Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8359 journals)
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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (102 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 102 of 102 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 100)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 10  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1070-5287 - ISSN (Online) 1531-6971
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [299 journals]
  • Editorial introductions
    • Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Editorial: Asthma: a modifiable disease on a crossroad
    • Authors: Diamant; Zuzana; van den Berge, Maarten; Hanania, Nicola A.
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Long and winding road: from infant wheeze to adult asthma
    • Authors: Sánchez-García; Silvia; Rial, Manuel J.; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review This review aims to recognize the multifactorial cause of asthma, from the influence of mother until adulthood, highlight the main characteristics of the disease at different ages and summarize the evidence of potential prevention strategies.Recent findings To date, regarding the prenatal period, the presence of specific genes, maternal asthma, drugs, and tobacco exposure are the most relevant predisposing features for an asthmatic offspring. For newborns, preterm, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and low birth weight has been associated with low lung function. Among young children, atopic dermatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and increased levels of total Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE are important determinants.Breastfeeding has been demonstrated being protective for the onset of asthma. Allergen immunotherapy has also been shown to have significant preventive effect decreasing asthma development. Inhaled corticosteroids use in early childhood prevents exacerbations but does not alter the natural history of asthma. Other interventions, such as the use of palivizumab, probiotics, vitamin D supplementation, and fish consumption presented controversial results.Summary A good knowledge of risk factors for asthma development, from prenatal period to adulthood, may lead to efficacious preventive strategies. Further data of long-term follow-up in population-based studies according to different phenotypes are needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Asthma and air pollution: recent insights in pathogenesis and clinical
    • Authors: Bontinck; Annelies; Maes, Tania; Joos, Guy
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Air pollution has adverse effects on the onset and morbidity of respiratory diseases, including asthma. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the effects of air pollution on the incidence and exacerbation of asthma. We focus on epidemiological studies that describe the association between air pollution exposure and development, mortality, persistence and exacerbations of asthma among different age groups. Moreover, we also provide an update on translational studies describing the mechanisms behind this association.Recent findings Mechanisms linking air pollutants such as particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone to the development and exacerbation of asthma include the induction of both eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation driven by stimulation of airway epithelium and increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative stress and DNA methylation changes. Although exposure during foetal development is often reported as a crucial timeframe, exposure to air pollution is detrimental in people of all ages, thus influencing asthma onset as well as increase in asthma prevalence, mortality, persistence and exacerbation.Summary In conclusion, this review highlights the importance of reducing air pollution levels to avert the progressive increase in asthma incidence and morbidity.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Epithelial dysfunction in chronic respiratory diseases, a shared
    • Authors: Steelant; Brecht
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Epithelial barrier defects are being appreciated in various inflammatory disorders; however, causal underlying mechanisms are lacking. In this review, we describe the disruption of the airway epithelium with regard to upper and lower airway diseases, the role of epigenetic alterations underlying this process, and potential novel ways of interfering with dysfunctional epithelial barriers as a novel therapeutic approach.Recent findings A defective epithelial barrier, impaired innate defence mechanisms or hampered epithelial cell renewal are found in upper and lower airway diseases. Barrier dysfunction might facilitate the entrance of foreign substances, initiating and facilitating the onset of disease. Latest data provided novel insights for possible involvement of epigenetic alterations induced by inflammation or other unknown mechanisms as a potential mechanism responsible for epithelial defects. Additionally, these mechanisms might precede disease development, and represent a novel therapeutic approach for restoring epithelial defects.Summary A better understanding of the role of epigenetics in driving and maintaining epithelial defects in various inflammatory diseases, using state-of-the-art biology tools will be crucial in designing novel therapies to protect or reconstitute a defective airway epithelial barrier.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Ecological interactions in asthma: from environment to microbiota and
           immune responses
    • Authors: Kozik; Ariangela; Huang, Yvonne J.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Asthma is a heterogeneous condition shaped not only by genetics but also host conditioning by environmental factors. Recognizing the ecological context of microbe-immune interactions across environments and body sites is a necessary step toward better understanding how human microbiota influence or drive the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of asthma in its various presentations.Recent findings There is increasing evidence of a critical role for microbiota in asthma pathogenesis and outcomes across various body compartments, including the upper and lower airways, and gut. We discuss recent studies from this area including: development of a method to quantify microbial farm-effect in nonfarm environments, relationships between environmental microbial exposures and asthma prevalence across different geographies, microbiome-mediated responses to ozone, and microbiome-immune interactions within and across body compartments. Beyond bacteria, recent reports of asthma-associated differences in archaea and fungal organisms also are highlighted.Summary Collective evidence warrants application of an ecological framework to advance mechanistic insights into microbiota-immune interactions in asthma. This is necessary to achieve goals of developing successful therapeutic interventions targeting modification of microbiomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Precision medicine and treatable traits in chronic airway diseases - where
           do we stand'
    • Authors: Ulrik; Charlotte Suppli; Vijverberg, Susanne; Hanania, Nicola A.; Diamant, Zuzana
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review To provide an update on the implementation of precision medicine, based on treatable traits and mechanisms, in the daily clinical management of chronic airways diseases.Recent findings Recent insights into the complex and heterogeneous nature of chronic airway diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma identified several clinical and inflammatory phenotypes. This shifted the management focus of these diseases away from the prototypic disease labels and paved the way for developing novel targeted therapies.The concept of precision medicine aims to link the right patient to the right treatment, while minimizing the risk of adverse effects. Several treatable features (’treatable traits’) have now been identified for these chronic airway diseases, including pulmonary, extra-pulmonary, and psychological/lifestyle/environmental traits. As the next step, innovative detection techniques should clarify underlying mechanisms and molecular pathways of these treatable traits and novel reliable point-of-care (composite) biomarkers to help predict responders to targeted therapies must be developed.Summary Precision medicine links the right patient to the right treatment. Identification of treatable traits in asthma and COPD will help optimize the treatment approach in these heterogeneous diseases. Furthermore, in-depth identification of underlying molecular pathways and reliable biomarkers in chronic airways diseases to guide targeted treatment in individual patients is in progress.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Lost in transition: biomarkers of remodeling in patients with asthma
    • Authors: Bahmer; Thomas; Sand, Jannie Marie Bülow; Weckmann, Markus
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review ‘Biomarkers of remodeling’ represent a loose collection of features referring to several biological adaptations of the lung to cope with stressing factors. In addition, remodel-’ing’ infers a dynamic process that would require a spatiotemporal resolution. This review focuses on different aspects of remodeling in pediatric and adult care.Recent findings This review will cover aspects of pediatric remodeling, adult remodeling and techniques and procedures to adequately assess remodeling across different age spectra. In pediatrics, the onset and first features of remodeling are discussed and the continuation into adolescence is addressed. For adults, this review addresses predominant features of remodeling throughout the adult life span and whether there are currently interventions available to treat or reverse remodeling.Summary The term ‘remodeling’ is often referred to via biomarkers that reflect the endstage of a process, although it rather reflects a continuous process starting in childhood and progressing to all age-levels in patients with asthma. Hence, only few biomarkers or surrogates are able to ‘capture’ its spatiotemporal component, and hardly any are ready for routine use in clinical practice. Given the clinical impact of the remodeling processes, new biomarkers are needed to adequately treat patients with asthma and objectively monitor treatment response beyond symptom control and lung function.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The impact of comorbidities on severe asthma
    • Authors: Rogliani; Paola; Sforza, Maurizia; Calzetta, Luigino
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Severe asthma is often associated with numerous comorbidities that complicate disease management and affect patient's outcomes. They contribute to poor disease control and mimic asthma symptoms. Although some comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea, bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are generally well recognized, many other may remain undiagnosed but may be detected in an expert specialist setting. The management of comorbidities seems to improve asthma outcomes, and optimizes therapy by avoiding overtreatment. The present review provides recent knowledge regarding the most common comorbidities which are associated with severe asthma.Recent findings Comorbidities are more prevalent in severe asthma than in mild-to-moderate disease or in the general population. They can be grouped into two large domains: the pulmonary domain and the extrapulmonary domain. Pulmonary comorbidities include upper respiratory tract disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis) and middle/lower respiratory tract disorders (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and fungal sensitization, bronchiectasis, dysfunctional breathing). Extrapulmonary comorbidities include anxiety, depression, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases.Summary The identification of comorbidities via multidimensional approach is needed to initiate appropriate multidisciplinary management of patients with severe asthma.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Can training induce inflammatory control in asthma, or is it symptom
           control only'
    • Authors: Pitzner-Fabricius; Anders; Toennesen, Louise Lindhardt; Backer, Vibeke
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Exercise has shown to reduce asthma symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism for this improvement remains unclear. Improvement in inflammatory control could be the reason for this reduction in symptoms. This review discusses recent studies evaluating the effect of exercise on inflammatory control in patients with asthma.Recent findings New studies support that exercise is well tolerated and feasible regardless of intensity. Exercise seems to improve systemic low-grade inflammation, but consistency lacks when it comes to reduction in airway inflammation.Summary Physical exercise as an adjuvant therapy leads to improvement in asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life and should be recommended for all patients with asthma.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The different faces of the macrophage in asthma
    • Authors: van der Veen; T. Anienke; de Groot, Linsey E.S.; Melgert, Barbro N.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in which changes in macrophage polarization have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis. The present review discusses the contribution of changes in macrophage function to asthma related to polarization changes and elaborates on possible therapeutic strategies targeting macrophage function and polarization.Recent findings Macrophage function alterations were shown to contribute to asthma pathology in several ways. One is by impaired phagocytosis and efferocytosis. Another is by changing inflammation, by altered (anti)inflammatory cytokine production and induction of the inflammasome. Finally, macrophages can contribute to remodeling in asthma, although little evidence is present in humans yet.Novel therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages include dampening inflammation by changing polarization or by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome, and by targeting efferocytosis. However, many of these studies were performed in animal models leaving their translation to the clinic for future research.Summary The present review emphasizes the contribution of altered macrophage function to asthma, gives insight in possible new therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages, and indicates which knowledge gaps remain open.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Anti-alarmin approaches entering clinical trials
    • Authors: Gauvreau; Gail M.; White, Lucie; Davis, Beth E.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The alarmins, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are upstream regulators of T2 (type 2) inflammation and found to be expressed at high levels in airway epithelium of patients with T2 asthma. This review will summarize how alarmins regulate the inflamed asthmatic airways through previously described and newly identified mechanisms.Recent findings Alarmins drive allergic and nonallergic asthma through activation of innate lymphoid cell 2 (ILC2), which are a rich source of cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13, with resulting effects on eosinophilopoeisis and remodelling, respectively. Findings from bronchial allergen challenges have illustrated widespread expression of alarmins and their receptors across many effector cells in airways, and recent studies have emphasized alarmin regulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils, and their progenitors. Furthermore, a link between alarmins and lipid mediators is being uncovered.Summary Alarmins can drive well defined inflammatory pathways through activation of dendritic cells and polarizing T cells to produce type 2 cytokines, as well as they can directly activate many other effector cells that play a central role in allergic and nonallergic asthma. Clinical trials support a central role for TSLP in driving airway inflammation and asthma exacerbations, while ongoing trials blocking IL-33 and IL-25 will help to define their respective role in asthma.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Precision medicine in severe pediatric asthma: opportunities and
    • Authors: Vijverberg; Susanne J.H.; Brinkman, Paul; Rutjes, Niels W.P.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Severe pediatric asthma exerts a substantial burden on patients, their families and society. This review provides an update on the latest insights and needs regarding the implementation of precision medicine in severe pediatric asthma.Recent findings Biologicals targeting underlying inflammatory pathways are increasingly available to treat children with severe asthma, holding the promise to enable precision medicine in this heterogeneous patient population with high unmet clinical needs. However, the current understanding of which child would benefit from which type or combination of biologicals is still limited, as most evidence comes from adult studies and might not be generalizable to the pediatric population. Studies in pediatric severe asthma are scarce due to the time-consuming effort to diagnose severe asthma and the challenge to recruit sufficient study participants. The application of innovative systems medicine approaches in international consortia might provide novel leads for – preferably noninvasive – new biomarkers to guide precision medicine in severe pediatric asthma.Summary Despite the increased availability of targeted treatments for severe pediatric asthma, clinical decision-making tools to guide these therapies are still lacking for the individual pediatric patient.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The role of genomic profiling in identifying molecular phenotypes in
           obstructive lung diseases
    • Authors: Christenson; Stephanie A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The biology underlying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous. Targeting therapies to patient subgroups, or ‘molecular phenotypes’, based on their underlying biology is emerging as an efficacious treatment strategy. This review summarizes the role of airway sample gene expression profiling in understanding molecular phenotypes in obstructive lung disease.Recent findings Recent gene expression studies have reinforced the importance of Type two (T2) inflammation in asthma and COPD subgroups. Studies in asthma also suggest that the molecular phenotype with enhanced T2 inflammation is itself heterogeneous with a subgroup that has steroid-refractory inflammation. Other inflammatory pathways are also emerging as implicated in asthma and COPD molecular phenotypes, including Type one and Type 17 adaptive immune responses and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6.Summary Genomic profiling studies are advancing our understanding of the complex biology contributing to asthma and COPD molecular phenotypes. Recent studies suggest that asthma and COPD subgroups may benefit from different treatment strategies than those currently in practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • The burden of corticosteroid overload in severe and difficult to treat
           asthma: how to reduce this'
    • Authors: Slisz; Tomas; Vasakova, Martina
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Severe asthma is a serious condition that requires an individualized approach combining several treatment agents administered simultaneously in order to reach adequate control. Glucocorticosteroid treatment, as the cornerstone of asthma pharmacotherapy, has great disease-controlling capability, although it may induce a vast amount of severe adverse effects. This review describes our current knowledge of the monitoring and managing options of these adverse effects and possibilities to prevent them, including new therapeutic options.Recent findings A large amount of new drugs is emerging, which may offer a better control of glucocorticosteroid-induced adverse effects. At the same time, major achievements in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in severe asthma and in the field of biologic agents may help to substantially reduce the need of glucocorticosteroids in the first-line treatment.Summary We discuss new insights and approaches to treatment strategy of severe asthma allowing less oral glucocorticosteroid use and hence, substantial less severe adverse effects of the treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • How harmless are E-cigarettes' Effects in the pulmonary system
    • Authors: Bozier; Jack; Zakarya, Razia; Chapman, David Geoffrey; Oliver, Brian Gregory George
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review Electronic cigarettes have quickly risen to be the leading alternative nicotine source to tobacco. E-cigarette use is hard to research and regulate because of the novelty and rapid evolution of the devices and E-liquids. Epidemiological data on long-term usage is currently lacking, but in smaller cohort studies we are starting to understand the usage patterns and demographics of users, which differ depending on where the study takes place and the regulatory environment. The present review describes the current knowledge of the effects of E-cigarettes on the pulmonary system and knowledge of their usage patterns worldwide.Recent findings E-cigarette use is continuing to rise in young adults in United States and Canada, but not in United Kingdom. These suggest that regulation is influencing uptake in young adults. If E-cigarettes are to be considered as a harm minimisation smoking cessation product, use in young never smokers must be factored into the risk assessment. A recent surge in cases of lung injury associated with vaping in America has resulted in the definition of vaping associated pulmonary injury, although the exact cause remains unknown.Summary It is our opinion that E-cigarettes can no longer be defined as harmless. Further studies are needed to determine the risks for all populations as it is evident that a large proportion of E-cigarette users are never-smokers, meaning they cannot only be considered from a harm reduction perspective.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
  • Exercise and lifestyle changes in pediatric asthma
    • Authors: Lu; Kim D.; Forno, Erick
      Abstract: imagePurpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent studies on lifestyle interventions in pediatric asthma. We include studies on physical activity and exercise, sedentary time, nutrition, behavioral therapy and the role of schools.Recent findings Several small studies in children with asthma suggest that exercise interventions can improve aerobic fitness, asthma symptoms or control and quality of life. Existing evidence supports recommending higher intake of fruits and vegetables for asthma risk and control. In contrast, the ‘Western diet’ – high in refined grains, highly processed foods, red meats and fried foods with low intake of fruits and vegetables – has a proinflammatory effect and may alter microbiota composition leading to worse asthma outcomes. Finally, there are opportunities to utilize schools to promote physical activity, though standardization of asthma management in the schools is needed.Summary Assessing physical activity/fitness levels, sedentary time and nutritional status is important in the management of children with asthma, as they are modifiable factors. Larger rigorous studies evaluating lifestyle interventions are needed to better inform current asthma guidelines as well as to understand the underlying mechanism(s) related to physical activity and diet in asthma.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
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