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OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (206 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 206 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Obstétrica e Ginecológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Neonatal Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Journal for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aktuální Gynekologie a Porodnictví     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
American Journal of Perinatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Perinatology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Andrology & Gynecology : Current Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction     Open Access  
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biology of Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Birth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 298)
British Journal of Midwifery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Perinatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clínica e Investigación en Ginecología y Obstetricia     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Lactation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Clinics in Perinatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Contemporary OB GYN - Obstetrics-Gynecology & Women's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Contraception     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Contraception : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Women's Health Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Early Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
EMC - Ginecología-Obstetricia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology : X     Open Access  
Expert Review of Obstetrics & Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fertility and Sterility     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ginekologia i Perinatologia Praktyczna     Hybrid Journal  
Ginekologia Polska     Open Access  
Global Reproductive Health     Open Access  
gynäkologie + geburtshilfe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gynakologische Endokrinologie     Hybrid Journal  
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gynecologic Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Gynecologic Oncology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecological Endocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gynecological Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology     Open Access  
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access  
Gynecology Obstetrics & Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Health Care For Women International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Human Reproduction Open     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Gynecologic Oncology     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Anatomical Variations     Open Access  
International Journal of Childbirth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Neonatal Screening     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Obstetrics, Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Urogynecology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie / Schweiz     Hybrid Journal  
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie/Österreich     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Breast Health     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Disorders     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Evidence-based Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Genital System & Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gynecologic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Lactation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences (JHRS)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Midwifery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Journal of Midwifery and Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Obstetric Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Obstetrics and Women's Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Perinatal Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Perinatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Perinatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Reproduction and Contraception     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Reproductive Biotechnology and Fertility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Reproductive Health and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Kebidanan Midwiferia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ners     Open Access  
La Revue Sage-Femme     Full-text available via subscription  
Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi     Open Access  
Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Menopause     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Menopause International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
MHR: Basic science of reproductive medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Middle East Fertility Society Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Midwifery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Midwifery Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Nascer e Crescer : Birth and Growth Medical Journal     Open Access  
Neonatal Network - Journal of Neonatal Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Neonatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
OA Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Obstetric Anesthesia Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetric Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Obstetrics & Gynecology     Partially Free   (Followers: 93)
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Obstetrics and Gynecology International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Perinatología y Reproducción Humana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives On Sexual and Reproductive Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Placenta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Postgraduate Obstetrics & Gynecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Reproduction Fertility and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Reproductive BioMedicine Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Reproductive Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reproductive Health Matters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Reproductive Medicine and Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Research and Reports in Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Cubana de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Andrología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Peruana de Ginecología y Obstetricia     Open Access  
Revue de médecine périnatale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Seminars in Breast Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seminars in Perinatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Sexes     Open Access  
Siklus : Journal Research Midwifery Politeknik Tegal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Southern African Journal of Gynaecological Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teratology Studies     Open Access  
Thai Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Open Access  
The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Practising Midwife     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Trends in Urology Gynaecology & Sexual Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
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Early Human Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.041
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0378-3782 - ISSN (Online) 1872-6232
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Evaluation of 2D:4D digit ratio in bipolar 1 disorder patients and its
           relationship with treatment response
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 143Author(s): Alparslan Cansız, Bahri İnce
       
  • Trajectories of behavioral problems among moderate-late preterm children
           from 4 to 10 years: A prospective population-based study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 143Author(s): Sabrina Faleschini, Célia Matte-Gagné, Sylvana Côté, Richard E. Tremblay, Michel BoivinAbstractBackgroundA growing body of research suggests that moderate to late preterm children (MLP; 32 through 36 weeks of gestation) may have higher rates of behavioral problems than full-term (FT) children. However, few studies have followed MLP children over time using a longitudinal design with repeated measures.AimThe current prospective longitudinal study aims to examine the relation between MLP birth and trajectories of behavioral problems among children from ages 4 to 10 years.Study design and subjectsThe data comes from a Canadian representative population-based study including 1841 FT children and 89 MLP children.Outcome measuresFour categories of behavioral problems were measured repeatedly from 4 to 10 years using parent and teacher reports: hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, anxiety-depression, and aggression. Developmental trajectories were modeled using Mplus.ResultsAfter accounting for child sex and family income, a significant and persistent association was found between MLP birth and the developmental trajectory of hyperactivity-impulsivity reported by the parent. No relation was found regarding trajectories of inattention, anxiety-depression, and aggression problems.ConclusionsAccording to parent reports, MLP children were more likely to exhibit hyperactive and impulsive behaviors compared to FT peers during early childhood. However, the relation between MLP birth and the trajectory of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity was small and was not confirmed by teacher evaluation. Moreover, MLP children did not differ from FT children regarding the overall trajectory of inattention, anxiety-depression, and aggression problems.
       
  • First-time fathers' coping strategies at elective cesarean delivery: A
           quantitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 143Author(s): Zanardo Vincenzo, Angelini Sara, Ajao T. Silvia, Cimento Orietta, Maione Rita, Giliberti Lara, Giustardi Arturo, Straface GianlucaAbstractBackgroundConsiderable studies have been undertaken to assess fathers' feelings and experiences during labor and delivery of their partner, however, investigation describing first-time fathers' coping strategies at elective cesarean delivery remains under explored.AimTo assess and determine the Coping Strategies of first-time fathers at elective cesarean delivery, by looking at both first-time and second time fathers, separately.Study designA quantitative design was utilized in this investigation.SubjectsA total of 52 fathers, of whom 28 first-time fathers, whose partner had planned elective cesarean section, and 54 fathers, of whom 25 first-time fathers, whose partner had scheduled induction of labor at term.Outcome measuresThe Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Endler & Parker, 1990) was the main tool used to explore by Task-, Emotion- and Avoidance-oriented coping subscales, the feelings and experiences of the expectant fathers relative to the labor and delivery of their partners.ResultsFindings indicated that Avoidance-oriented coping values were significantly higher in first-time fathers at elective cesarean section compared to those at in first-time fathers at scheduled induced vaginal delivery (50.93 ± 12.80 vs 40.71 ± 9.38, p 
       
  • Subtypes of behavioral functioning in 8–12 year old very
           preterm children
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Carolien A. van Houdt, Jaap Oosterlaan, Cornelieke S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens, Anton H. van Kaam, Aleid G. van Wassenaer-LeemhuisAbstractBackgroundVery preterm children often have difficulties in behavioral functioning, but there is large heterogeneity in the severity of these difficulties and in the combination of the difficulties observed. Few studies so far addressed this heterogeneity by examining whether more homogeneous subtypes of behavioral functioning can be identified.AimsTo identify behavioral subtypes in a group of very preterm children, examine whether such subtypes are related to neonatal medical complications and/or parental education level (to better understand origins) and to examine whether such subtypes are associated with IQ and neurocognitive deficits in attention and executive function (to study underlying mechanisms of dysfunction).Study designCross-sectional cohort study.Subjects135 very preterm (gestational age 
       
  • Movement analysis in early infancy: Towards a motion biomarker of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): V. Marchi, V. Belmonti, F. Cecchi, M. Coluccini, P. Ghirri, A. Grassi, A.M. Sabatini, A. GuzzettaAbstractBackgroundEarly motor development is characterized by progressive changes in general movements paralleled by a gradual organization of the four limbs' repertoire towards the midline, as shown by computerised movement analysis.AimsOur aim was to test the performance of quantitative computerised kinematic indexes as predictors of post-term age in an independent cohort of typically developing subjects at fidgety age, tested cross-sectionally.SubjectsWe selected twelve low risk term infants, who were video recorded between 9 and 20 weeks (fidgety age) during one spontaneous movements session.Study designWe correlated post-term age with I)indexes of coordination including interlimb correlation of velocity and position, II)indexes of distance, including interlimb and limb-to- ground, both expressed as linear distance and as probability of midline limbs position III)indexes of global movement quality by calculating Hjorth's activity, mobility and complexity parameters. All indexes were calculated for both upper and lower limbs.ResultsSignificant positive correlations were found between post-term age and indexes of distance, and probability of occurrence of upper-limb antigravity patterns, and with both indexes of global movement quality. By combining linear and non-linear parameters related to the upper limb kinematics, we determined individual post-term age with a mean error of
       
  • Limitation of life-sustaining treatment in NICU: Physicians' beliefs and
           attitudes in the Buenos Aires region
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Agustín Silberberg, Lena Carolin Herich, Ileana Croci, Marina Cuttini, Marcelo José Villar, Pablo Requena MeanaAbstractObjectiveTo explore the ethical beliefs and attitudes of Argentinean neonatologists regarding limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST) for very sick infants.MethodsWe used an anonymous questionnaire including direct questions and hypothetical clinical cases (inevitable demise and anticipated survival with severe long-term disability). Multivariable analysis was carried out to assess the relation between type of clinical case and physicians' LST attitudes.ResultsOverall, 315 neonatologists in 34 units in the Buenos Aires region participated (response rate 54%). Most responders would agree with decisions to start or continue LST. In both clinical cases, continuing current treatment with no therapeutic escalation was the only form of LST limitation acceptable to a substantial proportion (about 60%) of neonatologists. Agreement with LST limitation was slightly but significantly more likely when death was inevitable.ConclusionArgentinean neonatologists showed a conservative attitude regarding LST limitation. Patient prognosis and options of non-treatment decision significantly influenced their choices.
       
  • The mother-child attachment bond before and after birth: The role of
           maternal perception of traumatic childbirth
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Martina Smorti, Lucia Ponti, Simon Ghinassi, Gherardo RapisardiAbstractThe quality of the mother-child attachment bond is a relevant factor for the psychosocial well-being of a child. However, some variables could affect this relationship, such as a perceived traumatic childbirth experience. The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of the childbirth experience on the relationship between prenatal and postnatal attachment. A predictive study was conducted on 105 pregnant women aged 26 to 44 years. The data was collected at two different times: at week 31–32 of gestation (T1) and three months after childbirth (T2). The quality of maternal prenatal attachment has a significant and direct effect on postnatal mother-child attachment. Moreover, the quality of prenatal attachment represents a protective factor for the quality of childbirth experience, promoting a higher quality of postnatal attachment bond. Our results highlight the importance of supporting women throughout the perinatal period, starting from pregnancy to after childbirth.
       
  • Umbilical arterial endocan levels can predict early neonatal pneumonia: A
           prospective case control study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Engin Yıldırım, Can Turkler, Emre Demir, Abdulhamit Tuten, Ahmet Akcay
       
  • The contributions of fetal growth restriction and gestational age to
           developmental outcomes at 12 months of age: A cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Katelyn Baumgartel, Lynn Jensen, Scott W White, Kingsley Wong, Leon Straker, Helen Leonard, Amy Finlay-Jones, Jenny DownsAbstractBackgroundPreterm birth is a known risk factor for infant development but it is less clear whether fetal growth restriction (FGR) and early term birth between 37 and 39 weeks gestation are associated with risks for infant development.AimsThis study investigated risk factors for adverse developmental outcomes at 12 months of age in a population-based birth cohort.Study designCohort study.SubjectsParticipants in the Raine Study, which recruited 2900 women at 18 weeks of gestation (Gen1) and followed up infants longitudinally (Gen2). At 12 months, 1773 mothers provided developmental data for their infants.Outcome measureThe Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) was used to measure gross and fine motor, communication, adaptability and personal social development. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between FGR, gestational age, sex, breast feeding, parental age, socioeconomic factors and developmental delay at 12 months of age as measured with the ASQ.ResultsThe risk of any delay at 12 months of age, as well as gross motor, fine motor and adaptive delay, was slightly increased for infants born FGR. Preterm and early term birth and male sex were associated with poorer development at 12 months. Breast feeding was protective of developmental status.ConclusionsDevelopmental assessment using the ASQ of infants with FGR was mostly comparable to those born without FGR at 12 months, although finer-grained neurobehavioural assessments may yield capacity for earlier identification of developmental risk. Our data provide weight to the argument that surveillance of early term infants could enable earlier intervention for children at risk.
       
  • Timing of umbilical cord clamping and neonatal jaundice in singleton term
           pregnancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Yiyu Qian, Qiujing Lu, Hailing Shao, Xinxin Ying, Wenle Huang, Ying HuaAbstractBackgroundDelayed cord clamping was not adopted widely in China because of the potential effect of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice and polycythemia, and the optimal cord clamping time remained controversial.AIMTo assess the effect of delayed cord clamping versus early cord clamping on neonatal jaundice for term infants.Study designThis retrospective study included 1981 mother-infant pairs, who were assigned to early cord clamping groups (n = 1005) and delayed cord clamping group (n = 949). The delayed cord clamping included three subgroups (30–60 s, 61–90 s, 91–120 s). The main outcomes were transcutaneous bilirubin levels at 0 to 4 days of age, the rate of jaundice requiring phototherapy, the neonatal hematological status at 1 to 3 days after birth.ResultsCompared with the early cord clamping group, the neonatal transcutaneous bilirubin level did not differ and the neonatal hematological status (hemoglobin and hematocrit levels) were improved in combined and three subgroups of delayed cord clamping group. Increasing the duration of cord clamping from 90 s to 120 s did not result in further increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but led to a trend towards a higher risk of neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy and neonatal polycythemia.ConclusionsDelayed cord clamping for
       
  • Association of maternal anthropometry, hemoglobin and serum zinc
           concentration during pregnancy with birth weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Early Human Development, Volume 142Author(s): Birtukan Alemu, Dawd GashuAbstractLow birthweight (LBW) infants in general are at greater risk of early mortality. Evidence also suggests increased risk of lifelong adverse health and social consequences of LBW. Several bio-psychosocial variables influence birth weight; identifying significant influencers is important to develop effective interventions. Pregnant women (n = 341), in the first eight weeks of pregnancy, visiting antenatal care units in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were recruited and followed until delivery. Socio-demographic and economic condition, parity, household food security, dietary intake, iron-folic acid supplementation, and maternal anthropometric measurement were captured. In addition, hemoglobin and serum zinc concentration were determined. Furthermore, birth weight was recorded. During the first trimester, 10.9% participants were underweight, 19.4% were overweight, and 3.5% were obese. Low serum zinc was found in 36.7% of women. In addition, 18.4% of women were anemic. Two-third of women had less than the minimum adequate dietary diversity. Of the newborns (n = 329), 13.4% were underweight. Maternal mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI), serum zinc and hemoglobin concentration, and amount of money spent on food were positively correlated with birth weight (p 
       
  • Skewed sex ratios at birth: A review of global trends
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Sara Tafuro, Christophe Z. GuilmotoAbstractSeveral cultures in the world traditionally favor the birth of sons over that of daughters. This preference drives various forms of discrimination against female births ultimately reflected in demographic imbalances. Over the last decades, modern reproductive technology has made prenatal diagnosis widely accessible to parents. In certain Asian and Eastern European countries, this has led to skewed sex ratio at birth (SRB) as a result of sex-selective abortions.After reviewing motivations and circumstances associated to prenatal sex selection, our paper analyzes global trends in sex imbalances at birth as well as their parity, regional and socio-economic differentials. We focus our attention on the experience of Azerbaijan, India, and South Korea as instances of three distinct SRB trajectories. Finally, we discuss scenarios concerning the future of these sex imbalances and the implications of a consistent number of “missing women” for affected societies.
       
  • Correspondence regarding “Are thyroid function tests in neonates born to
           mothers with hypothyroidism clinically useful'”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Foteini Balomenou, Ekaterini Siomou, Georgios Kolios, Eleni Bairaktari, Meropi Tzoufi, Vasileios Giapros
       
  • General Movement assessment and neurodevelopmental trajectory in extremely
           preterm infants with hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Dimple Goel, Melissa Luig, Rajesh Maheshwari, Daphne D'Cruz, Traci-Anne GoyenAbstractBackgroundTransient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity (THOP) has been associated with neurodevelopmental deficits with a paucity of literature leading to variable practice.AimEvaluation of the relationship between free T4 (fT4) levels at 2 weeks after birth and early markers of neurodevelopmental outcome.Study designA retrospective study of prospectively collected data from infants born
       
  • The male to female ratio of newborn infants in Japan in relation to
           climate change, earthquakes, fetal deaths, and singleton male and female
           birth weights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Misao Fukuda, Kiyomi FukudaAbstractWe have updated our work regarding climate extremes in Japan and the consequences of the huge earthquake in the Fukushima Prefecture in year 2011. We have interchangeably used the term sex ratio at birth, sex ratio of births. This ratio describes the secondary sex ratio, whereas the primary sex ratio designates the male/female ratio at fertilization. The underlying mechanisms of declines in sex ratios at birth may be related to decreased fertilization of XY embryos by reduced motility of Y spermatozoa from male factor approach and increased cortisol secretion prior to conception from a female factor approach. We have shown that the declines in sex ratio at birth were observed 9 months after the Kobe earthquake but 10 months after the Tohoku and Kumamoto earthquakes. The temperature difference may be associated positively with sex ratio of fetal deaths and negatively with sex ratio of births and with singleton male and female birth weights.
       
  • Maternal RhD heterozygous genotype is associated with male biased
           secondary sex ratio
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Šárka Kaňková, Jaroslav Flegr, Jan Toman, Pavel CaldaAbstractBackgroundPrevious studies suggest that RhD positive heterozygotes express better health status than RhD positive homozygotes and especially RhD negative subjects. This also applies to pregnant women. According to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, women in better physical condition should have more sons.AimTo test the hypothesis that RhD positive heterozygous mothers have a male-skewed sex ratio.Study designCross-sectional study. The data was analysed using Chi-Square test for all women, separately for RhD positive and RhD negative women, and separately for primiparous and multiparous women. The effects of maternal weight as a continuous predictor and the RhD phenotype of newborn as a categorical predictor of newborn sex were evaluated by the generalized linear model (GLZ) separately for RhD positive and RhD negative women using binomial distribution and logit link function.Outcome measuresClinical records comprised maternal weight before pregnancy, number of previous deliveries, sex of the newborn, maternal RhD phenotype, and RhD phenotype of the newborn.SubjectsWe analysed data from 5655 women who gave birth between 2008 and 2012 in General University Hospital in Prague.ResultsSecondary sex ratio was significantly higher (P = 0.028) in RhD positive mothers who had RhD negative newborns, i.e., in heterozygotes (SR = 1.23), than in RhD positive mothers who had RhD positive newborns, i.e., in a mixed population of heterozygotes and homozygotes (SR = 1.00), especially in primiparous women (P = 0.013; SR = 1.37 and 0.99 resp.).ConclusionThe sex ratio at birth was significantly higher in RhD positive mothers who had RhD negative newborns than in RhD positive mothers who had RhD positive newborns.
       
  • Trends in births and the birth sex ratio in the vicinity of the Mainz
           research reactor in Germany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Hagen Scherb, Victor GrechAbstractIntroductionThe human sex ratio or sex odds at birth (M/F) are influenced by many factors. Radiation is the only stressor known to elevate the ratio while dropping total births. The Mainz research nuclear reactor (FRMZ) underwent extensive refurbishment commencing in 1992 and with further upgrading in 2011. This study was carried out in order to investigate any possible effects of these events on M/F.MethodsAnnual municipality-specific births by sex were obtained from official government sources. Statistical methods used included ordinary linear logistic regression and Poisson regression.ResultsM/F rose significantly in 1993 only close to the FRMZ (
       
  • Multivariate analysis of the correlation of sex ratio at birth with health
           and socioeconomic indicators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Victor Grech, Neville Calleja
       
  • Seasonality and multiple maternities: Comparisons between different models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Johan FellmanAbstractSeasonality of demographic data has been of great interest. The seasonality depends mainly on climatic conditions, and the findings may vary from study to study. Commonly, the studies are based on monthly data. The population at risk plays a central role. For births or deaths over short periods, the population at risk is proportional to the lengths of the months. Hence, one must analyse the number of births (deaths) per day. If one studies the seasonality of multiple maternities, the population at risk is the total monthly number of confinements and the number of multiple maternities in a given month must be compared with the monthly number of all maternities. Consequently, one considers the monthly rates of multiple maternities, the monthly number of births is eliminated and one obtains an unaffected seasonality measure of the rates. In general, comparisons between the seasonality of different data sets presuppose standardization of the data to indices with common means, mainly 100.When seasonal models are applied, one must pay special attention to how well the applied model fits the data. If the goodness of fit is poor, non-significant models obtained can erroneously lead to statements that the seasonality is slight, although the observed seasonal fluctuations are marked. The estimated monthly models chosen are approximately orthogonal and they have little influence on the parameter estimates. Exact orthogonality should be obtained if the data are equidistant, that is, if the months are of equal length (e.g. 30 days), corresponding to 30∘. Exactly equidistant data can be observed when circadian rhythms (24 h) are studied. In this study, we compare seasonal models with models with exact orthogonality.
       
  • A review of environmental and occupational toxins in relation to sex ratio
           at birth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Dario PavicAbstractA biased sex ratio at birth in human populations has been associated with numerous economic, psychosocial, environmental and demographic factors, and has been declining in most developed countries. One of the most often invoked explanation for this decline has been the growing environmental and occupational exposure to man-made chemicals that affect the reproductive physiology, putatively leading to altered sex ratios at birth. In this paper the current state of knowledge on the association between toxins and sex ratio at birth is presented and critically assessed. The evidence for the effect of toxins on sex ratio at birth is conflicting, with paternal exposure showing more promising results than maternal exposure. The obstacles in establishing more direct relation between toxins and sex ratio at birth involve different hormonal responses of mothers and fathers under the influence of toxins, the specific metabolic action of toxins, and the constraints of observational studies.
       
  • The sex ratio at birth – Historical aspects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Victor GrechAbstractThis paper reviews the classical theories that attempted to explain the influences on the sex ratio at birth (M/F). These included notions pertaining to the four elements (earth, air, fire and water) and to laterality i.e. from which side of the body (in both parents) the conceptual principle arose. This narrative will also outline the initial physical measurements of male and female births and speculations by John Graunt (1620–1674), John Arbuthnott (1667–1735) and Johann Süssmilch (1707–1767), as well as the conundrums that M/F presented to Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and the theories of Ronald Fisher (1890–1962) who expanded on concepts first promulgated by Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794). Fortunately, the thousands of papers generated on topic, especially the more recent work pertaining to direct and measurable influences (such as exogenous stress periconceptually and during pregnancy) have begun to yield some concrete findings, indeed, “among this welter of evidence, it is possible to pin down a few facts” such that “we have found ourselves following Ariadne's thread to a series of clues that bind the calculation of the proportion of boys and girls at birth”.
       
  • The effects of toxoplasmosis on sex ratio at birth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Jaroslav Flegr, Šárka KaňkováAbstractToxoplasmosis affects about one third of human population worldwide. It has a wide range of effects on the health, immunity, behaviour, and both prenatal and postnatal outcomes of infected hosts, including humans. Among these effects, stage of infection-specific shifts in secondary sex ratio were described about ten years ago both in humans and in artificially infected mice. In both women and female mice, in the early stage of infection the probability of giving birth of sons significantly increases, up to 260 sons to every 100 daughters. In the late stages of infection, the probability of giving birth to sons markedly decreases to as low as 78 to every 100 daughters.An ecological correlation study shows that the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human population biology and demography can be large. In fact, the effect of prevalence of toxoplasmosis on a nationwide sex ratio was the third strongest effect from the effects of 15 factors included in the analysis. It has been suggested that toxoplasmosis-associated concentration of steroid hormones or glucose may be the proximal cause in the sex ratio shift. A more parsimonious explanation of the upward secondary sex ratio shift is found in a lower stringency of quality control of embryos, whose side-effect is increased survival rate of the more immunogenic male embryos in immunosuppressed infected females. The most parsimonious explanation of the downward secondary sex ratio shift relies on the Trivers–Willard hypothesis, which predicts an adaptive shift to more daughters in females with impaired health or lower socioeconomic status.
       
  • The significance of the low sex ratios of offspring and of sibs of
           probands with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): William H. James, Victor GrechAbstractThere is good evidence that there are significantly low sex ratios (proportions male) in the offspring of patients with some immune diseases e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is also strong evidence that there are significantly low sex ratios in the sibs of patients with SLE and RA and it has been suggested that the low SLE sib sex ratio may be explained by male fetal loss. However, no explanations for these low sex ratios has been established. Bearing in mind the posited hormonal involvement in immune processes, this paper suggesst an additional potential solution. It is that both the pathology and the sex ratio share a hormonal cause - testosterone. The argument depends on the hormonal hypothesis of sex ratio. This paper will describe the hypothesis and describe its relevance to SLE and RA.
       
  • Effects of earthquakes and other natural catastrophic events on the sex
           ratio of newborn infants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Misao Fukuda, Kiyomi Fukuda, Shawn Mason, Takashi Shimizu, Claus Yding AndersenAbstractStress due to earthquakes and other natural catastrophic events may result in a decline in the male to female ratio of newborn infants. One reason may be an increased death of male fetuses 3–5 months earlier. Another reason may relate to reduced conception of males and/or early male embryo demise 8–10 months earlier. Almost all of the earthquakes and natural catastrophic events have caused declines in sex ratios at birth except the Hurricane Katrina which showed a rise in the birth sex ratio. We describe hypothetical immunological cause for the decline in the sex ratio at birth following periods of augmented stress levels.
       
  • The sex ratio at birth (2)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Victor GrechAbstractThis second of two Best Practise Guidelines will continue to explore facets pertaining to factors that influence the sex ratio at birth (M/F). The papers include a quantitative study in the United States, investigating the effects of Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and Valentine's Day on M/F (which rises). A second paper is devoted to the factor that most influences M/F worldwide: male offspring preference. The third paper focusses on radiation which appears to be the only toxin/stressor that increases M/F by culling female in excess of male foetuses. The paper investigates the effects of the Mainz research nuclear reactor in Germany. Yet another paper reviews seasonality of M/F. Two more theoretical papers discuss the significance of low M/F of offspring and of siblings of probands with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, implicating a common role for testosterone. In yet another paper, high levels of maternal first-trimester intrauterine testosterone are also implicated in male sex, autism, gender dysphoria and non-right-handedness. Finally, a paper reviews the effects of toxoplasmosis on M/F since may be one of the most important environmental factors on this ratio. It is hoped that this second set of papers will further provide stimulation and provocation for research on this intriguing topic.
       
  • Potential explanations of behavioural and other differences and
           similarities between males and females with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): William H. James, Victor GrechAbstractSeveral potential explanations may be dependent on the dynamics of prenatal and postnatal testosterone in males and females, and to be consistent with Baron-Cohen's concept of extreme male brain. This paper explores the evidence that male and female autistic subjects differ on the average in that they have had different exposures to the causes of autism, females bearing higher genetic burdens for ASD (autistic spectrum disorder), and males having a greater exposure to high intrauterine levels of testosterone (T). The high levels of intrauterine (and possibly postnatal) testosterone to which ASD cases have been exposed, cause a less masculinized physical habitus (including facial features) in exposed males, and a more masculinized physical habitus in exposed females. ASD genes (as opposed to intrauterine testosterone) are mainly responsible for a low mean IQ in ASD (especially female cases). Exposure to high intrauterine T increases the probability that foetuses will be male, thus potentially explaining the high sex ratio (proportion male) of cases of ASD. The Gender Incoherence Model seems to be based on facts unrelated directly to autism. The shifts towards the other sex are argued to be consequent on sex-different reactions to prenatal exposure to high T, not on the pathology itself. The suspected underdiagnosis of female cases is partially dependent on the different proportions of environmental and genetic causes to which male and female cases are hypothesized to have been exposed, and the consequent ‘more normal’ behaviour of female cases.
       
  • The human sex ratio at conception
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): William H. James, Victor GrechAbstractA recent study has attempted to estimate the primary sex ratio i.e. the sex ratio at conception, using a variety of studies in the extant literature. Starting with data at birth, the authors projected back in time, estimating foetal loss at each gestational stage. Their overall conclusion was that there are equal numbers of males and females formed at conception. This paper contradicts these estimates using two very large samples of accurately recorded 19th century births. These datasets come from a time when contraception and sex selection were not widely practised. The conclusions are that at the time of conception, there is a substantial excess of males, the excess probably being determined by the hormone levels of both parents in accord with the hormonal hypothesis, and if conditions during pregnancy are stressful, then frail male foetuses will preferentially be culled. In short, more males than females are conceived, and that more males are miscarried, and that more males still survive to birth.
       
  • Is exposure to high levels of maternal intrauterine testosterone a causal
           factor common to male sex, autism, gender dysphoria, and
           non-right-handedness'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): William H. James, Victor GrechAbstractWe present evidence that male sex, autism, gender dysphoria and non-right-handedness share a common cause, viz. high levels of maternal first-trimester intrauterine testosterone. This provides an explanation for the (as yet unexplained) co-occurrences and co-morbidities between these conditions and pathologies.
       
  • What is the sex ratio at birth'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Early Human DevelopmentAuthor(s): Victor Grech, Julian MamoAbstractIntroductionThe sex ratio at birth (male divided by total births: M/F is often quoted as approximating 0.515. Many factors have been shown to influence this ratio, and these include both acute events and chronic circumstances, both of which may be man-made or natural. This study was carried out in order to attempt to narrow down the range for M/F from a large and internationally recognised dataset of countries reporting live births to the World Health Organisation (WHO).MethodsMale and female live births were obtained from a WHO (Health for All – HFA) database for the five year period 1996–2000, for all countries reporting to WHO, and for which these values were reported.ResultsThis study analysed 88,875,750 live births. M/F is estimated at 0.5147 (95% CI: 0.5146–0.5148), quite close to the widely quoted value of 0.515.DiscussionM/F may be less due to female foeticide which cannot be accurately assessed, an unavoidable limitation. Other limitations for M/F estimates such as these are broad, cyclic secular variations, broad demographic population changes, chronic stress and an overall declining M/F in industrialised countries.
       
 
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