Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8359 journals)
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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (102 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 102 of 102 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 100)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.474
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1198-2241 - ISSN (Online) 1916-7245
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Errors in Aerosol Inhaler Use and Their Effects on Maternal and Fetal
           Outcomes among Pregnant Asthmatic Women (Subanalysis from QAKCOP Study)

    • Abstract: Data on inhaler technique and its effects on maternal and fetal outcomes during pregnancy are seldom reported. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate inhaler technique and identify errors in inhaler use among pregnant women with asthma. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with poor inhaler technique and study the association between inhaler technique and maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a cross-sectional, face-to-face, prospective study of 80 pregnant women with physician-diagnosed asthma. Seventy-three and 41 asthmatic pregnant women reported using pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs), respectively. Overall, wrong inhaler technique was observed in 47 (64.4%) subjects. Among pMDI users, correct inhaler use was observed in only 26/73 (35.6%) of the patients, with lack of coordination between inhalation and generation of the aerosol and failure to breathe out gently before using the inhaler, being the most common errors. Among DPI users, 21 (51.2%) demonstrated correct inhaler use, with failure to perform a breath-hold for 10 seconds after inhaling the powder and to exhale gently before using the inhaler being the most common errors. Significant associations between inhaler technique and patient’s understanding of asthma medications and the kind of follow-up clinic (respiratory versus nonrespiratory clinic) were found. No significant associations between inhaler technique and various maternal and fetal outcomes or asthma control were found. In conclusion, improper inhalation technique is significantly prevalent in pregnant asthmatic women, particularly among those being followed in nonspecialized respiratory clinics. The lack of significant association between the inhaler technique and asthma control (and hence maternal and fetal outcomes) may simply reflect the high prevalence of uncontrolled asthma and significant contribution of other barriers to poor asthma control in the current patient’s cohort. Multidisciplinary management of asthma during pregnancy with particular emphasis on patient’s education is imperative.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis: A

    • Abstract: Background. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is an effective technique for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). The efficacy of CMR versus the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW) guidelines considered as standard criterion for the diagnosis of CS remains to be elucidated. Methods. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed at assessing the diagnostic accuracy of CMR in cardiac sarcoidosis. We searched on PubMed from January 1, 1980, to March 28, 2018, on Embase from January 1, 1980, to March 29, 2018, and on the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1980, to April 1, 2018, using a strategy based on the search terms (sarcoidosis and magnetic resonance imaging) independently. We analyzed the data obtained with Revman 5.3 and Stata 14.0 software. Results. Eight studies with a total of 649 participants met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted. CMR had an overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87–0.97) and specificity of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.68–0.94) for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93–0.97). The subgroup analysis via public year showed that studies between 2011 and 2017 had an overall sensitivity of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88–0.98) and specificity of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.49–0.99), with an area under the SROC curve being 0.96. Conclusions. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that CMR could be used for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis and screening of patients suspected of CS. With the improvement of the technique, the diagnostic accuracy of MRI has improved.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 08:40:55 +000
  • Cardiorespiratory Responses to Glittre ADL Test in Bronchiectasis: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by chronic sputum production, fatigue, and dyspnoea. These symptoms will lead to reduced exercise capacity and a reduced ability to carry out activities of daily living. Glittre ADL test is a valid and reliable test which evaluates the activities of daily living. Aim. To investigate whether the Glittre ADL test can differentiate the functional capacity and cardiorespiratory responses of patients with bronchiectasis from those healthy individuals using the six-minute test as a functional performance standard. Methods. This study included 30 subjects: 15 bronchiectasis and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The patients and healthy subjects were made to perform the Glittre ADL and six-minute test on two consecutive days. Parameters such as time taken, distance walked, HR, RR, SpO2, and dyspnoea were recorded before and after the tests. Results. The performance of bronchiectasis was worse than the healthy group on the Glittre ADL test (4.78 ± 1.33 min, 3.94 ± 0.82 min, ). Distance walked in the six-minute walk test by the bronchiectasis was 42 meters lesser than the healthy (400.33 ± 77.99, 442 ± 89.21, ). The Glittre ADL test was correlated with 6MWT when the total sample was analysed (). There was moderate positive correlation between heart rate variation, dyspnoea, respiratory rate, and peripheral saturation (SpO2) between the tests (Glittre heart rate versus six-minute walk test heart rate (); Glittre (Borg) versus six-minute walk test (Borg) (); Glittre respiratory rate versus six-minute walk test RR (); Glittre SpO2 versus six-minute walk test SpO2 ()). The bronchiectasis group had a statistically significant higher () increase in dyspnoea and RR than the controls in both the Glittre ADL test and six-minute walk test (), with the similar HR variation in both the groups (). There was statistical difference in peripheral oxygen saturation in bronchiectasis in the six-minute walk test ().Conclusion. The Glittre ADL test induced similar cardiorespiratory responses when compared to the six-minute walk test. So, the Glittre ADL test can be used as an assessment tool besides the six-minute walk test for the more complete evaluation of functional capacity and activities of daily living.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Daily Objective Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Adults with COPD
           Using Spirometry Data from Canadian Measures Health Survey

    • Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to be the third leading cause of premature death and disability in Canada and around the world by the year 2020. The study aims to compare objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in a population-based sample of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare a group, and to investigate whether these behaviors differ according to COPD severity. From the 2007–2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey dataset, accelerometer and prebronchodilator spirometry data were available for 6441 participants, aged 35 to 79. Two weighted analyses of covariance were performed with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, accelerometer wearing time, season, work, smoking (cotinine), education level, and income. A set of sensitivity analyses were carried out to examine the possible effect of COPD and type of control group. A cross-sectional weighted analysis indicated that 14.6% of study participants had a measured airflow obstruction consistent with COPD. Time in PA (moderate-vigorous and light PA), number of steps, and sedentary duration were not significantly different in participants with COPD, taken together, compared to controls. However, moderate to severe COPD participants (stages ≥2) had a significantly lower daily time spent in PA of moderate and vigorous intensity level compared to controls. Canadian adults with COPD with all disease severity levels combined did not show lower daily duration of light, moderate, and vigorous PA, and number of steps and higher daily sedentary time than those without airflow obstruction. Both groups are extremely sedentary and have low PA duration. Thus, “move more and sit less” public health strategy could equally target adults with or without COPD.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Clinical Significance of Serum Hemeoxygenase-1 as a New Biomarker for the
           Patients with Interstitial Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Background. Serum hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been proposed to be a biomarker of lung disease activity and prognosis. The present study aimed at evaluating whether HO-1 could be a useful marker for evaluating disease activity and predicting prognosis in patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP). Materials and Methods. Serum HO-1 levels of newly diagnosed or untreated patients with IP were measured at hospitalization. We evaluated the relationships between serum HO-1 and other serum biomarkers, high resolution CT (HRCT) findings, and hospital mortality. Results. Twenty-eight patients with IP, including 14 having an acute exacerbation (AE) and 14 not having an AE, were evaluated. The patients having an AE had significantly higher HO-1 levels than those not having an AE (53.5 ng/mL vs. 24.1 ng/mL; ), and the best cut-off level to discriminate between having an AE or not having an AE was 41.6 ng/mL. Serum HO-1 levels were positively correlated with serum levels of surfactant protein-D (,) and the ground glass opacity score (calculated from HRCT; ,). Patients who subsequently died in hospital had presented with significantly higher HO-1 levels than those who did not die in hospital (64.8 ng/mL vs. 32.0 ng/mL; ).Conclusion. Serum HO-1 may serve as a useful biomarker for detecting AE or predicting hospital mortality in patients with IP.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cost Effectiveness of Bosentan for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Objectives. Although many studies have reported on the cost-effectiveness of bosentan for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a systematic review of economic evaluations of bosentan is currently lacking. Objective evaluation of current pharmacoeconomic evidence can assist decision makers in determining the appropriate place in therapy of a new medication. Methods. Systematic literature searches were conducted in English-language databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit databases, and the Cochrane Library) and Chinese-language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Data, and Chongqing VIP) to identify studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of bosentan for PAH treatments. Results. A total of 8 published studies were selected for inclusion. Among them were two studies comparing bosentan with epoprostenol and treprostinil. Both results indicated that bosentan was more cost-effective than epoprostenol, while the results of bosentan and treprostinil were not consistent. Four studies compared bosentan with other endothelin receptor antagonists, which indicated ambrisentan might be the drug of choice for its economic advantages and improved safety profile. Only two economic evaluations provided data to compare bosentan versus sildenafil, and the results favored the use of sildenafil in PAH patients. Four studies compared bosentan with conventional, supportive, or palliative therapy, and whether bosentan was cost-effective was uncertain. Conclusions. Bosentan may represent a more cost-effective option compared with epoprostenol and conventional or palliative therapy. There was unanimous agreement that bosentan was not a cost-effective front-line therapy compared with sildenafil and other endothelin receptor antagonists. However, high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses that utilize long-term follow-up data and have no conflicts of interest are still needed.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Review of Echocardiographic Findings in Patients with Obstructive Sleep

    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes recurrent apneas due to upper respiratory tract collapse, leading to sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation and increased cardiovascular risk. Moderate and severe forms of obstructive sleep apnea are associated with increased atrial volumes and affect left ventricular diastolic and then systolic function. Right ventricular ejection fraction can be accurately assessed via three-dimensional echocardiography, while bidimensional imaging can only provide a set of surrogate parameters to characterize systolic function (tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, right ventricular fractional area change, and lateral S’). Tissue Doppler imaging is a more sensitive tool in detecting functional ventricular impairment, but its use is limited by angle dependence and the unwanted influence of tethering forces. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography is considered more suitable for the assessment of ventricular function, as it is able to distinguish between active and passive wall motion. Abnormal strain values, a marker of subclinical myocardial dysfunction, can be detected even in patients with normal ejection fraction and chamber volumes. The left ventricular longitudinal strain is more affected by the presence of obstructive sleep apnea than circumferential strain values. Although the observed OSA-induced changes are subtle, the benefit of a detailed echocardiographic screening for subclinical heart failure in OSA patients on therapy adherence and outcome should be addressed by further studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Tongue Function: An Underrecognized Component in the Treatment of
           Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance

    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common but still underrecognized disorder. A mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) is used to treat OSA by advancing the mandible and thereby reducing the collapsibility of the upper airway. It has been found that an MRA increases the volume of the upper airway, especially the velopharyngeal area, in OSA patients. We hypothesize that this increase in the velopharyngeal volume is associated with an anterior displacement of the tongue, but likely not with a stretching of the soft tissue connecting the soft palate, lateral pharynx, palatopharyngeal arch, and mandible. Since the function and structure of the genioglossus and hypoglossal nerve are always abnormal in patients with OSA, the tongue does not always move simultaneously with the mandible when an MRA is being used. Oropharyngeal exercises, especially tongue exercises, can improve the quality of life of OSA patients, including reduction of daytime sleepiness and snoring, better quality of sleep, and partial decrease in the AHI. Further, in animal models, tongue exercise is also found to be effective in tongue function recovery and in the remodeling of the hypoglossal nucleus. We suggest that a combination of tongue exercises along with MRA is a promising approach for patients who do not respond to an MRA alone.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sonographic Indicators for Treatment Choice and Follow-Up in Patients with
           Pleural Effusion

    • Abstract: Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of thoracic sonography in treatment of pleural effusions and to identify sonographic indicators for surgical intervention. Materials and Methods. This study included 378 patients with pleural effusions. US characteristics of effusions as the echo structure and pleural thickening were analyzed. Regarding the US finding, the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure was performed. Results. The study included 267 male and 111 female patients, an average of 56.7 years. Infection was the most frequent cause of effusion. Two hundred sixty-nine patients had loculated and 109 free pleural effusion. Most frequent echo structure of loculated effusion was complex septate, whereas free effusion was mostly anechoic. Successful obtaining of the pleural fluid without real-time guidance was in 88% and under real-time guidance in 99% patients (). There was no significant difference in success rate between free and loculated effusion and regarding the echo structure ( and 0.126, respectively). Complete fluid removal after serial thoracentesis or drainage was achieved in 86% patients. Forty-five patients with significantly thicker pleural peel and impairment of the diaphragmatic function than remaining of the group () underwent surgery. Open thoracotomy and decortication was more frequently performed in patients with completely fixed diaphragm and complex, dominantly septated effusions. There is no significant difference in US parameters comparing to patients underwent VATS, but the number of VATS is too small for valid conclusion. Conclusion. Thoracic sonography is a very useful tool in the evaluation of clinical course and treatment options in patients with pleural effusions of a different origin.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Variation of Risk Factors for Cause-Specific Reintubation: A Preliminary

    • Abstract: Unexpected reintubation may occur, even if the risk factors are considered and a spontaneous breathing trial is successful. Reintubation is thought to be caused by various factors. Several studies have investigated the risk factors of reintubation, but most did not classify reintubation by cause. We retrospectively classified patients undergoing reintubation at intensive care unit by cause (respiratory insufficiency vs. nonrespiratory insufficiency) to examine the cause-specific risk factors of reintubation. A total of 262 patients were included; reintubation within 48 hours after extubation was performed in 12 patients (reintubation rate, 4.5%). After classification by cause of reintubation, the pressure of arterial oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen concentration (P/F) ratio exhibited a significant association with reintubation only in the respiratory insufficiency group (odds ratio (OR) 0.989, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.980 to 0.999, , and OR 0.989, 95% CI 0.979 to 0.999, , in the univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). In the propensity score analysis, a P/F ratio ≤ 200 may be a risk factor for reintubation in the respiratory insufficiency group (OR 7.811, 95% CI 1.345 to 45.367, ). In the nonrespiratory insufficiency group, intubation duration was significantly related to reintubation (OR 1.165, 95% CI 1.012 to 1.342, , and OR 1.163, 95% CI 1.004 to 1.348, , in the univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). In conclusion, a low P/F ratio at extubation may be a risk factor for reintubation due to respiratory insufficiency. In the nonrespiratory insufficiency group, intubation duration may be significantly related to reintubation. The risk factors for reintubation may differ by the cause of reintubation. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are required.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Oct 2018 07:01:19 +000
  • Intrabullous Adhesion Pexia (IBAP) by Percutaneous Pulmonary Bulla
           Centesis: An Alternative for the Surgical Treatment of Giant Pulmonary
           Bulla (GPB)

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Most patients with giant pulmonary bulla (GPB) are treated by surgery; however, there is a subset for whom surgery is not a viable option, such as those with contraindications, or those unwilling to undergo operation. Therefore, an alternative minimally invasive method is desired for this subpopulation. The aim of this study was to explore an alternative procedure for treating GPB. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm, unblinded study evaluating the efficacy and safety of intrabulla adhesion pexia (IBAP) procedure in GPB patients. The study was conducted between December 2004 and April 2017. Results. There were 38 cases in 36 patients (33 males and 3 females) with the target GPB cavities varying in size (range, 10 cm × 7 cm × 5 cm to 15 cm × 8 cm × 30 cm (anteroposterior diameter × medial-lateral diameter × superoinferior diameter)). After IBAP treatment, the closure ratio of GPB in one month was 86.84% (33/38), while the dyspnea index significantly decreased from 4.11 ± 1.11 to 2.24 ± 1.15 (). In addition, the mean FEV1 (L) increased from 1.06 ± 0.73 to 1.57 ± 1.13 (), while RV (L) decreased from 2.77 ± 0.54 to 2.36 ± 0.38 () and TLC (L) decreased from 6.46 ± 1.21 to 5.86 ± 1.08 (). Moreover, PaO2 (mmHg) increased from 52.18 ± 8.31 to 68.29 ± 12.34, while the 6 MWD increased by 129.36% from 131.58 ± 105.24 to 301.79 ± 197.90 (). Collectively, these data indicated significant improvement in pulmonary function and exercise tolerance after IBAP treatment. Furthermore, no deaths occurred during IBAP treatment, and no cases of aggravated GPB relapse were reported during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions. IBAP is a promising strategy for the treatment of GPB. Our findings demonstrated that IBAP had a noteworthy therapeutic effect, desirable safety, and ideal long-term efficacy for GPB.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 08:39:00 +000
  • Lung Ultrasound Is Accurate for the Diagnosis of High-Altitude Pulmonary
           Edema: A Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasonography (LUS) for high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Background. LUS has proven to be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and pneumothorax. LUS also has potential for the diagnosis of HAPE. However, the actual diagnostic value of LUS for HAPE is still unknown. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using LUS for the diagnosis of HAPE. Materials and Methods. A prospective clinical research study of adult HAPE patients was conducted. LUS and chest X-ray (CXR) were performed in patients with suspected HAPE before and after treatment, and pulmonary moist rales were recorded concurrently. The diagnostic value of LUS, CXR, and moist rales for HAPE (i.e., their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were assessed, and the results were compared. The gold standard was the final diagnosis. Results. In total, 148 patients were enrolled in the study, 126 of which were diagnosed with HAPE (85.14%). Before treatment, the diagnostic accuracy of LUS for HAPE was as follows: sensitivity, 98.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 100.60–96.23%); specificity, 90.91% (95% CI 102.92–78.90%). LUS had higher sensitivity (0.98 vs. 0.81, using the McNemar test) than moist rales for the diagnosis of HAPE. LUS also had higher sensitivity than CXR (0.98 vs. 0.93, using the McNemar test). After treatment, LUS was consistent with CXR in 96.55% of HAPE patients, and the concordance between LUS and CXR was high (k statistic = 0.483 ; 95% CI −0.021 to −0.853). Conclusion. The results indicate that LUS is a reliable method for the diagnosis and surveillance of HAPE. This trial is registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR-DDD-16009841).
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Comorbidities on Asthma Hospitalization and Mortality Rates: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Recent studies have shown that patients diagnosed with asthma who have other chronic comorbidities have severely worse medical outcomes. However, the number of available published studies in this field is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of comorbidities in asthmatic patients based on hospitalization and mortality rates. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. Data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane until June 15, 2018. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of comorbidities on asthma hospitalization and mortality. The secondary objective was to analyze the effects of asthma comorbidity with certain chronic diseases, including COPD, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, mental illness (anxiety and depression), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, rhinitis, and sinusitis on asthma hospitalization and mortality. Results. From potential 687 articles, only 9 were chosen based on our study inclusion criteria. Almost half of these articles were related to asthma/COPD comorbidity. There were no articles found for hypertension, myocardial ischemia, rhinitis, or sinusitis based on our inclusion/exclusion factors. Each of these 9 published articles had shown an increase in rates of hospitalization, length of stay, and/or mortality, due to asthma-related symptoms, compared to asthma-only patients. Conclusion. There was determined to be a large discrepancy between the available research for various types of comorbid conditions presenting with asthma that focus on hospitalization and mortality rates. The current available literature suggests a large impact that these comorbid diseases can have on asthma-related symptoms when present together, severely affecting a patient’s quality of life. We propose that further research on the effects of these comorbidities on asthma mortality and hospitalization can yield beneficial results to improve the management of asthmatic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Serum Level of IL-1B Correlates with the Activity of Chronic Pulmonary

    • Abstract: Background. Until now, there have been no objective criteria to determine the activity of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). This study aims to analyze the correlation between serum level of IL-1B and the activity of CPA and to determine whether serum IL-1B could be used to assess the activity of CPA. Methods. A total of 469 newly diagnosed CPA patients were enrolled. Correlation analysis in the whole subjects showed that only IL-1B level was associated with the activity of CPA. Then, 381 cases with factors significantly affecting IL-1B expression was excluded through multiple linear regression; the remaining 88 patients were divided into high IL-1B group and low IL-1B group, according to the median value of serum IL-1B, for subgroup analysis. A retrospective comparative analysis was subsequently performed between the two groups, including the clinical manifestation, microbiology and laboratory tests results, and imaging findings. We further investigated the relationship between IL-1B levels and CT characteristic which acted as the indicator of CPA activity, as well as changes in IL-1B level before and after surgery. Results. For all patients, correlation analysis revealed that IL-1B level correlated with both cavitary diameter () and aspergilloma size () but not with the thickness of the cavity (). In subgroup comparative analysis, CT characteristics suggested that high activity of CPA, such as cavitary (27/44 vs 13/44, ) and aspergilloma lesions (25/44 vs. 11/44, ), were more frequently found in high IL-1B group. The cavity diameter (), aspergilloma size (), and cavity wall thickness () were significantly different between the two groups. When Spearman correlation analysis was performed once again in subgroup, an even stronger relationship of serum IL-1B with the cavity diameter (,) and aspergilloma size (,) was observed. Interestingly, a significant reduction of IL-1B level was observed after successful resection of CPA lesions. Conclusion. Higher level of serum IL-1B is associated with more severe cavitary and aspergilloma lesions, which are indicative of more active CPA. In addition, IL-1B level reduced accordingly after lesion resection. Measuring IL-1B level therefore could be served as a convenient method to monitor the activity of CPA and be a potential predictive/prognostic marker for treatment response.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Chinese Traditional Therapy for Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in

    • Abstract: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and fatal disease of lung tissue with high incidence and mortality in the world. The exploration of effective treatment for pulmonary fibrosis remains an urgent challenge. In our study, Qingfei Xieding was investigated as a novel Chinese traditional patent medicine against pulmonary fibrosis. A pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was constructed by injecting with bleomycin sulfate. Following Qingfei Xieding administration, lung samples were collected to assess pulmonary phenotype changes by analyzing lung coefficient, wet/dry, and histopathologic section. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyproline (HYP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity were measured to evaluate the degree of oxidation. A single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to evaluate bleomycin-induced DNA damage. Western blotting and real-time quantitative PCR were performed to determine the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin (FN). In the present study, Qingfei Xieding administration significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by reducing lung coefficient, wet/dry, NO, HYP, and MDA as well as the expression of iNOS, CTGF, α-SMA, FN, and DNA damage. The results indicated that Qingfei Xieding is effective to resist oxidative damage and histopathologic lesion, serving a protection role on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 03:21:39 +000
  • Inhalation Devices

    • PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 03:00:22 +000
  • Prevalence and Prognosis of Portopulmonary Hypertension in 223 Liver
           Transplant Recipients

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the prevalence and prognosis of portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) in liver transplant recipients. Methods. Patients with advanced liver disease who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were included in this retrospective study from January 2012 to June 2015. According to the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), patients with tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) >3.4 m/s or 2.9 m/s ≤ TRV ≤ 3.4 m/s coexisting with other echocardiographic PH signs were judged as PH. PH patients with portal hypertension and without other known causes of PH were diagnosed as PoPH. Results. A total of 223 (170 males and 53 females) middle-aged (50.9 ± 9 years old) liver transplant recipients were included in this study. Fourteen patients (6.3%) were diagnosed with PoPH, and none of the patients were treated with vasodilators before or after OLT. After OLT, patients were followed up for 26 ± 13.5 months. In total, 8 of 14 (57%) PoPH patients died, and the main cause of death was pulmonary infection. Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed a significant difference in survival between PoPH and non-PoPH patients (), and the median survival time after OLT of PoPH was 11.4 months. Conclusions. The prevalence of PoPH was 6.3% in OLT recipients. The survival of untreated PoPH patients was dismal after OLT.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 01:50:32 +000
  • Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interferon-γ Levels in Pediatric
           Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common forms of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The objective of this study was to explore potential changes in levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) associated with pediatric MPP. Methods. This protocol has been registered (PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017077979). A literature search was performed in October 2017 using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and other Chinese medical databases to identify studies. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software. Random-effect models were used to estimate mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cytokine levels. Results. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 2,422 children with MPP and 454 healthy control children. Serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in children with MPP compared with healthy children (MD = 22.5, 95% CI = 13.78–31.22, ), and there was significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 100%, ). Subgroup analyses showed no evidence for a difference in serum TNF-α levels between children with refractory and nonrefractory MPP. Serum IFN-γ levels did not significantly differ in children with MPP compared with healthy children (MD = 4.83, 95% CI = −3.27–12.93, ). Conclusions. Our meta-analysis showed that serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were significantly elevated and unchanged, respectively, in pediatric MPP. Because infection by different pathogens has variable effects on serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels, the finding could be helpful in developing novel diagnostic methods.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 06:20:04 +000
  • Association between Pulmonary Function and Stair-Climbing Test Results
           after Lung Resection: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. The stair-climbing test was used to assess the exercise capacity before lung resection in subjects with lung cancer. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the role of this exercise methodology as a postoperative test. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the stair-climbing test findings reflect the postoperative decrease in pulmonary function. Methods. Twenty subjects with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung resection were enrolled in the study. Perioperative functional evaluation comprised the pulmonary function test, stair-climbing test, and 6-min walk distance test (6MWD). A correlation analysis was performed between the postoperative percentages of pulmonary function with respect to preoperative values and the exercise capacity. Results. No correlation was noted between the percentage changes in pulmonary function and those in 6MWD. However, there was a significant correlation between the percentage changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and those in the altitude reached in the stair-climbing test (,) and between the percentage changes in carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity and those in the altitude (,). Conclusions. The stair-climbing test findings might be effective at detecting changes in exercise capacity induced by postoperative decrease in pulmonary function.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Usefulness of Nonvalved Spacers for Administration of Inhaled Steroids in
           Young Children with Recurrent Wheezing and Risk Factors for Asthma

    • Abstract: Background. In vitro and scintigraphic studies have suggested that effectiveness of metered-dose inhalers (MDI) with nonvalved spacers (NVS) is similar to that of MDI with valved holding chambers (VHC). Nevertheless, there are no clinical studies that compare these techniques in long-term treatment with inhaled steroids in young children with recurrent wheezing and risk factors for asthma. Objective. To compare the efficacy of a long-term treatment with Fluticasone Propionate administered by an MDI through both type of spacers, with and without valves, in young children with recurrent wheezing and risk factors for asthma. Patients and Methods. Outpatient children (6 to 20 months old) with recurrent wheezing and risk factors for asthma were randomized to receive a 6-month treatment with metered-dose inhaler (MDI) of Fluticasone Propionate 125 mcg BID through an NVS or through a VHC. Parents recorded daily their child’s respiratory symptoms and rescue medication use. Results. 46 patients of 13.4 ± 5 months old were studied. During the study period, the NVS group () experienced 3.9 ± 2.4 obstructive exacerbations, and the VHC group () had 2.6 ± 1.6 (). The NVS group had 17.4 ± 14% of days with respiratory symptoms, and the VHC group had 9.7 ± 7% (). The NVS group spent 29.8 ± 22 days on albuterol while the VHC group spent 17.9 ± 11 days (). Conclusion. Long-term treatment with inhaled steroids administered by MDI and NVS is less effective than such treatment by MDI and VHC in infants with recurrent wheezing and risk factors for asthma.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Predictors of Sleep Apnea in the Canadian Population

    • Abstract: Older age, obesity, hypertension, snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness have been associated with sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted), as well as the risk factors, of sleep apnea in the adult Canadian population. Data from the 2009 Sleep Apnea Rapid Response (SARR) questionnaire were used to identify the risk factors, and all sleep-related questions in the SARR questionnaire were used. The outcome variable of interest was health professional-diagnosed sleep apnea. Covariates of interest were demographic variables, population characteristics, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and enabling resources. The multiple logistic regression model adjusted for the clustering effect was used to analyze the data. Sleep apnea was diagnosed in 858,913 adults (3.4% of the population), and more men (65.4%) than women (34.6%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age (45 and older), loud snoring, sudden awakening with gasping/choking (rare/sometimes and once or more a week), and nodding off/falling asleep in driving in the past 12 months were significantly associated with diagnosed sleep apnea. Predictive probability demonstrated that in overweight and obese persons, ≥15 minutes of daily exercise significantly decreased the risk of diagnosed sleep apnea. The conclusion of this study is that in the Canadian population, sleep apnea is associated with older age, loud snoring, and sleeping problems. The protective effect of exercise warrants further investigation.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study of Clinical Characteristics and Cytokine Profiles of Asthmatic
           Children with Rhinovirus Infection during Acute Asthma Exacerbation at
           National Hospital of Pediatrics

    • Abstract: Background. In children with asthma, the viral infection of airways is usually a main cause of acute asthma exacerbation and hospitalization. However, few studies on clinical and biomolecular characteristics of asthmatic children in this field have been done, especially in emergent countries. Objective. This study described the clinical and biological characteristics of asthmatic children who had acute asthma exacerbation and rhinovirus (RV) infection. Methods. Children under 15 years of age hospitalized for acute asthma exacerbation were included. They underwent clinical examination and peripheral blood analyses for the cytokine profile. The severity of acute asthma exacerbation was evaluated by Pediatric Asthma Score (PAS). Healthy children under 15 years of age were also invited in this study. Results. One hundred fifteen asthmatic children were included in this study. There were 18.2% of mild PAS, 37.4% of moderate PAS, and 44.4% of severe PSA. Among them, 63/115 (54.8%) asthmatic children had positive RV infection (RV+). The percentages of asthmatic children with RV+ had increased polymorphonuclear leucocytes were significantly higher than asthmatic children with RV−. There were no significant differences of the concentrations of non-Th2-related cytokines in asthmatic children with RV− and RV+. The concentration of Th2-related cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in asthmatic children with RV+ was significantly higher than those with RV−. However, there was no significant difference for the cytokine profile between mild, moderate, and severe asthma. Conclusion. RV infection is a main cause of acute asthma exacerbation in children with asthma. The increase of Th2-related cytokines, especially IL-5 and IL-13, is a relevant biomarker for RV infection in asthmatic children with severe exacerbation.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Role of a Community Pharmacy Service in Care of Bronchial Asthma Patients
           in Lithuania

    • Abstract: Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases, and its care is often complex. In this research, we tested the proposal that participation of pharmacists in the management of bronchial asthma can improve patient outcomes. A two-stage study was constructed consisting of a training element and a service element, using the Asthma Control Test and a structured questionnaire about the patients’ disease condition (based on the results of a qualitative study). The study was conducted in 21 pharmacies in Lithuania and involved 338 asthmatic patients (age 18–88 years). It was found that before the pharmacy service was provided, the average number of mistakes patients made in administration of asthma medications was 2.03; this number decreased to 1.12 after the service was provided (). Disease control paralleled the improvement in number of mistakes: 26.1% of patients who previously exerted no control over the disease symptoms began to exert sufficient control over their asthma symptoms (Asthma Control Test >20) after the service was provided (). The reduced number of mistakes probably can be attributed to the positive effects of the provided services. By reducing the number of patient mistakes, pharmacists may improve the outcomes of asthmatic patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Poorer Prognosis of Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Compared
           with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Advanced Stage

    • Abstract: Objective. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare disease characterized by predominant upper lobe pulmonary fibrosis of unknown etiology. However, the prognosis of IPPFE has not been discussed. We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of IPPFE and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study on 375 consecutive idiopathic interstitial pneumonia patients between April 2004 and December 2014. Among them, we diagnosed IPPFE and IPF patients using high-resolution computed tomography radiological criteria. Results. Twenty-nine IPPFE patients (9 males, 20 females) and 67 IPF patients (54 males, 13 females) were enrolled. IPPFE patients were significantly more likely to be females and nonsmokers and had lower body mass index, lower values of predicted percentage of forced vital capacity (%FVC), and a higher residual volume-to-total lung capacity ratio than IPF patients. Survival analysis revealed that they had significantly poorer prognosis than IPF patients in GAP (gender, age, and physiology) stages II + III. %FVC and GAP index independently predict mortality in patients with IPPFE. Conclusions. Patients with IPPFE showed poorer prognosis in the advanced stage than patients with IPF. %FVC and GAP index are independent predictors of survival in patients with IPPFE.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Respiratory Care for the Ventilated Neonate

    • Abstract: Invasive ventilation is often necessary for the treatment of newborn infants with respiratory insufficiency. The neonatal patient has unique physiological characteristics such as small airway caliber, few collateral airways, compliant chest wall, poor airway stability, and low functional residual capacity. Pathologies affecting the newborn’s lung are also different from many others observed later in life. Several different ventilation modes and strategies are available to optimize mechanical ventilation and to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. Important aspects to be considered in ventilating neonates include the use of correct sized endotracheal tube to minimize airway resistance and work of breathing, positioning of the patient, the nursing care, respiratory kinesiotherapy, sedation and analgesia, and infection prevention, namely, the ventilator-associated pneumonia and nosocomial infection, as well as prevention and treatment of complications such as air leaks and pulmonary hemorrhage. Aspects of ventilation in patients under ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) and in palliative care are of increasing interest nowadays. Online pulmonary mechanics and function testing as well as capnography are becoming more commonly used. Echocardiography is now a routine in most neonatal units. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an attractive tool potentially helping in preventing intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia. Lung ultrasound is an emerging tool of diagnosis and can be of added value in helping monitoring the ventilated neonate. The aim of this scientific literature review is to address relevant aspects concerning the respiratory care and monitoring of the invasively ventilated newborn in order to help physicians to optimize the efficacy of care.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparing REM- and NREM-Related Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Jordan: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that includes an intermittent mechanical obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, which can occur either during rapid eye movement (REM) phase or non-REM (NREM) phase. In this study, we aim to evaluate the differences in demographic and polysomnographic features between REM- and NREM-related OSA in a Jordanian sample, using both the broad and the restricted definitions of REM-related OSA. All patients who were referred due to clinical suspicion of OSA and underwent sleep study were screened. We included patients with a diagnosis of OSA who had Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) greater than or equal to five. We classified patients into REM-related OSA according to either the broad definition (AHIREM/AHINREM ≥ 2) or the strict definition (AHIREM > 5 and AHINREM 
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Nurse Practitioners’ Perspective on Inhaler Education in Asthma and
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Abstract: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be debilitating conditions adversely affecting a person’s quality of life. Effective treatments are available, but common errors in the use of inhalers compound the issue of disease control. The beliefs and concerns of a patient can also have an impact on treatment adherence, the consequences of which are diminished disease control and the occurrence of exacerbations. Once a treatment has been prescribed, it is often nurses who manage the patient long-term, and they may even be the main care provider. This puts nurses in a key position to monitor inhaler technique, communicate with the patient to improve adherence, and even suggest alternative treatments if the patient and therapy are incompatible. This review examines the central role that nurses play in disease management and emphasizes how effective inhaler education can make a difference to disease control. Good communication between the nurse and patient is vital if this is to be achieved. Recent updates to asthma and COPD guidelines are reviewed, and key resources available to help manage patients are highlighted. Finally, with regard to inhaler education, we reconsider the nursing keystones of “Know it,” “Show it,” “Teach it,” and “Review it.”
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Human Neutrophil Defensin-1, -3, and -4 Are Elevated in Nasal Aspirates
           from Children with Naturally Occurring Adenovirus Infection

    • Abstract: Background. Adenoviruses are highly contagious pathogens which cause respiratory disease particularly in children; they may induce severe disease in infants. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) have been found to exhibit antiadenoviral activity. Thus, we have investigated HNPs in nasal aspirates (NAs) of children suffering from adenoviral common cold. Objective. To investigate the release of HNP-1–4 in adenovirus infection and the relationship with self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections. Methods. Nasal aspirate samples () were obtained from children (aged 6–12 years) infected with adenovirus between June 2012 and December 2015. Control samples were taken 4 weeks after infection when the children were asymptomatic. Levels of HNPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. There were increased levels of HNP-1, -3, and -4, but not HNP-2, in nasal aspirates (NAs) during adenovirus infections compared to healthy specimens (). Moreover, there was also increase in the neutrophil count, which is a known cell source of HNPs. Conclusion. Our finding supports the involvement of HNP-1, -3, and -4 in naturally occurring cold in children infected with adenovirus. Because of their known antiviral properties, it is tempting to hypothesize that HNPs might play a protective role in adenovirus-induced respiratory disease; however, this remains to be shown.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Usefulness of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the Diagnosis of
           Bronchial Asthma in Children

    • Abstract: The forced oscillation technique (FOT) requires minimal patient cooperation and is useful for children. However, comprehensive values of respiratory impedance at baseline and after the reversibility test have not been definitively confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic parameters of FOT reactance (Xrs) and resistance (Rrs) in groups of healthy children and children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The second aim was the assessment of the reversibility bronchial test using the forced oscillation method in children with bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods. One hundred and six children aged from 2 to 6 years diagnosed with early-onset controlled or uncontrolled asthma and healthy controls were included in this single-center, prospective, randomized study. All asthmatic patients and healthy controls underwent basic FOT as one measurement according to the recommendation of Resmon Pro FOT. The reversibility test was then performed 15 min after the administration of 200 mcg salbutamol by MDI in all patients. Results. Basic Rrs showed significantly higher mean values in patients with uncontrolled asthma compared to patients with controlled asthma, which were in turn higher than the values for patients in the control group (11.14 ± 1.29 versus 15.71 ± 2.6 versus 9.21 ± 0.98, resp.; ). The data analysis showed similar relationships in terms of the Xrs between the studied groups (−4.76 ± 1.19 versus −7.31 ± 2.33 versus −2.11 ± 0.48, resp.; ). According to the changes in the Rrs values, 35 (66%) positive bronchial reversibility tests were obtained in 53 subjects with controlled asthma and in 39 (74%) subjects with uncontrolled asthma. Conclusions. Rrs and Xrs obtained by FOT well-discriminate patients with asthma from healthy children. A bronchial reversibility test involving the use of FOT is valuable for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Risk of Cardiovascular Events Associated with Inhaled Corticosteroid
           Treatment in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A

    • Abstract: Background. The cardiovascular (CV) safety of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial because different studies have suggested that ICSs either increase or reduce the risk of CV events in COPD patients. In this meta-analysis, we assess the CV safety of ICS therapy in COPD. Methods. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trials of ICS treatment for COPD that include at least 4 weeks of follow-up was performed. A random-effects model was used to evaluate the effects of ICS treatment on CV events. CV events were documented in each trial, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ICSs were estimated. Results. Thirty-one trials were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of CV events was not different between ICS-treated and control groups (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.06; ). In a subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences in CV events between an ICS combined with long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) (ICS + LABA) group and an LABA-only group (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.10; ), as well as between a combination group (ICS + LABA) and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combined with LABA (LAMA + LABA) group (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.55; ). In addition, there was no difference in the risk of CV events between ICS treatment and control groups (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.09; ). Conclusions. These results demonstrate that ICSs do not increase the risk of CV events in COPD patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
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