Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access  
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 257)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Pulmonology Reports
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2199-2428
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Imaging Pulmonary Embolic Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings and current imaging techniques of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and chronic thromboembolic disease. Special considerations are also discussed, including pregnancy, congenital heart disease, lower extremity computed tomography (CT), and the isolated subsegmental PE. Recent Findings CT pulmonary angiography and planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scintigraphy are the primary means of evaluating pulmonary embolic disease. Magnetic resonance angiography avoids ionizing radiation and iodinated contrast in select patients. V/Q SPECT/CT provides greater accuracy and fewer non-diagnostic exams than planar V/Q scans. Dual-energy CT may prove valuable in the diagnosis of and preoperative planning for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Summary Imaging plays a central role in identifying thromboembolic disease, but understanding the benefits and limitations when choosing the appropriate modality is imperative. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of emerging technologies in the assessment of thromboembolic disease.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • A New Approach to Pleural Infection: Let It Be'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The incidence of pleural infection is increasing, and there remain many challenges to managing this condition. This review provides a synthesised overview of the current state of knowledge and identifies key areas for future research. Recent Findings Recent studies have broadened our understanding of pleural microbiology and the natural history of pleural infection. The development and evolution of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy have established three separate treatment options in pleural infection. This has led to the development of new management algorithms and re-examined the role of surgery. Similarly, the uptake of bedside thoracic ultrasound has improved assessment and ensured safer and more accurate procedures. Summary There have been major advances in our understanding of pleural infection over the last few years. Patients have more treatment options, and modern management algorithms can limit the need for surgical intervention. Outcomes from pleural infection have remained largely unchanged over decades, which suggest that the time for a paradigm shift may be approaching. However, key questions remain unanswered.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Tracheobronchomalacia in the Adult: Is Imaging Helpful'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim of this article is to: 1) Review the imaging features of tracheobronchomalacia and excessive dynamic airway collapse 2) To highlight the recent advances in imaging of the central airways. Recent Findings Imaging of the central airways requires dedicated techniques optimized to evaluate the transient collapse of the central airways either due to excessive movement of the posterior membrane and/or secondary to weakness of the tracheal cartilages. Routine imaging of the chest is limited in its ability to demonstrate the true extent of collapsibility of the airways. The more recently introduced imaging protocols utilize dynamic acquisition during active expiration which demonstrate the transient but true extent of the airway collapse. CT also has potential applications in treatment in the form of 3D-printed splints. Summary Dedicated imaging protocols introduced with recent advances in CT technology allow diagnosis of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) noninvasively. However, there is a current lack of clear threshold for diagnosis which has led to a wide range of reported prevalence of TBM and excessive dynamic airway collapse.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Lung Cancer Screening: Insights from a Thriving Clinical Practice
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. Computed tomography (CT) offers the potential for early detection by screening asymptomatic high-risk patients. We aimed to review the benefits and potential harms of lung cancer screening, discuss the logistics of a screening program, and provide insight from our own experience. Recent Findings The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a large population-based study, has demonstrated mortality benefit from screening, but relatively few eligible patients currently participate. An effective screening program requires input and cooperation from multiple stakeholders. Effort should be made to actively engage patients in the process including a thorough discussion of benefits and possible harms. At our institution, this approach has resulted in a rapidly growing and sustainable program. Summary Lung cancer screening has proven mortality benefit in high-risk patients but is underutilized. Developing and growing a screening program is a complex process requiring coordination among multiple specialties with a focus on patient autonomy.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Lung Nodule: Imaging Features and Evaluation in the Age of Machine
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review With the unprecedented increase in chest CT studies, especially due to implementation of lung cancer screening, evaluation of lung nodules by radiologists can be exhausting and time-consuming. Machine learning promises to be a useful tool for detection and characterization of nodules. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature pertaining to machine learning in lung nodule detection and evaluation. Recent Findings There has been a recent surge of publications pertaining to machine learning and its applications in chest imaging. Many studies have shown promising results for automatic detection and characterization of lung nodules. Other studies have shown combined performance of a radiologist and computer-assisted detection (CAD) out performed a single radiologist, CAD alone, and double readers. Although these recent advances heighten expectations, it is important for developers and users to be mindful of challenges such as training, validation, independent testing, and proper user training. Summary Computer-aided technology can help radiologists in evaluating lung nodules especially with the large number of scans performed. Recent advances in machine learning are replacing traditional methods and could significantly change the way radiology is practiced.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Imaging Cystic Lung Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Cystic lung disease is characterized by multiple air-filled spaces in the lung. Pulmonary cysts occur in a variety of diseases, including infectious, inhalational, genetic, and neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this report is to review the CT imaging patterns and appearances of the most common cystic lung diseases, and to highlight the differences between different cystic lung diseases and the unique qualities related to each condition. Recent Findings Common cystic lung diseases include lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and light chain deposition disease/amyloidosis. Infections or age-related change may also result in cystic lung disease. Summary Cystic lung disease has multiple etiologies. CT imaging allows for characterization of lung cyst morphology, pattern, and distribution; familiarity with the imaging appearance of the most common cystic lung diseases allows for earlier identification, diagnosis, and disease management.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Pleurotoxic Drugs—an Update: Someone Else to Blame'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review To provide an updated summary of the pleurotoxic drugs and their manifestations. Recent Findings Novel antineoplastic agents for the treatment of hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies have been associated with the induction of pleural disorders. Moreover, the list of agents that have been associated with drug-induced lupus pleuritis is steadily increasing. Summary Pleurotoxic medications are agents that may cause pleural disorders, most commonly pleural effusions. Connecting a pleural disorder to a specific drug requires the exclusion of other potential causes combined with resolution of the disorder after drug discontinuation while previous literature reports on similar cases may be of assistance. The incorporation of new therapies into clinical practice over the last few years has exposed medical professionals to areas devoid of a historic evidence base. Thus, drug-induced pleurotoxicity should be always included in the diagnostic approach to the patient with a pleural effusion.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Refractory Chylothorax: Where Do We Go Now'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss the efficacy and safety of recently introduced diagnostic procedures and radiological interventions for the treatment of chylothorax and their integration into classic strategies such as dietetic measures, the use of octreotide and its analogues and surgery. Recent Findings To date, there are no published validated algorithms to guide chylothorax treatment with the majority of evidence predominantly derived from case series. Summary Although radiological interventions appear viable and safe, they are currently available in only a small number of centres. When conservative management fails, other strategies such as pleurodesis or indwelling pleural catheter are reasonable alternative treatments.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: an Update for Pulmonologists
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an incurable disease, and its global incidence is predicted to rise. The epidemiology is changing especially in developed countries where the increases in incidence centers around the older age group. Pulmonologists are the frontline specialists faced with the challenges of diagnosing MPM and management of the associated respiratory issues, especially malignant pleural effusions. Although much of recent literature surrounds treatment of MPM, this review highlights latest developments in aspects of MPM care relevant to pulmonologists’ practice. Recent Findings Advances in imaging have allowed more MPM cases to be diagnosed with percutaneous-guided biopsy without resorting to thoracoscopy. Cytological examination, coupled with molecular testing (e.g., BAP-1 loss and fluorescent in situ hybridization for CDKN2A gene loss), now allows many cases of MPM to be diagnosed by pleural fluid cytology. Many biomarkers have been proposed for mesothelioma; however, work is needed to first validate initial studies and then tease-out the interactions between known prognostic indicators and any proposed biomarker. A series of multicenter randomized trials have established the role of indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) as the choice of management for malignant pleural effusions. Combining IPC with talc pleurodesis is a new approach. Prognostic factors, including a new algorithm, are reviewed to assist pulmonologists. Summary Many guidelines have been published by various agencies, again with different recommendations (especially regarding therapies). Pulmonologists must therefore stay abreast of the literature in order to provide the best care for patients.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Obesity Hypoventilation: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This is a review of the current understanding of the pathophysiology behind the development of daytime hypercapnia in a subset of obese patients. It provides an overview of the recent evidence to guide physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Recent Findings OHS results from a complex interplay between obesity-related changes in respiratory mechanics, sleep-disordered breathing, changes in central ventilatory drive, and neurohormonal changes. Diagnosis is important given the associated morbidity, but reliance on a single measurement of PaCO2 on the arterial blood gas has been questioned. Positive airway pressure (PAP) has been shown to improve gas exchange, sleep-disordered breathing, and symptoms in OHS, and is an effective therapy. More recent studies have not shown bilevel positive airway pressure or volume-targeted pressure support to be superior to CPAP in treating stable OHS, but NIV treatment studies are limited by variability in the settings used. Summary The development of daytime hypercapnia in a subset of obese patients is multifactorial. Phenotyping OHS patients can allow for individualization of therapies. Further long-term longitudinal studies exploring varying severities and clinical phenotypes of OHS are needed. There is also a need for additional studies to guide providers on the optimal PAP settings in OHS.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Should We Do It'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent and underdiagnosed. It is associated with significant comorbidities and early detection and treatment might lead to improvement in important clinical outcomes. This paper will review current evidence on screening for OSA in the primary care setting and in certain high-risk groups. Recent Findings The 2017 United States Preventative Services Taskforce evidence review on OSA screening noted a lack of high-quality evidence linking OSA screening with important clinical outcomes and on the accuracy of proposed screening tools. Summary OSA symptoms are usually not discussed in the primary care setting. A screening tool such as a questionnaire is a simple approach that could be easily implemented in this setting. Further study into the long-term cardiovascular and mortality benefits of the treatment of OSA, randomized controlled trials linking the implementation of screening and improvement in important clinical outcomes, and the accuracy of available screening tools as well as their generalizability to the primary care population is needed to improve the strength of their recommendation and their adoption.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Central Sleep Apnea: a Brief Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment, including areas of controversy and uncertainty. Recent Findings Central apnea may be due to hypoventilation or to hypocapnia following hyperventilation. The occurrence of central apnea initiates a cascade of events that perpetuates breathing instability, recurrent central apnea, and upper airway narrowing. In fact, breathing instability and upper airway narrowing are key elements of central and obstructive apnea. Clinically, central apnea is noted in association with obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident tetraplegia, and chronic opioid use. Management strategies for central apnea aim to eliminate abnormal respiratory events, stabilize sleep, and alleviate the underlying clinical condition. Positive pressure therapy (PAP) remains a standard therapy for central as well as obstructive apnea. Other treatment options include adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), supplemental oxygen, phrenic nerve stimulation, and pharmacologic therapy. However, ASV is contraindicated in patients with central sleep apnea who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, owing to increased mortality in this population. Summary There are several therapeutic options for central apnea. Randomized controlled studies are needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of individual, or combination, treatment modalities in different types of central apnea.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Improving Adherence to PAP Therapy: an Update
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the “gold standard” of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea; however, rates of non-adherence to PAP therapy remain high despite device improvements and the inclusion of PAP education programs in most comprehensive sleep disorders clinics. We aimed to review recent evidence-based trends for improving PAP adherence. Recent Findings Remote monitoring and telemedicine interventions in conjunction with mobile patient engagement applications have shown promise in facilitating uptake and maintenance of PAP use. New focus on the bedpartner dyad and managing comorbid conditions are also notable, though more recent evidence for specific interventions is limited. Summary Recent trends suggest a shift towards developing more patient-centered programs to support PAP adherence. Advancements in telemedicine and interactive mobile health technologies represent the most promising area of growth for PAP adherence interventions. Continued efforts focused on treatments that address socio-relational factors and comorbid conditions seem warranted.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Nonpharmacological Therapies for Interstitial Lung Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) cause unpredictable degrees of fibrosis and inflammation in the lungs leading to functional decline and varying symptom burden for patients. Some patients may live for years and be responsive to therapy, and other disease trajectory may be shorter and similar to patients with lung cancer. This ultimately affects the patient’s quality of life as well as their caregiver(s). Recent Findings Nonpharmacological therapies play an important role in treatment of interstitial lung disease. These include symptom management, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and palliative care. While ILDs are associated with high morbidity and mortality, different models of care exist globally. New tools help clinicians identify and address palliative care needs in daily practice, and specialty nurses and ILD centers can optimize care. Summary This paper provides an overview of nonpharmacological therapies available for patients with interstitial lung disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Evidence-Based Assessment of Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma: Mechanisms
           and Outcomes
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Asthma is a heterogenous, chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness that results in debilitating respiratory symptoms. Despite advances in management strategies, severe asthmatics are often not responsive to the standard management and are disproportionately impacted. Bronchial thermoplasty offers a treatment option for this subgroup of severe asthmatics. Recent Findings Multiple clinical studies have examined bronchial thermoplasty effectiveness and safety in severe asthma. Recent post-market and translational studies have brought new insights into the mechanism of action behind bronchial thermoplasty. Summary Bronchial thermoplasty is a treatment option for severe asthmatics who are not adequately controlled on their current treatment regimen.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Pneumonitis in Patients with Lung Cancer Following Treatment: the Effects
           of Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Multiple articles have been written on the development of pneumonitis as it relates to each class of treatment options in NSCLC. To date, there are no articles that review pulmonary side effects seen in all agents including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and TKIs that are used in NSCLC. Our goal was to identify these agents, review the pathophysiology, and establish treatment options when pneumonitis develops. In doing so, we have established a resource for physicians treating this disease. Recent Findings Within the past decade, significant strides have been made in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted agents, namely tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immunotherapy have established themselves and shifted the treatment paradigm in this disease, they also brought along very specific and different toxicities, such as pneumonitis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to play a major role as single agent, combined therapy, or in combination with immunotherapy. Within each of these classes of treatment options, pulmonary side effects are possible. Summary Multiple articles have been written on the development of pneumonitis as it relates to each class of treatment options in NSCLC. To date, there are no articles that review pulmonary side effects seen in all agents including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and TKIs that are used in NSCLC. Our goal was to identify the agents, review the pathophysiology, and establish treatment options when pneumonitis develops. In doing so, we have established a resource for physicians treating this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Assessment of Symptoms in Patients with COPD: Strengths and Limitations of
           Clinical Scores
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Health questionnaires are valuable tools to quantify, in an objective and standardised manner, the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the health status of patients and on their well-being, and to track changes over time. Therefore, filling out these questionnaires allows clinicians to obtain the necessary information that can be easily related to clinical outcomes. Recent Findings Most importantly, symptoms’ assessment represents a very relevant part of these clinical tools when applied to patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases. Comparing scores between visits is also indicative of the patient’s health status, as changes in quality of life are related to worse outcomes such as hospitalisation and exacerbation. However, each respiratory questionnaire may be peculiar in catching specific aspects of a similar symptom (i.e., dyspnoea); therefore, different tools are not interchangeable or comparable. Summary Detecting the minimal clinically important difference is a necessary evaluation procedure which affords the change in patient’s management and directs the therapeutic action towards more active treatments.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Synthesize recent developments in the understanding of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, and treatments with a focus on the classification of CLAD into restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Recent Findings Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients. Despite the lack of progress on improving outcomes, significant progress has been made in better characterizing the disease’s clinical and pathologic diversity. Most significantly, the clinical diagnosis of restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) has been recognized as pathophysiologically distinct from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Azithromycin remains the only treatment proven effective for CLAD, and its use has a modest impact on survival. Summary Important steps towards better classification and understanding of the CLAD disease processes have been made; however, more research is needed to develop effective therapies for this devastating condition.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Risk Factors for the Development of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: a
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an invariably progressive disease. Current treatment options simply slow disease progression, and better therapeutic options are needed. We aimed to review an emerging literature on risk factors associated with the development of IPF. Recent Findings There is increasing data to support the role of intrinsic risk factors (e.g., genetics, aging, sex, lung microbiome), comorbidities (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, herpes virus infection), and extrinsic risk factors (e.g., cigarette smoking, environmental exposures, air pollution) in IPF development. These risk factors may independently increase susceptibility for IPF or act in a synergistic fashion to contribute to increased risk for disease development. Summary Various risk factors have been identified in IPF development that fit within the current paradigm of disease pathogenesis. Further investigation of these risk factors may help us better understand the pathophysiology of IPF and may guide future therapeutic interventions.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • The Use and Interpretation of Impedance Oscillometry in Pulmonary
    • Abstract: Purpose Chronic respiratory diseases are prevalent among adults and lung function testing is imperative for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. While spirometry is the standard measure of lung function, there exist groups of individuals unable to adequately perform accurate and reproducible lung function testing. Impedance oscillometry system (IOS) is an effort independent test that may be employed to assess airway function in challenging groups such as children and elderly. This review will compare IOS and spirometry and describe the physiologic measurements of lung function and interpretation strategies in adults with chronic airway disease. Recent Findings In adults with COPD, impedance oscillometry measurements of airway resistance correlate with the severity of airflow limitation measured with spirometry. In adults with asthma, IOS is a sensitive measure of airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchodilator response. Summary Impedance oscillometry is emerging, alternative method to assess lung function in adults.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
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