Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8665 journals)
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 103)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Open Access  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.61
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1861-0706 - ISSN (Online) 1861-0714
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Lipoprotein(a) apheresis in patients with peripheral arterial disease:
           rationale and clinical results
    • Abstract: Abstract Patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at a very high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels have been shown to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. More recently elevated lipoprotein(a) levels have also been demonstrated to be associated with prevalent and incident PAD, and even may be a stronger risk factor for PAD compared with CAD. Lipoprotein apheresis is currently the only efficient way to lower lipoprotein(a) levels. Lipoprotein(a) apheresis has been shown to reduce major coronary events in patients with CAD. There is increasing evidence that lipoprotein(a) apheresis also reduces the rate of major adverse limb events such as peripheral revascularizations and amputations in PAD patients, and improves symptoms of PAD such as pain on exertion. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the clinical role of lipoprotein(a) for PAD and the disease-specific effect of lipoprotein(a) apheresis, and suggests indications for screening for and treating of elevated lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with PAD.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Prediction of cardiovascular risk by Lp(a) concentrations or genetic
           variants within the LPA gene region
    • Abstract: Abstract In the middle of the 1990s the interest in Lp(a) vanished after a few badly performed studies almost erased Lp(a) from the map of biological targets. However, since roughly 10 years the interest has begun to grow again mainly for two reasons: first, genetic studies using easily accessible and high-throughput techniques for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have allowed large studies in patients with cardiovascular disease and controls to be performed. This strengthened the earlier findings on a copy number variation in the LPA gene and its association with cardiovascular outcomes. Second, new therapies are on the horizon raising strong and justified hope that in a few years drugs will become available which tremendously lower Lp(a) concentrations. This review article should provide an introduction to the genetic determination of Lp(a) concentrations and considerations whether Lp(a) concentrations or genetic variants are important for the prediction of cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • Lipoprotein(a)—antisense therapy
    • Abstract: Abstract Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) contribute to the risk of early and severe cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Lp(a) is acknowledged as a risk factor to be included in risk assessment. The established lipid-modifying medical therapies do not lower Lp(a) except niacin but no data of endpoint trials are available. Of the new lipid-modifying drugs a few have some impact on Lp(a). Whether the Lp(a) lowering effect contributes to the reduction of CVD events would have to be shown in Lp(a) dedicated trials. None of the available agents is indicated to lower Lp(a). Lipoprotein apheresis lowers levels of Lp(a) significantly by >60% per treatment. Trial data and data of the German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry show that regular apheresis reduces cardiovascular events. The Apo(a) antisense oligonucleotide is the only approach to specifically lower Lp(a). The IONIS-APO(a)Rx phase 1 and 2 trials showed very substantial decreases of Lp(a) and good tolerability. The hepatospecific variant IONIS-APO(a)-LRx is 30 times more potent. The results of the IONIS-APO(a)-LRx phase 2 trial were presented recently. The highest dosages reduced Lp(a) by 72 and 80%; in about 81 and 98% Lp(a) levels <50 mg/dl were achieved. Tolerability and safety were confirmed, whereby injection site reactions were the most common side effects. This raises hope that the planned phase 3 trial will reproduce these findings and show a reduction of cardiovascular events.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • Lipoprotein(a) and mortality—a high risk relationship
    • Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor playing a causal role for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Early or progressive ASCVD or a familial predisposition are key findings which can be associated with Lp(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP). The German guideline for the indication of lipoprotein apheresis in patients with Lp(a)-HLP has proved to be of value to identify patients at highest risk, using the composite of a Lp(a) threshold >60 mg/dl (>120 nmol/l) and clinical ASCVD progression despite effective LDL-C lowering therapy. In particular for such patients it appears to be plausible that Lp(a)-associated risk would increase cardiovascular mortality as the most important part of total mortality in Western populations. By the majority of existing investigations an association of Lp(a) concentration on total or cardiovascular mortality was demonstrated. However, inconsistency in the findings between studies exists without a clear trend for any study feature to explain this. Genetic homogeneity of the population, long-term follow-up, and clinically guided selection of patients might be important to further clarify the impact of Lp(a) concentration on progression of ASCVD, and finally total or cardiovascular mortality. LDL and Lp(a) particles exhibit a mutual effect modification on related ASCVD risk. Therefore, LDL-C levels and concomitant LDL-C lowering treatment must be considered in this context. Prospective evaluation is needed to document that specific Lp(a)-lowering additional to targeted LDL-C lowering will in fact reduce cardiovascular or total mortality.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Lipoprotein(a)—an interdisciplinary challenge
    • Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an internationally recognized atherogenic risk factor which is inherited and not changed by nutrition or physical activity. At present, only proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may modestly decrease its concentration (but not in all patients)—leading to a certain decrease in cardiovascular events (CVE) in controlled studies. However, at present an elevation of Lp(a) is not a generally accepted indication for their use. More effective is lipoprotein apheresis (LA) therapy with respect to both lowering Lp(a) levels and reduction of CVE. In the future, an antisense oligonucleotide against apolipoprotein(a) will probably be available. Atherosclerosis in patients with an elevation of Lp(a) may affect several vessel regions (carotids, aorta, coronaries, leg arteries). Thus, Lp(a) should be measured in high-risk patients. These patients are usually cared for by their family doctors and by other specialists who should closely cooperate. Lipidologists should decide whether costly therapies like PCSK9 inhibitors or LA should be started. The main aim of current therapy is to optimize all other risk factors (LDL cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body weight, renal insufficiency). Patients should be regularly monitored (lab data, heart, arteries). This paper describes the duties of physicians of different specialties when caring for patients with high Lp(a) concentrations.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Lipoprotein apheresis is an optimal therapeutic option to reduce increased
           Lp(a) levels
    • Abstract: Background Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with the induction and sustaining of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). Since 2008 Lp(a) along with progressive CVD has been approved as an indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany. The German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry (GLAR) has been initiated to provide statistical evidence for the assessment of extracorporeal procedures to treat dyslipidemia for both LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and Lp(a). The GLAR now allows prospective investigations over a 5-year period about annual incidence rates of cardiovascular events. Here Lp(a) patients (LDL-C < 100 mg/dl; Lp(a) > 60 mg/dl or >120 nmol/l) showed the same reduction of major coronary (83%) and non-coronary events (63%) as had been formerly shown in the Pro(a)LiFe study. However, Lp(a) is not only an apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) and LDL-C containing particle, which is covalently bound to a LDL-C core by a disulphide bridge. The composition of this particle, inter alia containing oxidized phospholipids, gives pro-atherosclerotic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-thrombotic properties, inducing atherosclerotic processes mainly in the arterial wall. However, recent investigations have shown that a reduction of inflammatory settings without LDL-C or Lp(a) reduction may reduce ASCVD events. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) could not only reduce LDL-C and Lp(a) in parallel, but also different inflammatory and coagulation parameters. In summary lipoprotein apheresis is not only anti-atherosclerotic, but also anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic and therefore an ideal treatment option with respect to the shown reduction of major adverse coronary events (MACE) and major adverse non-coronary events (MANCE) by reducing Lp(a) levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Lipoprotein(a) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9
           inhibitors
    • Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an internationally accepted independent atherogenic risk factor. Details about its synthesis, many aspects of composition and clearance from the bloodstream are still unknown. LDL receptor (LDLR) (and probably other receptors) play a role in the elimination of Lp(a) particles. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors increase the number of available LDLRs and in this way very effectively reduce the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. As shown in controlled studies using PCSK9 inhibitors, Lp(a) levels are decreased by 20 to 30%, though in some patients no effect was observed. So far, it has not been clarified whether this decrease is associated with an effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs). In two recently published well-performed secondary prevention studies (FOURIER with evolocumab, ODYSSEY OUTCOMES with alirocumab) baseline Lp(a) levels were shown to have an impact on CVEs independently of baseline LDL-C concentrations. The rather modest PCSK9 inhibitor-induced decrease of Lp(a) was associated with a reduction of CVEs in both studies, even after adjusting (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES) for demographic variables (age, sex, race, region), baseline Lp(a), baseline LDL-C, change in LDL-C, and clinical variables (time from acute coronary syndrome, body mass index, diabetes, smoking history). The largest decrease of CVEs was seen in patients with relatively low concentrations of both LDL-C and Lp(a) (FOURIER). These findings will probably have an influence on the use of PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with high Lp(a) concentrations.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Is lipoprotein(a) a risk factor for ischemic stroke and venous
           thromboembolism'
    • Abstract: Abstract The structural similarity with plasminogen as well as thrombogenic and atherogenic in vitro functions raise the question if lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and ischemic stroke. Numerous case–control and prospective studies using different cut-off values to define high Lp(a) generated conflicting evidence for both VTE and ischemic stroke. Several meta-analyses demonstrated independent associations of elevated Lp(a) with a history of VTE or ischemic stroke. However, the evidence of prospective studies for associations of Lp(a) with incident stroke or recurrent VTE remains inconclusive. For ischemic stroke, data suggest that Lp(a) increases the risk of large-artery atherosclerosis stroke, but not cardioembolic or lacunar stroke. Lp(a) may increase the risk of VTE in the presence of additional thrombophilic risk factors. Larger cohort studies are needed to elaborate the importance of higher Lp(a) cut-offs and interactions with other risk factors and subgroups of stroke or VTE. The value of Lp(a) to estimate residual vascular risk after the first thromboembolic event remains to be adequately explored.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Erratum to: The German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry (GLAR) –
           almost 5 years on
    • Authors: V. J. J. Schettler; Scientific Board of GLAR for the German Apheresis Working Group; C. L. Neumann; C. Peter; T. Zimmermann; U. Julius; E. Roeseler; F. Heigl; P. Grützmacher; H. Blume; A. Vogt
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0092-1
       
  • Editorial Lp(a) – the underestimated cardiovascular risk factor
    • Authors: Klaus-Peter Mellwig
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0091-2
       
  • The German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry (GLAR) – almost
           5 years on
    • Authors: V. J. J. Schettler; Scientific Board of GLAR for the German Apheresis Working Group; C. L. Neumann; C. Peter; T. Zimmermann; U. Julius; E. Roeseler; F. Heigl; P. Grützmacher; H. Blume; A. Vogt
      Abstract: Background Since 2005 an interdisciplinary German apheresis working group has been established by members of both German Societies of Nephrology and of Lipidologists and completed the data set for the registry according to the current guidelines and the German indication guideline for apheresis in 2009. In 2011 the German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry (GLAR) was launched and data are available over nearly 5 years now. Methods and results During the time period 2012–2016, 71 German apheresis centers collected retrospective and prospective observational data of 1435 patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis (LA) treatment of high LDL-C levels and/or high Lp (a) levels suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or progressive CVD. A total of 15,527 completely documented LA treatments were entered into the database. All patients treated by LA showed a median LDL-C reduction rate of 67.5%, and a median Lp (a) reduction rate of 71.1%. Analog to the Pro(a)LiFe pattern, patient data were analyzed to the incidence rate of coronary events (MACE) 1 and 2 years before the beginning of LA treatment (y-2 and y‑1) and prospectively two years on LA treatment (y + 1 and y + 2). During two years of LA treatment a MACE reduction of 78% was observed. In the years considered, side effects of LA treatment were low (5.9%) and mainly comprised puncture problems. Conclusions The data generated by the GLAR shows that LA lowers the incidence rate of cardiovascular events in patients with high LDL-C and/or high Lp (a) levels, progressive CVD, and maximally tolerated lipid lowering medication. In addition, LA treatments were found to be safe with a low rate of side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0089-9
       
  • Lipoprotein (a) and coronary heart disease – is there an efficient
           secondary prevention'
    • Authors: Klaus-Peter Mellwig; Dieter Horstkotte; Frank van Buuren
      Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is one risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have shown that Lp (a) hyperlipoproteinaemia has a particular influence on the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). A retrospective single-centre observation study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of lipid apheresis on the basis of consecutively performed percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with high Lp (a) values and angiographically documented CHD. In 23 pts (male 18, age 60.04 ± 0.58 years) with angiographically documented CHD (first manifestation 48.00 ± 9.41 years), elevated LDL cholesterol (144.39 ± 92.01 mg/dl) and Lp (a) (133.04 ± 39.68 mg/dl), 49 PCI and 3 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures had been performed prior to the initiation of lipid apheresis. Following the initiation of weekly lipid apheresis, LDL cholesterol was 99.43 ± 36.53 mg/dl and Lp (a) 91.13 ± 33.02 mg/dl. In a time interval of 59.87 ± 49.49 months (median 51.00, range 1–153 months) 15 pts did not require an additional PCI. In 8 pts (7 pts 3‑vessel disease, 1 pt 2‑vessel disease) 14 PCI – no CABG – were performed after 69.38 ± 71.67 months (median: 32.50, range 17–232 months). The incidence of PCI could thus be reduced by 71.43%.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0088-x
       
  • Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients
           with hyperlipoproteinemia (a)
    • Authors: P. Grützmacher; B. Öhm; S. Szymczak; C. Dorbath; M. Brzoska; C. Kleinert
      Abstract: Abstract General lipoprotein (Lp) (a) screening can help to identify patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Non-invasive methods allow early detection of clinically asymptomatic incipient atherosclerotic disease. Medical treatment options are still unsatisfactory. Lp(a) apheresis is an established treatment in Germany for secondary prevention of progressive cardiovascular disease. Statin-based lowering of LDL cholesterol and thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors still represent the basis of medical treatment. Target levels for LDL-cholesterol should be modified in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia (a).
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0090-3
       
  • Incidence of elevated lipoprotein (a) levels in a large cohort of
           patients with cardiovascular disease
    • Authors: Frank van Buuren; Dieter Horstkotte; Cornelius Knabbe; Dennis Hinse; Klaus Peter Mellwig
      Abstract: Background Recently it has been demonstrated that elevated lipoprotein (a) (LPA) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease across multiple ethnic groups. However, there is only scanty data about the incidence of elevated LPA levels in different patient cohorts. As a consequence, we aimed to examine whether patients with elevated LPA levels might be seen more often in a cardiovascular center in comparison to the general population. Methods We reviewed LPA concentrations of 52,898 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital between January 2004 and December 2014. We subdivided them into different groups according to their LPA levels. Data was compared to available information in medical literature. Results 26.4% of the patients had LPA levels >30 mg/dl which is in line with the data from literature. Mean level of LPA concentration in our study was twice as high in comparison to the general population (25.8% vs. 13.3%). 4.6% had LPA levels >98 mg/dl (general population <0.3%). Conclusion In patients admitted to a cardiovascular center the proportion of LPA >30 mg/dl is comparable to the general population but mean levels over all are twice as high and the proportion of patients with LPA levels of >98 mg/dl is extremely higher.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0087-y
       
  • Lipoprotein(a) and its role in inflammation, atherosclerosis and
           malignancies
    • Authors: Evelyn Orsó; Gerd Schmitz
      Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle with an additional specific apolipoprotein (a), covalently attached to apolipoprotein B‑100 of LDL by a single thioester bond. Increased plasma Lp(a) level is a genetically determined, independent, causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The precise quantification of Lp(a) in plasma is still hampered by mass-sensitive assays, large particle variation, poor standardization and lack of assay comparability. The physiological functions of Lp(a) include wound healing, promoting tissue repair and vascular remodeling. Similarly to other lipoproteins, Lp(a) is also susceptible for oxidative modifications, leading to extensive formation of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic oxidized phospholipids, oxysterols, oxidized lipid-protein adducts in Lp(a) particles, that perpetuate atherosclerotic lesion progression and intima-media thickening through induction of M1-macrophages, inflammation, autoimmunity and apoptosis. The oxidation-specific epitopes of modified lipoproteins are major targets of pre-immune, natural IgM antibodies, that may attenuate the pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic effects of Lp(a). Although the data are still insufficient, recent studies suggest a potential anti-neoplastic role of Lp(a).
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0084-1
       
  • Prevention of cardiovascular complications in patients with
           Lp(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia and progressive cardiovascular disease by
           long-term lipoprotein apheresis according to German national guidelines
    • Authors: Reinhard Klingel; Pro(a)LiFe-Study Group; Andreas Heibges; Cordula Fassbender
      Abstract: Abstract Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor playing a causal role for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a safe well-tolerated outpatient treatment to lower LDL-C and Lp(a) by 60–70%, and is the ultimate escalating therapeutic option in patients with hyperlipoproteinemias (HLP) involving LDL particles. Major therapeutic effect of LA is preventing cardiovascular events. Lp(a)-HLP associated with progressive CVD has been approved as indication for regular LA in Germany since 2008. The Pro(a)LiFe-study investigated with a prospective multicenter design the long-term preventive effect of LA on incidence rates of cardiovascular events prospectively over a period of 5 years in 170 consecutive patients who commenced regular LA. During a median period of 4.7 years of the pre-LA period, Lp(a) associated progressive CVD became apparent. Apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) isoforms and polymorphisms at the apo(a) gene (LPA) were analyzed to assess hypothetical clinical correlations. 154 patients (90.6%) completed 5‑years follow-up. Significant decline of the mean annual major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate was observed from 0.41 ± 0.45 two years prior to regular LA to 0.06 ± 0.11 during 5 years with regular LA (p < 0.0001). 95.3% of patients expressed at least one small apo(a) isoform. Calculation of isoform specific concentrations allowed to confirm the equivalence of 60 mg/dl or 120 nmol/l as Lp(a) thresholds of the German LA guideline. Results of 5 years prospective follow-up confirmed that LA has a lasting effect on prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with Lp(a)-HLP and afore progressive CVD.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0082-3
       
  • Hyperlipoproteinaemia(a) – apheresis and emerging therapies
    • Authors: Anja Vogt
      Abstract: Abstract A high level of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is recognized as an independent and additional cardiovascular risk factor contributing to the risk of early onset and progressive course of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All lipid lowering medications in use mainly lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) with no or limited effect on levels of Lp(a). Niacin, the only component lowering Lp(a), is firstly often poorly tolerated and secondly not available anymore in many countries. A level of <50 mg/dl was recommended recently as the cut off level for clinical use and decision making. Since lipoprotein apheresis (LA) lowers not only LDL-c but also Lp(a) significantly, its use is recommended in some countries in very high-risk patients with early or progressive CVD. Retrospective analyses show that regular LA improves the course of CVD. This is supported by a recent prospective observational trial and data of the German Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry. Despite many treatment options, all too often it is not possible to reduce LDL-c levels to target and to reduce Lp(a) levels sustainably at all. Therefore, new drug therapies are awaited. Some of the lipid modifying drugs in development lower Lp(a) to some extent in addition to LDL-c; the only specific approach is the apoprotein(a) antisense oligonucleotide. Currently LA is the standard of care as a last resort treatment in high-risk patients with elevated Lp(a) and severe CVD despite optimal control of all other cardiovascular risk factors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0083-2
       
  • Lipoprotein(a) in nephrological patients
    • Authors: Bernd Hohenstein
      Abstract: Abstract In contrast to existing EAS/ESC guidelines on the management of lipid disorders, current recommendations from nephrological societies are very conservative and restrictive with respect to any escalation of lipid lowering/statin therapy. Furthermore, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) – an established cardiovascular risk factor – has not even been mentioned. While a number of retrospective and prospective studies suggested that Lp(a) has relevant predictive value and might have – at least in stage-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) – the same negative effects if draged along in non-CKD patients, there is no guidance on diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The persistent lack of recognition automatically leads to therapeutic nihilism, which might pose a number of relatively young patients to a significantly increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Further evaluation of Lp(a) in CKD is very important to provide appropriate treatment to patients with high Lp(a) levels, even in the presence of CKD.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0086-z
       
  • PCSK9 targets important for lipid metabolism
    • Authors: Rainer Schulz; Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
      Abstract: Abstract Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death worldwide and it is accelerated by increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) concentrations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) alters both LDL-C and in part Lp(a) concentrations through its ability to induce degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR). PCSK9, however, has additional targets which are potentially involved in lipid metabolism regulation such as the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36) and the epithelial cholesterol transporter (NPC1L1) and it affects expression of apolipoprotein B48. The PCSK9 activity is tightly regulated at several levels by factors influencing its transcription, secretion, or by extracellular inactivation and clearance. Many comorbidities (kidney insufficiency, hypothyreoidism, hyperinsulinemia, inflammation) modify PCSK9 expression and release. Two humanized antibodies directed against extracellular PCSK9 received approval by the European and US authorities and additional PCSK9 directed therapeutics (such as silencing RNA) are already in clinical trials. Their results demonstrate a significant reduction in both LDL-C and Lp(a) concentrations – independent of the concomitant medication – and one of them reduced plaque size in high risk cardiovascular patients; results of two ongoing large clinical endpoints studies are awaited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent biological data on PCSK9, the regulation of PCSK9, and finally briefly summarize the data of recent clinical studies in the context of lipid metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0085-0
       
  • Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia as cause of chronic spinal cord
           ischemia resulting in progressive myelopathy – successful treatment with
           lipoprotein apheresis
    • Authors: Franz Heigl; Reinhard Hettich; Erich Mauch; Reinhard Klingel; Cordula Fassbender
      Abstract: Abstract High concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) represent an important independent and causal risk factor associated with adverse outcome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective Lp(a) lowering drug treatment is not available. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has been proven to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with Lp(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) and progressive CVD. Here we present the course of a male patient with established peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) at the early age of 41 and coronary artery disease (CAD), who during follow-up developed over 2 years a progressive syndrome of cerebellar and spinal cord deficits against the background of multifactorial cardiovascular risk including positive family history of CVD. Spastic tetraplegia and dependency on wheel chair and nursing care represented the nadir of neurological deficits. All conventional risk factors including LDL-cholesterol had already been treated and after exclusion of other causes, genetically determined Lp(a)-HLP was considered as the major underlying etiologic factor of ischemic vascular disease in this patient including spinal cord ischemia with vascular myelopathy. Treatment with an intensive regimen of chronic LA over 4.5 years now was successful to stabilize PAOD and CAD and led to very impressive neurologic and overall physical rehabilitation and improvement of quality of life. Measurement of Lp(a) concentration must be recommended to assess individual cardiovascular risk. Extracorporeal clearance of Lp(a) by LA should be considered as treatment option for select patients with progressive Lp(a)-associated ischemic syndromes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11789-017-0081-4
       
 
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