Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8359 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (119 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (329 journals)
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    - SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)
    - SURGERY (393 journals)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (329 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 329 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access  
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access  
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 100)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Full-text available via subscription  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
JMIR Cardio     Open Access  
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Arrhythmia     Open Access  
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care TSS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cardiac Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.951
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Effects of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents on Cardiovascular Outcomes in
           Weight Excess Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Background Obesity hypertension is an ongoing pandemic. The first-line medications to treat this condition are still subject to debate. We compared diuretics, calcium-channel blockers (CCB), beta-blockers (BB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) as an initial antihypertensive therapy for prevention of cardiovascular morbimortality of hypertensive individuals who are overweight or obese. Methods We conducted a search of the literature for randomized clinical trials in which at least 50% of the participants were overweight or obese. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), stroke, or end-stage renal disease. Results Our search yielded 16 randomized studies. Comparisons of two classes of drugs with at least two studies indicated that (1) CCB and ACEI increased the risk of HF [relative risk (RR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–4.40] and stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13; 1.00–1.26]), respectively, compared to diuretics; and (2) CCB showed a reduction in stroke (HR = 0.77; 0.66–0.89) and total mortality (HR = 0.94; 0.87–1.01) compared to the BB atenolol. Comparisons of two classes of antihypertensive medications with only one study showed that the risk of MI was higher with ARB valsartan versus CCB (HR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.02–1.38, p = 0.02). In contrast, losartan lowered the risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome compared to atenolol (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.77–0.98, p = 0.02). Conclusions In hypertensive subjects with excess weight, diuretics are more effective for preventing HF and stroke than CCB and ACEI, respectively. CCB are a good first-line choice for prevention of cardiovascular disease, except HF.
      PubDate: 2020-01-03
  • Evolution of Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Starting
           Macitentan After the Discontinuation of Other Endothelin-Receptor
           Antagonists: Results of a Retrospective Study
    • Abstract: Background Macitentan is the latest endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA) approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), presenting enhanced properties over previous ERAs. Objective We describe the clinical and echocardiographic evolution of patients with PAH who started macitentan after discontinuing bosentan/ambrisentan. Methods This was a retrospective series of patients with different etiologies who started macitentan after the suspension of other ERAs under routine clinical practice at five Spanish hospitals. World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), levels of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac imaging data were collected and described at baseline (before macitentan initiation) and after 3, 6, and 12 months, when available. Results In total, 12 patients (ten women; mean age 65.63 ± 13.27 years) were observed. At baseline, most patients were receiving concomitant PAH medications, and five patients were classed as WHO-FC III. After 3 months of macitentan treatment, WHO-FC had improved in four patients, 6MWD increased in eight patients, and NT-proBNP levels and right atrial area were lowered in seven and eight patients, respectively. Similar results were observed after 6 and 12 months. Macitentan was well-tolerated, with no PAH hospitalizations, septostomies, transplants, or deaths registered. Conclusions Our results suggest that switching to macitentan in patients with PAH who discontinued bosentan/ambrisentan was well-tolerated and effective. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations.
      PubDate: 2019-12-27
  • Statins, LDL Cholesterol Control, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, and
           Atherosclerosis Progression: A Clinical Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite the longstanding and widespread use of statins, they are used quite inefficiently in everyday clinical practice. This might be because of a lack of robust evidence or the wide variety of different guidelines that are frequently changed. Using data from clinical trials and some simple mathematical modeling, we sought to expand upon the relation between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control and cardiovascular risk to offer a firm basis for independent decision making in everyday clinical practice. Analysis of the dose–response curves of different statins indicated that doubling the dose will provide a < 5% extra LDL-C gradient and that the relationship among different statin dose equipotencies is fourfold in the lower range and threefold in the higher range. Thus, the use of potent statins at very low doses might overcome patient statin reluctance. Moreover, whereas statins lower LDL-C percentwise, the prevention of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events (ARCVEs) depends on the absolute LDL-C gradient produced and the level of risk. Consequently, and counterintuitively, the lower the baseline LDL-C and/or ARCVE risk, the higher the statin therapy strength required, and approach that is also cost effective. We discuss the issue of threshold versus gradient in terms of clinical trials on plaque regression and speculate on the relationship between LDL-C and atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
  • Safety of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Monoclonal
           Antibodies in Regard to Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background Evidence shows a positive association between the use of statins and new-onset diabetes. There is, however, contradictory evidence as to whether a similar association exists for the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9-mAbs) in regard to incident diabetes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials that reported data on the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus or the worsening of pre-existing diabetes were searched, and risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the endpoints. Twenty-three studies including 65,957 participants were identified. Compared with controls, PCSK9-mAb treatment was not associated with the adverse event of diabetes (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91–1.02; p = 0.22). When we analysed the trials in terms of PCSK9-mAb type, alirocumab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of diabetes (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.98; p = 0.01), whereas no significant reduction was observed in participants receiving evolocumab or bococizumab. Interestingly, compared with ezetimibe, which was actively used as lipid-modifying therapy in the control group, PCSK9-mAbs seem to have a lower risk of incident diabetes (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.99; p = 0.04). This meta-analysis also revealed a noticeable increase in the risk of incident diabetes in the evolocumab and alirocumab pool (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.12–4.07; p = 0.02) when the use of statins was equivalent between the experimental and active comparator arms. Conclusion Compared with placebo or any other comparator, PCSK9-mAb treatment was not associated with the adverse event of diabetes. However, evolocumab and alirocumab show high risk of incident diabetes when there is no interference from unbalanced use of statins. The imbalance in background lipid modifying therapy or different comparators used in the control arms of the studies might have masked the effect of PCSK9-mAb therapy on diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Restarting Oral Anticoagulation in Patients
           with Atrial Fibrillation after an Intracranial Hemorrhage: Analysis of
           Medicare Part D Claims Data from 2010–2016
    • Abstract: Background In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who survive an anticoagulant-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), the benefits of restarting oral anticoagulation (OAC) remain unclear. Objective In this study, we sought to determine the effectiveness and safety associated with resumption of OAC in atrial fibrillation patients who survive an ICH. Methods Using 2010–2016 Medicare claims data, we identified patients with non-valvular AF who experienced an OAC-related ICH and survived at least 6 weeks after the ICH (n = 1502). The primary outcomes included the composite of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), thromboembolism (TE), a composite of ischemic stroke/TIA and TE, recurrent ICH, and all-cause mortality. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the association between post-ICH OAC resumption, which was measured in a time-dependent manner, and the risk of primary outcomes, while controlling for a comprehensive list of covariates. Results Among patients who survived an ICH, 69% reinitiated OAC within 6 weeks of the event, and among those who resumed OAC, 83% restarted warfarin. There was no significant difference in the risk of ischemic stroke/TIA (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62–1.21), TE (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55–1.32), and ischemic stroke/TIA/TE (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.61–1.07) between post-ICH OAC use and non-use. Post-ICH OAC use was associated with a lower risk of recurrent ICH (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41–0.95) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.62) compared with non-OAC use. Conclusions In AF patients who survived an ICH, restarting OAC was not associated with a greater risk of recurrent ICH. Evidence from randomized controlled studies is needed to further clarify the clinical benefit of restarting OAC in this high-risk population. Further evaluation of which individuals benefit from restarting OAC is also needed to provide more clinical guidance.
      PubDate: 2019-12-06
  • Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Optimization for Acute
           Decompensated Heart Failure Patients (ROAD-HF): Rationale and Design
    • Abstract: Introduction The long-term benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on outcomes in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are well-known, making them one of the most widely prescribed medications. However, the administration of ACEIs/ARBs in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality secondary to worsening renal function (WRF). A decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the treatment of ADHF has been associated with an increase in mortality proportional to the degree of WRF. Aim The aim of our study is to determine whether withholding ACEIs/ARBs during the initial 72 h of admission in patients with ADHF will prevent WRF and allow more effective diuresis. Methods Four hundred and thirty patients will be randomized to the intervention (withholding ACEIs/ARBs) or control (continue/start ACEIs/ARBs) arms for 72 h. Primary outcomes include rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), patient global assessment, and change in kinetic eGFR over 72 h, while secondary outcomes include change in weight, fluid balance, change in signs and symptoms of congestion, change in renal function, change in urinary biomarkers (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 [TIMP-2] × insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 [IGFBP7]), patients experiencing treatment failure, hospital length of stay (LOS), cost analysis, mortality within 30 days, and hospital readmissions over 30 days and 1 year. Conclusion This prospective clinical trial will prove if withholding ACEIs/ARBs will prevent AKI in ADHF. It will help us understand the complex interactions between the heart and kidney, and delineate the best treatment strategy for ADHF. Holding ACEIs/ARBs might help preserve renal function, and decrease hospital LOS, readmission rates, and cost of care in ADHF. Registration identifier: NCT03695120.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
  • Association Between Digoxin Use and Adverse Outcomes Among Patients in the
           Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry
    • Abstract: Introduction Digoxin is widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but its association with adverse outcomes remains controversial. Objective We aimed to assess the association between digoxin and adverse outcomes in Chinese patients with AF. Methods We used data from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry, a prospective, multicenter, hospital-based registry study involving 31 hospitals. In total, 10,472 eligible patients with AF, enrolled from August 2011 to December 2016, were included in this study. The association between digoxin use and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and cardiovascular hospitalization were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In total, 1152 (11%) patients were treated with digoxin at baseline. Patients receiving digoxin were older (mean age 69.7 vs. 66.5 years) and had a higher heart rate (92.4 vs. 79.7 beats/min). A higher proportion of patients receiving digoxin therapy had a history of heart failure (62.5 vs. 15.6%), diabetes mellitus (34.4 vs. 24.4%), and persistent AF (67.9 vs. 38.4%). Digoxin use was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.43; p = 0.031), cardiovascular death (aHR 1.25; 95% CI 1.01–1.55; p = 0.043), and cardiovascular hospitalization (aHR 1.21; 95% CI 1.05–1.39; p = 0.007). The associations were also homogeneous across various subgroups except in patients with and without renal dysfunction (p value for interaction = 0.029). Discussion In this Chinese AF cohort, for patients who had not undergone ablation, digoxin use was associated with a significant increase in adverse outcomes. Although residual confounders may exist, and serum concentrations of digoxin were unavailable, digoxin should be used with caution in clinical practice, and its effects need to be critically evaluated in randomized trials. Clinical trial registration URL:'proj=5831. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-OCH-13003729.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • A Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Radiofrequency Catheter
           Ablation with Antiarrhythmic Drugs in Treatment of Chinese Patients with
           Atrial Fibrillation
    • Abstract: Introduction Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is widely used to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) in China. Objective We aimed to determine the long-term cost effectiveness of RFCA versus antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in treating AF from the perspective of third-party payers. Methods The model was structured as a 12-month decision tree leading to a Markov model that simulated the follow-up treatment outcomes and costs with time horizons of 8, 15, and 20 years. Comparators were standard-of-care AADs. Clinical parameters captured normal sinus rhythm, AF, stroke, post-stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), gastrointestinal bleeding, post-ICH, and death. The risk of operative death, procedural complications, and adverse drug toxicity were also considered. The model output was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost per QALY gained. Results RFCA incurred more costs than the AADs but resulted in more QALYs gained than did AADs. The incremental cost per QALY gained with RFCA versus AADs was ¥66,764, ¥36,280, and ¥29,359 at 8, 15, and 20 years, respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to the changes in RFCA cost and CHADS2 score (clinical prediction rule for assessing the risk of stroke in patients with non-rheumatic AF). Conclusion Compared with AADs, RFCA significantly improves clinical outcomes and QALYs among patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. From the Chinese payer’s perspective, RFCA is a cost-effective therapy over long-term horizons.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Review of Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Guide for Effective Drug
    • Abstract: Abstract Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed as a viable and in some cases superior alternative to warfarin. These agents have overcome some of the limitations of warfarin, which has a narrow therapeutic window and many food and drug interactions. DOACs have been demonstrated to have a more predictable and reliable pharmacology and, unlike warfarin, do not require frequent monitoring of anticoagulant effect. For these reasons, the use of DOACs is increasing. Despite the many positive attributes of these agents, limitations and contraindications do exist. An understanding of the pharmacology, indications, and contraindications is therefore crucial for effective patient management. We review the available agents to aid in effective drug utilization.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Comparison of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylactic Measures Post Coronary
           Artery Bypass Graft Surgery
    • Abstract: Background There is considerable debate surrounding venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures. The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines report weak recommendations for starting VTE prophylaxis, but provide no specific guidance regarding timing or preferred prophylactic agent. Methods This retrospective cohort study was designed to compare outcomes of post-cardiac surgery patients admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit (ICU) who received subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH), with those who received subcutaneous enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis. Between January 2013 and September 2017, 1085 patients were identified, and, after propensity score matching, 850 patients were selected for analysis. The primary outcomes were postoperative VTE and the occurrence of bleeding events up to 30 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included chest tube output, days mechanically ventilated, ICU length of stay, total hospital length of stay, and 30-day readmission rates. Results During the study period, rates of 2.03% for VTE events and 1.38% for bleeding events were reported in the entire cohort. After matching, the rates of VTE events (2.12% vs. 1.41%, p = 0.43) and bleeding events (1.18% vs. 0.94%, p = 1.00) were more frequent in the heparin group versus the enoxaparin group; these differences were not statistically significant. However, we did find a statistically significant increase in several secondary endpoints, including chest tube output, days mechanically ventilated, ICU length of stay, and total hospital length of stay, within the heparin cohort. Bleeding rates were similar to those previously published, despite the early initiation of VTE prophylaxis. Conclusions We report no statistical difference in the rates of VTE or bleeding between chemical agents, but our results suggest enoxaparin may be a preferred agent over UFH.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Role of Vitamin D in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection
    • Abstract: Abstract Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) presents as the severest phenotype on the spectrum of HF. Although great progress has been made with respect to its treatment over the past 3 decades, morbidity and mortality remain high, posing a big burden on human health. Recent evidence suggests vitamin D has a critical role in maintaining heart health through activation of the vitamin D receptor expressed in cardiomyocytes, and vitamin D deficiency may be implicated in the pathophysiology of HFrEF through activation of the renin-angiotensin system, impaired calcium handling, exaggerated inflammation, secondary hyperparathyroidism, pro-fibrotic properties, and proatherogenic potential. Additionally, epidemiological data disclosed that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with HFrEF and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, randomized control trials of vitamin D supplementation in HF, especially in HFrEF, have shown inconsistent results. Thus, this article aims to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognostic value of vitamin D deficiency in HF, with a special focus on randomized control trials associated with vitamin D supplementation in patients with HFrEF.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Assessment and Management of Patients with Hyperlipidemia Referred for
           Initiation of PCSK9 Inhibitor Therapy: A Lipid Clinic Experience
    • Abstract: Purpose Previous studies have reported that monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in clinical practice have been underutilized due to several barriers, including high cost, stringent insurance authorization, patient cost-sharing and insufficient documentation of a patient’s medical history. The purpose of our study was to determine if prescribing PCSK9 inhibitors only to patients meeting the established indications would significantly improve the approval rate and utilization. Methods We conducted a review and analysis of the medical records of patients referred by their physician to a hospital-based lipid clinic over a 20-month period specifically for initiation of a PCSK9 inhibitor. Results There were 180 patients referred to our lipid clinic by their cardiologist or internist specifically for initiation of a PCSK9 inhibitor. Only 76 (42%) of these patients met the approved indications for this therapy and were provided PCSK9 inhibitor prescriptions. All received insurance approval within 3 weeks. Three did not initiate therapy due to excessive out-of-pocket cost, three discontinued therapy after two injections because of intolerable side effects (rhinorrhea), with the remaining 70 patients starting and continuing therapy, long-term. The remaining 104 patients were not given a PCSK9 inhibitor prescription and were treated with oral lipid-lowering medications. Conclusion Our findings suggest that those physicians who referred patients to our lipid clinic specifically for initiation of a PCSK9 inhibitor were not aware of the established indications. By prescribing a PCSK9 inhibitor to only those patients meeting the established indications, 100% obtained approval. Therefore, to achieve higher insurance approval rates and utilization, it is essential that physicians understand the indications for PCSK9 inhibitor therapy and prescribe them only to patients meeting the established indications.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Effects of Clarithromycin on the Pharmacokinetics of Apixaban in
           Healthy Volunteers: A Single-Sequence Crossover Study
    • Abstract: Background This was an open-label, phase I, nonrandomized, single-sequence, crossover study to evaluate the effect of concomitant administration of multiple doses of clarithromycin on the single-dose exposure, safety, and tolerability of apixaban in healthy subjects. Methods In total, 19 subjects received a single oral dose of apixaban 10 mg on day 1. On day 4, subjects began receiving oral clarithromycin immediate release (IR) 500 mg twice daily (bid) for 4 days. On day 8, subjects received oral apixaban 10 mg and oral clarithromycin IR 500 mg bid. Oral clarithromycin IR 500 mg bid was given alone on days 9 and 10. Results Compared with apixaban alone, coadministration of apixaban with clarithromycin resulted in increased apixaban exposure. The adjusted geometric mean ratio (GMR) was 1.299 (90% confidence interval [CI] 1.220–1.384) for peak plasma concentration (Cmax), whereas the adjusted GMR for the area under the concentration curve (AUC(INF)) was 1.595 (90% CI 1.506–1.698). The mean half-life and median time to Cmax of apixaban were comparable with and without concomitant administration of clarithromycin. Administration of apixaban and clarithromycin concomitantly did not result in increased adverse events compared with administration of either agent alone. All adverse events were mild in intensity. Conclusions Apixaban Cmax and AUC(INF) increased 30% and 60%, respectively, when multiple doses of clarithromycin were coadministered with apixaban versus administration of apixaban alone. The increase in apixaban Cmax and AUC(INF) with concomitant clarithromycin was less than that which has been observed when apixaban was given with ketoconazole. Administration of apixaban alone and in combination with clarithromycin bid was safe and generally well-tolerated by the healthy adult subjects in this study. Clinical Trial Registration identifier number NCT02912234.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Safety and Prognostic Impact of Early Treatment with
           Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
           in Patients with Acute Heart Failure
    • Abstract: Background Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been recommended for patients with heart failure, their clinical and prognostic impact in the very acute phase of acute heart failure (AHF) is unclear, mainly because data on their safety and efficacy are lacking. Methods This study was a post hoc analysis of the REALITY-AHF trial. Patients with AHF who did not take an ACEI or ARB at admission were enrolled. Patients who received these medications within 48 h of admission were categorized as the ACEI/ARB group, and all other patients were categorized as the no ACEI/ARB group. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death and heart failure readmission within 1 year of admission. Results Of the 1682 patients in the REALITY-AHF cohort, 900 were enrolled in this study, and 288 (32%) were included in the ACEI/ARB group. After propensity score matching, 152 pairs were evaluated, and no significant difference was found for in-hospital mortality, worsening renal function, or length of hospital stay. The ACEI/ARB group had significantly higher event-free survival (hazard ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.82; p = 0.006). Conclusions Early initiation of ACEIs/ARBs within 48 h of admission for hospitalized patients with AHF was not associated with adverse events and correlated with improved outcomes at 1 year from admission.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Value of Galectin-3 in Acute Myocardial Infarction
    • Abstract: Abstract Galectins are an ancient family of lectins characterized by evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences and β-galactoside recognition and binding sites. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is one of 15 known galectins. This protein has important functions in numerous biological activities, including cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. In recent years, many studies have shown that Gal-3 is closely associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and may be a promising biomarker for the assessment of severity as well as prognosis prediction in AMI patients, but controversy still exists. In this review, we summarize the latest literature on the relationship between Gal-3 and unstable plaques, the secretion kinetics of Gal-3 during the acute phase of AMI, and the value of Gal-3 in the prediction of post-AMI remodeling. Finally, the possible value of Gal-3 as a biological target for AMI therapy is examined.
      PubDate: 2019-11-30
  • Abbreviated Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Followed by P2Y 12 Inhibitor
           Monotherapy versus 12 Months’ Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Post
           Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
           of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Introduction An increased incidence of stent thrombosis after implantation of first-generation drug-eluting stents led to a recommendation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for 12 months after the procedure. However, given the use of second-generation and newer drug-eluting stents, this recommendation needs to be revisited. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have studied an abbreviated DAPT regimen of ≤ 3 months followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, and results have been conflicting. Objective We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of RCTs of abbreviated DAPT for ≤ 3 months followed by P2Y12 monotherapy compared with 12 months of DAPT. Methods We performed a systematic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, and DARE (Database of s of Reviews of Effects) databases for eligible RCTs. Quantitative analysis was performed based on the intention-to-treat principle. We used the Mantel–Haenszel method with a random-effects model to calculate relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The final analysis included four RCTs. We found no difference in the risk of all-cause mortality (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.77–1.05; p = 0.18; I2 = 0%; χ2p = 0.58), myocardial infarction (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.86–1.15; p = 0.85; I2 = 0%; χ2p = 0.70), stroke (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.65–1.98; p = 0.65; I2 = 59%; χ2p = 0.06), or stent thrombosis (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.73–1.33; p = 0.90; I2 = 0%; χ2p = 0.48). Additionally, there was no difference in the risk for major bleeding, defined as BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) type 3 or 5, between the two groups (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.37–1.05; p = 0.07; I2 = 79%; χ2p < 0.05). Conclusion Abbreviated DAPT followed by P2Y12 monotherapy resulted in a similar risk of re-ischemic clinical outcomes post percutaneous coronary intervention as compared with the standard 12-month DAPT regimen. The risk of major bleeding (BARC type 3 or 5) also remained similar between the two groups. However, as trials have reported benefits with abbreviated DAPT followed by P2Y12 monotherapy in terms of combined endpoints and all bleeding (BARC type 2–5), additional research is needed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-30
  • Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Ezetimibe in Patients with Atherosclerotic
           Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
    • Abstract: Introduction Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), especially those with recent (< 1 year) acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. This risk can be reduced by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. A comprehensive meta-analysis on the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe is lacking. This study attempts to address this gap. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for publications from database inception to August 2018 and for conference abstracts from 2015 to August 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population and the recent ACS subgroup. Results In total, 12 studies were eligible for the meta-analyses. Treatment with combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy showed greater absolute LDL-C reduction than statin monotherapy (mean difference − 21.86 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 26.56 to − 17.17; p < 0.0001) after 6 months of treatment (or at a timepoint closest to 6 months). Similarly, in patients with recent ACS, combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy was favorable compared with statin monotherapy (mean treatment difference − 19.19 mg/dL; 95% CI − 25.22 to − 13.16; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Ezetimibe, when added to statin therapy, provided a modest additional reduction in LDL-C compared with statin monotherapy. However, this may not be sufficient for some patients with ASCVD who have especially high LDL-C levels despite optimal statin therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
  • Dexmedetomidine Reduces Atrial Fibrillation After Adult Cardiac Surgery: A
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have antiarrhythmic effects by exhibiting sympatholytic properties and activating the vagus nerve in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on atrial fibrillation (AF) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial. Materials and methods We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the antiarrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of AF. The secondary outcomes were ventricular arrhythmias [ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT)], mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and hospital length of stay, and all-cause mortality. Results Thirteen trials with a total of 1684 study patients were selected. Compared with controls, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AF [odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.97; P = 0.03] and VT (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.11–0.48; P < 0.0001). No significant difference for the incidence of VF existed (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.21–3.03; P = 0.74). There was no significant difference between groups in MV duration [weighted mean difference (WMD) − 0.10; 95% CI − 0.42 to 0.21; P = 0.52], postoperative ICU stay (WMD − 0.49; 95% CI − 2.64 to 1.66; P = 0.65), hospital stay (WMD − 0.01; 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.13; P = 0.88) and mortality (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.15–2.37; P = 0.46). Conclusions Perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduced the incidence of postoperative AF and VT. But there was no significant difference in incidence of VF, MV duration, ICU stay, hospital stay and mortality.
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
  • Effects of Metformin on Left Ventricular Size and Function in Hypertensive
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results of a Randomized,
           Controlled, Multicenter, Phase IV Trial
    • Abstract: Background Metformin is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the possible benefits of metformin on diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), acute or unstable HF remains a precaution for its use. Objective The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial was to assess whether metformin treatment has beneficial effects on patients with T2DM with hypertension without overt HF. Methods A total of 164 patients (92 males, 72 females; median age 66 years) were included in this study. Patients with T2DM with a history of hypertension were randomized 1:1 to treatment for 1 year with either metformin (metformin-treated group) or other hypoglycemic agents (control group). The primary endpoints were changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, left ventricular (LV) mass index, and indicators of LV diastolic function. We also evaluated changes in both clinical findings and blood laboratory examination data. Results We observed no significant changes between baseline and 1-year post-treatment in LV mass index, BNP levels, or E/e′ (early diastolic transmitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity; an indicator of LV diastolic function) in either the metformin-treated (n = 83) or the control (n = 81) groups. The metformin-treated group had a significant reduction of body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), but the control group did not. We determined that renal function, including serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate, deteriorated significantly in the control group but not in the metformin-treated group. Conclusion LV mass and diastolic function were not affected after 1 year of metformin treatment in patients with T2DM. However, we observed benefits in terms of reductions in both BMI and LDL-C levels and preservation of renal function. Trial Registration UMIN000006504. Registered 7 October 2011.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Acknowledgement to Referees
    • PubDate: 2019-11-04
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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