent cardiac event. These patients possess a challenge to the dentist in many ways, especially during oral surgical procedures, and these challenges include risk of sudden death, control of post-operative bleeding and pain. This article presents the dental management of a 60 year-old person with an ICD and concomitant anticoagulant therapy. The patient was on multiple medications and was treated for a grossly neglected mouth with multiple carious root stumps. This case report outlines the important issues in managing patients fitted with ICD device and at risk of sudden cardiac death.

      PubDate: 2015-04-27T09:37:13Z
  • The efficacy of Salvadora persica extracts in preserving the viability of
           human foreskin fibroblasts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Hanan Abdul Ghafour Balto , Hassan Suliman Halawany , Vimal Jacob , Nimmi Biju Abraham
      Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Salvadora persica hexane and ethanol extracts in preserving the viability of human foreskin fibroblasts. Materials and methods Normal human foreskin cells were cultivated in Dulbecco modified Minimum Essential Medium (D-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 2mM of l-glutamine. Cell pellets were suspended in the following test solutions: (1) Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS); (2) homogenized milk; (3) hexane extract of S. persica; or (4) ethanol extract of S. persica. D-MEM with no serum was used as a positive control. For each condition, cell count was adjusted to 8×105 cells/ml, and the cells were incubated in the solutions for either 30, 60, or 120min. Subsequently, the nonviable cells were separated from the viable cells using the trypan blue dye stain. The ratio of viable to nonviable cells was recorded using a cell counter. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by one-way analysis of variance using SPSS Version 16. The level of significance was 5% (p <.05). Results We did not detect a significant difference when comparing the percentage of viable cells in test solutions at the three incubation periods (30min, p =0.478; 60min, p =0.606; 120min, p =0.091). Homogenized milk preserved the viability of foreskin fibroblasts better than all other tested solutions. Incubation of cells in S. persica hexane and ethanol extracts resulted in a similar percentage of viable cells to incubation of cells in HBSS for each incubation period. Conclusions S. persica hexane and ethanol extracts should be considered an alternative storage medium to HBSS.

      PubDate: 2015-04-27T09:37:13Z
  • Oral conditions in renal disorders and treatment considerations – A
           review for pediatric dentist

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Megha Gupta , Mridul Gupta , Abhishek
      This article reviews the current understanding of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal disease (CRD). A PubMed literature search was performed and all relevant studies were assessed. As the number of people suffering from CRD increases worldwide, dentists are expected to encounter more patients with CRD who need oral care. In children, CRD can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations in the hard and soft tissues. Bleeding, altered drug metabolism, impaired immune function, and an increased risk of dentally induced bacterial endocarditis are some important features that require attention. Dental management of patients with CRD requires that clinicians appreciate that multiple systems can be affected by the disease. Dentists should consult with nephrologists regarding the specific precautions required for each patient. Medical treatments in these patients may need to be postponed due to an unfavorable oral health status or potential risk of life-threatening infection after surgery. Improving oral hygiene and performing necessary dental and oral treatment before hemodialysis or transplantation may prevent endocarditis and septicemia in these patients. Hence, treatment plans should be formulated to restore the patient’s dentition and protect them from potentially severe infections of dental origin.

      PubDate: 2015-04-27T09:37:13Z
  • Changes in quality of life after orthognathic surgery in Saudi patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Walid A. Abdullah
      Aim This study was conducted to measure the impact of orthognathic surgery on quality of life in Saudi patients. Materials and methods Patients with a discrepancy of 5 mm or more who underwent orthognathic surgery either single jaw or bimaxillary at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, between September 2007 and June 2013 were included in the study. They were asked to complete the Arabic version of the 22-item Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) preoperatively and postoperatively. Responses at these two timepoints were compared using paired t-tests, with the significance level set to P < 0.05. Results Seventeen patients participated in the study. Total OQLQ scores and those in the instrument’s four domains (oral function, facial aesthetics, awareness of dentofacial aesthetics, and social aspects) indicated that quality of life was significantly improved by orthognathic surgery (all P < 0.001). The social aspects domain was shown to be more important for patients than were facial aesthetics and oral function. Conclusion The present study revealed highly significant improvement in Saudi patients’ quality of life following orthognathic surgery. This improvement was evident in all four OQLQ domains.

      PubDate: 2015-04-27T09:37:13Z
  • The effect of orthodontic bands or tubes upon periodontal status during
           the initial phase of orthodontic treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Saud A. Al-Anezi
      Introduction Orthodontic bands cause periodontal inflammation. In theory, the use of a buccal tube (bond) instead of a band should prevent or minimize periodontal changes because the bonds are positioned away from the gingival margins. Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the periodontal status of orthodontic bands compared with bonds in the first three months of orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods Twenty-four orthodontic patients (mean age=12.6years) were enrolled in this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Using the cross-mouth technique, bands and bonds were used in opposite quadrants. Periodontal parameters including the presence or absence of Bleeding On Probing (BOP) and Probing Depths (PDs) were taken at the start and three months into treatment. Results Bands caused a statistically significant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P =0.001 and 0.021) and bonds displayed a statistically insignificant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P =0.125 and 1.00) for the upper and lower arch. The difference in Probing Depths (PDs) between bands and bonds was also statistically significant (P =0.001). Conclusion Molar bands are associated with greater periodontal inflammation compared with molar bonds in the first three months of fixed orthodontic treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:57:36Z
  • Academic advising and student support: help- seeking behaviors among Saudi
           dental undergraduate students

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Asim Al-Ansari , Maha El Tantawi , Maha AbdelSalam , Fahad Alharbi
      Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the use of and satisfaction with the academic-advising and student-support systems available to undergraduate students in the College of Dentistry at the University of Dammam. In addition, the study aimed to also identify factors that explained the help-seeking behavior students used to solve academic issues. Materials and Methods Students enrolled in the five-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) program in 2012-13 and any 2013-14 first-year students were invited to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. Results The results showed that 66.2% of students had discussed academic issues with their advisor at least once, with a frequency ranging from zero to six times. Most students reported that their advisors were readily available, listened intently to their needs and questions, and helped them solve their problems. However, only 7.6% of students relied primarily on advisors for help with academic issues, whereas 51% depended first on colleagues and 13.8% did not seek help and relied on themselves. In total, 17.2% of students were very or somewhat satisfied with the academic advising system. Males had lower odds of discussing issues with their advisors, but higher odds with advisors who were more available (OR = 0.25 and 3.74, respectively). Alerting students to important dates in the academic calendar significantly increased the odds that a student would depend primarily on academic advisors for advice related to academic issues (OR = 6.53). Conclusions Few students were satisfied with the academic support system. We need to providing training to academic advisors to help them develop their skills and knowledge and to enable them to provide the support needed by the students.

      PubDate: 2015-02-24T01:57:36Z
  • Prevalence and severity of tempromandibular disorders among university
           students in riyadh

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Syed Rashid Habib , Mohammad Qasim Al Rifaiy , Kamran Habib Awan , Abdulaziz Alsaif , Abdulaziz Alshalan , Yasser Altokais
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among male university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The role of relevant medical and dental histories in the assessment of TMD in this Arab population was also addressed. Methods Required information was collected via questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was used to obtain the medical and dental histories of participants. The second part included 10 questions regarding common TMD symptoms. Fonseca’s anamnestic index (FAI) was used to classify TMD severity as “no dysfunction”, “light dysfunction”, “moderate dysfunction”, or “severe dysfunction”. Results Of the 600 distributed questionnaires, 400 questionnaires were completed (response rate: 66.6%). Mean age of eligible participants was ' years. Psychological stress was the most commonly reported item on the medical history (30.5%). The most commonly reported item for past dental treatments was direct restoration (77%). According to the FAI, 48.5% of participants were classified as having no dysfunction, followed by light (38.8%), moderate (11.8%), and severe dysfunction (1%). Conclusions Based on the FAI, mild to moderate prevalence of TMD appears to exist among male university students in Riyadh. Histories of psychological stress and dental treatment were evident among these students. Information obtained from the FAI may be helpful in assessing the prevalence of TMD and has important implications for the early diagnosis of TMD and the prevention of future TMD-related complications.

      PubDate: 2015-02-06T10:02:25Z
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Dermatoglyphics in Different Classes of

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Garima Jindal , Ramesh Kumar Pandey , Sameer Gupta , Meera Sandhu
      Aim To study associations of dermatoglyphic features with malocclusion in Indian children, thereby furthering future research and aiding treatment planning for the prevention of malocclusion. Material and methods A total of 237 children aged 12–16 years were selected. Finger and palm prints were collected, and fingertip pattern frequencies, total ridge counts (TRCs), and atd angles (formed by the triradii below the first and last digits and that in the hypothenar region of the palm) were calculated. Scores for asymmetry between the right and left hands were calculated for each of the three dermatoglyphic measures. Result Although no fingerprint pattern was found to be specific for a particular class of occlusion, increased tendencies toward high frequencies of whorls in subjects with class II malocclusion and plain arches in those with class III malocclusion were observed. Significant differences in atd angle and TRC were observed among malocclusion types (p = 0.0001). Asymmetry scores did not differ significantly. Conclusion Dermatoglyphic analysis can be used as an indicator of malocclusion at an early age, thereby aiding the development of treatments aiming to establish favorable occlusion. Inheritance and twin studies, as well as those conducted in different ethnic groups, are required to examine these relationships further.

      PubDate: 2015-02-06T10:02:25Z
  • Knowledge and attitude of tobacco use and cessation among dental

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): KH Awan , MK Hammam , S. Warnakulasuriya
      Aim Smoking is the one of the most preventable causes of death worldwide. Dental professionals may play an important role in anti-smoking campaigns. The aim of this study was to evaluate current knowledge of and attitudes toward smoking and its cessation among dental professionals. Materials and Methods This questionnaire-based study was carried out among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental students in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes toward tobacco use and cessation. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18.0; IBM) and the Mann–Whitney U-test, with a significance level of p < 0.001. Results A total of 342 participants (130 GDPs, 212 dental students) with the mean age of 24 (standard deviation, 5) years participated in the study. One-third (33.8%, n = 44) of GDPs and 30.2% (n = 64) of dental students were smokers; small percentages (GDPs, 13.6% [n = 6]; dental students, 10.9% [n = 7]) were heavy smokers. The majority of participants rated both smoking cessation and prevention together as a very important preventive measure. Families were rated as the most important factor responsible for smoking cessation, whereas general practitioners were rated as the most important factor for providing assistance with cessation. Conclusion More meaningful participation of dental professionals in tobacco cessation is needed, with implications for related curriculum changes.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • Introducing CREATING, a plan for dental higher education in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Nicola Cirillo

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • Perceived pain and discomfort during the initial stage of active fixed
           orthodontic treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Hamid Rakhshan , Vahid Rakhshan
      Background and Objectives As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have studied pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 female; age range: 18–32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Results Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort, and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Conclusions Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Susan Hattar , Muhanad M. Hatamleh , Faleh Sawair , Mohammad Al-Rabab’ah
      Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the α = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • Clinical evaluation of implant survival based on size and site of
           placement: A retrospective study of immediate implants at single rooted
           teeth sites

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sundar Ramalingam , Maryam Al-Hindi , Raniah Abdullah Al-Eid , Nasser Nooh
      Objectives This retrospective clinical study sought to evaluate the survival of immediate implants placed at maxillary and mandibular single-rooted tooth extraction sites and to determine the relationship among implant size, placement site, and implant survival. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2011, 85 patients (33 males, 52 females; mean age: 45 years) underwent immediate implant placement after extraction of single-rooted teeth. All implants were restored between 12 and 14 weeks after implant placement. The implant survival and its relationship with implant size and implantation site were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). Results Implants were placed at the following sites: upper central incisor (UCI, n = 35), upper lateral incisor (ULI, n = 27), upper second premolar (U2ndP, n = 36), lower incisor (LI, n = 53), and lower premolar (LP, n = 22). Implants of the following sizes were used: 5 × 10 mm (n = 24), 5 × 8 mm (n = 21), 4.3 × 10 mm (n = 77), 4.3 × 8 mm (n = 36), 3.5 × 10 mm (n = 12), and 3.5 × 8 mm (n = 3). After a mean follow-up time of 47 months, the overall implant survival rate was 96%. Survival rate was highest at the LI site (98.1%) and lowest at the ULI site (92.6%). All of the 5-mm implants survived (100%), as did most of the 4.3 × 10 mm implants (96.1%). Implants of 4.3 × 8 mm and 3.5 × 10 mm were the least successful (91.7%). Mandibular implants had a better survival rate (97.3%) than maxillary implants (94.9%). There was no significant OR of increased survival for any particular implant size or site. Conclusions Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets can give predictable clinical outcomes, regardless of the implant size and site of placement.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • A clinical investigation of the relationship between the quality of
           conventional complete dentures and the patients’ quality of life

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Sara A. Alfadda , Hayam A. Al-Fallaj , Hajar A. Al-Banyan , Ruba M. Al-Kadhi
      Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the clinical quality of conventional complete dentures and patient quality of life. Materials and Methods This study included a random sample of 32 completely edentulous patients (15 males and 17 females) who were treated with conventional complete dentures. Using a validated questionnaire, three investigators evaluated the dentures independently on the basis of seven clinical parameters: aesthetics (lip support and lower lip line), retention and stability of the maxillary and the mandibular dentures, and occlusion. Patients completed the validated Oral Health Impact Profile-20 (OHIP-20) questionnaire. Correlations were determined by using the point-biserial correlation coefficient. Results Clinicians rated the overall clinical quality of the dentures satisfactory in 80.3% of patients. The mean (± standard deviation) total OHIP-20 score was 56.3 ± 15.9 out of a possible 120 maximum. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the stability of the maxillary and mandibular dentures and the total OHIP-20 score (p = 0.009 and 0.0023, respectively). A negative correlation between the total OHIP-20 score and the retention of the mandibular denture approached significance (p = 0.092). Aesthetics, retention of the maxillary denture, and occlusion were not correlated with patient quality of life (p > 0.169). Conclusion Stability of the maxillary and mandibular dentures is the denture quality parameter that can most significantly affect patient quality of life.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • The Prevalence of Specific Dental Anomalies in a Group of Saudi Cleft Lip
           and Palate Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Ghada H. Al-Kharboush , Khalid M. Al-Balkhi , Khalid Al-Moammar
      Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. Design This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Results Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Conclusions Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
  • Fracture resistance of porcelain veneered zirconia crowns with exposed
           lingual zirconia for anterior teeth after thermal cycling: An in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
      Source:The Saudi Dental Journal
      Author(s): Fatemeh A. Amir Rad , Faysal G. Succaria , Steven M. Morgano
      Statement of problem In some clinical conditions minimally invasive complete crown tooth preparations are indicated. This is especially true when gross removal of tooth structure would weaken the remaining tooth or violate the vitality of the dental pulp. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of (1) exposed lingual zirconia with veneered zirconia crowns, and (2) reduced lingual thickness of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns on the fracture resistance of the crowns after cyclic loading. Metal-ceramic crowns with exposed lingual metal served as controls. Materials and Methods Twenty-four maxillary central incisor crowns were fabricated in identical shape on metal testing dies in 3 groups: metal-ceramic crowns (MC, n=8), veneered zirconia crowns (VZ, n=8), and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MO, n=8). A conservative preparation design with 0.75 mm lingual clearance was used for each crown system. All crowns were cemented to their corresponding crown preparations with self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Automix). The crowns were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling, then cyclic loading of 111N by means of a stainless steel ball, and 50,000 cycles of loading were applied for the fatigue test. Fatigue loading was followed by a continuously increasing compressive load, at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. The compressive load (N) required to cause failure was recorded. Means were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α = .05). Results There was a significant difference between MO vs MC (P=.0001), MO vs VZ (P=.0001), and VZ vs MC (P=.012). Conclusions There was a significant difference in the mean fracture resistance of MC, VZ, and MO crowns in this in-vitro study. The MC group recorded the highest mean fracture strength.

      PubDate: 2015-01-30T07:53:38Z
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