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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 259)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


Similar Journals
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Pulmonary Therapy
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2364-1746
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2624 journals]
  • Chronic Cough in Adults: Make the Diagnosis and Make a Difference

    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic cough is common and impactful, frustrating both patients and clinicians. An empirical trial of therapy is often done with inhaled corticosteroids, but this practice should be replaced with attempting to make an accurate diagnosis. The three most common causes are upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but there are often multiple causes involved. Minimal investigations after history, physical exam, travel history, and drug history include a chest radiograph and spirometry. Empirical trial of therapy with inhaled corticosteroids is reasonable if there is evidence of eosinophilic inflammation. Empiric therapy for GERD may also be reasonable in those with symptoms. Red flags should especially be considered an urgency to make the correct diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Inhaler Devices for Delivery of LABA/LAMA Fixed-Dose Combinations in
           Patients with COPD

    • Abstract: Abstract Inhaled fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have become the cornerstone for the maintenance treatment of symptomatic COPD patients. In this regard, global COPD treatment guidelines have recognized the importance of inhaler devices as integral contributors to the effectiveness of LABA/LAMA FDCs and recommend regular assessment of inhaler device use by the patients in order to improve long-term clinical outcomes. Optimal disease control is also highly dependent upon patient preferences and adherence to inhaler devices. This review objectively examines and compares the major inhaler devices used to deliver different LABA/LAMA FDCs, discusses the inhaler device characteristics that determine drug deposition in the airways, real-life preference for inhaler devices, and handling of inhaler devices that impact the results of the long-term management of COPD. The introduction of new LABA/LAMA FDCs, new inhaler devices, and more clinical studies have created confusion among physicians in choosing the optimal inhaled therapy for COPD patients; in this context, this review attempts to provide an evidence-based framework for informed decision-making with a particular focus on the inhaler devices. Funding. The preparation of this manuscript was funded by Novartis Pharma AG.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Nobody Does it Better: A Patient Physician Perspective of Asthma

    • Abstract: Abstract This article, co-authored by a patient living with asthma and a consultant physician in respiratory medicine, describes the patient’s experience of asthma. The physician then discusses asthma management in the context of the patient’s experiences.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Epidemiology of Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Cohort Study Using Healthcare Data
           in Sweden

    • Abstract: Introduction Data on the epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Sweden are lacking. This study estimates the incidence and prevalence of IPF in Sweden, and describes the demographic and clinical characteristics and the overall survival of patients with IPF. Methods Two cohorts were studied: a national cohort of 17,247 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (ICD-10 code J84.1 with no competing diagnosis) from the Swedish National Patient Register (cohort 1 [C1]); and an electronic medical record-based regional subset of C1 comprising 1755 patients having pulmonary fibrosis and a radiology procedure (C2). Results The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in C1 ranged from 10.4 to 15.4 cases per 100,000 population per year between 2001 and 2015. The prevalence increased from 15.4 to 68.0 cases per 100,000 population per year. Patients ≥ 70 years and men had a higher incidence and prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis. Common comorbidities included respiratory infections and cardiovascular disorders. Approximately one-third of patients in each cohort were hospitalised with pulmonary fibrosis within a year of diagnosis. The median survival time from disease diagnosis was 2.6 years in C1 and 5.2 years in C2. Older patients had a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality. Women had a better prognosis than men. Conclusion This study underscores the importance of pulmonary fibrosis as a cause of respiratory-related morbidity and mortality in Sweden. The stable incidence and increasing prevalence over time suggests longer survival. The higher morbidity and mortality in older patients highlights the importance of early case detection, diagnosis and management for better prognosis. Funding F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd./Genentech, Inc.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
  • In Vitro Study of the Effect of Breathing Pattern on Aerosol Delivery
           During High-Flow Nasal Therapy

    • Abstract: Introduction The use of concurrent aerosol delivery during high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) may be exploited to facilitate delivery of a variety of prescribed medications for inhalation. The study assessed the effect of tidal volume, breath rate, and inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) ratio on the quantity of aerosol captured at the level of the trachea during simulated HFNT. Methods Testing was completed according to a factorial statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach. Tracheal dose was characterized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen Solo, Aerogen Ltd) using simulated adult, small child, and infant HFNT models. Furthermore, aerosol delivery was evaluated across a range of adult patient profiles with clinically representative test setups. Results Aerosol delivery increased with a large tidal volume, a rapid breath rate, and a long inspiratory time. Tidal volume, breath rate, and I:E ratio each had a significant effect on tracheal dose across simulated adult, small child, and infant breathing. Conclusion The main trends that were identified in the statistical DOE predicted aerosol delivery across adult patient breathing profiles, in terms of tidal volume, breath rate, and I:E ratio. Therefore, patients with distressed breathing profiles may be expected to receive a larger aerosol dose than those with normal breathing rates. Funding Aerogen Limited.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
  • Pulmonary Therapy: Looking Back on 2018 and Forward to 2019

    • PubDate: 2019-01-17
  • Home Management of Childhood Asthma Exacerbations

    • Abstract: Introduction Effective home management of childhood asthma by caregivers requires education along with a written asthma action plan (AAP), which should outline clear instructions for treatment during exacerbations. However, a large number of asthma exacerbations continue to be managed in the emergency department (ED) and in hospitals, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess caregiver management of acute asthma at home following the 2015 Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines and to identify factors that may be associated with deviations from these guidelines. Methods 122 caregivers of children, aged 3–17 years, with physician diagnosed asthma, completed a paper-based questionnaire. Correct caregiver management (defined according to the GINA guidelines) of acute asthma as well as their use of an AAP were assessed. Results Out of all caregivers, 74.6% incorrectly treated their child’s asthma exacerbation in a home setting. Among those who used an AAP, we observed significantly more ED visits (0.9 ± 1.2 versus 0.5 ± 0.9, p = 0.04) and hospitalizations (0.2 ± 0.4 versus 0.0 ± 0.0, p = 0.02) when compared to non-AAP users in the past 1 year. Conclusions Caregivers of children with asthma in Canada may still lack skills for proper home management of asthma exacerbations. We found a higher number of ED visits and hospitalizations in those using an AAP compared to those who did not use an AAP. These data suggest that current AAPs may not be sufficient for home asthma management.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • COPD and Singing for Lung Health: A Patient and Clinician Perspective

    • Abstract: Abstract This article, co-authored by a patient living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a respiratory physiotherapist, discusses the patient’s experience of COPD and singing as a form of therapy. The clinician then discusses his experience of Singing for Lung Health in the context of the patient, and how more research is needed in this area.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Evaluation of Rapid Onset of Action of ICS/LABA Combination Therapies on
           Respiratory Function in Asthma Patients: A Single-Center, Open-Label,
           Randomized, Crossover Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction Products based on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations may provide different clinical benefits. This study was conducted to compare the rapid effects of three such combination products: formoterol/fluticasone (FFC) aerosol (pMDI), formoterol/budesonide (FBC) dry powder inhaler (DPI), and vilanterol/fluticasone furoate (VFC) DPI. Methods The study design was a three-armed, randomized, crossover study. Patients included in the study had stable moderate asthma, defined as an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score ≤ 0.75, and were undergoing step 2 or 3 asthma treatment as defined by JGL2015. Subjects were treated with fluticasone propionate inhaled via Diskus® during a 2-week washout period before randomization. At visit 2, subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to FFC, FBC, or VFC, and evaluated for changes in pulmonary function over time. At visits 3 and 4, the treatment was switched to another ICS/LABA combination in a crossover manner after a 1-week washout period. Spirometry was performed pre-dose and at 3, 10, and 30 min post-dose, and forced oscillation was implemented pre-dose and at 1, 7, 15, and 60 min post-dose. Results Fifteen outpatients (63.3 ± 9.5 years, ACQ: 0.13 ± 0.19) completed the study. ∆FEV1 at 3 min did not significantly differ among the three groups. Significant increases in FEV1 and %FEV1 from baseline were observed in the FFC (p = 0.004, 0.003), FBC (p = 0.014, 0.011), and VFC (p = 0.032, 0.023) groups at 30 min. Improvements in respiratory resistance at 5–20 Hz from baseline at 60 min, resonant frequency, respiratory system reactance at 5 Hz, and low-frequency reactance area from baseline were observed at 1 min in the FFC group (p = 0.014, 0.002, 0.027, 0.018, respectively). Conclusion FFC administered using a pMDI showed favorable delivery to peripheral airways and significantly more rapid action promptly after inhalation as compared with other ICS/LABA preparations inhaled using a DPI, thus broadening the potential therapeutic options for asthma. Trial Registration Number UMIN000029379. Funding Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • And Then There Were Three: Time to Move Onward in COPD Drug Development
           Beyond LAMA/LABA/ICS at Last'

    • PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Aerosol Delivery to a Critically Ill Patient: A Big Issue Easily Solved by
           Developing Guidelines

    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, therapeutic aerosols are commonly delivered to mechanically ventilated patients by nebulizers and pressurized metered dose inhaler attached to an adapter or a spacer. Studies with asthmatics and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients have confirmed that aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation is feasible. They have also reported that the inhaled drugs administered during mechanical ventilation provide greater and faster clinical outcomes than when delivering during spontaneous unassisted breathing. Researchers studied factors that would affect aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation. Even with the tremendous amount of publications in this area, there have still been no recommendations or guidelines released to help respiratory therapists in their decision as to when to deliver aerosol to ventilated patients. Mostly, respiratory therapists read the literature and decide accordingly what to do and which device to use for their patients. This puts the patients at risk of receiving a sub-therapeutic or toxic dose of the inhaled aerosol. Some studies raise an alarm of physician decision upon reading any released publication related to aerosol delivery in mechanical ventilation without a trusted recommendation and guidelines. This increases the need for the development of recommendations and guidelines, by a trusted board or society, for aerosol delivery to such critically ill patients. To summarize, inhaled drugs administered to critically ill patients is of benefit compared to taking the patient off the ventilator and delivering during spontaneous unassisted breathing. However, dependable guidelines are needed to optimize aerosol delivery.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Patients with Asthma Prescribed Once-Daily Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol
           or Twice-Daily Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol as Maintenance Treatment:
           Analysis from a Claims Database

    • Abstract: Introduction There is a paucity of data describing prescribing patterns and adherence to therapy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) in the Japanese population in clinical practice. Methods This was a non-interventional, retrospective, cohort study of patients who were prescribed medication for asthma, using data from the Japan Medical Data Center Claims Database. Data from patients aged ≥ 15 years with a prescription of asthma drugs between December 2014 and October 2015 (Day 0, the index date when asthma medication was initiated) were analysed in 12-month pre-index and post-index periods. Part 1 focused on baseline characteristics and epidemiological outcomes in the pre- and post-index period in the overall asthma population, whereas comparing medication adherence [number of prescribed days per year and proportion of days covered (PDC)] between ICS/LABA-naïve patients treated with once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) and twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL) was the primary endpoint in Part 2. Results Of the available patient data (N = 2,953,652), 28,699 patients were identified as having asthma. ICS/LABA was the main asthma treatment prescribed; 11,167 (38.9%) patients were continuous ICS/LABA users. In ICS/LABA-naïve asthma patients, treatment with once-daily FF/VI was associated with higher medication adherence compared with twice-daily FP/SAL; mean [standard deviation (SD)] number of prescribed days per year was 97.8 (115.9) for FF/VI versus 80.5 (92.7) for FP/SAL (p = 0.04), mean (SD) PDC was 26.7% (31.5) for FF/VI versus 21.9% (24.8) for FP/SAL (p = 0.04). FF/VI was also associated with a lower rate of treatment discontinuation and no difference in use of short-acting beta2-agonists or oral corticosteroids compared with FP/SAL. Conclusions ICS/LABA was the major prescribed asthma treatment in Japan. Medication adherence was greater with FF/VI, which may indicate that patients are more likely to adhere to once-daily FF/VI versus twice-daily FP/SAL. Funding This study was funded by GSK (study sponsor). Study Registration GSK Study No. 207264, GSK Study Register site:'search_terms=207264.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Umeclidinium/Vilanterol Versus Tiotropium/Olodaterol in Maintenance-Naïve
           Patients with Moderate Symptomatic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease:
           A Post Hoc Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction Appropriate timing for dual bronchodilator therapy initiation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management is uncertain. Combination therapy is recommended as step-up from monotherapy or first-line treatment in patients with persistent symptoms. In this setting, umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) demonstrated improved lung function and reduced rescue medication use over tiotropium/olodaterol (TIO/OLO). This subgroup analysis explored efficacy differences between these combinations in patients naïve to COPD maintenance therapy before study entry. Methods Post hoc analysis of an 8-week, randomized, open-label, assessor-blind, two-period crossover study (204990; NCT02799784) comparing UMEC/VI 62.5/25 mcg and TIO/OLO 5/5 mcg, focused on maintenance-naïve (MN) patients with moderate COPD and persistent symptoms (modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score ≥ 2). Change from baseline (CFB) in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), percentage of FEV1 responders (CFB ≥ 100 ml), rescue medication use and safety were evaluated. Results The MN population comprised 63% of the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (148/236 patients) and had similar baseline demographics. At week 8, adjusted mean (standard error) improvements in trough FEV1 from baseline were clinically meaningful for both combinations (UMEC/VI: 167 [17] ml; TIO/OLO 110 [18] ml; adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 57 [23–92] ml; p = 0.001; %CFB: 11 vs. 8%). Proportion of FEV1 responders was greater with UMEC/VI versus TIO/OLO at week 8 (60 vs. 42%; odds ratio [95% CI] 1.90 [1.12–3.22]; p = 0.018). Reduction in rescue medication use was 0.20 (95% CI 0.07–0.34) puffs/day greater with UMEC/VI versus TIO/OLO over weeks 1–8 (p = 0.003). Adverse events incidence was similar (UMEC/VI: 24%; TIO/OLO: 29%). Conclusions These results highlight that the efficacy difference between UMEC/VI and TIO/OLO demonstrated in the ITT population is maintained in MN patients. Greater lung function improvements with UMEC/VI versus TIO/OLO were accompanied by symptom improvements, as reflected in a significantly lower need for supplemental rescue medication. Funding GSK. Trial registration NCT02799784
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Real-World Practice Patterns for Prevention and Management of Potential
           Adverse Events with Pirfenidone in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary

    • Abstract: Introduction Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Real-world data on adverse event (AE) management for pirfenidone are limited. Strategies for managing potential antifibrotic therapy AEs were examined in a sample of US pulmonologists. Methods An online, self-administered survey was fielded to pulmonologists between April 10 and May 17, 2017. Pulmonologists were included if they spent > 20% of their time in direct patient care and had ≥ 5 patients with IPF on antifibrotic therapy. Participants answered questions regarding initiation of pirfenidone, dose titration, and management of potential AEs. Results A total of 169 pulmonologists participated. Gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance was the most important factor in implementing alternative titration schedules for pirfenidone. Approximately three-quarters of pulmonologists recommended the standard titration scheme for starting treatment; however, a range of titration schedules up to 8 weeks were described, with a 4-week schedule being most common. Pulmonologists reported that most patients treated with alternative titration schedules could achieve the full dose of pirfenidone. Pulmonologists who were most effective at mitigating pirfenidone-related GI AEs by advising dosing at mealtimes more frequently recommended taking pirfenidone during a substantial meal than pulmonologists who were less effective. For photosensitivity AEs, pulmonologists recommended sunscreen use, sun avoidance, wearing a hat, and ultraviolet protection factor clothing. Conclusions Pulmonologists reported that alternative titration schedules for initiating pirfenidone were common and can aid in maintaining the full dose. Proposed strategies to ameliorate pirfenidone-related GI and photosensitivity AEs included taking pirfenidone during a substantial meal and minimizing sun exposure, respectively. Funding F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd./Genentech, Inc. Plain Language Summary Plain language summary available for this article.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • A Real-World Evidence Study Assessing the Impact of Adding the Aerobika
           Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure Device to Standard of Care Upon
           Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs in Post-Operative Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction The aim of this real-world study was to measure the benefit of the Aerobika oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) device when added to standard of care (defined as incentive spirometry [IS]) for post-operative patients. Methods Adults aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized for cardiac, thoracic or upper abdominal surgery between 1 September 2013 and 30 April 2017 were identified from IQVIA’s Hospital Charge Detail Master (CDM) database; the index date was the date of the first hospitalization for surgery. The control cohort (IS) included patients who had ≥ 1 CDM record within 12 months prior to the index date and ≥ 1 record after discharge, evidence of IS use during index hospitalization and no evidence of use of a PEP or OPEP device at any time during the study period. The Aerobika OPEP cohort was selected in a similar manner, except that patients were required to have evidence of Aerobika OPEP use during the index hospitalization. Aerobika OPEP patients were 1:1 matched to IS patients using propensity score (PS) matching. Hospital readmissions and costs were measured at 30 days post-discharge from the index hospitalization. Results After PS matching, 144 patients were included in each cohort. At 30 days post-discharge, compared to the control (IS) cohort there were significantly fewer patients in the Aerobika OPEP cohort with ≥ 1 all-cause re-hospitalizations (13.9 vs. 22.9%; p = 0.042). The patients in the Aerobika OPEP cohort also had a shorter mean length of stay (± standard deviation) (1.25 ± 4.04 vs. 2.60 ± 8.24 days; p = 0.047) and lower total unadjusted mean all-cause cost per patient ($3670 ± $13,894 vs. $13,775 ± $84,238; p = 0.057). Adjusted analyses suggested that hospitalization costs were 80% lower for the Aerobika OPEP cohort versus the IS cohort (p = 0.001). Conclusion Our results suggest that the addition of the Aerobika OPEP device to standard of care (IS) is beneficial in the post-operative setting. Funding Trudell Medical International.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • The Role of the Body Clock in Asthma and COPD: Implication for Treatment

    • Abstract: Abstract Asthma exhibits a marked time of day variation in symptoms, airway physiology, and airway inflammation. This is also seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but to a lesser extent. Our understanding of how physiological daily rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock is increasing, and there is growing evidence that the molecular clock is important in the pathogenesis of these two airway diseases. If time of day is important, then it follows that treatment of asthma and COPD should also be tailored to the most efficacious time of the day, a concept known as ‘chronotherapy’. There have been a number of studies to determine the optimal time of day at which to take medications for asthma and COPD. Some of these agents are already used ‘chronotherapeutically’ in practice (often at night-time). However, several studies investigating systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently shown that the best time of day to take these medications for treating asthma is in the afternoon or early evening and not in the morning, when these medications are often prescribed. Future, large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of systemic and inhaled corticosteroids in asthma and COPD are needed to inform clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • In Vitro Determination of the Main Effects in the Design of High-Flow
           Nasal Therapy Systems with Respect to Aerosol Performance

    • Authors: Gavin Bennett; Mary Joyce; Louise Sweeney; Ronan MacLoughlin
      Abstract: Introduction The use of concurrent aerosol delivery during high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) may be exploited to facilitate the delivery of a variety of prescribed medications for inhalation. Until now, a systematic approach to determine the conditions required to yield an optimal emitted dose has not been reported. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of gas flow rate, input droplet size, and nebulizer position on the amount of aerosol exiting the nasal cannula during HFNT and thus becoming available for inhalation. Methods Testing was completed according to a factorial statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach. Emitted dose was characterized with a vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen Solo, Aerogen Ltd) for an adult model of HFNT at three clinically relevant gas flow rates, using three nebulizers producing varying input droplet sizes and placed at two different nebulizer positions. Results Increasing the gas flow rate significantly lowered the emitted dose, with a dose of 7.10% obtained at 10 LPM, 2.67% at 25 LPM, and 1.30% at 40 LPM (p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in emitted dose between nebulizers with different input droplet sizes, with increasing input droplet size associated with a reduced emitted dose (6.11% with an input droplet size of 3.22 µm, 2.76% with 4.05 µm, and 2.38% with 4.88 µm, p  = 0.0002, Pearson’s r = − 0.2871). In addition, the droplet size exiting the nasal cannula interface was lower than that produced by the aerosol generator for all devices under test. Positioning the nebulizer immediately after the humidification chamber yielded a marginally greater emitted dose (3.79%) than when the nebulizer was placed immediately upstream of the nasal cannula (3.39%). Flow rate, input droplet size, and nebulizer position were at the 0.10 level of significance, indicating that all three factors had significant effects on emitted dose. According to the DOE model, flow rate had the greatest influence on emitted dose, followed by input droplet size and then nebulizer position. Conclusion Our findings indicate that in order to optimize the amount of aerosol exiting the nasal cannula interface during HFNT, it is necessary for gas flow rate to be low and the input droplet size to be small, while the nebulizer should be positioned immediately after the humidification chamber. Funding Aerogen Limited.
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41030-018-0054-x
  • An Open-Label, Phase II Study of the Safety of Pirfenidone in Patients
           with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (PIPF-002)

    • Authors: Mark H. Gotfried; Carlos E. Girod; Danielle Antin-Ozerkis; Tracy Burgess; Indiana Strombom; John L. Stauffer; Klaus-Uwe Kirchgaessler; Maria L. Padilla
      Abstract: Introduction PIPF-002 was a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) or other types of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PIPF-002 terminated after pirfenidone became commercially available in the United States. The goal of PIPF-002 was to characterize the long-term safety of pirfenidone in these patients. Methods Between August 2003 and September 2006, 83 patients (IPF: 81, PF: 2) enrolled. Patients received pirfenidone in three divided doses daily, with the maintenance dose and schedule determined by enrollment group assignment. Treatment continued until patient withdrawal or study termination (2015). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed by descriptive statistics. Results At baseline, median age was 70 years, mean percent predicted forced vital capacity was 67.7%, 33.7% of patients had cardiac disorders, 51.8% had gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 63.9% were receiving concomitant prednisone. Median pirfenidone dose and exposure duration were 2400 mg/day and 3.0 years, respectively. Cumulative total exposure was 279.7 patient-exposure years (PEY). Most patients (98.8%) reported ≥ 1 TEAE, with an overall incidence rate of 460.5 per 100 PEY. The most frequent TEAEs (incidence rate per 100 PEY) were nausea (23.6), IPF progression (16.1), fatigue (11.8), dyspnea (11.4), upper respiratory tract infection (11.4), and cough (10.7). Serious TEAEs were reported in 49 patients; the most frequent serious TEAEs were IPF progression and pneumonia. The most common reason for discontinuation was TEAEs (35 patients; 12.5 patients per 100 PEY), most frequently IPF progression and nausea. Overall, 21 patients died (7.5 per 100 PEY); 16 deaths were IPF-related. Conclusions Long-term safety and tolerability of pirfenidone findings in this study were consistent with the known safety profile of pirfenidone; no new safety signals were identified. These data support the continued use of pirfenidone in patients with IPF. Funding F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd./Genentech, Inc. Trial Registration identifier, NCT00080223. Plain Language Summary Plain language summary available for this article.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41030-018-0053-y
  • Volume Management in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients: An Expert
           Pulmonary Hypertension Clinician Perspective

    • Authors: Lillian Hansen; Marsha Burks; Martha Kingman; Traci Stewart
      Abstract: Abstract Fluid volume management in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is essential in preventing right ventricular failure. Volume overload may be caused by disease progression, indiscretion of dietary sodium and fluid intake, or medication side effects, and is a frequent complication in patients with PAH. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) who care for patients with PAH have a key role in monitoring, preventing, and managing volume overload. Volume management techniques in patients with PAH include managing diuretic use and electrolyte imbalances, and monitoring fluid retention that can occur from the use of endothelin receptor antagonists or calcium channel blockers. Healthcare providers can create volume management protocols as well as patient educational materials. Patients should be educated to self-monitor their daily weights, incorporate dietary restrictions, and recognize symptoms associated with volume overload. Tools to help HCPs with volume management in patients with PAH are provided in this article. Funding Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41030-018-0052-z
  • Intra-Seasonal Initiation of the SQ-Standardised Grass Allergy
           Immunotherapy Tablet Routinely Applied by Allergy Specialists and General
           Practitioners with Experience in Treatment of Allergy: A
           Non-Interventional Observational Study

    • Authors: Jan-Alexander Schwab; Hendrik Wolf; Jörg Schnitker; Eike Wüstenberg
      Abstract: Introduction Intra-seasonal start of treatment with the SQ® grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet (GRAZAX®, ALK, Denmark) has been previously demonstrated to be well-tolerated. The objective of our study was to investigate the tolerability of intra-seasonal start of treatment comparing patients treated by allergists and general practitioners experienced in treatment of allergy (GPs). Methods In a non-interventional, open-label, observational study, data on intra-seasonal start with the SQ® grass SLIT tablet were recorded in patients treated by allergists and GPs in Germany. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the physicians at first administration and during the 1–3-month observation period. The tablets taken and any AEs were recorded by the patients in diaries for the first 14 days. Results Treatment with the SQ® grass SLIT tablet was started in 198 patients, and in 179 intra-seasonal (allergists: 140, GPs: 39) and 19 post-seasonal; average treatment period was 47 days. AEs related to intra-seasonal start were reported in 43.6% of patients; no relevant differences between allergists and GPs were observed. In the subgroup of GPs, patients were younger (p = 0.0191), had more frequently asthma (p = 0.0043), more patients used symptomatic medication in the previous pollen season (p = 0.0198) and were more frequently treated for other diseases (p = 0.0467). In the allergists subgroup, more diagnostic allergy tests were applied (p < 0.0001) with less anti-allergic premedication at first administration (p = 0.0026). Conclusion The intra-seasonal start of treatment with the SQ® grass SLIT tablet in patients routinely treated by allergists or GPs with experience in treatment of allergy was well-tolerated, although patient characteristics were different with respect to age, frequency of asthma and concomitant allergies, use of symptomatic medication in the previous grass pollen season and concomitant treatment of other diseases. The safety profile from a previous placebo-controlled clinical trial and data from a previous real-life study on intra-seasonal start performed by allergists were confirmed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s41030-018-0050-1
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