Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8665 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (218 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (120 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
    - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY (235 journals)
    - DENTISTRY (293 journals)
    - DERMATOLOGY AND VENEREOLOGY (164 journals)
    - EMERGENCY AND INTENSIVE CRITICAL CARE (124 journals)
    - ENDOCRINOLOGY (151 journals)
    - FORENSIC SCIENCES (42 journals)
    - GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY (188 journals)
    - GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS (138 journals)
    - HEMATOLOGY (157 journals)
    - HYPNOSIS (4 journals)
    - INTERNAL MEDICINE (176 journals)
    - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (99 journals)
    - MEDICAL GENETICS (58 journals)
    - MEDICAL SCIENCES (2403 journals)
    - NURSES AND NURSING (367 journals)
    - OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY (207 journals)
    - ONCOLOGY (385 journals)
    - OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OPTOMETRY (141 journals)
    - ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY (170 journals)
    - OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (83 journals)
    - PATHOLOGY (100 journals)
    - PEDIATRICS (275 journals)
    - PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (158 journals)
    - PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGY (833 journals)
    - RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE (192 journals)
    - RESPIRATORY DISEASES (104 journals)
    - RHEUMATOLOGY (79 journals)
    - SPORTS MEDICINE (81 journals)
    - SURGERY (406 journals)
    - UROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY AND ANDROLOGY (155 journals)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 103)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Open Access  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cardiology in Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.863
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1061-5377 - ISSN (Online) 1538-4683
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [299 journals]
  • The 11th Trial of a Cardiovascular Clinical Trialist: Coronavirus-2: Part
           1
    • Authors: Frishman; William H.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Its Impact on Cardiovascular
           Disease
    • Authors: Golemi Minga; Iva; Golemi, Lolita; Tafur, Alfonso; Pursnani, Amit
      Abstract: imageThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant strain on healthcare providers. As the number of patients continue to surge, healthcare workers are now forced to find different approaches to practicing medicine that may affect patient care. In addition, COVID-19 has many cardiovascular complications that affect the clinical course of patients. In this article, we summarize the cardiovascular impact of COVID-19 and some of the challenges that patients and the healthcare system will face during this pandemic.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Cardiovascular Safety and Benefits of Noninsulin Antihyperglycemic Drugs
           for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Part 1
    • Authors: Yandrapalli; Srikanth; Jolly, George; Horblitt, Adam; Pemmasani, Gayatri; Sanaani, Abdallah; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Frishman, William H.
      Abstract: imageCardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With T2DM growing in pandemic proportions, there will be profound healthcare implications of CVD in person with diabetes. The ideal drugs to improve outcomes in T2DM are those having antiglycemic efficacy in addition to cardiovascular (CV) safety, which has to be determined in appropriately designed CV outcome trials as mandated by regulatory agencies. Available evidence is largely supportive of metformin’s CV safety and potential CVD risk reduction effects, whereas sulfonylureas are either CV risk neutral or are associated with variable CVD risk. Pioglitazone was also associated with improved CVD risk in patients with diabetes. The more recent antihyperglycemic medications have shown promise with regards to CVD risk reduction in T2DM patients at a high CV risk. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, a type of incretin-based therapy, were associated with better CV outcomes and mortality in T2DM patients, leading to the Food and Drug Administration approval of liraglutide to reduce CVD risk in high-risk T2DM patients. Ongoing and planned randomized controlled trials of the newer drugs should clarify the possibility of class effects, and of CVD risk reduction benefits in low-moderate CV risk patients. While metformin remains the first-line antiglycemic therapy in T2DM, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists should be appropriately prescribed in T2DM patients with baseline CVD or in those at a high CVD risk to improve CV outcomes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are discussed in the second part of this review.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Restarting Oral Anticoagulation in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After
           an Intracranial Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Nguyen; Nhi Y.; Frishman, William H.
      Abstract: imageAtrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population. In western countries with aging populations, atrial fibrillation poses a significant health concern, as it is associated with a high risk of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Thrombi are generated in the left atrial appendage, and subsequent embolism into the cerebral circulation is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Therefore, patients have a lifetime risk of stroke, and those at high risk, defined as a CHA2DS2-VASc2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age>75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65-74 yrs, sex category) ≥2, are usually placed on oral anticoagulants. Unfortunately, long-term anticoagulation poses bleeding risks, of which intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most feared and deadly complication.In patients who survive an ICH, the question of oral anticoagulation resumption arises. It is a therapeutic dilemma in which clinicians must decide how to manage the risk of thromboembolism versus recurrent hemorrhage. Although there is a substantial amount of retrospective data on the topic of resumption of anticoagulation, there are, at this time, no randomized controlled trials addressing the issue. We therefore sought to address ICH risk and management, summarize high quality existing evidence on restarting oral anticoagulation, and suggest an approach to clinical decision-making.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sarcopenia and Cardiac Dysfunction
    • Authors: Wong; Alexandra; Frishman, William
      Abstract: imageAlthough muscle loss is part of the natural course of human aging, sarcopenia has been associated with an increased risk of physical disability and mortality in older patients. Many heart failure patients concomitantly develop deficits in muscle mass and strength, resulting in decreased quality of life and exercise capacity. An underlying state of inflammation is central to the development of sarcopenia and muscle wasting in heart failure; however, additional research in human models is needed to further delineate the pathophysiology of muscle wasting in these patients. Previous studies have shed light on many of the potential targets for therapeutic intervention of sarcopenia in heart failure; however, physical exercise remains the prominent beneficial intervention. Future research must explore other therapeutic interventions in randomized, double-blind clinical trials, which may help to supplement exercise regimens. Sarcopenia shows promise as an easily measured predictor of outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Sudden Cardiac Death in Brugada Syndrome
    • Authors: Kabra; Nitin; Gupta, Rahul; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Frishman, William H.
      Abstract: imageThe Brugada syndrome is an inherited channelopathy that alters the main transmembrane ion currents that constitute the cardiac action potential. These changes not only modify the resting electrocardiogram but also predispose patients to develop malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias that can lead to syncope, cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. This syndrome is responsible for nearly 20% of all sudden cardiac deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts and up to 12% of all sudden cardiac deaths. Brugada syndrome is diagnosed by its characteristic electrocardiogram consisting of a coved-type ST-segment elevation of at least 2 mm followed by a negative T wave in either one of the right precordial leads. These changes can be observed spontaneously or after administration of a sodium channel blocker. While our understanding of this disease has increased tremendously since its first description in 1992, the primary therapeutic option remains implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to avoid sudden cardiac death. Therefore, tremendous effort is being made to effectively risk stratify patients to determine who would benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Firehawk Stent: A Review of a Novel Abluminal Groove-Filled
           Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent
    • Authors: Saito; Yuichi; Grubman, Daniel; Cristea, Ecaterina; Lansky, Alexandra
      Abstract: imageDespite recent advances in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, late adverse events remain concerns after percutaneous coronary intervention. The persistence of polymer material on DES has been suggested as a trigger for chronic inflammation. The Firehawk, a novel DES, has a unique design with recessed abluminal grooves, to which sirolimus and biodegradable polymer are applied. The Firehawk stent is designed to minimize polymer volume and antiproliferative drug concentration to reduce inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. Several recent trials have reported the clinical outcomes of this device. This article provides a review of the current clinical evidence concerning the Firehawk stent.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
           in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: Friend or Foe'
    • Authors: Shyh; Grace I.; Nawarskas, James J.; Cheng-Lai, Angela
      Abstract: imageWhen the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wreaked an unprecedented havoc of an escalating number of deaths and hospitalization in the United States, clinicians were faced with a myriad of unanswered questions, one of the them being the implication of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in patients with COVID-19. Animal data and human studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase the expression of ACE2. ACE2 is an enzyme found in the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and lung and is a coreceptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), the virus responsible for COVID-19. Therefore, one can speculate that discontinuing ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy may lead to decreased ACE2 expression, thereby attenuating the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, and mitigating the disease progression of COVID-19. However, several studies have also shown that ACE2 exhibits reno- and cardioprotection and preserves lung function in acute respiratory distress syndrome, which would favor ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy. This article is to examine and summarize the 2 opposing viewpoints and provide guideline recommendations to support the use or discontinuation of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in patients with COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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