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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 259)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


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Translational Respiratory Medicine
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2213-0802
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [261 journals]
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGRF) in lung cancer

    • Abstract: Abstract In the last decade, important advances have been made in understanding of cancer biology, particularly non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the discovery of oncogenic drivers of the disease. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and its pathways was the first oncogenic driver discovered to be mutated and treatable in lung cancer. Treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is the standard of care for molecularly selected EGFR-mutant patients, while its role in unselected lung cancer patients is nowadays controversial. This review will provide an overview of the EGFR pathway and options for its treatment of lung cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
  • Expression of transcript factors SALL4 and OCT4 in a subset of non-small
           cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)

    • Abstract: Background SALL4 and OCT4 are transcription factors and play essential roles in stem cell development and oncogenesis. However, the expression of these transcription factors has not been well studied in lung cancers. In this study, we evaluated the expression of SALL4 and OCT4 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) by immunochemistry. NSCLC tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed with a total of 77 primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 90 primary lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs). A mouse monoclonal anti-human SALL4 (1:400 dilution) and a polyclonal anti-human OCT4 (1:200 dilution) antibodies were used. Nuclear staining of SALL4 and OCT4 was scored semi-quantitatively using a three tiered scale. The expressions of SALL4 and OCT4 were correlated with the tumor differentiation, pathological stage, and patients’ clinical information. Results In primary ADCs, the stronger expression of SALL4 and OCT4 was 7.8% and 9.1%, respectively. The stronger expression of SALL4 was inversely correlated with tumor differentiations. In primary SqCCs, the stronger expressions of SALL4 and OCT4 were 16.7% and 0%, respectively. The expression of SALL4 is correlated with the expression of OCT4, but inversely correlated with the tumor stage in SqCCs. Conclusions We found that both SALL4 and OCT4 were differentially expressed in a subset of primary ADC and SqCC. Our finding suggest that different stem cell markers may be expressed and/or play differential role in different subtypes of NSCLC. The potential role of SALL4 and OCT4 needs to be further investigated in NSCLC.
      PubDate: 2014-10-02
  • Serial pulmonary function tests to diagnose COPD in chronic heart failure

    • Abstract: Background It is unknown whether serial pulmonary function tests are necessary for the correct diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with stable non-congested chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in outpatients with stable CHF without pulmonary congestion using initial as well as confirmatory spirometry three months after treatment for COPD. Methods Spirometry was performed in 187 outpatients with stable CHF without pulmonary congestion on chest radiograph who had a left ventricular ejection fraction < 40% (mean age 69 ± 10 years, 78% men). COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. The diagnosis of COPD was confirmed three months after treatment with tiotropium in newly diagnosed COPD patients. Results Using a three month follow-up spirometry to confirm initial diagnosis of de novo COPD did not change COPD prevalence significantly: 32.6% initially versus 32.1% after three months of follow-up. Only 1 of 25 (4%) patients with newly diagnosed COPD was not reproducibly obstructed at follow-up. COPD was greatly under- (19%) and overdiagnosed (32%). Conclusions Spirometry should be used under stable and euvolemic conditions to decrease the burden of undiagnosed or overdiagnosed COPD in patients with CHF. Under these conditions, a confirmatory spirometry is unnecessary, as it does not change a newly established diagnosis of COPD in the vast majority of patients with CHF. Trial registration Identifier NCT01429376.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25
  • Inhibition of β-catenin/p300 interaction proximalizes mouse embryonic
           lung epithelium

    • Abstract: Background Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to regulate proximal-distal determination of embryonic lung epithelium based upon genetically modified mouse models. The previously identified and characterized small molecule inhibitor IQ1 can pharmacologically decrease the interaction between β-catenin and its transcriptional coactivator p300, thereby enhancing the β-catenin/CBP interaction. Inhibition of the β-catenin/p300 interaction by IQ1 blocks the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and epicardial progenitor cells; however, whether differential coactivator usage by β-catenin plays a role in proximal-distal determination of lung epithelium is unknown. Methods We examined the effects of inhibiting the β-catenin/p300 interaction with IQ1 on lung branching morphogenesis in mouse embryos in utero and mouse embryonic lung organ culture ex vivo. The phenotype of IQ1 treated lungs was analyzed by epithelial staining, histology, quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. Results Inhibition of the β-catenin/p300 interaction by IQ1 disrupted the distal branching of mouse lung epithelium both in utero and ex vivo. IQ1 proximalized lung epithelium with decreased expression of the genes Bmp4 and Fgf10, hallmarks of distal lung determination, and increased expression of the proximal genes Sox2 and Scgb1a1 (CC10) as shown by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The disruption of branching was reversible ex vivo as branching was reinitiated after removal of IQ1 from the media. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the β-catenin/p300 interaction plays a critical role in proximal-distal determination of the epithelium in mouse lung branching morphogenesis and β-catenin/p300 inhibition pharmacologically proximalizes lung epithelium.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Performance of standard procedures in detection of EGFR mutations in daily
           practice in advanced NSCLC patients selected according to the ESMO
           guideline: a large Caucasian cohort study

    • Abstract: Background ESMO consensus recommends EGFR mutation testing in never/former light smokers (<15 pack-years) or patients with non-squamous NSCLC. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency and clinical predictors of EGFR mutations, and the role of specimen sampling tests, in Caucasian standard practice setting. Methods We screened 297 patients according to this consensus. Mutational analysis of EGFR was performed using the Therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR mutation kit. Clinical and pathological correlative data were collected. Results An EGFR activating mutation was found in 32 patients (11%), twelve exon 19 deletions, two exon 18 and eighteen exon 21 point mutations. Most were in females, but half were in smokers. Negative TTF-1 staining had a very strong negative predictive value (all except one patient had TTF-1 positive adenocarcinoma). Both biopsies as well as cytology specimens (mainly EBUS-TBNA) did well: 24 mutations in 213 biopsy samples (11.2%) and 8 in 84 cytology samples (9.5%), respectively. The Therascreen acted as a sensitive test in all types of samples: 7 activating mutations were found in samples rated to have <5% of tumour cells, and there were only 4 test failures in the whole series. Conclusion In this Caucasian standard practice NSCLC cohort, tested according to the ESMO consensus, activating EGFR mutation occurred in 11% of the patients. Half of these were in former/current smokers. With our sampling technique and use of the Therascreen kit, EBUS-TBNA cell blocks performed as good as biopsies.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Response of airway epithelial cells to double-stranded RNA in an allergic

    • Abstract: Background Respiratory viral infections are the most common trigger of acute exacerbations in patients with allergic asthma. The anti-viral response of airway epithelial cells (AEC) may be impaired in asthmatics, while cytokines produced by AEC may drive the inflammatory response. We investigated whether AEC cultured in the presence of Th2 cytokines associated with an allergic environment exhibited altered responses to double-stranded RNA, a virus-like stimulus. Methods We undertook preliminary studies using the MLE-12 cell line derived from mouse distal respiratory epithelial cells, then confirmed and extended our findings using low-passage human AEC. Cells were cultured in the absence or presence of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 for 48 hours, then stimulated with poly I:C for 4 hours. Expression of relevant anti-viral response and cytokine genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Secretion of cytokine proteins was assessed by immunoassay. Results Following stimulation with poly I:C, MLE-12 cells pre-treated with Th2 cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels of expression of mRNA for the cytokine genes Cxcl10 and Cxcl11, as well as a trend towards increased expression of Cxcl9 and Il6. Expression of anti-viral response genes was mostly unchanged, although Stat1, Ifit1 and Ifitm3 were significantly increased in Th2 cytokine pre-treated cells. Human AEC pre-treated with IL-4 and IL-13, then stimulated with poly I:C, similarly exhibited significantly higher expression of IL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CCL5 genes. In parallel, there was significantly increased secretion of CXCL8 and CCL5, as well as a trend towards increased secretion of CXCL10 and IL-6. Again, expression of anti-viral response genes was not decreased. Rather, there was significantly enhanced expression of mRNA for type III interferons, RNA helicases and other interferon-stimulated genes. Conclusion The Th2 cytokine environment appears to promote increased production of pro-inflammatory chemokines by AEC in response to double-stranded RNA, which could help explain the exaggerated inflammatory response to respiratory viral infection in allergic asthmatics. However, any impairment of anti-viral host defences in asthmatics appears unlikely to be a consequence of Th2 cytokine-induced downregulation of the expression of viral response genes by AEC.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Looking for the elusive lung stem cell niche

    • Abstract: Abstract This discourse contains three perspectives on various aspects of Stem Cell Biology and tools available to study and translate into Regenerative Medicine. The lung incessantly faces onslaught of the environment, constantly undergoes oxidative stress, and is an important organ of detoxification. In degenerative diseases and inflammation, the lung undergoes irreversible remodeling that is difficult to therapeutically address and/or transplant a dying tissue. The other difficulty is to study its development and regenerative aspects to best address the aforementioned problems. This perspective therefore addresses- firstly, review of types of stem cells, their pathway of action and models in invertebrate organisms vis-a-vis microenvironment and its dynamics; secondly, stem cells in higher organisms and niche; and lastly data and inference on a novel approach to study stem cell destruction patterns in an injury model and information on putative lung stem cell niche. Stem cells are cryptic cells known to retain certain primitive characteristics making them akin to ancient cells of invertebrates, developmental stages in invertebrates and vertebrates and pliant cells of complex creatures like mammals that demonstrate stimulus-specific behavious, whether to clonally propagate or to remain well protected and hidden within specialized niches, or mobilize and differentiate into mature functionally operative cells to house-keep, repair injury or make new tissues. In lung fibrosis, alveolar epithelium degenerates progressively. In keeping with the goal of regenerative medicine, various models and assays to evaluate long and short term identity of stem cells and their niches is the subject of this perspective. We also report identification and characterization of functional lung stem cells to clarify how stem cell niches counteract this degenerative process. Inferences drawn from this injury model of lung degeneration using a short term assay by tracking side population cells and a long term assay tracking label retaining cells have been presented.
      PubDate: 2014-04-03
  • Secretion properties, clearance, and therapy in airway disease

    • Abstract: Abstract Chronic airway diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, diffuse panbronchiolitis, and bronchiectasis are all associated with chronic inflammation. The airway mucosa responds to infection and inflammation in part by surface mucous (goblet) cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy with mucus hypersecretion. Products of inflammation including neutrophil derived DNA and filamentous actin, effete cells, bacteria, and cell debris all contribute to mucus purulence and, when this is expectorated it is called sputum. Mucus is usually cleared by ciliary movement, and sputum is cleared by cough. These airway diseases each are associated with the production of mucus and sputum with characteristic composition, polymer structure, and biophysical properties. These properties change with the progress of the disease making it possible to use sputum analysis to identify the potential cause and severity of airway diseases. This information has also been important for the development of effective mucoactive therapy to promote airway hygiene.
      PubDate: 2014-03-10
  • Epidemiology of bronchial asthma and asthma control assessment in Henan
           Province, China

    • Abstract: Background Prevalence of bronchial asthma, asthma treatment assessment, and estimation of the control level among asthma patients in Henan Province, China are reported in this paper. Methods We selected 10 among the 109 cities and districts in Henan province using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. A total of 500 households from each city and district were chosen. Approximately 20,000 residents from a total of 5,000 households were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire recommended by the China Asthma Alliance. Asthma patients were asked to answer a detailed questionnaire using the symptom-based guidelines to assess the levels of disease control. Results The overall prevalence of asthma was 0.73% ± 0.12%. Urban and rural residents had asthma prevalence rates of 1.1% ± 0.23% (88/7,924) and 0.48% ± 0.12% (57/11,792), respectively. Among the asthma patients, only 33.8% (52) received regular medication, 25% (13) used oral glucocorticoids, and 71.1% (37) used oral theophylline. The classified control levels of patients were as follows: 33.1% controlled, 49.7% partially controlled, and 17.2% uncontrolled. A total of 38.5% and 27.5% of regularly and irregularly treated asthma patients reached controlled level, respectively. The two groups significantly differed in asthma control level. Conclusion Asthma prevalence is low in Henan Province, China. Urban residents have higher prevalence of asthma than rural residents do. Patients with asthma receive insufficient medication, resulting in suboptimal asthma control. Improvement in diagnosis and treatment of asthma patients is urgently needed.
      PubDate: 2014-03-05
  • Diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease

    • Abstract: Abstract The complex tasks of making a confident diagnosis of a specific form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and formulating a patient-centered, personalized management plan in an attempt to achieve remission or stabilization of the disease process can pose formidable challenges to clinicians. When patients are evaluated for suspected ILD, an accurate diagnosis of the specific form of ILD that a patient has developed must be made to provide the patient with useful prognostic information and to formulate an appropriate management plan that can relieve symptoms and restore or significantly improve quality of life. A well-performed patient history and physical examination provides invaluable information that can be combined with appropriate laboratory testing, imaging, and, if needed, tissue biopsy to reach a confident ILD diagnosis, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax is usually a key component of the diagnostic evaluation. If treatment is indicated, many forms of ILD can respond significantly to immunosuppressive anti-inflammatory therapies. However, ILD accompanied by extensive fibrosis may be difficult to treat, and the identification of an effective pharmacologic therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has remained elusive despite the completion of many phase 3 clinical trials over the past decade. Nonetheless, patients with IPF or advanced forms of non-IPF ILD can benefit significantly from detection and treatment of various co-morbid conditions that are often found in patients (especially the elderly patient), and supportive care (oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation) can have a beneficial impact on quality of life and symptom palliation. Finally, lung transplantation is an option for patients with progressive, advanced disease that does not respond to other therapies, but only a relatively small subset of patients with end-stage ILD are able to meet wait listing requirements and eventually undergo successful lung transplantation.
      PubDate: 2014-02-13
  • The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy and
           vaccination: an update

    • Abstract: Abstract Until the late 1990s, aerosol therapy consisted of beta2-adrenergic agonists, anti-cholinergics, steroidal and non-steroidal agents, mucolytics and antibiotics that were used to treat patients with asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. Since then, inhalation therapy has matured to include drugs that: (1) are designed to treat diseases outside the lung and whose target is the systemic circulation (systemic drug delivery); (2) deliver nucleic acids that lead to permanent expression of a gene construct, or protein coding sequence, in a population of cells (gene therapy); and (3) provide needle-free immunization against disease (aerosolized vaccination). During the evolution of these advanced applications, it was also necessary to develop new devices that provided increased dosing efficiency and less loss during delivery. This review will present an update on the success of each of these new applications and their devices. The early promise of aerosolized systemic drug delivery and its outlook for future success will be highlighted. In addition, the challenges to aerosolized gene therapy and the need for appropriate gene vectors will be discussed. Finally, progress in the development of aerosolized vaccination will be presented. The continued expansion of the role of aerosol therapy in the future will depend on: (1) improving the bioavailability of systemically delivered drugs; (2) developing gene therapy vectors that can efficiently penetrate the mucus barrier and cell membrane, navigate the cell cytoplasm and efficiently transfer DNA material to the cell nucleus; (3) improving delivery of gene vectors and vaccines to infants; and (4) developing formulations that are safe for acute and chronic administrations.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
  • Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of
           metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer

    • Abstract: Backgruond Since their first description, activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations identify a distinct clinical entity of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Findings New targeted therapies for molecularly selected NSCLC are changing the natural history of the disease, with results superior to standard chemotherapy as demonstrated in large phase III studies with first generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib and gefitinib. However, after an initial response, all patients inevitably progress and several mechanisms including a secondary mutation in exon 20 of the EGFR gene (T790M) or MET or HER2 amplifications are responsible for acquired resistance (AR). In clinical practice few options are available for patients with AR, and several new agents or strategies are currently under investigation, including second generation TKIs. Conclusions Aim of the present review is to present available data on new EGFR-TKIs and to discuss how these agents could overcome AR to erlotinib or gefitinib.
      PubDate: 2014-01-06
  • Acute lung injury and the role of histones

    • Abstract: Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in humans involves ≥ 200,000 individuals in the United States, and has a mortality rate (40%) for which no specific drug has been approved for use in humans. We have studied experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in mice following airway deposition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the recombinant mouse complement anaphylatoxin, C5a. As ALI developed over 6 hr, extracellular histones appeared in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Extracellular histone appearance required both C5a receptors (C5aR, C5L2) as well as neutrophils (PMNs) and lung macrophages, as genetic loss of either C5a receptor or depletion of PMNs or macrophages reduced histone levels found in BALF during ALI. It is possible that extracellular histones were derived from formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in lung after PMN contact with C5a. When purified histones were delivered to lung via the airways, intense inflammatory injury ensued and type II cells developed large blebs indicating cellular damage and apoptosis. Detailed physiological measurements revealed severe disruption of blood/alveolar gas exchange. These data suggest a key role for histones in development of experimental ALI.
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
  • The acute respiratory distress syndrome in 2013

    • Authors: Michael A Matthay; Yuanlin Song; Chunxue Bai; Kirk D Jones
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Abstract Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are major causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This review focuses on new developments in definitions, epidemiology, clinical and basic research, and promising new directions in treatment. There is new information about the potential contribution of environmental factors, especially exposure to cigarette smoke. Pathologic findings in ARDS have been limited to case reports of open lung biopsies and post-mortem studies but there is some new information from a recent pathology study relative to the frequency of diffuse alveolar damage and the severity of arterial hypoxemia. Further, therapy with lung-protective ventilation and fluid conservative protocol has improved outcomes, but several new trials are in progress to test several promising strategies.
      PubDate: 2013-05-17
      DOI: 10.1186/2213-0802-1-10
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Sputum matrix metalloproteinase-9 is associated with the degree of
           emphysema on computed tomography in COPD

    • Authors: Rekha Chaudhuri; Charles McSharry; Mark Spears; Jeffrey Brady; Christal Grierson; C Messow; Gino Miele; Karl Nocka; William MacNee; Martin Connell; John T Murchison; Michael Sproule; Omar Hilmi; Douglas K Miller; Neil C Thomson
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Background Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, although its link to disease severity is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between disease severity assessed by lung function and computed tomography (CT) and sputum MMP-9 expression, concentration and activity in patients with COPD. Findings In 53 COPD subjects, smokers and ex-smokers; 46 healthy controls, smokers and never smokers, we measured sputum MMP-9 concentrations (ELISA) and enzyme activity (FRET), sputum MMP-9 mRNA expression, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) and CT assessment of emphysema (% low attenuation areas below-950 Hounsfield units). Sputum MMP-9 concentrations and mRNA expression in COPD subjects were significantly greater than in healthy never-smokers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively) and similar to those in healthy smokers. Disease severity when assessed by the extent of emphysema measured by CT, but not by spirometry or DLco values, was directly associated with sputum MMP-9 concentrations [r = 0.442 (0.171, 0.634), p = 0.020], and MMP-9 activity [r = 0.447 (0.219, 0.643), p = 0.010]. In moderate to severe COPD, increased MMP-9 mRNA expression levels were associated with reduced post-bronchodilator FEV1 [r = −0.530 (−0.686, -0.327), p < 0.001], FEV1/FVC ratio [r = −0.551 (−0.701, -0.354), p < 0.001] and reduced DLco [r = −0.399 (−539, -0.102), p = 0.048]. Conclusions Sputum MMP-9 concentrations in COPD are directly associated with the extent of emphysema measured by CT and MMP-9 expression levels are inversely associated with DLco. These findings support a role for MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of COPD.
      PubDate: 2013-06-06
      DOI: 10.1186/2213-0802-1-11
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • MicroRNAs implicated in dysregulation of gene expression following human
           lung transplantation

    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Tong Zhou; Shwu-Fan Ma; Robert F Machado; Sangeeta M Bhorade; Joe GN Garcia
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Background Lung transplantation remains the only viable treatment option for the majority of patients with advanced lung diseases. However, 5-year post-transplant survival rates remain low primarily secondary to chronic rejection. Novel insights from global gene expression profiles may provide molecular phenotypes and therapeutic targets to improve outcomes after lung transplantation. Methods Whole-genome gene expression profiling was performed in a cohort of patients that underwent lung transplantation as well as healthy controls using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0ST Array. To explore the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating lung transplantation-associated gene dysregulation, miRNA expression levels were also profiled in the same samples using the Exiqon miRCURY LNA Array. Results In a cohort of 18 lung transplant patients, 364 dysregulated genes were identified in Caucasian patients relative to normal individuals without pulmonary disorders. Pathway enrichment analysis of the dysregulated genes pointed to Gene Ontology biological processes such as “defense response”, “immune response” and “response to wounding”. We then compared the expression profiles of potential regulating miRNAs, suggesting that dysregulation of a number of lung transplantation-associated genes (e.g., ATR, FUT8, LRRC8B, NFKBIA) may be attributed to the dysregulation of their respective regulating miRNAs. Conclusions Following human lung transplantation, a substantial proportion of genes, particularly those genes involved in certain biological processes like immune response, were dysregulated in patients relative to their healthy counterparts. This exploratory analysis of the relationships between miRNAs and their gene targets in the context of lung transplantation warrants further investigation and may serve as novel therapeutic targets in lung transplant complications.
      PubDate: 2013-08-08
      DOI: 10.1186/2213-0802-1-12
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Bacteria in COPD; their potential role and treatment

    • Authors: Paul T King; Martin MacDonald; Philip G Bardin
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Abstract The role of bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and how it should be treated has been an ongoing source of controversy. For many years bacterial infection has not been thought to have an important effect in the pathology of this condition. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques, particularly the use 16S sequencing has demonstrated that there are a large range of bacteria present in the lower respiratory tract, both in terms of exacerbations and chronic colonization. A proportion of the bacteria present in the lower respiratory have also been shown to produce inflammation and hence are likely to be relevant for the pathogenesis of COPD. The accurate diagnosis of bacterial infection in individual patients remains a major challenge. The trials that have assessed the effect of antibiotics in COPD have generally been of low quality and have not been placebo controlled. Recent studies of macrolides for long-term treatment in COPD have found significantly reduced rates of exacerbations. Major challenges remain in accurately defining the potential role of bacteria in the inflammatory process and how best to optimize the use of antibiotics without the overuse of this limited resource. Alternative strategies to treat infection in COPD remain very limited.
      PubDate: 2013-08-30
      DOI: 10.1186/2213-0802-1-13
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Standardization developments for large scale biobanks in smoking related
           diseases - a model system for blood sample processing and storage

    • Authors: Johan Malm; Thomas E Fehniger; Pia Danmyr; Ákos Végvári; Charlotte Welinder; Henrik Lindberg; Paul Upton; Stephanie Carter; Roger Appelqvist; Karin Sjödin; Elisabet Wieslander; Magnus Dahlbäck; Melinda Rezeli; David Erlinge; György Marko-Varga
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Background Biobank samples stored in biobanks give researchers and respiratory healthcare institutions access to datasets of analytes valuable for both diagnostic and research practices. The usefulness of these samples in clinical decision-making is highly dependent on their quality and integrity. New procedures that better preserve sample integrity and reduce degradation are being developed to meet the needs of both present and future biobanking. Hereby we present an automatic sample workflow scheme that is designed to handle high numbers of blood samples. Methods Blood fractions are aliquoted, heat sealed using novel technology, and stored in 384 tube high-density sample arrays. Results The newly developed 384 biobank rack system is especially suited for preserving identical small aliquots. We provide data on robotic processing of clinical samples at −80°C, following initial processing, analysis and shipping between laboratories throughout Europe. Subsequent to unpacking, re-sorting, and storage at these sites, the samples have been returned for analysis. Biomarker analysis of 13 common tests in the clinical chemistry unit of the hospital provides evidence of qualitative and stable logistics using the 384-sample tube system. Conclusions This technology development allows rapid access to a given sample in the frozen archive while maintaining individual sample integrity with sample tube confinement and quality management.
      PubDate: 2013-08-30
      DOI: 10.1186/2213-0802-1-14
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Pulmonary vascular remodeling and right heart failure in pulmonary
           hypertension: future role of positron emission tomography in decoding the

    • Abstract: Abstract Whereas the insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and associated right heart failure have increased in recent years, there is a lack of clinical tools to assess the pathobiological mechanisms in patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides an array of new possibilities to image and quantify relevant disease processes, including proliferation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, shifts in metabolism and neurohormonal signaling. Here we describe the first studies which were conducted to image pulmonary vascular remodeling and right heart failure in vivo and discuss additional targets for imaging which hold great promise for future use in PAH patients.
      PubDate: 2013-12-11
  • Role of WWOX and NF-κB in lung cancer progression

    • Abstract: Abstract It is generally agreed that the pro-inflammatory, pro-survival transcription factor NF-κB is a tumor promoter. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α or TNF) mediates NF-κB activation. Tumor suppressor WWOX (FOR or WOX1) is a downstream effector of the TNF signaling. Thus, activation of both WWOX (FOR or WOX1) and NF-κB may occur during TNF signaling and/or under stress conditions. Indeed, the first WW domain of WWOX induces the activation of NF-κB-responsive promoter without TNF participation. It appears that WWOX counteracts with NF-κB in regulating cell survival and death. For example, WWOX becomes activated with Tyr33 phosphorylation and relocates together with NF-κB and many transcription factors to the nucleus to cause neuronal death in sciatic nerve-transected rats. While WWOX is frequently lost in lung cancer and many other cancers, NF-κB activation-induced cancer promotion probably requires WWOX-independent signaling networks to induce expression of pro-survival factors. The antagonistic role of WWOX and NF-κB in the regulation of lung cancer progression is discussed.
      PubDate: 2013-11-14
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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