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RESPIRATORY DISEASES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 104 of 104 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Thoracic Diseases     Open Access  
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 257)
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Review of Respiratory Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the American Thoracic Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivos de Bronconeumología     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BMJ Open Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Breathe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 102)
Chest Disease Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chronic Respiratory Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pulmonology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Respiratory Care Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Der Pneumologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ERJ Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European Clinical Respiratory Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Respiratory Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
European Respiratory Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental Lung Research     Hybrid Journal  
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asthma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tuberculosis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Respirasi     Open Access  
Karger Kompass Pneumologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Kindheit und Entwicklung     Hybrid Journal  
Lung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Lung Cancer International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Lung India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Pediatric Quality & Safety     Open Access  
Pediatric Respirology and Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonary Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pulmonology and Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription  
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Respiratory Medicine : X     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access  
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Medicine Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Respirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Respirology Case Reports     Open Access  
Revista Americana de Medicina Respiratoria     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias     Open Access  
Revista Inspirar     Open Access  
Revista ORL     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access  
Sarcoidosis Vasculitis and Diffuse Lung Disese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
The Clinical Respiratory Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Thorax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Translational Respiratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Пульмонология     Full-text available via subscription  

           

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Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.314
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1069-3424 - ISSN (Online) 1098-9048
Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [240 journals]
  • Pulmonary and Invasive Fungal Infections
    • Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 001-002
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1700956



      Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 001-0022020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Invasive Candidiasis
    • Authors: Gonzalez-Lara; María F., Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis
      Pages: 003 - 012
      Abstract: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most frequent health care associated invasive fungal infection. It is also associated with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. The most frequent etiologic agent is Candida albicans, but non-albicans species are increasing and associated with reduced antifungal susceptibility and outbreaks. Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant species recently described. IC presents as a spectrum of disease, going from fungemia to deep-seated candidiasis, and to septic shock with multiorgan failure. Diagnosis of IC is challenging. Several biomarkers and molecular methods are available for improving diagnosis. Early initial treatment with echinocandins is the treatment of choice. Step-down therapy when antifungal susceptibility is available is possible. Several new antifungal agents for the treatment of IC are in clinical development.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 003-012
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1701215
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Current Concepts in the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of
           Histoplasmosis Syndromes
    • Authors: Azar; Marwan M., Loyd, James L., Relich, Ryan F., Wheat, L. Joseph, Hage, Chadi A.
      Pages: 013 - 030
      Abstract: Histoplasmosis is a global disease endemic to regions of all six inhabited continents. The areas of highest endemicity lie within the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys of North America and parts of Central and South America. As a result of climate change and anthropogenic land utilization, the conditions suitable for Histoplasma capsulatum are changing, leading to a corresponding change in epidemiology. The clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis are protean, variably resembling other common conditions such as community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, or malignancy. Making a successful diagnosis is contingent on a thorough understanding of epidemiology, common clinical presentations, and best testing practices for histoplasmosis. While most subclinical or self-limited diseases do not require treatment in immunocompetent patients, all immunocompromised patients and those with progressive disseminated disease or chronic pulmonary disease should be treated. Liposomal amphotericin B is the preferred agent for severe or disseminated disease, while itraconazole is adequate for milder cases and “step-down” therapy following response to amphotericin B. In this review, we discuss the current evidence-based approaches to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of histoplasmosis.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 013-030
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698429
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Blastomycosis
    • Authors: Schwartz; Ilan S., Kauffman, Carol A.
      Pages: 031 - 041
      Abstract: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal disease of humans and other mammals caused by environmentally acquired infection with geographically restricted, thermally dimorphic fungi belonging to the genus Blastomyces. The genetic and geographic diversity of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. In addition to Blastomyces dermatitidis and the cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, which cause blastomycosis in mid-western and various eastern areas of North America, atypical blastomycosis is occasionally caused by Blastomyces helicus in western parts of North America and Blastomyces percursus in Africa. Blastomycosis is acquired by inhalation of the conidia that are produced in the mold phase; in the lungs, temperature-dependent transformation occurs to the yeast phase. In this form, the organism is phagocytized by macrophages and can spread hematogenously to various organs causing disseminated infection. Pulmonary disease is most common and varies from mild, self-limited infection to severe, potentially fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome. Disseminated infection is manifested primarily by skin lesions, but many other organs can be involved. Diagnosis is established by growth of the organism in culture; however, a tentative diagnosis can be made quickly by histopathological identification of the classic yeast form in tissues or by finding Blastomyces antigen in urine or serum. Blastomycosis is treated initially with amphotericin B when the disease is severe, involves the central nervous system, or the host is immunosuppressed. Itraconazole is recommended for primary therapy in mild-to-moderate infection and for step-down therapy after initial amphotericin B treatment. Voriconazole and posaconazole can be used for patients in whom itraconazole is not tolerated.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 031-041
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400281
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis
    • Authors: Kimes; Kathryn E., Kasule, Sabirah N., Blair, Janis E.
      Pages: 042 - 052
      Abstract: Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by the geographically restricted dimorphic fungus, Coccidioides. Coccidioidomycosis occurs endemically in the southwestern and western United States, mainly in focused regions of Arizona and California where the incidence is highest, and in Central and South America. Patients with impaired immunity, especially those with impaired cellular immunity, are at higher risk of severe and disseminated disease. In this review, we describe the fungal ecology and mycology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and normal immune defenses to Coccidioides as well as address current concepts in diagnosis, treatment, and continued care of patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. We also present and answer our most frequently asked questions regarding patients with primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 042-052
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400998
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • New Insights on Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis
    • Authors: Queiroz-Telles; Flá vio de, Peçanha Pietrobom, Paula Massaroni, Rosa Júnior, Marcos, Baptista, Rodrigo de Melo, Peçanha, Paulo Mendes
      Pages: 053 - 068
      Abstract: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most relevant systemic endemic mycoses in Latin American countries, especially in South American countries, with endemic and hyperendemic areas. The real burden of PCM may be underestimated because of a lack of compulsory case notification. Recent phylogenetic data revealed that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis comprises several cryptic species including P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii. However, the genetic biodiversity of Paracoccidioides does not affect the clinical manifestations or therapeutic response to therapy. Lung involvement is a common finding, especially in patients experiencing the chronic form of the disease, and, because of its similarities with tuberculosis, clinicians must be alert to the possibility of PCM in patients with chronic respiratory manifestations and epidemiological risk factors for this fungal disease.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 053-068
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400544
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Cryptococcosis
    • Authors: Zavala; Sofia, Baddley, John W.
      Pages: 069 - 079
      Abstract: Cryptococcosis has become an important infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Although Cryptococcus is mainly recognized by its ability to cause meningoencephalitis, it can infect almost any organ of the human body, with pulmonary infection being the second most common disease manifestation. In cases of meningitis, symptom onset may be insidious, but headaches, fevers, or mental status changes should warrant diagnostic testing. Symptoms of pulmonary disease are nonspecific and may include fever, chills, cough, malaise, night sweats, dyspnea, weight loss, and hemoptysis. Due to protean manifestations of infection, diagnosis may be delayed or misdiagnosis may occur. Diagnosis typically is made by antigen testing of serum or cerebrospinal fluid or by culture or histopathology of infected tissues. A lumbar puncture with the measurement of opening pressure is recommended for patients with suspected or proven cryptococcosis. Treatment of cryptococcosis is based on the anatomical site of disease, severity of disease, and underlying immune status of the patient. Amphotericin B preparations plus 5-flucytosine is used as initial treatment of meningitis, disseminated infection, or moderate-to-severe pulmonary infection followed by fluconazole as a consolidation therapy. Fluconazole is effective for mild-to-moderate pulmonary infection. Important complications include elevated intracranial pressure and immune reconstitution syndrome, which may resemble active disease.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 069-079
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400280
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
    • Authors: Ledoux; Marie-Pierre, Guffroy, Blandine, Nivoix, Yasmine, Simand, Célestine, Herbrecht, Raoul
      Pages: 080 - 098
      Abstract: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains difficult to diagnose and to treat. Most common risk factors are prolonged neutropenia, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, inherited or acquired immunodeficiency, administration of steroids or other immunosuppressive agents including monoclonal antibodies and new small molecules used for cancer therapy. Critically ill patients are also at high risk of IPA. Clinical signs are unspecific. Early computed tomography (CT)-scan identifies the two main aspects, angioinvasive and airway invasive aspergillosis. Although CT-scan findings are not fully specific they usually allow early initiation of therapy before mycological confirmation of the diagnosis. Role of 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is discussed. Confirmation is based on microscopy and culture of respiratory samples, histopathology in case of biopsy, and importantly by detection of Aspergillus galactomannan using an immunoassay in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Deoxyribonucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction is now standardized and increases the diagnosis yield. Two point of care tests detecting an Aspergillus glycoprotein using a lateral flow assay are also available. Mycological results allow classification into proven (irrespective of underlying condition), probable or possible (for cancer and severely immunosuppressed patients) or putative (for critically ill patients) IPA. New antifungal agents have been developed over the last 2 decades: new azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole), lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B, amphotericin B lipid complex), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin). Results of main trials assessing these agents in monotherapy or in combination are presented as well as the recommendations for their use according to international guidelines. New agents are under development.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 080-098
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3401990
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Mucormycosis
    • Authors: Reid; Gail, Lynch, Joseph P., Fishbein, Michael C., Clark, Nina M.
      Pages: 099 - 114
      Abstract: Mucormycosis is an infection caused by a group of filamentous molds within the order Mucorales. Infections may result from ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of spores into the nares or lungs, or inoculation into disrupted skin or wounds. In developed countries, mucormycosis occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised hosts (e.g., those with hematological malignancies, organ transplantation, neutropenia, autoimmune disorders, or other impairments in immunity). Only 6 to 10% of cases occur in subjects with no underlying disease. In contrast, in developing countries, most cases of mucormycosis occur in persons with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus or in immunocompetent subjects following trauma. Mucormycosis exhibits a marked propensity to invade blood vessels, leading to thrombosis, necrosis, and infarction of tissue. Mortality associated with invasive mucormycosis is high (> 30–50%), with 90% mortality associated with disseminated disease. Mortality rates are much lower, though still significant (10–30%), among patients with localized cutaneous disease.The diagnosis of mucormycosis relies upon histopathology and culture. Blood tests are of limited diagnostic value. Even with disseminated disease, blood cultures are usually negative. Mucorales have a distinct histological appearance, with irregular, nonseptate hyphae that branch at right angles. Cultures and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are important to identify the genera.Based on anatomic localization, mucormycosis can be classified as one of six forms: (1) rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM), (2) pulmonary, (3) cutaneous, (4) gastrointestinal (GI), (5) disseminated, and (6) mucormycosis of uncommon sites. Among diabetics, ROCM is the most common clinical presentation, whereas lung involvement is uncommon. In contrast, among organ transplant recipients or patients with hematological malignancies (HemeM), pulmonary and disseminated diseases are most common. Mucormycosis can progress rapidly, and delay in initiation of treatment by even a few days markedly worsens outcomes.Due to the rarity of mucormycosis, randomized controlled therapeutic trials have not been performed. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B (LFAB) are the mainstay of therapy, but the newer triazoles, posaconazole (POSA) and isavuconazole (ISAV) (the active component of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate), may be effective in patients refractory to or intolerant of LFAB. Early surgical debridement or excision plays an important adjunctive role. Additional studies are required to assess the optimal duration of therapy as well as the specific roles of LFAB and the triazoles in the treatment of mucormycosis.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 099-114
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3401992
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Non-Aspergillus Hyaline Molds: Emerging Causes of Sino-Pulmonary Fungal
           Infections and Other Invasive Mycoses
    • Authors: Jacobs; Samantha E., Wengenack, Nancy L., Walsh, Thomas J.
      Pages: 115 - 130
      Abstract: Hyaline molds, widely distributed in nature, are an important and increasing cause of invasive fungal infections in humans, likely due to an expanding population of immunosuppressed hosts, increases in antifungal resistance, and improvements in laboratory diagnostics. Sinopulmonary disease and disseminated infection are common manifestations in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients, whereas, catheter-related and localized soft tissue infections predominate in immunocompetent hosts. These organisms are not reliably differentiated based on their morphology in tissue; rather, efforts should be made to establish a microbiologic diagnosis via culture or molecular-based methods to guide antifungal management and inform prognosis. Herein, we review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these opportunistic pathogens known to cause hyalohyphomycoses: Scedosporium spp., Lomentospora prolificans, Fusarium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Arthrographis kalrae, Trichoderma spp., Acremonium spp., Paecilomyces variotii, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Penicillium species.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 115-130
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3401989
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Phaeohyphomycosis
    • Authors: Arcobello; Jonathan T., Revankar, Sanjay G.
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Phaeohyphomycosis refers to infections due to a large group of heterogenous organisms called “dematiaceous” or “melanized” fungi. These fungi are distinguished by the predominance of melanin in their cell walls, which likely acts as a virulence factor. Virtually, everyone is exposed to dematiaceous fungi through inhalation, as they are ubiquitous in the environment, although the development of infection is extremely uncommon. Invasive disease is rare but remains important due to the ability to cause serious disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, unlike other fungal infections such as aspergillosis. A large variety of invasive manifestations can be caused by these organisms, including deep local infections, pulmonary infection, cerebral infection, and disseminated disease, which is associated with high mortality. While advances in molecular techniques are promising, they have still not replaced histology and culture as the primary diagnostic tools. Therapy is not standardized and is based primarily on clinical experience from descriptive case reports.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 131-140
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400957
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci
    • Authors: Fishman; Jay A.
      Pages: 141 - 157
      Abstract: Pneumocystis jiroveci remains an important fungal pathogen in a broad range of immunocompromised hosts. The natural reservoir of infection remains unknown. Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (PJP) develops via airborne transmission or reactivation of inadequately treated infection. Nosocomial clusters of infection have been described among immunocompromised hosts. Subclinical infection or colonization may occur. Pneumocystis pneumonia occurs most often within 6 months of organ transplantation and with intensified or prolonged immunosuppression, notably with corticosteroids. Infection is also common during neutropenia and low-lymphocyte counts, with hypogammaglobulinemia, and following cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The clinical presentation generally includes fever, dyspnea with hypoxemia, and nonproductive cough. Chest radiographic patterns are best visualized by computed tomography (CT) scan with diffuse interstitial processes. Laboratory examination reveals hypoxemia, elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase levels, and elevated serum (1→3) β-D-glucan assays. Specific diagnosis is achieved using respiratory specimens with direct immunofluorescent staining; invasive procedures may be required and are important to avoid unnecessary therapies. Quantitative nucleic acid amplification is a useful adjunct to diagnosis but may be overly sensitive. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) remains the drug of choice for therapy; drug allergy should be documented before resorting to alternative therapies. Adjunctive corticosteroids may be useful early in the clinical course; aggressive reductions in immunosuppression may provoke immune reconstitution syndromes. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis is recommended and effective for immunocompromised individuals in the most commonly affected risk groups.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 141-157
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3399559
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Antifungal Therapy: New and Evolving Therapies
    • Authors: Nivoix; Yasmine, Ledoux, Marie-Pierre, Herbrecht, Raoul
      Pages: 158 - 174
      Abstract: Invasive fungal diseases primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. Immunosuppression has become more prevalent due to novel treatments, and this has led to a rise in the incidence of invasive fungal diseases. The antifungal armamentarium has long been insufficient and has taken quite some time to become diverse. Antifungal spectrum, tolerability, and toxicity are critical issues. Amphotericin B and its lipid formulations still have the widest spectrum, but, in spite of the better tolerance of the lipid formulations, toxicity remains a drawback, mostly with regard to renal function. Azoles constitute a heterogeneous antifungal class, in which newer molecules have an improved spectrum of activity. The main concern for the clinician when using azoles relates to the management of their many potential drug–drug interactions in an often fragile patient population. Echinocandins are better tolerated but possess a narrower antifungal spectrum and lack an oral route of administration. Still, their fungicidal activity makes them a weapon of first choice against Candida species. For certain uncommon fungal infections, antifungals such as flucytosine and terbinafine can also be useful. This article will give an overview of the mechanisms of action of currently used antifungals, as well as their spectrum of activity, clinically relevant pharmacological features, drug–drug interactions, and frequent side effects, all of which should drive the clinician's choice of agent when managing invasive fungal infections.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41: 158-174
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400291
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 01 (2020)
       
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Advances in Understanding and Treatment
    • Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 699-700
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400453



      Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

      Artikel in Thieme eJournals:
      Inhaltsverzeichnis     Volltext

      Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 699-7002019-12-30T00:00:00+0100
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 06 (2019)
       
  • Microbiology of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Disease
    • Authors: Blanchard; Ana C., Waters, Valerie J.
      Pages: 727 - 736
      Abstract: Although survival of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been continuously improving for the past 40 years, respiratory failure secondary to recurrent pulmonary infections remains the leading cause of mortality in this patient population. Certain pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex continue to be associated with poorer clinical outcomes including accelerated lung function decline and increased mortality. In addition, other organisms such as anaerobes, viruses, and fungi are increasingly recognized as potential contributors to disease progression. Culture-independent molecular methods are also being used for diagnostic purposes and to examine the interaction of microorganisms in the CF airway. Given the importance of CF airway infections, ongoing initiatives to promote understanding of the epidemiology, clinical course, and treatment options for these infections are needed.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 727-736
      PubDate: 2019-12-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1698464
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 06 (2019)
       
  • Organ Transplantation for Cystic Fibrosis
    • Authors: Morrell; Matthew R., Kiel, Sarah C., Pilewski, Joseph M.
      Pages: 842 - 856
      Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) remains the most common indication for lung transplantation in children and the third most common in adults and has the highest median survival posttransplant for all pretransplant diagnoses. Criteria for transplant in patients with CF vary widely among transplant centers and early referral to multiple centers may be needed to maximize opportunities for lung transplantation. Comorbidities unique to CF such as resistant and atypical pathogens like Burkholderia and Mycobacterium abscessus, and cirrhosis require special consideration for lung transplantation but should not be considered as absolute contraindications. For those patients who are listed for lung transplantation, mechanical support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and mechanical ventilation can be efficacious as bridges to lung transplantation in experienced centers with adequate resources. Liver and pancreas transplantations are also acceptable options for end-organ disease related to CF and can provide improvements in both quantity and quality of life.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 842-856
      PubDate: 2019-12-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3399554
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 06 (2019)
       
  • Adult Care in Cystic Fibrosis
    • Authors: Elborn; J. Stuart
      Pages: 857 - 868
      Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is now more common in adults than children in countries with well-developed health care systems. The number of adults continues to increase and will further increase if the new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators are disease modifying. Most of the complex morbidity and almost all the mortality of CF occur in adults and will increasingly follow this pattern even with new effective modulator therapies. Maintaining good quality of life including social functioning and maximizing survival for adults are the key priorities. This requires a highly knowledgeable and adaptable multidisciplinary team, which, though focused on maintaining lung health, requires an increasing range of other disciplines and specialties to maximize well-being. Changes in health care systems will require current models of care to adapt to provide care for the large number of adult patients. With increasing survival and age, many are likely to have both CF morbidities and additional diseases of aging. New models are needed for health care delivery for this expanding population with complex medical conditions.
      Citation: Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 857-868
      PubDate: 2019-12-30T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400289
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 06 (2019)
       
 
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