Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8679 journals)
    - ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (219 journals)
    - ANAESTHESIOLOGY (120 journals)
    - CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)
    - CHIROPRACTIC, HOMEOPATHY, OSTEOPATHY (21 journals)
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (338 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiac Failure Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 104)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 270)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Cardiology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Open Access  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cardiovascular Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.002
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0008-6363 - ISSN (Online) 1755-3245
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [412 journals]
  • REPORT-HF reveals global inequalities in health care provision and
           prognosis of patients with acute heart failure
    • Authors: Bertero E; Störk S, Maack C.
      Abstract: Heart failureHospitalizationGuideline-directed medical treatmentComorbidities
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa194
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Endothelial barrier integrity in COVID-19-dependent hyperinflammation:
           does the protective facet of platelet function matter'
    • Authors: Smeda M; Chlopicki S.
      Abstract: COVID-19Inflammation-associated haemostasisPlateletsEndothelial barrier
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa190
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Genome protection on the move
    • Authors: Meli A.
      Abstract: ChromatinNucleusEpigeneticsMechanoprotection
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa189
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Cardiovascular diseases, lipid-lowering therapies and European registries
           in the COVID-19 pandemic
    • Authors: Morawietz H; Julius U, Bornstein S.
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseasesCOVID-19CRPLipoprotein apheresisStatins
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa176
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Cardiovascular and immunological implications of social distancing in the
           context of COVID-19
    • Authors: D’Acquisto F; Hamilton A.
      Abstract: Social isolationLonelinessCardiovascularImmune responseCOVID-19
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa167
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Gender balance at the heart of science
    • Authors: Small H; Timoteo A, Buchanan G, et al.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa114
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Decreased myocardial infarction admissions during COVID times: what can we
           learn'
    • Authors: Niccoli G; Luescher T, Crea F.
      Abstract: COVID-19SARS-CoV-2Acute myocardial infarctionAcute coronary syndromes
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa146
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 as a cardiovascular disease: the potential role of chronic
           endothelial dysfunction
    • Authors: Bermejo-Martin J; Almansa R, Torres A, et al.
      Abstract: As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics evolves, there is mounting evidence that the cardiovascular system plays a role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease. In their interesting recent article, Chen et al. propose that pericytes, with high expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2; the receptor for this virus), are the potential target cardiac cells for SARS-CoV-2 infection.1 Endothelial cells are also known to express ACE2, representing a potential target for infection.2 In addition to viral factors, other host-dependent cardiovascular factors could contribute to the severity of COVID-19 disease in some patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa140
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Band on the run: insights into right ventricular reverse remodelling
    • Authors: Brown R; Fini M, Stenmark K.
      Pages: 1651 - 1653
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Delineating the molecular and histological events that govern right ventricular recovery using a novel mouse model of PA de-banding’ by M. Boehm et al., pp. 1700–1709.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa091
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Thioredoxin-1: a cardioprotector against stress
    • Authors: Perone F; Lembo G.
      Pages: 1654 - 1655
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Thioredoxin-1 maintains mitochondrial function via mTOR signaling in the heart’ by S.I. Oka et al., pp. 1742–1755.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa113
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Towards precision disease-modelling in experimental myocarditis
    • Authors: Protonotarios A; Marelli-Berg F.
      Pages: 1656 - 1657
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘Development of a new mouse model for coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis by attenuating coxsackievirus B3 virulence in the pancreas’ by S. Pinkert et al., pp. 1756–1766.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa057
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Exercise: benefit more with Nox4!
    • Authors: Schröder K.
      Pages: 1658 - 1660
      Abstract: This editorial refers to ‘NADPH oxidase 4 mediates the protective effects of physical activity against obesity-induced vascular dysfunction’ by H. Langbein et al., pp. 1767–1778.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Mar 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa074
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in endomyocardial biopsies of patients with
           clinically suspected myocarditis tested negative for COVID-19 in
           nasopharyngeal swab
    • Authors: Wenzel P; Kopp S, Göbel S, et al.
      Pages: 1661 - 1663
      Abstract: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).1 Myocardial injury—observed in up to 7–17% of patients with COVID-192—is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, which is highest among patients with known cardiovascular disease (CVD), but also includes patients without known CVD.3 Recent reports described cases of acute myocarditis in COVID-19, sometimes with a fulminant course, that occur between 4 and 9 days after initial symptoms.2,4,5
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jun 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa160
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Vascular risk factors, Framingham risk score, and COVID-19:
           community-based cohort study
    • Authors: Batty G; Hamer M.
      Pages: 1664 - 1665
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa178
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment,
           diagnosis, and treatment options
    • Authors: Guzik T; Mohiddin S, Dimarco A, et al.
      Pages: 1666 - 1687
      Abstract: AbstractThe novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, represents the greatest medical challenge in decades. We provide a comprehensive review of the clinical course of COVID-19, its comorbidities, and mechanistic considerations for future therapies. While COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, causing interstitial pneumonitis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it also affects multiple organs, particularly the cardiovascular system. Risk of severe infection and mortality increase with advancing age and male sex. Mortality is increased by comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer. The most common complications include arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, and ventricular fibrillation), cardiac injury [elevated highly sensitive troponin I (hs-cTnI) and creatine kinase (CK) levels], fulminant myocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2, following proteolytic cleavage of its S protein by a serine protease, binds to the transmembrane angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) —a homologue of ACE—to enter type 2 pneumocytes, macrophages, perivascular pericytes, and cardiomyocytes. This may lead to myocardial dysfunction and damage, endothelial dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction, plaque instability, and myocardial infarction (MI). While ACE2 is essential for viral invasion, there is no evidence that ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) worsen prognosis. Hence, patients should not discontinue their use. Moreover, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors might be beneficial in COVID-19. Initial immune and inflammatory responses induce a severe cytokine storm [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-22, IL-17, etc.] during the rapid progression phase of COVID-19. Early evaluation and continued monitoring of cardiac damage (cTnI and NT-proBNP) and coagulation (D-dimer) after hospitalization may identify patients with cardiac injury and predict COVID-19 complications. Preventive measures (social distancing and social isolation) also increase cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular considerations of therapies currently used, including remdesivir, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, ribavirin, interferons, and lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as experimental therapies, such as human recombinant ACE2 (rhACE2), are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa106
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Hypertension, the renin–angiotensin system, and the risk of lower
           respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for
           COVID-19European Society of Hypertension COVID-19 Task Force Review of
           Evidence
    • Authors: Kreutz R; Algharably E, Azizi M, et al.
      Pages: 1688 - 1699
      Abstract: AbstractSystemic arterial hypertension (referred to as hypertension herein) is a major risk factor of mortality worldwide, and its importance is further emphasized in the context of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection referred to as COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections commonly are older and have a history of hypertension. Almost 75% of patients who have died in the pandemic in Italy had hypertension. This raised multiple questions regarding a more severe course of COVID-19 in relation to hypertension itself as well as its treatment with renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, e.g. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. We demonstrate lack of sound evidence that hypertension per se is an independent risk factor for COVID-19. Interestingly, ACEIs and ARBs may be associated with lower incidence and/or improved outcome in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. We also review in detail the molecular mechanisms linking the RAS to lung damage and the potential clinical impact of treatment with RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19 and a high cardiovascular and renal risk. This is related to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells, and expression of ACE2 in the lung, cardiovascular system, kidney, and other tissues. In summary, a critical review of available evidence does not support a deleterious effect of RAS blockers in COVID-19 infections. Therefore, there is currently no reason to discontinue RAS blockers in stable patients facing the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa097
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
  • Single-cell analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and spike protein priming
           expression of proteases in the human heart
    • Authors: Liu H; Gai S, Wang X, et al.
      Pages: 1733 - 1741
      Abstract: AbstractAimsSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly binds to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) to facilitate cellular entry. Compared with the lung or respiratory tract, the human heart exhibits greater ACE2 expression. However, little substantial damage was found in the heart tissue, and no viral particles were observed in the cardiac myocytes. This study aims to analyse ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein proteases at the single-cell level, to explore the cardiac involvement in COVID-19 and improve our understanding of the potential cardiovascular implications of COVID-19.Methods and ResultsWith meta-analysis, the prevalence of cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients varies from 2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0–5%, I2 = 0%] in non-ICU patients to 59% (95% CI 48–71%, I2 = 85%) in non-survivors. With public single-cell sequence data analysis, ACE2 expression in the adult human heart is higher than that in the lung (adjusted P < 0.0001). Inversely, the most important S protein cleavage protease TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine protease-2) in the heart exhibits an extremely lower expression than that in the lung (adjusted P < 0.0001), which may restrict entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cardiac cells. Furthermore, we discovered that other S protein proteases, CTSL (cathepsin L) and FURIN (furin, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme), were expressed in the adult heart at a similar level to that in the lung, which may compensate for TMPRSS2, mediating cardiac involvement in COVID-19.ConclusionCompared with the lung, ACE2 is relatively more highly expressed in the human heart, while the key S protein priming protease, TMPRSS2, is rarely expressed. The low percentage of ACE2+/TMPRSS2+ cells reduced heart vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 to some degree. CTSL and FURIN may compensate for S protein priming to mediate SARS-CoV-2 infection of the heart.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvaa191
      Issue No: Vol. 116, No. 10 (2020)
       
 
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