Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8359 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (119 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (329 journals)
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    - SPORTS MEDICINE (78 journals)
    - SURGERY (393 journals)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (329 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 329 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 100)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Full-text available via subscription  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
JMIR Cardio     Open Access  
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Arrhythmia     Open Access  
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care TSS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cardiac Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

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Journal Cover
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.628
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1664-5456
Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Comparison of ABC Methods with Computerized Estimates of Intracerebral
           Hemorrhage Volume: The INTERACT2 Study

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Hematoma volume is a key determinant of outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to compare estimates of ICH volume between simple (ABC/2, length, width, and height) and gold standard planimetric software approaches. Methods: Data are from the second Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Multivariable linear regression was used to compare ICH volumes on baseline CT scans using the ABC/2, modified ABC/2 (mABC/2), and MIStar software. Other aspects of ICH morphology examined included location, irregularity, heterogeneity, intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage extension (SAH) of hematoma, and associated white matter lesions and brain atrophy. Results: In 2,084 patients with manual and semiautomated measurements, median (IQR) ICH volumes for each approach were: ABC/2 11.1 (5.11–20.88 mL), mABC/2 7.8 (3.88–14.11 mL), and MIStar 10.7 (5.59–18.66 mL). Median differences between ABC/2 and MIStar, and mABC/2 and MIStar were 0.34 (–1.01 to 2.96) and –2.4 (–4.95 to –0.7416), respectively. Hematoma volumes differed significantly with irregular shape (ABC/2 and MIStar, p #x3c; 0.001; mABC/2 and MIStar, p = 0.007) and larger volumes (mABC/2 and MIStar, p #x3c; 0.001; ABC/2 and MIStar, p = 0.07). ICH with SAH showed a significant discrepancy between ABC/2 and MIStar (p #x3c; 0.001). Conclusions: Overall, ABC/2 performs better than mABC/2 in estimating ICH volume. The largest discrepancies were evidenced against automated software for irregular-shaped and large ICH with SAH, but the clinical significance of this is uncertain.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:148–154
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Dec 2019 09:07:56 +010
  • Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Cerebral Microbleeds in Moyamoya
           Disease and Syndrome in the American Population

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) are reported to be frequent in moyamoya disease (MMD) and moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in the Asian population. It is associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. The significance of CMB in MMD/MMS in non-Asian populations has not been well established. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CMB in MMD/MMS in a moymoya cohort with a majority of non-Asians and to identify risk factors for developing a CMB and its predictive value for subsequent vascular events. Methods: The moyamoya database was compiled by screening for MMD/MMS among patients admitted to the Zale-Lipshy University Hospital at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. We identified and analyzed data of 67 patients with MMD or MMS. Patients were characterized as CMB+ or CMB– based on MRI findings. In CMB+ patients, the total number and location of CMB were identified. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for developing CMB and whether CMB are associated with the development of subsequent vascular events. Results: Out of a total of 67 patients, 11 (16%) had CMB. Males had significantly higher odds of having CMB as compared to females (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.40–24.3, p = 0.021). The incidence of CMB was also associated with age at diagnosis (mean age of CMB+ patients vs. CMB– patients: 44 vs. 34 years, respectively, p = 0.024), smoking (p = 0.006), and hemorrhagic stroke at presentation (p = 0.034). Logistic regression with multivariate analysis found that gender and age at diagnosis remained statistically significant. New ischemic events occurred in 2 (20%) out of 10 CMB+ patients and 13 (23%) out of 55 CMB– patients, respectively (p = 0.79). While 2 (3%) CMB– patients had a new cerebral hemorrhage during follow-up, none of the CMB+ patients did. Conclusions: CMB are less prevalent in MMD/MMS in the USA than in Asia. An older age at diagnosis and male gender were associated with CMB. The presence of CMB was not associated with an increased risk of a subsequent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:139–147
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Dec 2019 08:45:39 +010
  • Active Cancer and Elevated D-Dimer Are Risk Factors for In-Hospital
           Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Little attention has been paid to the pathogenesis of in-hospital stroke, despite poor outcomes and a longer time from stroke onset to treatment. We studied the pathophysiology and biomarkers for detecting patients who progress to in-hospital ischemic stroke (IHS). Methods: Seventy-nine patients with IHS were sequentially recruited in the period 2011–2017. Their characteristics, care, and outcomes were compared with 933 patients who had an out-of-hospital ischemic stroke (OHS) using a prospectively collected database of the Tokushima University Stroke Registry. Results: Active cancer and coronary artery disease were more prevalent in patients with IHS than in those with OHS (53.2 and 27.8% vs. 2.0 and 10.9%, respectively; p #x3c; 0.001), the median onset-to-evaluation time was longer (300 vs. 240 min; p = 0.015), and the undetermined etiology was significantly higher (36.7 vs. 2.4%; p #x3c; 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in stroke severity at onset between the groups, patients with IHS had higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores (3–6) at discharge (67.1 vs. 50.3%; p = 0.004) and rates of death during hospitalization (16.5 vs. 2.9%; p #x3c; 0.001). D-dimer (5.8 vs. 0.8 µg/mL; p #x3c; 0.001) and fibrinogen (532 vs. 430 mg/dL; p = 0.014) plasma levels at the time of onset were significantly higher in patients with IHS after propensity score matching. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that active cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–4.20), prestroke mRS scores 3–5 (OR 6.78; 95% CI 3.96–11.61), female sex (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.19–2.08), and age ≥75 years (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.80–3.08) were associated with poor outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with IHS had poorer outcomes than those with OHS because of a higher prevalence of active cancer and functional dependence before stroke onset. Elevated plasma levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen, especially with active cancer, can help identify patients who are at a higher risk of progression to IHS.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:129–138
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 11:58:40 +010
  • Infarct Patterns in Patients with Atherosclerotic Vertebrobasilar Disease
           in Relation to Hemodynamics

    • Abstract: Introduction: Distal territory blood flow is independently associated with subsequent strokes in symptomatic vertebrobasilar atherosclerotic disease. We aimed to assess infarct patterns in relation to hemodynamic status in the prospective Vertebrobasilar Flow Evaluation and Risk of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke (VERiTAS) study. Methods: Distal territory blood flow was measured using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in 72 patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic vertebrobasilar disease, and then dichotomized into normal (n = 54) and low (n = 18) flow. Patients were followed longitudinally on standard medical management. Two observers blinded to flow status independently reviewed the imaging performed at the time of subsequent strokes, in order to adjudicate the likely mechanism based on infarct patterns. The frequency of stroke mechanisms was qualitatively compared based on flow status. Results: During a median follow-up period of 23 months, 10/72 patients had a subsequent stroke; 5 of these had low distal flow. Infarct patterns were adjudicated to be consistent with hemodynamic (n = 2), embolic (n = 4), and junctional plaque/perforator (n = 4) infarcts. Hemodynamic infarcts were seen in 40% (2/5) low-flow patients, in comparison to 0% (0/5) normal-flow patients. Conclusion: In contrast to normal-flow patients, those with low distal flow seem to be uniquely susceptible to hemodynamic infarctions, although other patterns of infarction can also be seen in these hemodynamically impaired patients.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:123–128
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Oct 2019 11:29:48 +020
  • Pattern Recognition to Identify Stroke in the Cognitive Profile: Secondary
           Analyses of a Prospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background: Stroke can produce subtle changes in the brain that may produce symptoms that are too small to lead to a diagnosis. Noting that a lack of diagnosis may bias research estimates, the current study sought to examine the utility of pattern recognition relying on serial assessments of cognition to objectively identify stroke-like patterns of cognitive decline (pattern-detected stroke, p-stroke). Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted using participants with no reported history of stroke in the Health and Retirement Study, a large (n = 16,113) epidemiological study of cognitive aging among respondents aged 50 years and older that measured episodic memory consistently biennially between 1996 and 2014. Analyses were limited to participants with at least 4 serial measures of episodic memory. Occurrence and date of p-stroke events were identified utilizing pattern recognition to identify stepwise declines in cognition consistent with stroke. Descriptive statistics included the percentage of the population with p-stroke, the mean change in episodic memory resulting in stroke-positive testing, and the mean time between p-stroke and first major diagnosed stroke. Statistical analyses comparing cases of p-stroke with reported major stroke relied on the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC). Longitudinal modeling was utilized to examine rates of change in those with/without major stroke after adjusting for demographics. Results: The pattern recognition protocol identified 7,499 p-strokes that went unreported. On average, individuals with p-stroke declined in episodic memory by 1.986 (SD = 0.023) words at the inferred time of stroke. The resulting pattern recognition protocol was able to identify self-­reported major stroke (AUC = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.57–0.59, p #x3c; 0.001). In those with a reported major stroke, p-stroke events were detectable on average 4.963 (4.650–5.275) years (p #x3c; 0.001) before diagnosis was first reported. The incidence of p-stroke was 40.23/1,000 (95% CI = 39.40–41.08) person-years. After adjusting for sex, age was associated with the incidence of p-stroke and major stroke at similar rates. Conclusions: This is the first study to propose utilizing pattern recognition to identify the incidence and timing of p-stroke. Further work is warranted examining the clinical utility of pattern recognition in identifying p-stroke in longitudinal cognitive profiles.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:114–122
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Oct 2019 15:49:30 +020
  • Factors Associated with Unsuccessful Recanalization in Mechanical
           Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: Introduction: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke has become a standard therapy, and the recanalization rate has significantly improved. However, some cases of unsuccessful recanalization still occur. We aimed to clarify patient factors associated with unsuccessful recanalization after MT for acute ischemic stroke. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study of 119 consecutive patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who underwent MT at our hospital between April 2015 and March 2019. Successful recanalization after MT was defined as modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) grade 2b or 3, and unsuccessful recanalization was defined as mTICI grades 0–2a. Several factors were analyzed to assess their effect on recanalization rates. Results: Successful recanalization was achieved in 88 patients (73.9%). The univariate analysis showed that female sex (38.6 vs. 67.7%, p = 0.007), a history of hypertension (53.4 vs. 83.9%, p = 0.003), and a longer time from groin puncture to recanalization (median 75 vs. 124 min, p #x3c; 0.001) were significantly associated with unsuccessful recanalization. The multivariate analysis confirmed that female sex (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.12–9.02, p = 0.030), a history of hypertension (OR 4.84; 95% CI 1.32–17.8, p = 0.018), M2–3 occlusion (OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.36–13.3, p = 0.013), and the time from groin puncture to recanalization (per 10-min increase, OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09–1.37, p #x3c; 0.001) were independently associated with unsuccessful recanalization. Conclusion: Female sex and a history of hypertension might be predictors of unsuccessful recanalization after MT for anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate predictors of recanalization.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:107–113
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Sep 2019 10:29:07 +020
  • Usefulness of Transesophageal Echocardiography for Predicting Covert
           Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Embolic Stroke of
           Undetermined Source

    • Abstract: Background: Covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (CPAF) is a major cause of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). However, detecting PAF during hospitalization in these patients is difficult. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether findings of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during hospitalization are associated with later detection of PAF in patients with ESUS. Method: We retrospectively studied 348 patients with ESUS who were admitted to our hospital within 1 week of onset. These patients met the criteria of ESUS, underwent TEE during hospitalization, and were followed up for at least 1 year. Results: We found PAF in 35 (10.0%) patients. In patients with PAF, spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and low left atrial appendage flow (LAAF) by TEE and enlargement of the left atrial dimension (LAD) by transthoracic echocardiography were identified more frequently compared with those who did not have PAF. In multivariate analysis, SEC and an LAD ≥42 mm were independently associated with later detection of PAF (p #x3c; 0.05). An association of LAAF #x3c;46.9 cm/s and PAF was marginal (p = 0.09). The specificity of the combined finding of SEC and/or LAAF with that of LAD increased up to 90%, while that of LAD alone was 70%. Conclusions: The findings of TEE during hospitalization may be useful for identifying patients at increased risk of CPAF in patients with ESUS.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:98–106
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Sep 2019 08:20:01 +020
  • Acute Stroke Treatment in Patients with Basilar Artery Occlusion: A
           Single-Center Observational Study

    • Abstract: Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to basilar artery occlusion (BAO) represents 1–4% of all ischemic strokes. BAO results in strokes associated with a high risk of a poor functional outcome and, in 86–95% of the untreated cases, it results in death because of the vital cerebral structures involved. Diagnosis can be delayed because of the variability in presenting symptoms, and acute treatment is often attempted even beyond 6 h from symptoms onset because of the high risk of a fatal prognosis. Objective: In this observational study, we retrospectively analyzed patients with AIS due to BAO referred to the stroke center of the University Hospital of Messina. We aimed to assess prognostic factors and to evaluate the association between clinical outcome and posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) and collateral status. Method: BAO was confirmed by cerebral computed tomography (CT) angiography or cerebral angiography. All patients underwent CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We assessed the pc-ASPECTS on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MR images and the Posterior Circulation Collateral Score (PC-CS) for every patient. Functional outcome was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: The study population consisted of 27 patients; 16 males and 11 females. The mean age was 66 (±14) years. We observed a favorable outcome (mRS 0–3) in 40.7% of cases, 25.9% reached mRS 0–2, and 29.6% had a poor clinical outcome (mRS 4–5). Patient survival was 70.4%, whereas 8 patients died (29.6%). In 7 patients, pc-ASPECTS was ≥7. According to the PC-CS, 33.3% had moderate collaterals and 63.0% had good collateral status prior to receiving the treatment. Favorable outcome was significantly associated with age, NIHSS score at admission, pc-ASPECTS, hypercholesterolemia, and female sex but not with the other risk factors. Conclusions: In our study, we found that younger age, low NIHSS score at admission, and high pc-ASPECTS, but not onset to treatment time, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Transferred patients did not have a significantly poorer outcome. These findings confirm that acute stroke treatment improves clinical outcome in BAO patients, in spite of a delayed diagnosis and an extended therapeutic window, considering lesion volume and localization in DWI MRI.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:90–97
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Aug 2019 10:16:08 +020
  • Effectiveness of Combined External Ventricular Drainage with
           Intraventricular Fibrinolysis for the Treatment of Intraventricular
           Haemorrhage with Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    • Abstract: Background: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) patients with acute obstructive hydrocephalus (AOH) who require external ventricular drainage (EVD) are at high risk for poor outcomes. Intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) with low-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) can be used to improve patient outcomes. Here, we evaluated the impact of IVF on the risk of death and the functional outcomes in IVH patients with AOH. Methods: This prospective cohort study included IVH patients with hypertensive intracranial haemorrhage complicated by AOH who required EVD. We evaluated the risk of death and the functional outcomes at 1 and 3 months, with a specific focus on the impact of combined EVD with IVF by low-dose rtPA. Results: Between November 30, 2011 and December 30, 2014, 80 patients were included. Forty-five patients were treated with EVD alone (EVD group) and 35 received IVF (EVD+IVF group). The 30- and 90-day mortality rates were lower in the EVD+IVF group than in the EVD group (42.2 vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003, and 62.2 vs. 20%, p #x3c; 0.001, respectively). The Graeb scores were significantly lower in the EVD+IVF group than in the EVD group (p ≤ 0.001) during the first 3 days and on day 7 after assignment. The 30-day good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–3) was also higher in the EVD+IVF group than in the EVD group (6.7 vs. 28.6%, p = 0.008). However, the 90-day good functional outcome (mRS score 0–3) did not significantly increase in the EVD+IVF group (30.8% in the EVD group vs. 51.6% in the EVD+IVF group, p = 0.112). Conclusions: In our prospective observational study, EVD+IVF was associated with a lower risk of death in IVH patients. EVD+IVF improved the chance of having a good functional outcome at 1 month; however, this result was no longer observed at 3 months.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:77–89
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Aug 2019 11:55:39 +020
  • Subject Retention in Prehospital Stroke Research Using a Telephone-Based
           Physician-Investigator Driven Enrollment Method

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Subject retention into clinical trials is vital, and prehospital enrollment may be associated with higher rates of subject withdrawal than more traditional methods of enrollment. We describe rates of subject retention in a prehospital trial of acute stroke therapy. Methods: All subjects were enrolled into the NIH Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) phase 3 clinical trial. Paramedics screened eligible subjects and contacted the physician-investigator using a dedicated in-ambulance cellular phone. Physician-investigators obtained explicit informed consent from the subject or on-scene legally authorized representative (LAR) who reviewed and signed a consent form. Exception from informed consent (EFIC) was utilized in later stages of the study. Results: There were 1,700 subjects enrolled; 1,017 provided consent (60%), 662 were enrolled via LAR (39%), and 21 were enrolled via EFIC (1%). Of the 1,700 patients, 1,413 (83%) completed the 90-day visit, 265 (16%) died prior to the 90-day visit, and 22 (1.3%) withdrew from the study before completion. There were no differences in rates of withdrawal by method of study enrolment, i.e., self-consent (n = 14), 1.4%; LAR (n = 8), 1.2%; EFIC (n = 0) 0%. Conclusion: There was a high rate of retention when subjects were enrolled into prehospital stroke research using a phone-based method to obtain explicit consent.
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2019;9:72–76
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2019 12:05:10 +020
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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