Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 259)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Respiratory Care Reports
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2161-332X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2624 journals]
  • Central Sleep Apnea: a Brief Review
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment, including areas of controversy and uncertainty. Recent Findings Central apnea may be due to hypoventilation or to hypocapnia following hyperventilation. The occurrence of central apnea initiates a cascade of events that perpetuates breathing instability, recurrent central apnea, and upper airway narrowing. In fact, breathing instability and upper airway narrowing are key elements of central and obstructive apnea. Clinically, central apnea is noted in association with obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident tetraplegia, and chronic opioid use. Management strategies for central apnea aim to eliminate abnormal respiratory events, stabilize sleep, and alleviate the underlying clinical condition. Positive pressure therapy (PAP) remains a standard therapy for central as well as obstructive apnea. Other treatment options include adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV), supplemental oxygen, phrenic nerve stimulation, and pharmacologic therapy. However, ASV is contraindicated in patients with central sleep apnea who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, owing to increased mortality in this population. Summary There are several therapeutic options for central apnea. Randomized controlled studies are needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of individual, or combination, treatment modalities in different types of central apnea.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Should We Do It'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent and underdiagnosed. It is associated with significant comorbidities and early detection and treatment might lead to improvement in important clinical outcomes. This paper will review current evidence on screening for OSA in the primary care setting and in certain high-risk groups. Recent Findings The 2017 United States Preventative Services Taskforce evidence review on OSA screening noted a lack of high-quality evidence linking OSA screening with important clinical outcomes and on the accuracy of proposed screening tools. Summary OSA symptoms are usually not discussed in the primary care setting. A screening tool such as a questionnaire is a simple approach that could be easily implemented in this setting. Further study into the long-term cardiovascular and mortality benefits of the treatment of OSA, randomized controlled trials linking the implementation of screening and improvement in important clinical outcomes, and the accuracy of available screening tools as well as their generalizability to the primary care population is needed to improve the strength of their recommendation and their adoption.
      PubDate: 2019-02-04
  • Improving Adherence to PAP Therapy: an Update
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the “gold standard” of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea; however, rates of non-adherence to PAP therapy remain high despite device improvements and the inclusion of PAP education programs in most comprehensive sleep disorders clinics. We aimed to review recent evidence-based trends for improving PAP adherence. Recent Findings Remote monitoring and telemedicine interventions in conjunction with mobile patient engagement applications have shown promise in facilitating uptake and maintenance of PAP use. New focus on the bedpartner dyad and managing comorbid conditions are also notable, though more recent evidence for specific interventions is limited. Summary Recent trends suggest a shift towards developing more patient-centered programs to support PAP adherence. Advancements in telemedicine and interactive mobile health technologies represent the most promising area of growth for PAP adherence interventions. Continued efforts focused on treatments that address socio-relational factors and comorbid conditions seem warranted.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Nonpharmacological Therapies for Interstitial Lung Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) cause unpredictable degrees of fibrosis and inflammation in the lungs leading to functional decline and varying symptom burden for patients. Some patients may live for years and be responsive to therapy, and other disease trajectory may be shorter and similar to patients with lung cancer. This ultimately affects the patient’s quality of life as well as their caregiver(s). Recent Findings Nonpharmacological therapies play an important role in treatment of interstitial lung disease. These include symptom management, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, and palliative care. While ILDs are associated with high morbidity and mortality, different models of care exist globally. New tools help clinicians identify and address palliative care needs in daily practice, and specialty nurses and ILD centers can optimize care. Summary This paper provides an overview of nonpharmacological therapies available for patients with interstitial lung disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Evidence-Based Assessment of Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma: Mechanisms
           and Outcomes
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Asthma is a heterogenous, chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness that results in debilitating respiratory symptoms. Despite advances in management strategies, severe asthmatics are often not responsive to the standard management and are disproportionately impacted. Bronchial thermoplasty offers a treatment option for this subgroup of severe asthmatics. Recent Findings Multiple clinical studies have examined bronchial thermoplasty effectiveness and safety in severe asthma. Recent post-market and translational studies have brought new insights into the mechanism of action behind bronchial thermoplasty. Summary Bronchial thermoplasty is a treatment option for severe asthmatics who are not adequately controlled on their current treatment regimen.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Pneumonitis in Patients with Lung Cancer Following Treatment: the Effects
           of Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Multiple articles have been written on the development of pneumonitis as it relates to each class of treatment options in NSCLC. To date, there are no articles that review pulmonary side effects seen in all agents including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and TKIs that are used in NSCLC. Our goal was to identify these agents, review the pathophysiology, and establish treatment options when pneumonitis develops. In doing so, we have established a resource for physicians treating this disease. Recent Findings Within the past decade, significant strides have been made in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted agents, namely tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immunotherapy have established themselves and shifted the treatment paradigm in this disease, they also brought along very specific and different toxicities, such as pneumonitis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to play a major role as single agent, combined therapy, or in combination with immunotherapy. Within each of these classes of treatment options, pulmonary side effects are possible. Summary Multiple articles have been written on the development of pneumonitis as it relates to each class of treatment options in NSCLC. To date, there are no articles that review pulmonary side effects seen in all agents including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and TKIs that are used in NSCLC. Our goal was to identify the agents, review the pathophysiology, and establish treatment options when pneumonitis develops. In doing so, we have established a resource for physicians treating this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Assessment of Symptoms in Patients with COPD: Strengths and Limitations of
           Clinical Scores
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Health questionnaires are valuable tools to quantify, in an objective and standardised manner, the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the health status of patients and on their well-being, and to track changes over time. Therefore, filling out these questionnaires allows clinicians to obtain the necessary information that can be easily related to clinical outcomes. Recent Findings Most importantly, symptoms’ assessment represents a very relevant part of these clinical tools when applied to patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases. Comparing scores between visits is also indicative of the patient’s health status, as changes in quality of life are related to worse outcomes such as hospitalisation and exacerbation. However, each respiratory questionnaire may be peculiar in catching specific aspects of a similar symptom (i.e., dyspnoea); therefore, different tools are not interchangeable or comparable. Summary Detecting the minimal clinically important difference is a necessary evaluation procedure which affords the change in patient’s management and directs the therapeutic action towards more active treatments.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Synthesize recent developments in the understanding of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, and treatments with a focus on the classification of CLAD into restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Recent Findings Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients. Despite the lack of progress on improving outcomes, significant progress has been made in better characterizing the disease’s clinical and pathologic diversity. Most significantly, the clinical diagnosis of restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) has been recognized as pathophysiologically distinct from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Azithromycin remains the only treatment proven effective for CLAD, and its use has a modest impact on survival. Summary Important steps towards better classification and understanding of the CLAD disease processes have been made; however, more research is needed to develop effective therapies for this devastating condition.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Risk Factors for the Development of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: a
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an invariably progressive disease. Current treatment options simply slow disease progression, and better therapeutic options are needed. We aimed to review an emerging literature on risk factors associated with the development of IPF. Recent Findings There is increasing data to support the role of intrinsic risk factors (e.g., genetics, aging, sex, lung microbiome), comorbidities (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, herpes virus infection), and extrinsic risk factors (e.g., cigarette smoking, environmental exposures, air pollution) in IPF development. These risk factors may independently increase susceptibility for IPF or act in a synergistic fashion to contribute to increased risk for disease development. Summary Various risk factors have been identified in IPF development that fit within the current paradigm of disease pathogenesis. Further investigation of these risk factors may help us better understand the pathophysiology of IPF and may guide future therapeutic interventions.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • The Use and Interpretation of Impedance Oscillometry in Pulmonary
    • Abstract: Purpose Chronic respiratory diseases are prevalent among adults and lung function testing is imperative for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. While spirometry is the standard measure of lung function, there exist groups of individuals unable to adequately perform accurate and reproducible lung function testing. Impedance oscillometry system (IOS) is an effort independent test that may be employed to assess airway function in challenging groups such as children and elderly. This review will compare IOS and spirometry and describe the physiologic measurements of lung function and interpretation strategies in adults with chronic airway disease. Recent Findings In adults with COPD, impedance oscillometry measurements of airway resistance correlate with the severity of airflow limitation measured with spirometry. In adults with asthma, IOS is a sensitive measure of airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchodilator response. Summary Impedance oscillometry is emerging, alternative method to assess lung function in adults.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Lung Transplantation in Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial
           Lung Disease (CTD-ILD)
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) previously was a relative contraindication to lung transplantation primarily due to extra-pulmonary involvement of the disease. Recent published information focusing on the diagnosis and management of the extra-pulmonary complexities associated with CTD-ILD that challenge the success of lung transplantation indicate similar outcomes when compared to idiopathic causes of interstitial lung disease. Recent literature examining appropriate wait-listing criteria, disease management, and outcomes after lung transplantation are discussed. Recent Findings Esophageal dysmotility with or without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common reason for denying lung transplant candidacy. Recent multiple single-center studies and registry data now show that carefully selected scleroderma and non-scleroderma connective tissue disease patients have acceptable outcomes when compared to matched interstitial lung disease recipients. Summary Connective tissue disease patients have extra-pulmonary manifestations that must be considered and properly managed in the setting of lung transplantation. With appropriate candidate selection and proper management, lung transplantation is an acceptable treatment option for these individuals and should not be immediately abandoned based on extra-pulmonary complexities.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Connective Tissue Related Interstitial Lung Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of the connective tissue diseases (CTD) and results in significant morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on recent literature pertaining to the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of CTD-ILD. Recent Findings Subclinical ILD can be found in the majority of patients with CTD. Clinically significant ILD is most commonly seen in scleroderma followed by polymyositis/dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis, although it can occur in all of the CTDs. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia is the most common radiographic and histologic pattern, although usual interstitial pneumonia occurs more frequently in rheumatoid arthritis. Pathogenesis is likely related to a combination of autoimmunity/inflammation, disordered fibrogenesis, and vascular injury. Treatment strategies are evolving to target all three of these pathways. Summary Although further research into treatment strategies is needed, the clinician should be aware of the risk factors and clinical presentation of ILD in the various CTDs in order to identify patients who should be screened and/or have modifications in treatment strategies in order to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with CTD-ILD.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • The Changing Paradigm of Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
           Intracranial Metastases
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Evaluate safety and efficacy of newer systemic therapies for intracranial metastases (IM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when given alone and with concurrent radiation therapy (RT) and determine which patients with IM may benefit from upfront systemic therapy while withholding RT. Recent Findings In NSCLC, chemotherapy regimens are associated with approximately 20% intracranial overall response rates (ORRs) and immunotherapies 30–50% intracranial ORRs. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies for EGFR-mutated patients provide ORRs ranging from 50 to 90%. Prospective data suggest erlotinib, when combined with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), substantially increases grade 3–5 toxicities. For immunotherapy, retrospective studies suggest increased intracranial control rates with concurrent RT, though possibly with increased radiation necrosis rates. Summary Upfront TKIs may allow appropriately selected patients to avoid or delay RT and possible resultant RT side effects. However, delayed RT is counterbalanced by retrospective data that suggests upfront RT prolongs overall survival (OS) when performed before starting TKI therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Early Graft Dysfunction After Lung Transplantation
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Primary graft dysfunction is an acute lung injury syndrome occurring immediately following lung transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of primary graft dysfunction (PGD), including epidemiology, immunology, clinical outcomes, and management. Recent Findings Identification of donor and recipient factors allowing accurate prediction of PGD has been actively pursued. Improved understanding of the immunology underlying PGD has spurred interest in identifying relevant biomarkers. Work in PGD prediction, severity stratification, and targeted therapies continue to make progress. Donor expansion strategies continue to be pursued with ex vivo lung perfusion playing a prominent role. While care of PGD remains supportive, ECMO has established a prominent role in the early aggressive management of severe PGD. Summary A consensus definition of PGD has allowed marked advances in research and clinical care of affected patients. Future research will lead to reliable predictive tools and targeted therapeutics of this important syndrome.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Approved and Experimental Therapies for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) shifted significantly in the past few years, in the light of advances in understanding pathological pathways. The promising results coming from recent trials led to a growing number of studies dealing with IPF. The purpose of this article is to review scientific evidences supporting approved therapies and to provide an overview of experimental treatments that are currently under investigation. Recent Findings Approved anti-fibrotic treatments are based on large randomized trials showing the efficacy of pirfenidone and nintedanib in slowing IPF progression with an acceptable tolerability. However, we are still far from a definite cure and research efforts are focused on exploring new therapeutic targets and alternative treatment strategies. Summary Although pirfenidone and nintedanib remain the mainstay of IPF treatment, novel therapies are under investigation in clinical trials. Combination therapy will probably be a successful key for the future, targeting multiple pathways simultaneously. Clinical Registration NCT01619085
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • The Diagnostic Approach to Interstitial Lung Disease
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by varying degrees of inflammation and scarring of the lung parenchyma. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires careful multidisciplinary appraisal of carefully obtained history, physical examination, serological profile, imaging, and, at times, lung tissue. We aim to provide a roadmap for the diagnosis of ILD. Recent Findings The diagnostic criteria for IPF, which is the deadliest form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and HRCT pattern classification have been updated. Transbronchial cryobiopsies are becoming more prevalent but overall diagnostic yield compared to surgical lung biopsy is not known. Summary A technically adequate high-resolution CAT scan of the chest (HRCT) is a central element but a multidisciplinary evaluation of all available evidence is fundamental for the diagnosis of ILD.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Risk of Bacterial Transmission in Bronchiectasis Outpatient Clinics
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss the risk of bacterial cross-infection for bronchiectasis patients in the outpatient setting. Cross-infection has primarily been a matter of concern in cystic fibrosis (CF). There is considerable evidence of transmission of pathogens between CF patients, and this has led to guideline recommendations advocating strict segregation policies. Guidelines in bronchiectasis do not specifically address the issue of cross-infection. If cross-infection is prevalent, it may have significant implications for patients and the practical running of specialist care. Recent Findings Multiple UK-based studies have now published evidence of cross-infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa within cohorts of bronchiectasis patients; however, the risk does not appear to be high. There is also evidence suggesting cross-infection from CF patients to bronchiectasis patients. Summary The current evidence for cross-infection in bronchiectasis is limited, but suggests a small risk with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Longitudinal studies looking at Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other pathogens are now required.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • It's What’s Inside that Counts: Body Composition and Lung
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Factors such as weight, body composition, and functional status appear to influence lung transplant outcomes. Body mass index (BMI) is incorporated into the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation’s (ISHLT) recipient selection guidelines. Data suggests BMI does not effectively differentiate patients with high body fat percentage or low lean muscle mass, leading to both over and under estimates of candidates’ risks. Recent Findings Recent research has focused on alternate measures and estimates of body composition and their associations with important lung transplant outcomes. Herein, we review the current literature on body composition in lung transplantation, including the variety of measurements used and the concepts of obesity, low muscle mass, and frailty. Summary The concept of body composition is evolving beyond the relationship between weight and height as represented by a calculated body mass index. Radiographic assessments and serum markers allow for a more precise and representative measurement of body composition which takes into consideration fat percentage and muscle mass.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Treatment of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Era of Targeted
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Since the identification of multiple mutations associated with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many targeted therapies have been developed for the treatment of this subgroup of lung cancers. These targeted therapies have changed the landscape of lung cancer treatment when compared to standard chemotherapy, with improved survival and quality of life. In this review article, we will review the major mutations associated with advanced NSCLC, namely EGFR, ALK, and ROS1. We will discuss their discovery, their clinical significance, and the diagnostic tests used for their detection. We will also review the respective targeted therapies developed, and the clinical trials that led to their approval. Recent Findings We will also review the most recent advances in targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, including recent data on tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib showing equal effectiveness to other first-line therapy and accordingly recommended in first line for EGFR-positive advanced NSCLC. We will discuss emerging targetable mutations such as HER2, RET, and MET. Summary Targeted therapies will likely shape the future of NSCLC treatment. They have been shown to provide survival advantage over chemotherapy, while providing better quality of life through ease of administration (most are oral drugs), as well as tolerability and better toxicity profile. Further elucidation of these and mutations may provide for future more effective targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Risk of Development of Resistance in Patients with Non-Cystic Fibrosis
           Bronchiectasis Treated with Inhaled Antibiotics
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Bronchiectasis is a debilitating chronic lung disease characterised by recurrent bacterial infection and colonisation with significant associated morbidity and mortality. To date, there are few licenced treatments, and the mainstay of clinical management is prompt antibiotic therapy for exacerbations and regular airway clearance. Inhaled antibiotics are a potential long-term treatment for those with recurrent exacerbations, and represent an obvious advantage over other routes of administration as they achieve high concentrations at the site of infection whilst minimising systemic side effects. The main caveat to such treatment is the development of antimicrobial resistance due to altered selection pressures. Recent Findings Numerous studies of various inhaled antimicrobials have demonstrated favourable safety and efficacy profiles for bronchiectasis patients with chronic infection, which are supportive of their use in clinical practice. Summary There is no convincing evidence of treatment-emergent pathogens or pathogens developing resistance to the inhaled antibiotic therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
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