Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)
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    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (401 journals)

RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access  
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 257)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Lung Cancer
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.75
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0169-5002 - ISSN (Online) 1872-8332
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Corrigendum to “167 - An audit of the management of mesothelioma in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): P. Rudd, J. Pattinson, S. Austin, T. Geldart, M. Bayne
  • Choice of second-line systemic therapy in stage IV small cell lung cancer
           (SCLC) – a survey amongst European lung cancer experts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): M Früh, CM Panje, M Reck, F Blackhall, R Califano, F Cappuzzo, B Besse, S Novello, P Garrido, E Felip, M O'Brien, Ares L Paz, F de Marinis, V Westeel, D De Ruysscher, PM Putora
  • A novel ROS1 G2032 K missense mutation mediates lorlatinib resistance in a
           patient with ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma but responds to
           nab-paclitaxel plus pembrolizumab
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 143Author(s): Yuling Zhou, Wenjuan Jiang, Liang Zeng, Jinye Mi, Lianxi Song, Analyn Lizaso, Xinru Mao, Nong Yang, Yongchang Zhang
  • Clearing of circulating tumour DNA predicts clinical response to
           osimertinib in EGFR mutated lung cancer patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Eva Boysen Fynboe Ebert, Tine McCulloch, Karin Holmskov Hansen, Hanne Linnet, Boe Sorensen, Peter Meldgaard
           IN ITALY
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Giulia Veronesi, Niccolò Navone, Pierluigi Novellis, Elisa Dieci, Luca Toschi, Laura Velutti, Michela Solinas, Elena Vanni, Marco Alloisio, Simone Ghislandi
  • Prognostic Value and Therapeutic Implications of Expanded Molecular
           Testing for Resected Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Peter J. Kneuertz, David P. Carbone, Desmond M. D’Souza, Konstantin Shilo, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Weiqiang Zhao, Terrance M. Williams, Daniel Jones, Robert E. Merritt
  • Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging for predicting the
           long-term efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with
           non-small-cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Masato Karayama, Nobuko Yoshizawa, Masataka Sugiyama, Kazutaka Mori, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Satoshi Goshima, Takafumi Suda, Yasuo Takehara
  • EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations in Chinese advanced non-small cell lung
           cancer patients: molecular heterogeneity and treatment outcome from
           nationwide real-world study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Guangjian Yang, Jun Li, Haiyan Xu, Yaning Yang, Lu Yang, Fei Xu, Bing Xia, Viola W. Zhu, Misako Nagasaka, Yan Yang, Yapin Li, Weini Qiu, Jianming Ying, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Yan Wang
  • SPECC1L-ALK: A novel gene fusion response to ALK inhibitors in non-small
           cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Li Ma, Quan Zhang, Yujie Dong, Haoyang Li, Jinghui Wang
  • Efficacy of osimertinib in a patient with leptomeningeal metastasis and
           EGFR uncommon S768I mutation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Takae Okuno, Sayaka Arakawa, Tatsuya Yoshida, Yuichiro Ohe
  • Treatment of pembrolizumab and chemotherapy results in pulmonary
           lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma progression through harboring secondary
           amplification of PI3KCA and IL-7R
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Mei-ting Chen, Zhao Wang, Meng Yuan, Xiao-jie Fang, Tong-yu Lin
  • Encephalitis related to immunotherapy for lung cancer: Analysis of a
           multicenter cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Mateo Sanchis-Borja, Charles Ricordel, Anne Marie Chiappa, José Hureaux, Luc Odier, Gaelle Jeannin, Renaud Descourt, Radj Gervais, Isabelle Monnet, Jean-Bernard Auliac, Christos Chouaïd
  • Aims and Scope/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 142Author(s):
  • Osimertinib in T790M-positive and -negative patients with EGFR-mutated
           advanced non-small cell lung cancer (the TREM-study)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Inger Johanne Zwicky Eide, Åslaug Helland, Simon Ekman, Anders Mellemgaard, Karin Holmskov Hansen, Saulius Cicenas, Jussi Koivunen, Bjørn Henning Grønberg, Odd Terje Brustugun
  • Efficacy of immune check-point inhibitors (ICPi) in large cell
           neuroendocrine tumors of lung (LCNEC)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Shira Sherman, Ofer Rotem, Tzippy Shochat, Alona Zer, Assaf Moore, Elizabeth Dudnik
  • Attenuated isolated 3’ signal: a highly challenging therapy relevant
           ALK FISH pattern in NSCLC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Gábor Smuk, Gábor Pajor, Károly Szuhai, Hans Morreau, Ildikó Kocsmár, Éva Kocsmár, László Pajor, Béla Kajtár, Veronika Sárosi, Gábor Lotz, Tamás Tornóczky
  • Impact of lorlatinib on patient-reported outcomes in patients with
           advanced ALK-positive or ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Solange Peters, Alice T. Shaw, Benjamin Besse, Enriqueta Felip, Benjamin J. Solomon, Ross A. Soo, Alessandra Bearz, Shirish M. Gadgeel, Chia-Chi Lin, Steven Kao, Takashi Seto, Elizabeth T. Masters, Antonello Abbattista, Jill S. Clancy, Holger Thurm, Arlene Reisman, Gerson Peltz, D. Ross Camidge
  • Prognostic significance of microscopic size in peripherally located
           scar-associated clinical stage I lung carcinomas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Humberto E. Trejo Bittar, Jacob A. Jerome, Douglas Hartman, Liron Pantanowitz, Mitra Mehrad, Sanja Dacic
  • Impact of delaying initiation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor
           treatment on survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Daniel Sheinson, William Bruce Wong, Ning Wu, Aaron Scott Mansfield
  • Cachexia - sarcopenia as a determinant of disease control rate and
           survival in non-small lung cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Benoît Roch, Amandine Coffy, Sandy Jean-Baptiste, Estelle Palaysi, Jean-Pierre Daures, Jean-Louis Pujol, Sébastien Bommart
  • C-Myc in mucinous colloid carcinoma of the lung
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Adriana Handra-Luca
  • Stable and discriminating radiomic predictor of recurrence in early stage
           non-small cell lung cancer: Multi-site study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 142Author(s): Mohammadhadi Khorrami, Kaustav Bera, Patrick Leo, Pranjal Vaidya, Pradnya Patil, Rajat Thawani, Priya Velu, Prabhakar Rajiah, Mehdi Alilou, Humberto Choi, Michael D. Feldman, Robert C. Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Pingfu Fu, Harvey Pass, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Anant Madabhushi
  • A Phase IB study of Durvalumab with or without Tremelimumab and
           Platinum-Doublet Chemotherapy in Advanced Solid Tumours: Canadian Cancer
           Trials Group Study IND226
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Rosalyn A. Juergens, Desiree Hao, Peter M. Ellis, Dongsheng Tu, Mihaela Mates, Christian Kollmannsberger, Penelope A. Bradbury, Moustapha Tehfe, Paul Wheatley-Price, Andrew Robinson, Gwyn Bebb, Janessa Laskin, John Goffin, John Hilton, Anna Tomiak, Sebastien Hotte, Glenwood D. Goss, Pamela Brown-Walker, Xiaoqun Sun, Ming-Sound Tsao
  • Aplastic anemia in a patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma during
           first line osimertinib: A case report and literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Maddalena Mancin, Alessia Pastore, Davide Seminati, Diego Cortinovis, Paolo Bidoli, Andrea Alberti, Luca Sala
  • Erratum to “Timing in combination with radiotherapy and patterns of
           disease progression in non-small cell lung cancer treated with EGFR-TKI”
           [Lung Cancer, 140 (February) (2020) 65–70]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Yi Tang, Bing Xia, Ruifei Xie, Xiao Xu, Minna Zhang, Kan Wu, Bing Wang, Shenglin Ma
  • Stepwise flowchart for decision making on sublobar resection through the
           estimation of spread through air space in early stage lung cancer1
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 142Author(s): Jee Won Suh, Yong Hyu Jeong, Arthur Cho, Dae Joon Kim, Kyoung Young Chung, Hyo Sup Shim, Chang Young Lee
  • Socioeconomic differences and lung cancer survival in Germany:
           Investigation based on population-based clinical cancer registration
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 142Author(s): Isabelle Finke, Gundula Behrens, Lars Schwettmann, Michael Gerken, Ron Pritzkuleit, Bernd Holleczek, Hermann Brenner, Lina Jansen, for the German Cancer Survival Working Group
  • Adherence to the mediastinal staging guideline and unforeseen N2 disease
           in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer: Nationwide results
           from the Dutch Lung Cancer Audit - Surgery
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Lung Cancer, Volume 142Author(s): Jelle E. Bousema, David J. Heineman, Marcel G.W. Dijkgraaf, Jouke T. Annema, Frank J.C. van den Broek
  • Stereotatic radiotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer:
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Corrao Giulia, Marvaso Giulia, Ferrara Roberto, Lo Russo Giuseppe, Gugliandolo Simone Giovanni, Piperno Gaia, Spaggiari Lorenzo, De Marinis Filippo, Orecchia Roberto, Garassino Marina Chiara, Jereczek-Fossa Barbara Alicja
  • Severe Symptoms Persist for Up to One Year After Diagnosis of Stage I-III
           Lung Cancer: An Analysis of Province-Wide Patient Reported Outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Dhruvin H. Hirpara, Vaibhav Gupta, Laura E. Davis, Haoyu Zhao, Julie Hallet, Alyson L. Mahar, Rinku Sutradhar, Mark Doherty, Alexander V. Louie, Biniam Kidane, Gail Darling, Natalie G. Coburn
  • Safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with
           non-small cell lung cancer and hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Ana Pertejo-Fernandez, Biagio Ricciuti, Sarah P. Hammond, Francisco M. Marty, Gonzalo Recondo, Deepa Rangachari, Daniel B. Costa, Mark M. Awad
  • Synergizing systemic responses by combining immunotherapy with
           radiotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: The potential of
           the abscopal effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Willemijn SME Theelen, Monique C de Jong, Paul Baas
  • RET isoform-specific interaction with scaffold protein Ezrin promotes cell
           migration and chemotaxis in lung adenocarcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Serisha Moodley, Eric Y Lian, Mathieu J F Crupi, Brandy D Hyndman, Lois M MulliganAbstractObjectivesIncreased expression of REarranged during Transfection (RET) kinase is reported in 10-20% of lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) and is associated with metastasis and reduced survival. Ezrin is a scaffold protein that promotes protein interactions with the actin cytoskeleton to regulate cell migration and is also associated with invasion and metastasis in cancers. RET isoforms interact with unique combinations of scaffold proteins to promote distinct signaling pathways. We hypothesized that RET isoforms associate distinctly with Ezrin for cytoskeletal reorganization and LUAD cell migration processes.MethodsHCC1833 and A549 LUAD, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma or HEK-293 cells expressing RET and Ezrin were stimulated with the RET ligand glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and treated with RET, Ezrin or Src inhibitors. Co-immunoprecipitation or pull-down assays coupled to immunoblotting were used to investigate protein activation and interactions. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy assessed LUAD cytoskeletal reorganization and colocalization of RET and Ezrin. Live-cell fluorescence imaging was used to measure cell migration and chemotaxis.ResultsGDNF promoted activation, interaction and colocalization of RET51 isoform and Ezrin. Inhibition of RET or Src impaired Ezrin interactions with RET and Src. GDNF stimulation enhanced the formation of actin-rich filopodia, in which both RET and Ezrin were enriched, and promoted chemotaxis in LUAD cells. However, inhibition of RET, Src or Ezrin suppressed filopodia formation, reduced colocalization of Ezrin with RET, and impaired cell migration and/ or chemotaxis. We further showed that GDNF-mediated activation of RET and Ezrin promoted RhoA-GTPase activity and signaling of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in LUAD cells.ConclusionsExpression and activation of RET51 mediates unique protein interactions with Ezrin to promote LUAD cell chemotaxis for cancer cell dissemination, which may have implications in LUAD metastatic progression.
  • A novel SOS1-ALK fusion variant in a patient with metastatic lung
           adenocarcinoma and a remarkable response to crizotinib
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Hua-fei Chen, Wen-xian Wang, Chun-wei Xu, Li-chao Huang, Xiao-feng Li, Gang Lan, Zhan-qiang Zhai, You-cai Zhu, Kai-qi Du, Lei Lei, Mei-yu FangAbstractObjectivesTransforming anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are well known as a unique subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mutations other than EGFR. Currently, crizotinib is the standard first-line treatment for ALK-positive NSCLC.Materials and methodsWith advances in detection methods, more and more uncommon ALK fusion partners have been identified. Herein we present a novel SOS1-ALK fusion and the efficacy of crizotinib in an advanced NSCLC patient harboring this type of fusion.ResultsA 52-year-old Chinese man had left upper lobe primary NSCLC and synchronous multiple lung metastases (cT2N3M1, stage IV). The ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of palpable left supraclavicular lymph nodes and the results of immunohistochemistry staining supported the diagnosis of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Using a next-generation sequencing assay (NGS), we showed that the tumor had a SOS1-ALK fusion which the breakpoints was (S2, A20) rather than other actionable mutations. Therefore, the patient received first-line crizotinib and experienced a remarkable tumor response and has tolerated crizotinib well until this writing.ConclusionConsidering this rare SOS1-ALK fusion and remarkable response to an ALK-inhibitor, it is important to be aware of the presence of SOS1-ALK fusions in patients with advanced NSCLC to better guide targeted therapy. Precision methods, such as NGS for oncogenic alteration detection, should also be encouraged in clinical practice.
  • Reply to the letter-to-the editor “Hospital volume and the case for
           centralisation of surgical services”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): A.A. Thai, E. Stuart, L. Te Marvelde, R.L. Milne, S. Knight, K. Whitfield, P. Mitchell
  • Efficacy and safety of necitumumab and pembrolizumab combination therapy
           in patients with Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Benjamin Besse, Pilar Garrido, Alexis B. Cortot, Melissa Johnson, Haruyasu Murakami, Anas Gazzah, Maciej Gil, Jaafar BennounaAbstractObjectivesEfficacy and safety of necitumumab when combined with pembrolizumab was assessed in patients with Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of squamous and nonsquamous histology, who had progressed after treatment with a platinum-based doublet.Materials and methodsThis single-arm, multicenter, phase Ib study had a dose-finding phase, in which escalating doses of necitumumab (600 mg and 800 mg IV) were administered on Day 1 and 8 every 3 weeks (Q3W) in combination with pembrolizumab (200 mg IV) on Day 1 Q3W, and expansion cohorts. Patients were treated until progressive disease (PD), toxicity requiring cessation, protocol noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy was evaluated by overall response rate (ORR).ResultsIn 64 treated patients (32 patients [50%] were programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1] negative), confirmed ORR was 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.8%–35.7%). Two patients (3.1%) had complete response (CR), 13 patients (20.3%) had partial response (PR), 26 patients (40.6%) had stable disease, 17 patients (26.6%) had PD, and 6 patients (9.4%) were not evaluable. Regardless of histology or PD-L1 status, median PFS (mPFS) was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.4–6.9 months) and OS at 6 months was 74.7% (61.5% – 83.9%). Confirmed disease control rate was 64.1% (95% CI 51.5–75.7). Patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) ≥1% had numerically improved ORR and median progression-free survival when compared with patients with PD-L1 negative cancer. No dose-limiting toxicities were recorded and the combination of necitumumab 800 mg with pembrolizumab 200 mg was considered tolerable.ConclusionResults suggest modest benefits of second-line necitumumab and pembrolizumab combination therapy in patients with Stage IV NSCLC. Safety profiles were consistent with class effects typical of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and immunotherapies with no additive toxicities.
  • PD-L1 expression and T cells infiltration in patients with uncommon
           EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer and the response to immunotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Kaiyan Chen, Guoping Cheng, Fanrong Zhang, Guanxia Zhu, Yanjun Xu, Xiaoqing Yu, Zhiyu Huang, Yun FanAbstractObjectivesThe efficacy of immunotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited. However, a series of patients with uncommon EGFR alterations was reported to derive clinical benefit from PD-1 blockade. To characterize the tumor immune microenvironment, we retrospectively evaluated tumor PD-L1 expression and T cells infiltration among NSCLC patients with uncommon EGFR mutations.Materials and methodsImmunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of PD-L1 and the abundance of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Chi-square test and Cox proportional hazards regression were conducted to investigate the correlations between the immune microenvironment features and clinicopathological variables and survival, as well as to explore the potential of immunotherapy in this patient population.ResultsAmong 600 NSCLC patients with EGFR alterations, we identified 49 (8.2%) bearing uncommon mutations, including G719X, L861Q, S768I, and Ex20 in.. In total, 49.0% (24/49) of these patients showed positive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells, markedly higher than the proportion in patients with classic sensitive mutations (19del and L858R, 12.2% [67/551], P 
  • Immune related adverse events and response to immunotherapy: Focus on
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Alice Indini, Erika Rijavec, Francesco Grossi
  • Impressive clinical response to anti-PD-1 therapy in epithelioid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Giuseppe Bronte, Angelo Delmonte, Marco Angelo Burgio, Alberto Verlicchi, Maurizio Puccetti, Sara Bravaccini, Paola Cravero, Maria Maddalena Tumedei, Danila Diano, Giulio Rossi, Paola Ulivi, Giovanni Martinelli, Lucio CrinòAbstractObjectivesTreatment options for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are limited but some studies on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in MPM have reported antitumor activity. Very little is known about immune-related predictive factors.Materials and MethodsHere we report the case of a 45-year-old woman presenting with dyspnea and evidence of pleural effusion. She was diagnosed with malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma with brain metastasis and peritoneal carcinosis, refractory to initial standard chemotherapy treatment. Because of high PDL1 expression (100%), she was treated with the anti-PD1 agent, pembrolizumab.ResultsChemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed was started, imaging studies showing stable disease after 3 treatment cycles. The patient underwent pleural decortication but rapidly progressed and thus started chemotherapy with carboplatin and gemcitabine. After 2 cycles she experienced seizures caused by a brain metastasis. This secondary lesion was surgically removed and confirmed as a metastasis from mesothelioma. Samples from both the primary tumor and the metastasis were molecularly characterized, the pleural sample proving ALK-positive and the brain sample, ALK-negative. PD-L1 was positive in 10% of tumor cells in the pleural biopsy and 100% in the brain lesion. Next generation sequencing analysis was negative for both samples. It was decided to start alectinib. Disease progression (peritoneal carcinosis and liver metastases) was documented after one month followed by complete bowel obstruction and recurrence in the site of the brain surgery. Alectinib was stopped and supportive care begun with parenteral nutrition via nasogastric tube. Pembrolizumab was started and after 15 days the patient’s condition had significantly improved, enabling recanalization and restoration of enteral nutrition. Imaging displayed complete response of the brain metastasis, peritoneal carcinosis, bone lesions and mediastinal nodal metastases. A partial response was documented in the pleural and pulmonary nodules, with stable liver metastases. The patient is still undergoing immunotherapy and has no cancer-related symptoms.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that the use of immunotherapy in MPM warrants further investigation. Furthermore, the impressive clinical response obtained by our patient suggests that immune checkpoint inhibitors could help in the management of the disease after the failure of other treatments.
  • A phase II study of the combination of gemcitabine and imatinib mesylate
           in pemetrexed-pretreated patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Paolo Andrea Zucali, Matteo Perrino, Fabio De Vincenzo, Laura Giordano, Nadia Cordua, Federica D’Antonio, Armando SantoroAbstractObjectivesSecond-line chemotherapy is not a standard of care in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that progresses after first-line treatment with cisplatin and pemetrexed. In pre-clinical models, the combination of gemcitabine (GEM) and imatinib mesylate (IM), compared with GEM alone, led to a further tumor growth inhibition and improved survival. This phase II study evaluates the antitumor activity of a combination of IM and GEM in platinum-pemetrexed-pretreated MPM patients expressing PDGFR-β and/or cKIT by immunohistochemistry (IHC).Patients and methodsGEM (1000 mg/m2) was given on days 3 and 10; IM (400 mg) was taken orally on days 1–5 and 8–12 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The study follows the optimal two-stage design of Simon. A 3-month PFS target of 75% was required. With a probability error α = 10% and a power of 80%, the calculated sample size was 22 patients. In particular, in the first step, six out of nine patients and globally 14/22 patients free from progressive disease at 3 months were required. Secondary endpoints included response rate, duration of response, toxicity and overall survival (OS).ResultsIn total, 23 patients were enrolled (ECOG PS 0–1/2: 9/13; one previous line/≥two previous lines: 10/13). Partial response was achieved in four patients (17.4%) and stable disease in 11 (47.8%) with a disease control rate of 65.3%. After a median follow-up of 34.5 months, median PFS and OS were 2.8 and 5.7 months, respectively. The 3-month PFS rate was 39.1% (9/23 patients). All-grade drug-related adverse events occurred in 17 (73.9%) patients. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in four (17%) patients.ConclusionsThe combination of IM and GEM is well tolerated in platinum-pemetrexed-pretreated MPM patients expressing PDGFR-β and/or cKIT by IHC, but it does not show a significant PFS benefit.
  • ATOM: A Phase II Study to Assess Efficacy of Preemptive Local Ablative
           Therapy to Residual Oligometastases of NSCLC After EGFR TKI
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Oscar S.H. Chan, Kwok Chi Lam, Jacky Y.C. Li, Frankie P.T. Choi, Catherine Y.H. Wong, Amy T.Y. Chang, Frankie Mo, Ki Wang, Rebecca M.W. Yeung, Tony S.K. MokAbstractObjectivesNSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutation invariably developed resistance to EGFR TKI. We postulated that oligoresidual disease (ORD) after initial TKI might harbor resistant clones. This study aimed to test if preemptive local ablative therapy (LAT) can improve progression free survival (PFS) or not compared to historic data.Materials and MethodsPatients indicated for EGFR TKI who possessed ORD (≤ 4 PET-avid lesions) after an initial 3-month TKI therapy were enrolled. After screening PET-CT, eligible patients with PET-avid ORDs were treated by LAT, either by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or surgery per clinicians’ discretion. TKI was continued after LAT until it was considered ineffective. PET-CT was repeated on the 3rd and 12th month post-LAT (or at progression) apart from regular imaging. Further LAT was allowed in oligoprogressive disease. Primary endpoint was PFS rate at one-year from enrollment. Overall survival (OS), PFS and treatment safety were secondary endpoints. A post hoc comparison with screen failure cohort was performed.ResultsEighteen patients were enrolled from 2014-17. Recruitment was stopped before the planned number (34) due to slow accrual. Two were excluded due to consent withdrawal and significant protocol violation. Median follow up was 39.1 months. Among the 16 analyzed patients, the one-year PFS rate (i.e. 15 month post TKI) was 68.8%. Median OS was 43.3 months. All LAT were done by SABR, and none experienced ≥ grade 3 SABR related toxicities. Compared with screen failure cohort (n = 48), pre-emptive LAT effectively reduced risk of progression (HR 0.41, p = 0.0097).ConclusionPreemptive LAT in ORD appeared to be safe and feasible. The 1-year PFS rate was encouraging. However, potential biases and the limitations of the study should not be overlooked. Further randomized studies are warranted.
  • sSurvival Comparison of Three Histological Subtypes of Lung Squamous Cell
           Carcinoma: A Population-based Propensity Score Matching Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Na An, Xuejiao Leng, Xue Wang, Yile Sun, Zhiwei ChenAbstractObjectivesThis study is aimed to analyze the survival differences among patients with lung basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC), and nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC), and explore the prognostic factors of patients with lung BSCC.Materials and MethodsWe searched the information of 4743 patients with lung SCC between 2005 and 2014 from the SEER database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to adjust confounding factors. The overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and cumulative incidence of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) were estimated with a comparative analysis. A competing risks regression model was conducted to identify the prognostic factors of lung BSCC.ResultsAfter PSM, patients with lung BSCC had a higher CSS rate than those with lung KSCC or NKSCC (5-year CSS rate: 50.4% vs. 37.7% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.033 and p = 0.033). The cumulative incidence of CSM was lower for patients with lung BSCC than those with lung KSCC or NKSCC (5-year CSM rate: 46.4% vs. 56.9% vs. 56.4%, p =  0.046 and p =  0.042), which were similar to the results before PSM. As for patients with lung KSCC and NKSCC, there was no survival differences between them (5-year CSS rate: 37.7% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.997). The competing risks regression analysis showed that T stage, N stage, M stage and surgery were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung BSCC (all p 
  • Quantifying potential confounders of panel-based tumor mutational burden
           (TMB) measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Jan Budczies, Daniel Kazdal, Michael Allgäuer, Petros Christopoulos, Eugen Rempel, Nicole Pfarr, Wilko Weichert, Stefan Fröhling, Michael Thomas, Solange Peters, Volker Endris, Peter Schirmacher, Albrecht StenzingerABSTRACTObjectivesRetrospective data including subgroup analyses in clinical studies have sparked strong interest in developing tumor mutational burden (TMB) as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade. While individual factors influencing panel sequencing based measurement of TMB (psTMB) have been discussed in recent studies, an integrative study quantifying, comparing and combining all potential confounders is still missing.Material and methodsWe separated different potential confounders of psTMB measurement including “panel size”, “germline mutation filtering”, “biological variance” and “technical variance” and developed a specific error model for each of these factors. Published experimental psTMB data were fitted to the error models to quantify the contribution of each of the confounders. The total psTMB variance was obtained as sum over the different variance contributions.ResultsUsing a typical large panel (size 1 to 1.5 Mbp) total errors of 57%, 42%, 34% and 28% were observed for tumors with psTMB of 5, 10, 20 and 40 muts/Mbp. Even for large panels, the stochastic error connected to the panel size represented the largest of all contributions to the total psTMB variance, especially for tumors with TMB up to 20 muts/Mbp. Other sources of psTMB variability could be kept under control, but rigorous quality control, best practice laboratory workflows and optimized bioinformatics pipelines are essential.ConclusionA statistical framework for the analysis of complex, quantitative biomarkers was developed and applied to the analysis of psTMB variability. The methods developed here can support the analysis of other quantitative biomarkers and their implementation in clinical practice.
  • A multicenter study of thromboembolic events among patients diagnosed with
           ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Marliese Alexander, B. Pharm, Nick Pavlakis, Thomas John, Rachel O'Connell, Steven Kao, Brett Hughes, Adrian Lee, Sarah A Hayes, Viive M Howell, Stephen J Clarke, Michael Millward, Kate Burbury, Benjamin Solomon, Malinda ItchinsAbstractObjectives: This study aimed to describe the longitudinal thromboembolism (TE) risk relative to the natural history of disease and clinical course of ROS-1 rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Materials and MethodsCases of ROS1-rearranged NSCLC from six Australian hospitals were pooled and evaluated for incidence, timing, predictors and outcomes of venous or arterial TE, as well as objective response rate (ORR) to active therapy and overall survival (OS).ResultsOf 42 patients recruited, 20 (48%) experienced TE; one (2%) arterial, 13 (31%) a pulmonary emboli (PE), and 12 (29%) a deep vein thrombosis. Among those with TE, six (30%) experienced multiple events, three as concurrent and three as recurrent diagnoses. The cumulative incidence of TE over time, adjusted for death as a competing risk factor, approached 50%. TE occurred prior to, during and post the peri-diagnostic period and occurred irrespective of treatment strategy. A thrombophilia was identified in n = 3/10 (30%) cases screened: in two factor V Leiden and inone anti-thrombin III (ATIII) deficiency. Median OS was 21.3 in those with TE vs 28.8 months in those without; hazard ratio 1.16 (95%CI 0.43-3.15). Respective ORR to first-line therapy with TE was 50% vs 44% without in the chemotherapy arm and 67% vs 50% in the targeted therapy arm.ConclusionIn the rare cancer subtype,ROS1, these real-world data demonstrate sustained TE risk beyond the diagnostic period irrespective of therapeutic strategy. High incidence of PE, concurrent TE, and recurrent TE warrant validation in larger cohorts. Consideration of primary thromboprophylaxis in ROS1 populations is recommended.
  • Neighborhood Context and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Outcomes in Florida
           non-Elderly Patients by Race/Ethnicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Asal Johnson, Allen Johnson, Robert Hines, Raheleh MohammadiAbstractObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neighborhood environment and lung cancer outcomes among Florida residents younger than 65 years of age.Methods and materialsThis was a retrospective cohort study that included patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Florida from January 2005 to December 2014 (n = 22,750). Multi-level, mixed-effect logistic regression models were used for two outcomes: receipt of treatment and receipt of surgery. Survival analyses, using proportional subdistribution hazard models, were conducted to examine the impact of neighborhood characteristics on risk of death due to lung cancer with adjustment for individual-level variables. Neighborhood exposures of interest were census tract level black and Hispanic segregation combined with economic deprivation.ResultsWhite patients who lived in low black segregation/high deprivation areas had 15% lower odds of receiving surgery (95% CI: 0.76-0.93). However, the likelihood of receiving surgery for black patients who lived in high black segregation/low deprivation and high black segregation/high deprivation was lower than for black patients who lived in low black segregation/low deprivation neighborhoods (level 3 AOR = 0.56 [0.38-0.85]; level 4 AOR = 0.69 [0.54-0.88]). Living in suburban and rural areas increased the risk of lung cancer death for white patients by 14% (95% CI: 1.05-1.24) and 26% (95% CI: 1.08-1.46), respectively. Living in rural areas increased the risk of death for black patients by 54% r (SHR = 1.54 [1.19-2.0]). Black patients who live in high Hispanic segregation/high deprivation had 36 % increased risk of death compared to black patients who lived in low Hispanic segregation/low deprivation areas.ConclusionThis study suggests that when investigating cancer disparities, merely adjusting for race/ethnicity does not provide sufficient explanation to understand survival and treatment variations. Lung cancer outcomes are impacted by neighborhood environments that are formed based on the distribution of race, ethnicity and class.
  • Is it necessary to sample the contralateral nodal stations by EBUS-TBNA in
           patients with lung cancer and clinical N0 / N1 on PET-CT'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Pere Serra, Carmen Centeno, José Sanz-Santos, Mohamed Torky, Sonia Baeza, Leire Mendiluce, Carlos Martínez-Barenys, Pedro López de Castro, Jorge Abad, Antoni Rosell, Felipe AndreoAbstractObjectivesSystematic mediastinal staging (sampling all visible nodes measuring ≥ 5 mm from N3 station to N1, regardless of PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a decisive step in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the prevalence of N3 disease and the utility of systematic staging in the subgroup of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA staging without showing mediastinal lesions on the PET/CT (N0/N1)Material and methodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database that included 174 patients with a final diagnosis of NSCLC, with N0/N1 disease on PET/CT who underwent a systematic EBUS-TBNA staging.Results174 consecutive patients were included. Systematic EBUS-TBNA detected N2 mediastinal involvement in 21 (12%) cases, and no cases of N3 disease were detected (neither hilar nor mediastinal). Of the remaining 153 patients N0/N1 EBUS-TBNA, 122 underwent lung resection that revealed 4 cases of N2 disease while 117 were confirmed to be N0/N1. Thirty-three patients with N0/1 disease after EBUS-TBNA did not undergo surgery and were excluded for the NPV calculation. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and overall accuracy of systematic EBUS was 84%, 100%, 96.7%, 100% and 97% respectively.ConclusionSystematic EBUS-TBNA is a very accurate method for lymph node staging in patients with NSCLC without mediastinal involvement on PET/CT. Pending more studies, the absence of contralateral hilar nodal involvement in our series, questions the need for a contralateral hilar sampling in this subgroup of patients.
  • Hospital volume and the case for centralisation of surgical services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Rob Stirling, Michael Stenger, John Zalcberg
  • Upstaging, centrality and survival in early stage non-small cell lung
           cancer video-assisted surgery: Lymph nodal upstaging in lung cancer
           surgery: is it really a surgical technique problem'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): Dania Nachira, Elisa Meacci, Maria Teresa Congedo, Marco Chiappetta, Leonardo Petracca-Ciavarella, Maria Letizia Vita, Stefano Margaritora
  • Newly diagnosed patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Lung CancerAuthor(s): B.L. Andersen, T.R. Valentine, S.B. Lo, D.P. Carbone, C.J. Presley, P.G. ShieldsAbstractObjectivesThe aims of this observational study were to 1) accrue newly diagnosed patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) awaiting the start of first-line treatment and identify those with moderate to severe depressive symptoms and, 2) provide a clinical description of the multiple, co-occurring psychological and behavioral difficulties and physical symptoms that potentially exacerbate and maintain depressive symptoms.Materials and methodsPatients with stage IV NSCLC (N = 186) were enrolled in an observational study ( Identifier: NCT03199651) and completed the American Society of Clinical Oncology-recommended screening measure for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]). Individuals with none/mild (n = 119; 64%), moderate (n = 52; 28%), and severe (n = 15; 8%) depressive symptoms were identified. Patients also completed measures of hopelessness, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, stress, illness perceptions, functional status, and symptoms.ResultsPatients with severe depressive symptoms reported concomitant feelings of hopelessness (elevating risk for suicidal behavior), anxiety symptoms suggestive of GAD, and traumatic, cancer-specific stress. They perceived lung cancer as consequential for their lives and not controllable with treatment. Pain and multiple severe symptoms were present along with substantial functional impairment. Patients with moderate depressive symptoms had generally lower levels of disturbance, though still substantial. The most salient differences were low GAD symptom severity and fewer functional impairments for those with moderate symptoms.ConclusionsDepressive symptoms of moderate to severe levels co-occur in a matrix of clinical levels of anxiety symptoms, traumatic stress, impaired functional status, and pain and other physical symptoms. All of the latter factors have been shown, individually and collectively, to contribute to the maintenance or exacerbation of depressive symptoms. As life-extending targeted and immunotherapy use expands, prompt identification of patients with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, referral for evaluation, and psychological/behavioral treatment are key to maximizing treatment outcomes and quality of life for individuals with advanced NSCLC.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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