Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8669 journals)
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 103)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Open Access  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.951
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1175-3277 - ISSN (Online) 1179-187X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Comparative Effectiveness and Costs of Enoxaparin Monotherapy Versus
           Unfractionated Heparin Monotherapy in Treating Acute Coronary Syndrome
    • Abstract: Background Enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) are guideline-recommended anticoagulants for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction with (STEMI) or without ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI). Prior efficacy and safety evidence are mainly from clinical trials. Economic data are insufficient. This study examined the differences in utilization, effectiveness, safety, and costs in treating ACS between enoxaparin and UFH monotherapy using real-world data. Methods Using data from 859 US hospitals, inpatients ≥ 18 years of age with a diagnosis of an initial episode of ACS between 2010 and 2016 were identified. Outcomes included 30-day risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), recurrent angina, in-hospital mortality, composite ischemic complication (having MI/recurrent angina/death), major bleeding, and costs. Multivariable regression was used to compare outcomes between enoxaparin and UFH monotherapy. Results Among 1,048,053 eligible patients (UA: 219,259; NSTEMI: 582,134; STEMI: 246,660), the prevalence of enoxaparin monotherapy was 12.0%, 13.9%, and 5.1%, and the prevalence of UFH monotherapy was 45.1%, 43.1% and 59.8%, for UA, NSTEMI, and STEMI patients, respectively. Enoxaparin was associated with a lower risk of ischemic complications and death among NSTEMI, but not in UA or STEMI patients, and with a lower risk of major bleeding in all patients. Cost savings per patient during index admission and 30-day follow-up for enoxaparin over UFH was $2972 for UA, $2475 for NSTEMI, and $3050 for STEMI. Conclusions Enoxaparin was associated with a lower risk of ischemic complications (including death), lower costs, and better safety than UFH among NSTEMI patients. Improving upstream selection of anticoagulants in appropriate populations may help optimize clinical outcomes and costs.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
  • COVID-19 Pandemic: Cardiovascular Complications and Future Implications
    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now a global pandemic with the highest number of affected individuals in the modern era. Not only is the infection inflicting significant morbidity and mortality, but there has also been a significant strain to the health care system and the economy. COVID-19 typically presents as viral pneumonia, occasionally leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. However, emerging evidence suggests that it has a significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system by direct myocardial damage, severe systemic inflammatory response, hypoxia, right heart strain secondary to ARDS and lung injury, and plaque rupture secondary to inflammation. Primary cardiac manifestations include acute myocarditis, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and abnormal clotting. Several consensus documents have been released to help manage CV disease during this pandemic. In this review, we summarize key cardiac manifestations, their management, and future implications.
      PubDate: 2020-06-23
  • PCSK9 Inhibitors in a German Single-Center Clinical Practice: Real-World
           Treatment of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk Over 68 Weeks
    • Abstract: Aims Several the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) for patients at high/very high cardiovascular risk who are inadequately treated with maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs). Objectives We assessed the effectiveness and safety of the PCSK9i alirocumab and evolocumab in a single-center clinical practice for up to 68 weeks. Methods In this prospective, open-label study conducted in Germany, 635 enrolled patients were treated with alirocumab [75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W)] or evolocumab (140 mg Q2W) according to European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society guidelines (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] > 1.81/2.59 mmol/L (70/100 mg/dL), depending on cardiovascular risk]. Investigators were able to adjust LLTs, including PCSK9i, according to their own clinical judgment. The primary effectiveness endpoint was LDL-C reduction from baseline to week 68. Results At baseline, approximately 50% of patients were statin intolerant, and approximately 90% reported a history of cardiovascular disease. LDL-C reductions remained generally unchanged from weeks 4 to 68 in each treatment group. At week 68, LDL-C mean percentage changes from baseline were − 41.7% (alirocumab 75 mg Q2W), − 53.7% (alirocumab 150 mg Q2W), and − 54.1% (evolocumab 140 mg Q2W). LDL-C reduction was 7.1% greater in patients receiving statins than in those not receiving statins because of statin intolerance (P < 0.0001). PCSK9i consistently improved levels of other lipoproteins throughout. Overall, 47.1% of patients reported adverse events at week 68. Conclusions Consistent with clinical trial findings, alirocumab and evolocumab improved lipid levels in a real-world setting in patients with high baseline LDL-C levels despite receiving maximally tolerated LLTs. PCSK9i were generally well-tolerated.
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
  • The Safety and Efficacy of Rivaroxaban Compared with Warfarin in Patients
           with Atrial Fibrillation and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and
    • Abstract: Aims This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus. Methods PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched from the establishment of databases up to 15 October 2019. Studies on efficacy and safety outcomes of rivaroxaban and warfarin were included. Efficacy and safety outcomes, including stroke, ischemic stroke, stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac events, major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and major gastrointestinal bleeding were collected for meta-analysis. Results Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban could significantly reduce stroke (risk ratio [RR] 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.95; P = 0.01), ischemic stroke (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.63–0.87; P = 0.0004), stroke or systemic embolism (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60–0.89; P = 0.002), myocardial infarction (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56–0.82; P < 0.0001), and major adverse cardiac events (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.53–0.94; P = 0.02) in patients with AF and diabetes. Moreover, rivaroxaban was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65–0.96; P = 0.02), intracranial hemorrhage (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.39–0.69; P < 0.00001), and major gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.56–0.98; P = 0.04). Similar results were obtained in stratified meta-analysis of cohort studies. Conclusion Our study suggests a favorable risk–benefit profile of rivaroxaban, with superior efficacy and safety over warfarin in patients with AF and diabetes.
      PubDate: 2020-06-08
  • Effects of Metformin on Left Ventricular Size and Function in Hypertensive
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results of a Randomized,
           Controlled, Multicenter, Phase IV Trial
    • Abstract: Background Metformin is the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic agent for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the possible benefits of metformin on diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), acute or unstable HF remains a precaution for its use. Objective The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial was to assess whether metformin treatment has beneficial effects on patients with T2DM with hypertension without overt HF. Methods A total of 164 patients (92 males, 72 females; median age 66 years) were included in this study. Patients with T2DM with a history of hypertension were randomized 1:1 to treatment for 1 year with either metformin (metformin-treated group) or other hypoglycemic agents (control group). The primary endpoints were changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, left ventricular (LV) mass index, and indicators of LV diastolic function. We also evaluated changes in both clinical findings and blood laboratory examination data. Results We observed no significant changes between baseline and 1-year post-treatment in LV mass index, BNP levels, or E/e′ (early diastolic transmitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity; an indicator of LV diastolic function) in either the metformin-treated (n = 83) or the control (n = 81) groups. The metformin-treated group had a significant reduction of body mass index (BMI) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), but the control group did not. We determined that renal function, including serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate, deteriorated significantly in the control group but not in the metformin-treated group. Conclusion LV mass and diastolic function were not affected after 1 year of metformin treatment in patients with T2DM. However, we observed benefits in terms of reductions in both BMI and LDL-C levels and preservation of renal function. Trial Registration UMIN000006504. Registered 7 October 2011.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Ezetimibe in Patients with Atherosclerotic
           Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
    • Abstract: Introduction Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), especially those with recent (< 1 year) acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. This risk can be reduced by lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. A comprehensive meta-analysis on the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe is lacking. This study attempts to address this gap. Methods A systematic literature review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for publications from database inception to August 2018 and for conference abstracts from 2015 to August 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of ezetimibe in the ASCVD population and the recent ACS subgroup. Results In total, 12 studies were eligible for the meta-analyses. Treatment with combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy showed greater absolute LDL-C reduction than statin monotherapy (mean difference − 21.86 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] − 26.56 to − 17.17; p < 0.0001) after 6 months of treatment (or at a timepoint closest to 6 months). Similarly, in patients with recent ACS, combination ezetimibe plus statin therapy was favorable compared with statin monotherapy (mean treatment difference − 19.19 mg/dL; 95% CI − 25.22 to − 13.16; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Ezetimibe, when added to statin therapy, provided a modest additional reduction in LDL-C compared with statin monotherapy. However, this may not be sufficient for some patients with ASCVD who have especially high LDL-C levels despite optimal statin therapy.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Bioequivalence of a Newly Developed Dabigatran Etexilate Tablet Versus the
           Commercial Capsule and Impact of Rabeprazole-Induced Elevated Gastric pH
           on Exposure in Healthy Subjects
    • Abstract: Background and Objective Dabigatran etexilate (DE) is an anticoagulant with proven efficacy and tolerability for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For the commercial capsule, a complex formulation is used to maintain the acidic microenvironment required for maximal absorption. Consequently, its efficacy and safety are similar with or without concomitant intake of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). A simplified DE tablet formulation was developed and tested in two studies. One investigated bioequivalence (BE) of the novel DE tablet versus the commercial DE capsule. The other investigated DE bioavailability (BA) under pretreatment with the PPI rabeprazole and assessed the effect of elevated pH on exposure to dabigatran. Methods BE of the novel DE tablet versus the DE capsule was assessed in a randomized two-treatment, four-period, two-sequence crossover study (NCT03070171). The effect of rabeprazole on the BA of the DE tablet was assessed in an open-label, single-arm study (NCT03143166). Both studies were conducted at sites in Japan. Participants were healthy male volunteers, aged ≥ 20–40 years. In the BE study, participants received the DE tablet or capsule (single oral dose, 110 mg); primary endpoints were area under the concentration–time curve from baseline to the last quantifiable data point (AUC0–tz) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of unconjugated dabigatran. In the relative BA study, participants received the DE tablet (single oral dose, 110 mg) with or without rabeprazole pretreatment (once daily for 5 days, 20 mg); primary endpoints were AUC0–tz and Cmax of total dabigatran. Results In total, 160 participants were randomized in the BE study; 36 participants were enrolled in the BA study. The 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean (gMean) ratios for AUC0–tz (101.4–116.0%) and Cmax (101.8–116.6%) of unconjugated dabigatran were within pre-defined acceptance criteria for BE. In the relative BA study, the gMeans of AUC0–tz (667 to 192 ng h/mL) and Cmax (83.1 to 21.8 ng/mL) were decreased by approximately 70% when the tablet was administered under rabeprazole pretreatment. The reduction in BA was observed at a mean gastric pH of 5.3. Treatment was well tolerated; no deaths, serious adverse events (AEs) or significant AEs were reported in either study. Conclusion The DE tablet demonstrated BE to the capsule; however, at high gastric pH, BA of the tablet was reduced by approximately 70%, which may lead to reduced efficacy. Data indicate the importance of examining not only BE under standard conditions, but relative BA at elevated gastric pH. Such investigations may avoid the reduced BA at elevated pH that is quite common in the target population (the elderly and/or patients treated with gastric-acid modifying co-medications), and therefore reduce treatment failure with DE. Registration: identifier numbers: NCT03070171, and NCT03143166
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Tinzaparin Sodium Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Chronic Kidney
           Disease: Practical Implications
    • Abstract: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are the mainstay of the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Due to their renal elimination, the risk of accumulation with the related bleeding risk may represent a limitation for the use of LMWHs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as the risk of major bleeding is increased in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 30 mL/min, especially in patients with cancer. LMWH structure and molecular weight (MW) are heterogeneous among available agents. The elimination of tinzaparin, which has the highest mean MW among LMWHs, is less dependent on renal function as it is also metabolized through the reticuloendothelial system. A subcutaneous therapeutic dose of tinzaparin (175 IU/kg) once daily has been shown to cause no accumulation of anti-factor Xa activity in patients with CrCl ≥ 20 mL/min. Clinical experience from randomized controlled studies has shown no significant impact of CKD on bleeding risk in cancer patients receiving treatment doses of tinzaparin. This suggests that in these patients the use of treatment doses of tinzaparin does not require anticoagulation monitoring or dose adjustment.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Efficacy and Safety of Clopidogrel, Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in ACS
           Patients Treated with PCI: A Propensity Score Analysis of the RENAMI and
           BleeMACS Registries
    • Abstract: Introduction Real-life data comparing clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor for unselected patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are lacking, as are data for the temporal distribution of ischemic and bleeding risks. Methods A total of 19,825 patients were enrolled from the RENAMI and BleeMACS registries. Both were multicenter, retrospective, observational registries including the data and outcomes of consecutive patients with ACS who underwent primary PCI and were discharged with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We evaluated the long-term outcome stratified by the different antiplatelet agents. Results A total of 14,105 patients (71.2%) were treated with clopidogrel, 2364 patients (11.9%) with prasugrel and 3356 patients (16.9%) with ticagrelor. After propensity score matching, at 1 year, prasugrel reduced the incidence of net adverse clinical events (NACE; a composite endpoint of all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI] and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] 3–5 bleeding) (4.2% vs.7.6%, p = 0.002) and of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite endpoint of death and MI) compared with clopidogrel (2.6% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.007). Ticagrelor decreased rates of MACE compared with clopidogrel (2.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001), but not of NACE (6.6% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.07). Ticagrelor presented similar performance in terms of MACE compared with prasugrel (2.8% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.56), with a trend towards a reduction in MI (0.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.56), but with higher risk of BARC 3–5 bleedings (3.8% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.04). In the daily risk analysis, clopidogrel presented a binomial distribution with a peak of ischemic risk at 3 months, which decreased towards bleedings; prasugrel had a constant equivalence between opposite risks; and ticagrelor constantly reduced recurrent MIs despite higher risk of BARC 3–5 events. Conclusion In real life, ticagrelor is more effective in reducing ischemic events during the first year after ACS, despite an increased risk of major bleedings, while prasugrel assures a better balance between ischemic and bleeding recurrent events.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Non-inferiority Trial Design in Drug Development: A Primer for
           Cardiovascular Healthcare Professionals
    • Abstract: Noninferiority trials, in which a new treatment is compared with a standard active treatment, are becoming increasingly popular in cardiovascular medicine. A noninferiority trial seeks to test whether the effect of a new drug is not unacceptably worse than that of an active comparator by more than a predefined noninferiority margin. Noninferiority trials are typically used when a new drug is anticipated to have an efficacy profile similar to its comparator and offers advantages over the existing drug (better toxicity profile, less expensive, less invasive, simpler regimen, shorter treatment duration, different resistance profile). Given the high number of noninferiority trials, it is vital that clinicians fully understand the clinical impacts of the results. Nonetheless, assessing noninferiority in a trial is complex, in both the design and the analysis phases. The crucial issue in the design of a noninferiority trial is the definition of the noninferiority margin, accounting for both statistical (summarizing the historical evidence of the active comparator from randomized controlled trials) and clinical (choosing the fraction of the effect of the old drug that should be “preserved” by the new drug) considerations. We review the role of noninferiority trials in the development of new cardiovascular treatments and discuss a variety of key issues involved in the design and conduction of noninferiority trials, using some examples from real clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Dexmedetomidine Reduces Atrial Fibrillation After Adult Cardiac Surgery: A
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have antiarrhythmic effects by exhibiting sympatholytic properties and activating the vagus nerve in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on atrial fibrillation (AF) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial. Materials and methods We searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the antiarrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of AF. The secondary outcomes were ventricular arrhythmias [ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT)], mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and hospital length of stay, and all-cause mortality. Results Thirteen trials with a total of 1684 study patients were selected. Compared with controls, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AF [odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.97; P = 0.03] and VT (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.11–0.48; P < 0.0001). No significant difference for the incidence of VF existed (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.21–3.03; P = 0.74). There was no significant difference between groups in MV duration [weighted mean difference (WMD) − 0.10; 95% CI − 0.42 to 0.21; P = 0.52], postoperative ICU stay (WMD − 0.49; 95% CI − 2.64 to 1.66; P = 0.65), hospital stay (WMD − 0.01; 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.13; P = 0.88) and mortality (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.15–2.37; P = 0.46). Conclusions Perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduced the incidence of postoperative AF and VT. But there was no significant difference in incidence of VF, MV duration, ICU stay, hospital stay and mortality.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Reversal of Apixaban and Rivaroxaban Using Activated Prothrombin Complex
           Concentrates in Patients with Major Bleeding
    • Abstract: Background Clinical experience with using activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs) to reverse the effects of factor Xa inhibitors is limited. Objectives Our objective was to assess the achievement of effective clinical hemostasis using aPCC in patients on chronic apixaban or rivaroxaban therapy presenting with major bleeding in whom a reversal agent is warranted. We also assessed the safety of the drug. Methods A retrospective medical records review was conducted at a tertiary referral medical center in the USA. Patients presenting with major bleeding while receiving apixaban or rivaroxaban and treated with aPCC were included. Clinical hemostasis was assessed using International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scientific and Standardization Subcommittee criteria. Results A total of 35 patients were included in the study. The most common site of bleeding was intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (n = 18 [51.4%]), followed by gastrointestinal bleed (n = 10 [28.6%]). Clinical hemostasis was achieved in 24 (68.6%) patients; 11 patients (31.4%) did not achieve clinical hemostasis; nine of these patients had ICH. Seven of the patients who did not achieve hemostasis died during hospitalization. Three (8.6%) patients experienced thromboembolic events during hospitalization. In total, 21 (60%) patients were receiving concomitant medications that interact with anti-factor Xa inhibitors and can increase the risk of bleeding. Conclusions Our study suggests that aPCC could be an option in patients with major bleeding associated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. It may be an alternative for patients who need anticoagulation reversal if the specific antidote, andexanet alfa, is unavailable.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
  • Levosimendan Can Improve the Level of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and the
           Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction of Patients with Advanced Heart
           Failure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Background and Aims Levosimendan, a calcium (Ca2+)-sensitizing cardiotonic agent, is mainly used in patients with advanced heart failure. However, no research could explain how levosimendan reduces the mortality in advanced heart failure patients. We aim to illustrate the efficacy of levosimendan through clinical indexes. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL from 1994 to August 2019 to compare the efficacy of levosimendan infusion for the treatment of advanced heart failure with that of other agents (placebo, dobutamine, furosemide, and prostaglandin E1). Levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart rate (HR) were analyzed. The count data were analyzed by the standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) to determine the effect size. We chose the random effect model or the fixed effect model according to the heterogeneity. Results Nine randomized controlled trials with 413 patients were ultimately enrolled. Compared with other agents (placebo, dobutamine, furosemide, and prostaglandin E1), levosimendan significantly reduced the BNP level (SMD − 0.91; 95% CI − 1.44 to − 0.39; p = 0.001; I2 = 74.3%) and improved the LVEF (SMD 0.74; 95% CI 0.22–1.25; p = 0.005; I2 = 79.7%). However, levosimendan did not significantly change the HR (SMD 0.09; 95% CI − 0.24 to 0.42; p = 0.592; I2 = 51.5%). Meanwhile, we found that the main source of heterogeneity was the use of loaded or unloaded levosimendan. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous levosimendan can reduce BNP level and increase LVEF in patients with advanced heart failure to reduce the mortality at the shortest follow-up available.
      PubDate: 2020-05-28
  • Management of Outpatient Warfarin Therapy amid COVID-19 Pandemic: A
           Practical Guide
    • Abstract: Many healthcare resources have been and continue to be allocated to the management of patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the ongoing care of patients receiving oral anticoagulation with warfarin is likely to be compromised amid this unprecedented crisis. This article discusses a stepwise algorithm for the management of outpatient warfarin therapy. Alternative management strategies are presented and discussed, including alternative pharmacological therapy options and self-monitoring. Our algorithm aims to help clinicians safely optimize the treatment of patients requiring anticoagulation therapy in the context of the global response to the current pandemic.
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
  • Calcium Channel Blockers in Acute Care: The Links and Missing Links
           Between Hemodynamic Effects and Outcome Evidence
    • Abstract: Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) exert profound hemodynamic effects via blockage of calcium flux through voltage-gated calcium channels. CCBs are widely used in acute care to treat concerning, debilitating, or life-threatening hemodynamic changes in many patients. The overall literature suggests that, for systemic hemodynamics, although CCBs decrease blood pressure, they normally increase cardiac output; for regional hemodynamics, although they impair pressure autoregulation, they normally increase organ blood flow and tissue oxygenation. In acute care, CCBs exert therapeutic efficacy or improve outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina, hypertensive crisis, perioperative hypertension, and atrial tachyarrhythmia. However, despite the clear links, there are missing links between the known hemodynamic effects and the reported outcome evidence, suggesting that further studies are needed for clarification. In this narrative review, we aim to discuss the hemodynamic effects and outcome evidence for CCBs, the links and missing links between these two domains, and the directions that merit future investigations.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
  • Complexity of Antiplatelet Therapy in Coronary Artery Disease Patients
    • Abstract: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing coronary stenting are indicated to treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) combining aspirin with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. The management of patients with CAD who present with a complex clinical profile due to multiple comorbidities, and/or undergoing complex interventional procedures, remains challenging as a high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events is often present; hence, the risk–benefit balance on the optimal DAPT duration is difficult to evaluate. The complexity of antiplatelet therapy in CAD patients is due to the fact that this complexity embraces several aspects: the coronary anatomy, the number of vascular districts at risk for atherothrombosis, and patient comorbidities, including global frailty. Recent randomized and epidemiological studies have highlighted subgroups that could benefit from prolonged antithrombotic treatment, as well as frail patients, who may be better suited to a shorter course of therapy. We provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding treatment with DAPT, along with suggestions on its management.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
  • Once- versus Twice-Daily Aspirin in Patients at High Risk of Thrombotic
           Events: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Background Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a frequently used antiplatelet agent, although some individuals have reduced antiplatelet responses on ASA, with recurrent ischemic events. It has been proposed that shortening the ASA dosing interval may overcome the time-dependent renewal of the drug target, leading to a greater antiplatelet effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of once- versus twice-daily ASA in conditions with increased platelet turnover. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase databases for RCTs assessing once- versus twice-daily ASA. Data were screened, extracted, and appraised by two independent reviewers, and were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2). Other pharmacodynamic measures were retrieved as secondary outcomes. Results were reported as mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results Seven RCTs were included, enrolling 379 participants overall. None of the studies reported clinical outcomes. Pooled results showed that compared with once-daily ASA, twice-daily ASA was associated with a decrease in mean TxB2 of 1.42 ng/mL (95% CI − 2.71 to − 0.13; I2 = 66%). We found no differences in subgroup analyses based on disease subtype, trial blinding, or trial design. A greater antiplatelet activity of the twice-daily regimen was also found when using PFA-100-ADP methods, although not when using the VerifyNow, LTA-AA, and multiplate methods. Conclusions Twice-daily ASA was associated with a greater antiplatelet effect compared with standard once-daily ASA.
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
  • Inflammation May be the Future of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: Does
           Colchicine have a Current Indication'
    • Abstract: Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor has attracted increasing attention . The current standard of care for decreasing the occurrence of cardiovascular events includes controlling risk factors such as hypertension and maximizing the lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, a recent study demonstrated decreased cardiovascular risk with the anti-inflammatory agent canakinumab and created more interest in decreasing cardiovascular risk by decreasing inflammation. Canakinumab is not yet approved and will undoubtedly be very expensive, so interest in an established medication such as colchicine, which is inexpensive to produce, is appropriate if evidence-based benefit is adequately confirmed. Colchicine has existing indications for gout and familial Mediterranean fever and for decreasing the incidence of postpericardiotomy syndrome. If an evidence-based benefit in decreasing cardiovascular risk can be demonstrated for colchicine, it will be of significant importance. Meta-analyses and observational studies have provided evidence to suggest that colchicine decreases cardiovascular risk because of its anti-inflammatory effects. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed, and the recently published COLCOT (Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial) showed definite benefit on cardiovascular outcomes in adults who had experienced a myocardial infarction within the previous 30 days. Sufficient evidence now supports the use of colchicine for secondary prevention in patients at the highest cardiovascular risk who continue to have cardiovascular events despite good blood pressure control and maximum LDL-C reduction. Nevertheless, more RCTs will be necessary before widespread general use of colchicine in cardiovascular disease prevention can be recommended. The current acquisition cost issues with colchicine also need to be resolved.
      PubDate: 2020-04-30
  • Cardiovascular Disease and Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in
    • Abstract: There is ongoing debate on the safety of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in COVID-19. Recently published studies highlight a potential relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and COVID-19. This article aims to summarize the evidence on the use of RAS inhibitors in CVD patients with COVID-19, focusing on safety issues of the RAS inhibitors and their relationship with COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2020-04-13
  • Adherence to Disease-Modifying Therapy in Patients Hospitalized for HF:
           Findings from a Community-Based Study
    • Abstract: Background Much data about prescription adherence in patients with heart failure (HF) are available, but few exist about the evaluation of true patient adherence. Further, methods for analyzing this issue are poorly known. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the impact of patient adherence to disease-modifying drugs after HF hospitalization in a community-based cohort. Methods and Results Patients hospitalized with first diagnostic HF code and at least one post-discharge purchase of evidence-based drugs for HF between 2009 and 2015 were included (12,938 patients). A new method for measuring adherence to polypharmacy (patient adherence indicator [PAI]) was introduced, based on proportion of days covered (PDC) and medication possession ratio (MPR). The investigated drugs were β-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and anti-aldosterone agents (AAs). Regional administrative databases were analyzed. Results The mean age of the cohort was 80 years; 53% was female; the median Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 2, and the overall death rate was 60%. PAI based on PDC estimated a nonadherence rate of 47%. Median daily dosages were well below target dosages for all drugs considered. A good PAI significantly lowered the mortality risk, irrespective of the computational method used: PDC (PAI adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.97; p = 0.001) or MPR (PAI adjusted HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89–0.98; p = 0.004). Conclusions In a real-world setting, medication adherence of patients with HF remains unsatisfactory, especially when in a polypharmacy setting. Irrespective of PDC and MPR, good patient adherence to polypharmacy was associated with a lower death rate.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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