Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8447 journals)
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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (330 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 330 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Angiologica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Cardiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acute Cardiac Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adipositas - Ursachen, Folgeerkrankungen, Therapie     Hybrid Journal  
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aktuelle Kardiologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
American Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription  
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AORTA     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivos de cardiología de México     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argentine Journal of Cardiology (English edition)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Artery Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ARYA Atherosclerosis     Open Access  
ASAIO Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aswan Heart Centre Science & Practice Services     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atherosclerosis : X     Open Access  
Bangladesh Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Basic Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cardiac Cath Lab Director     Full-text available via subscription  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cardiocore     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Cardiology and Angiology: An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cardiology in Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Cardiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cardiorenal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiothoracic Surgeon     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CardioVasc     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Open     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Cardiovascular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular System     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cardiovascular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra     Open Access  
Chest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 101)
Choroby Serca i Naczyń     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Circulation : Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Circulation : Genomic and Precision Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Circulation : Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Circulation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cirugía Cardiovascular     Open Access  
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis     Full-text available via subscription  
Clínica e Investigación en arteriosclerosis (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Congenital Heart Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Congestive Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cor et Vasa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coronary Artery Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CorSalud     Open Access  
Critical Pathways in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Cardiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Heart Failure Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Hypertension Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Hypertension Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Opinion in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Problems in Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Research : Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CVIR Endovascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Kardiologe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Echo Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Echocardiography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Egyptian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
ESC Heart Failure     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Heart Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes     Hybrid Journal  
European Heart Journal : Acute Cardiovascular Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Heart Journal Supplements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Heart Failure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Stroke Organisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Folia Cardiologica     Open Access  
Forum Zaburzeń Metabolicznych     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Cardiology Science and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart and Vessels     Hybrid Journal  
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Heart Failure Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart International     Full-text available via subscription  
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access  
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Herz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypertension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Hypertension in Pregnancy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Hypertension Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ibrahim Cardiac Medical Journal     Open Access  
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Heart Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women WINCARS     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovations : Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca     Open Access  
Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Cardiovascular Forum Journal     Open Access  
International Journal of Angiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cardiovascular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
International Journal of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Hyperthermia     Open Access  
International Journal of Stroke     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access  
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Interventional Cardiology Review     Full-text available via subscription  
JACC : Basic to Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
JACC : Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
JACC : Heart Failure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
JAMA Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
JMIR Cardio     Open Access  
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Arrhythmia     Open Access  
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care TSS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Basic Research in Cardiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 10  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1435-1803 - ISSN (Online) 0300-8428
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Inhibition of Na V 1.8 prevents atrial arrhythmogenesis in human and mice
    • Abstract: Pharmacologic approaches for the treatment of atrial arrhythmias are limited due to side effects and low efficacy. Thus, the identification of new antiarrhythmic targets is of clinical interest. Recent genome studies suggested an involvement of SCN10A sodium channels (NaV1.8) in atrial electrophysiology. This study investigated the role and involvement of NaV1.8 (SCN10A) in arrhythmia generation in the human atria and in mice lacking NaV1.8. NaV1.8 mRNA and protein were detected in human atrial myocardium at a significant higher level compared to ventricular myocardium. Expression of NaV1.8 and NaV1.5 did not differ between myocardium from patients with atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm. To determine the electrophysiological role of NaV1.8, we investigated isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes from patients with sinus rhythm stimulated with isoproterenol. Inhibition of NaV1.8 by A-803467 or PF-01247324 showed no effects on the human atrial action potential. However, we found that NaV1.8 significantly contributes to late Na+ current and consequently to an increased proarrhythmogenic diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak in human atrial cardiomyocytes. Selective pharmacological inhibition of NaV1.8 potently reduced late Na+ current, proarrhythmic diastolic Ca2+ release, delayed afterdepolarizations as well as spontaneous action potentials. These findings could be confirmed in murine atrial cardiomyocytes from wild-type mice and also compared to SCN10A−/− mice (genetic ablation of NaV1.8). Pharmacological NaV1.8 inhibition showed no effects in SCN10A−/− mice. Importantly, in vivo experiments in SCN10A−/− mice showed that genetic ablation of NaV1.8 protects against atrial fibrillation induction. This study demonstrates that NaV1.8 is expressed in the murine and human atria and contributes to late Na+ current generation and cellular arrhythmogenesis. Blocking NaV1.8 selectively counteracts this pathomechanism and protects against atrial arrhythmias. Thus, our translational study reveals a new selective therapeutic target for treating atrial arrhythmias.
      PubDate: 2020-02-20
  • Triad3A attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy involving the
           augmentation of ubiquitination-mediated degradation of TLR4 and TLR9
    • Abstract: Activation of TLRs mediated the NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important pathophysiological role in cardiac hypertrophy. Triad3A, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, has been reported to negatively regulate NF-κB activation pathway via promoting ubiquitination and degradation of TLR4 and TLR9 in innate immune cells. The role of Triad3A in cardiac hypertrophic development remains unknown. The present study investigated whether there is a link between Triad3A and TLR4 and TLR9 in pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy. We observed that Triad3A levels were markedly reduced following transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced cardiac hypertrophy. Similarly, stimulation of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) with angiotensin-II (Ang II) significantly decreased Triad3A expression. To determine the role of Triad3A in TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we transduced the myocardium with adenovirus expressing Triad3A followed by induction of TAC. We observed that increased expression of Triad3A significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. To investigate the mechanisms by which Triad3A attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, we examined the Triad3A E3 ubiquitination on TLR4 and TLR9. We found that Triad3A promoted TLR4 and TLR9 degradation through ubiquitination. Triad3A mediated TLR4 and TLR9 degradation resulted in suppression of NF-κB activation. Our data suggest that Triad3A plays a protective role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, at least through catalyzing ubiquitination-mediated degradation of TLR4 and TLR9, thus negatively regulating NF-κB activation.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • FHL-1 is not involved in pressure overload-induced maladaptive right
           ventricular remodeling and dysfunction
    • Abstract: Aims The cytoskeletal signaling protein four and-a-half LIM domains 1 (FHL-1) has recently been identified as a novel key player in pulmonary hypertension as well as in left heart diseases. In this regard, FHL-1 has been implicated in dysregulated hypertrophic signaling in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells leading to pulmonary hypertension. In mice, FHL-1-deficiency (FHL-1−/−) led to an attenuated hypertrophic signaling associated with a blunted hypertrophic response of the pressure-overloaded left ventricle (LV). However, the role of FHL-1 in right heart hypertrophy has not yet been addressed. Methods and results We investigated FHL-1 expression in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to chronic biomechanical stress and found it to be enhanced in the right ventricle (RV). Next, we subjected FHL-1−/− and corresponding wild-type mice to pressure overload of the RV by pulmonary arterial banding for various time points. However, in contrast to the previously published study in LV-pressure overload, which was confirmed here, RV hypertrophy and hypertrophic signaling was not diminished in FHL-1−/− mice. In detail, right ventricular pressure overload led to hypertrophy, dilatation and fibrosis of the RV from both FHL-1−/− and wild-type mice. RV remodeling was associated with impaired RV function as evidenced by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. Additionally, PAB induced upregulation of natriuretic peptides and slight downregulation of phospholamban and ryanodine receptor 2 in the RV. However, there was no difference between genotypes in the degree of expression change. Conclusion FHL-1 pathway is not involved in the control of adverse remodeling in the pressure overloaded RV.
      PubDate: 2020-01-24
  • Murine sca1/flk1-positive cells are not endothelial progenitor cells, but
           B2 lymphocytes
    • Abstract: Circulating sca1+/flk1+ cells are hypothesized to be endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in mice that contribute to atheroprotection by replacing dysfunctional endothelial cells. Decreased numbers of circulating sca1+/flk1+ cells correlate with increased atherosclerotic lesions and impaired reendothelialization upon electric injury of the common carotid artery. However, legitimate doubts remain about the identity of the putative EPCs and their contribution to endothelial restoration. Hence, our study aimed to establish a phenotype for sca1+/flk1+ cells to gain a better understanding of their role in atherosclerotic disease. In wild-type mice, sca1+/flk1+ cells were mobilized into the peripheral circulation by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment and this movement correlated with improved endothelial regeneration upon carotid artery injury. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis revealed that sca1+/flk1+ cells predominantly co-expressed surface markers of conventional B cells (B2 cells). In RAG2-deficient mice and upon B2 cell depletion, sca1+/flk1+ cells were fully depleted. In the absence of monocytes, sca1+/flk1+ cell levels were unchanged. A PCR array focused on cell surface markers and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of purified sca1+/flk1+ cells confirmed their phenotype to be predominantly that of B cells. Finally, the depletion of B2 cells, including sca1+/flk1+ cells, in G-CSF-treated wild-type mice partly abolished the endothelial regenerating effect of G-CSF, indicating an atheroprotective role for sca1+/flk1+ B2 cells. In summary, we characterized sca1+/flk1+ cells as a subset of predominantly B2 cells, which are apparently involved in endothelial regeneration.
      PubDate: 2020-01-24
  • Selective intrarenal delivery of mesenchymal stem cell-derived
           extracellular vesicles attenuates myocardial injury in experimental
           metabolic renovascular disease
    • Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) deliver genes and proteins to recipient cells, and mediate paracrine actions of their parent cells. Intrarenal delivery of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived EVs preserves stenotic-kidney function and reduces release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a swine model of coexisting metabolic syndrome (MetS) and renal artery stenosis (RAS). We hypothesized that this approach is also capable of blunting cardiac injury and dysfunction. Five groups of pigs were studied after 16 weeks of diet-induced MetS and RAS (MetS + RAS), MetS and MetS + RAS treated 4 weeks earlier with a single intrarenal delivery of EVs-rich fraction harvested from autologous adipose tissue-derived MSCs, and lean and MetS Shams. Cardiac structure, function, and myocardial oxygenation were assessed in vivo using imaging, and cardiac inflammation, senescence, and fibrosis ex vivo. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured in circulating and renal vein blood. Intrarenal EV delivery improved stenotic-kidney glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, and decreased renal release of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6. Furthermore, despite unchanged systemic hemodynamics, intrarenal EV delivery in MetS + RAS normalized cardiac diastolic function, attenuated left ventricular remodeling, cellular senescence and inflammation, and improved myocardial oxygenation and capillary density in MetS + RAS. Intrarenal delivery of MSC-derived EVs blunts myocardial injury in experimental MetS + RAS, possibly related to improvement in renal function and systemic inflammatory profile. These observations underscore the central role of inflammation in the crosstalk between the kidney and heart, and the important contribution of renal function to cardiac structural and functional integrity in coexisting MetS and RAS.
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
  • Renal denervation restrains the inflammatory response in myocardial
           ischemia–reperfusion injury
    • Abstract: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to intensive sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and inflammatory reactions. Whether renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) could be a new therapeutic strategy to modulate I/R inflammation and reduce infarct size after myocardial I/R injury needs to be explored. First, we investigated the correlation between plasma norepinephrine concentrations and circulating myeloid cell numbers in patients with acute myocardial infarction. And then, C57BL/6 mice underwent a "two-hit" operation, with 10% phenol applied to bilateral renal nerves to abrogate sympathoexcitation, and a 45-min ligation of the left coronary artery to induce myocardial I/R injury. The effects of RDN on the mobilization of immune cells in mice following myocardial I/R injury were explored. We observed a strong association between SNS overactivation and myeloid cell excessive accumulation in patients. In animal experiments, there was a significant reduction in infarct size per area at risk in the denervated-I/R group when compared to that of the innervated-I/R group (39.2% versus 49.8%; p < 0.005), and RDN also improved the left ventricular ejection fraction by 20% after 1 week. Furthermore, the denervated-I/R group showed a decrease in the number of neutrophils and macrophages in the blood and the myocardium as reflected by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry analysis (p < 0.05); the decrease was associated with a significant reduction in the circulating production of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α (p < 0.05). In summary, our study reveals a novel link between the SNS activity and inflammatory response undergoing myocardium I/R injury and identifies RDN as a potential therapeutic strategy against myocardium I/R injury via preserving the spleen immune cells mobilization.
      PubDate: 2020-01-13
  • Tryptophane–kynurenine pathway in the remote ischemic conditioning
    • Abstract: The actual protective mechanisms underlying cardioprotection with remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) remain unclear. Recent data suggest that RIC induces kynurenine (KYN) and kynurenic acid synthesis, two metabolites derived from tryptophan (TRP), yet a causal relation between TRP pathway and RIC remains to be established. We sought to study the impact of RIC on the levels of TRP and its main metabolites within tissues, and to assess whether blocking kynurenine (KYN) synthesis from TRP would inhibit RIC-induced cardioprotection. In rats exposed to 40-min coronary occlusion and 2-h reperfusion, infarct size was significantly smaller in RIC-treated animals (35.7 ± 3.0% vs. 46.5 ± 2.2%, p = 0.01). This protection was lost in rats that received 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) pretreatment, an inhibitor of KYN synthesis from TRP (infarct size = 46.2 ± 5.0%). Levels of TRP and nine compounds spanning its metabolism through the serotonin and KYN pathways were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in the liver, heart, and limb skeletal muscle, either exposed or not to RIC. In the liver, RIC induced a significant increase in xanthurenic acid, nicotinic acid, and TRP. Likewise, RIC increased NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin activity in the liver. Pretreatment with 1-MT suppressed the RIC-induced increases in NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin activity. Altogether, these findings indicate that RIC mechanism is dependent on TRP–KYN pathway activation.
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
  • Overexpression of mitochondrial creatine kinase preserves cardiac
           energetics without ameliorating murine chronic heart failure
    • Abstract: Mitochondrial creatine kinase (Mt-CK) is a major determinant of cardiac energetic status and is down-regulated in chronic heart failure, which may contribute to disease progression. We hypothesised that cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of Mt-CK would mitigate against these changes and thereby preserve cardiac function. Male Mt-CK overexpressing mice (OE) and WT littermates were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery and assessed by echocardiography at 0, 3 and 6 weeks alongside a final LV haemodynamic assessment. Regardless of genotype, TAC mice developed progressive LV hypertrophy, dilatation and contractile dysfunction commensurate with pressure overload-induced chronic heart failure. There was a trend for improved survival in OE-TAC mice (90% vs 73%, P = 0.08), however, OE-TAC mice exhibited greater LV dilatation compared to WT and no functional parameters were significantly different under baseline conditions or during dobutamine stress test. CK activity was 37% higher in OE-sham versus WT-sham hearts and reduced in both TAC groups, but was maintained above normal values in the OE-TAC hearts. A separate cohort of mice received in vivo cardiac 31P-MRS to measure high-energy phosphates. There was no difference in the ratio of phosphocreatine-to-ATP in the sham mice, however, PCr/ATP was reduced in WT-TAC but preserved in OE-TAC (1.04 ± 0.10 vs 2.04 ± 0.22; P = 0.007). In conclusion, overexpression of Mt-CK activity prevented the changes in cardiac energetics that are considered hallmarks of a failing heart. This had a positive effect on early survival but was not associated with improved LV remodelling or function during the development of chronic heart failure.
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
  • TRPV4 deletion protects heart from myocardial infarction-induced adverse
           remodeling via modulation of cardiac fibroblast differentiation
    • Abstract: Cardiac fibrosis caused by adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction can eventually lead to heart failure. Although the role of soluble factors such as TGF-β is well studied in cardiac fibrosis following myocardial injury, the physiological role of mechanotransduction is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism and functional role of TRPV4 mechanotransduction in cardiac fibrosis. TRPV4KO mice, 8 weeks following myocardial infarction (MI), exhibited preserved cardiac function compared to WT mice. Histological analysis demonstrated reduced cardiac fibrosis in TRPV4KO mice. We found that WT CF exhibited hypotonicity-induced calcium influx and extracellular matrix (ECM)-stiffness-dependent differentiation in response to TGF-β1. In contrast, TRPV4KO CF did not display hypotonicity-induced calcium influx and failed to differentiate on high-stiffness ECM gels even in the presence of saturating amounts of TGF-β1. Mechanistically, TRPV4 mediated cardiac fibrotic gene promoter activity and fibroblast differentiation through the activation of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway and the mechanosensitive transcription factor MRTF-A. Our findings suggest that genetic deletion of TRPV4 channels protects heart from adverse cardiac remodeling following MI by modulating Rho/MRTF-A pathway-mediated cardiac fibroblast differentiation and cardiac fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
  • DNA-PKcs promotes cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury through mitigating
           BI-1-governed mitochondrial homeostasis
    • Abstract: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a novel inducer to promote mitochondrial apoptosis and suppress tumor growth in a variety of cells although its role in cardiovascular diseases remains obscure. This study was designed to examine the role of DNA-PKcs in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and mitochondrial damage. Cardiomyocyte-specific DNA-PKcs knockout (DNA-PKcsCKO) mice were subjected to IR prior to assessment of myocardial function and mitochondrial apoptosis. Our data revealed that IR challenge, hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) or H2O2-activated DNA-PKcs through post-transcriptional phosphorylation in murine hearts or cardiomyocytes. Mice deficient in DNA-PKcs in cardiomyocytes were protected against cardiomyocyte death, infarct area expansion and cardiac dysfunction. DNA-PKcs ablation countered IR- or HR-induced oxidative stress, mPTP opening, mitochondrial fission, mitophagy failure and Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis, possibly through suppression of Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) activity. A direct association between DNA-PKcs and BI-1 was noted where DNA-PKcs had little effect on BI-1 transcription but interacted with BI-1 to promote its degradation. Loss of DNA-PKcs stabilized BI-1, thus offering resistance of mitochondria and cardiomyocytes against IR insult. Moreover, DNA-PKcs ablation-induced beneficial cardioprotection against IR injury was mitigated by concurrent knockout of BI-1. Double deletion of DNA-PKcs and BI-1 failed to exert protection against global IR injury and mitochondrial damage, confirming a permissive role of BI-1 in DNA-PKcs deletion-elicited cardioprotection against IR injury. DNA-PKcs serves as a novel causative factor for mitochondrial damage via suppression of BI-1, en route to the onset and development of cardiac IR injury.
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
  • Thrombin receptor PAR4 drives canonical NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in
           the heart
    • Abstract: The deleterious effects of diabetes in the heart are increasingly attributed to inflammatory signaling through the NLRP3 (NOD, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3) inflammasome. Thrombin antagonists reduce cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in diabetic mice, in part by suppressing fibrin-driven inflammation. The role of cellular thrombin receptor subtypes in this context is not known. We sought to determine the causal involvement of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signaling of the diabetic heart. Mice with diet-induced diabetes showed increased abundance of pro-caspase-1 and pro-interleukin (IL)-1β in the left ventricle (LV), indicating transcriptional NLRP3 inflammasome priming, and augmented cleavage of active caspase-1 and IL-1β, pointing to canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Caspase-11 activation, which mediates non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, was not augmented. Formation of the plasma membrane pore-forming protein N-terminal gasdermin D (GDSMD), a prerequisite for IL-1β secretion, was also higher in diabetic vs. control mouse LV. NLRP3, ASC and IL-18 expression did not differ between the groups, nor did expression of PAR1 or PAR2. PAR3 was nearly undetectable. LV abundance of PAR4 by contrast increased with diabetes and correlated positively with active caspase-1. Genetic deletion of PAR4 in mice prevented the diet-induced cleavage of caspase-1, IL-1β and GDSMD. Right atrial appendages from patients with type 2 diabetes also showed higher levels of PAR4, but not of PAR1 or PAR2, than non-diabetic atrial tissue, along with increased abundance of cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β and GSDMD. Human cardiac fibroblasts maintained in high glucose conditions to mimic diabetes also upregulated PAR4 mRNA and protein, and increased PAR4-dependent IL-1β transcription and secretion in response to thrombin, while PAR1 and PAR2 expressions were unaltered. In conclusion, PAR4 drives caspase-1-dependent IL-1β production through the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the diabetic heart, providing mechanistic insights into diabetes-associated cardiac thromboinflammation. The emerging PAR4-selective antagonists may provide a feasible approach to prevent cardiac inflammation in patients with diabetes.
      PubDate: 2020-01-07
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 inhibited ischemic arrhythmias via targeting
           miR-143/EGR1 axis
    • Abstract: Ventricular arrhythmia is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the effects of FGF21 on ventricular arrhythmias following MI have not been addressed yet. The present study was conducted to investigate the pharmacological action of FGF21 on ventricular arrhythmias after MI. Adult male mice were administrated with or without recombinant human basic FGF21 (rhbFGF21), and the susceptibility to arrhythmias was assessed by programmed electrical stimulation and optical mapping techniques. Here, we found that rhbFGF21 administration reduced the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), improved epicardial conduction velocity and shorted action potential duration at 90% (APD90) in infarcted mouse hearts. Mechanistically, FGF21 may improve cardiac electrophysiological remodeling as characterized by the decrease of INa and IK1 current density in border zone of infarcted mouse hearts. Consistently, in vitro study also demonstrated that FGF21 may rescue oxidant stress-induced dysfunction of INa and IK1 currents in cultured ventricular myocytes. We further found that oxidant stress-induced down-regulation of early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) contributed to INa and IK1 reduction in post-infarcted hearts, and FGF21 may recruit EGR1 into the SCN5A and KCNJ2 promoter regions to up-regulate NaV1.5 and Kir2.1 expression at transcriptional level. Moreover, miR-143 was identified as upstream of EGR1 and mediated FGF21-induced EGR1 up-regulation in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, rhbFGF21 administration effectively suppressed ventricular arrhythmias in post-infarcted hearts by regulating miR-143-EGR1-NaV1.5/Kir2.1 axis, which provides novel therapeutic strategies for ischemic arrhythmias in clinics.
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
  • Distinct origins and functions of cardiac orthotopic macrophages
    • Abstract: Macrophages are one cell type in the innate immune system. Recent studies involving macrophages have overturned the conventional concept that circulating bone marrow-derived blood mononuclear cells in the adult body continuously replace macrophages residing in the tissues. Investigations using refined technologies have suggested that embryonic hematopoiesis can result in the differentiation into macrophage subgroups in some tissues. In adulthood, these macrophages are self-sustaining via in situ proliferation, with little contribution of circulating bone marrow-derived blood mononuclear cells. Macrophages are integral component of the heart, accounting for 8% of the non-cardiac cells. The use of innovative molecular techniques in paradigm shifting researches has revealed the complexity of cardiac macrophages, including their heterogeneity and ontological diversity. Resident cardiac macrophages modulate the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the cardiovascular system, with distinct and crucial roles in healthy and injured hearts. Their functions include sensing of pathogens, antigen presentation, digesting cell debris, regulating inflammatory responses, generating distinct cytokines, and secreting some regulatory factors. More recent studies have revealed further functions of cardiac macrophages. This review focuses on macrophages within the cardiovascular system. We discuss evidence that has changed our collective view of cardiac macrophage subgroups, and improved our understanding of the different phenotypes, cell surface markers, heterogeneities, origins, developments, and the dynamic and separate roles of these cardiac macrophage subgroups in the steady state and injured hearts. This review may provide novel insights concerning the pathophysiology of cardiac-resident macrophages in cardiovascular diseases and innovative therapeutic strategies that could include the modulation of the role of macrophages in cardiovascular injuries.
      PubDate: 2020-01-02
  • Cell shape determines gene expression: cardiomyocyte morphotypic
    • Abstract: Cardiomyocytes undergo considerable changes in cell shape. These can be due to hemodynamic constraints, including changes in preload and afterload conditions, or to mutations in genes important for cardiac function. These changes instigate significant changes in cellular architecture and lead to the addition of sarcomeres, at the same time or at a later stage. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in cell shape on their own affect gene expression and the aim of this study was to fill that gap in our knowledge. We developed a single-cell morphotyping strategy, followed by single-cell RNA sequencing, to determine the effects of altered cell shape in gene expression. This enabled us to profile the transcriptomes of individual cardiomyocytes of defined geometrical morphotypes and characterize them as either normal or pathological conditions. We observed that deviations from normal cell shapes were associated with significant downregulation of gene expression and deactivation of specific pathways, like oxidative phosphorylation, protein kinase A, and cardiac beta-adrenergic signaling pathways. In addition, we observed that genes involved in apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and necrosis were upregulated in square-like pathological shapes. Mechano-sensory pathways, including integrin and Src kinase mediated signaling, appear to be involved in the regulation of shape-dependent gene expression. Our study demonstrates that cell shape per se affects the regulation of the transcriptome in cardiac myocytes, an effect with possible implications for cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: 2019-12-23
  • Heart non-specific effector CD4 + T cells protect from postinflammatory
           fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in experimental autoimmune myocarditis
    • Abstract: Heart-specific CD4+ T cells have been implicated in development and progression of myocarditis in mice and in humans. Here, using mouse models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) we investigated the role of heart non-specific CD4+ T cells in the progression of the disease. Heart non-specific CD4+ T cells were obtained from DO11.10 mice expressing transgenic T cell receptor recognizing chicken ovalbumin. We found that heart infiltrating CD4+ T cells expressed exclusively effector (Teff) phenotype in the EAM model and in hearts of patients with lymphocytic myocarditis. Adoptive transfer experiments showed that while heart-specific Teff infiltrated the heart shortly after injection, heart non-specific Teff effectively accumulated during myocarditis and became the major heart-infiltrating CD4+ T cell subset at later stage. Restimulation of co-cultured heart-specific and heart non-specific CD4+ T cells with alpha-myosin heavy chain antigen showed mainly Th1/Th17 response for heart-specific Teff and up-regulation of a distinct set of extracellular signalling molecules in heart non-specific Teff. Adoptive transfer of heart non-specific Teff in mice with myocarditis did not affect inflammation severity at the peak of disease, but protected the heart from adverse post-inflammatory fibrotic remodelling and cardiac dysfunction at later stages of disease. Furthermore, mouse and human Teff stimulated in vitro with common gamma cytokines suppressed expression of profibrotic genes, reduced amount of α-smooth muscle actin filaments and decreased contraction of cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, we provided a proof-of-concept that heart non-specific Teff cells could effectively contribute to myocarditis and protect the heart from the dilated cardiomyopathy outcome.
      PubDate: 2019-12-20
  • The changing face after acute myocardial infarction
    • PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Importance of infarct size versus other variables for clinical outcomes
           after PPCI in STEMI patients
    • Abstract: Despite promising experimental studies and encouraging proof-of-concept clinical trials, interventions aimed at limiting infarct size have failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Our objective was to examine whether variables (cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, post-procedural variables, cotreatments) might be associated with clinical outcomes in STEMI patients independently from infarct size reduction. The present study was based on a post hoc analysis of the CIRCUS trial database ( NCT01502774) that assessed the clinical benefit of a single intravenous bolus of cyclosporine in 969 patients with anterior STEMI. Since cyclosporine had no detectable effect on clinical outcomes as well as on any measured variable, we here considered the whole study population as one group. Multivariate analysis was performed to address the respective weight of infarct size and variables in clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that several variables (including gender, hypertension, renal dysfunction, TIMI flow grade post-PCI < 3, and treatment administered after PCI with betablockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) had per se a significant influence on the occurrence of [death or hospitalization for heart failure] at 1 year. The relative weight of infarct size and variables on the composite endpoint of [death or hospitalization for heart failure] at 1 year was 18% and 82%, respectively. Several variables contribute strongly to the clinical outcomes of STEMI patients suggesting that cardioprotective strategy might not only focus on infarct size reduction.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Egr-1 functions as a master switch regulator of remote ischemic
           preconditioning-induced cardioprotection
    • Abstract: Despite improved treatment options myocardial infarction (MI) is still a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a mechanistic process that reduces myocardial infarction size and protects against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. The zinc finger transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is integral to the biological response to I/R, as its upregulation mediates the increased expression of inflammatory and prothrombotic processes. We aimed to determine the association and/or role of Egr-1 expression with the molecular mechanisms controlling the cardioprotective effects of RIPC. This study used H9C2 cells in vitro and a rat model of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. We silenced Egr-1 with DNAzyme (ED5) in vitro and in vivo, before three cycles of RIPC consisting of alternating 5 min hypoxia and normoxia in cells or hind-limb ligation and release in the rat, followed by hypoxic challenge in vitro and I/R injury in vivo. Post-procedure, ED5 administration led to a significant increase in infarct size compared to controls (65.90 ± 2.38% vs. 41.00 ± 2.83%, p < 0.0001) following administration prior to RIPC in vivo, concurrent with decreased plasma IL-6 levels (118.30 ± 4.30 pg/ml vs. 130.50 ± 1.29 pg/ml, p < 0.05), downregulation of the cardioprotective JAK–STAT pathway, and elevated myocardial endothelial dysfunction. In vitro, ED5 administration abrogated IL-6 mRNA expression in H9C2 cells subjected to RIPC (0.95 ± 0.20 vs. 6.08 ± 1.40-fold relative to the control group, p < 0.05), resulting in increase in apoptosis (4.76 ± 0.70% vs. 2.23 ± 0.34%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (0.57 ± 0.11% vs. 1.0 ± 0.14%-fold relative to control, p < 0.05) in recipient cells receiving preconditioned media from the DNAzyme treated donor cells. This study suggests that Egr-1 functions as a master regulator of remote preconditioning inducing a protective effect against myocardial I/R injury through IL-6-dependent JAK–STAT signaling.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
  • Molecular pathways involved in the cardioprotective effects of intravenous
           statin administration during ischemia
    • Abstract: The success of therapies targeting myocardial reperfusion injury is limited, while the cardioprotective impact of mitigating ischemia-related damage remains less explored. We have recently shown in a pig model that the intravenous administration of a modified atorvastatin preparation during ischemia attenuates the rise of cardiac ischemia injury biomarkers. In the following study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms behind these ischemia-related cardioprotective effects. Ischemia was induced by 90 min total coronary balloon occlusion in pigs fed a normocholesterolemic regime. Fifteen minutes after the onset of ischemia, animals were randomized to receive intravenous atorvastatin preparation (IV-atorva) or vehicle. After ischemia animals were euthanized to assess the effect of IV-atorva treatment on gene and protein levels/activation of senescence-, apoptosis-, and cardioprotective/metabolic-related markers. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out in mice and rats in which treatments or vehicle were administered 15 min after initiation of ischemia induced by permanent coronary ligation. Western-blot analyses revealed that in the ischemic myocardium of IV-atorva-treated pigs, RhoA was inactivated, phosphorylation of p53 and caspase-3 was reduced and AMPK was activated with the consequent regulation of the mTOR/raptor-signaling pathway. IV-atorva-treated rats showed, as compared to vehicle, a significant reduction (60%) in scar size assessed at 1 month by histological staining, and mice studies demonstrated the causal involvement of AMPK activation in IV-atorva mediated cardioprotective effects. We demonstrate in pigs and rodents that prompt intravenous treatment with atorvastatin during ischemia limits cardiac cell death and reduces infarct size through AMPK signaling.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
  • Mitochondrial connexin 43 in sex-dependent myocardial responses and
           estrogen-mediated cardiac protection following acute ischemia/reperfusion
    • Abstract: Preserving mitochondrial activity is crucial in rescuing cardiac function following acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The sex difference in myocardial functional recovery has been observed after I/R. Given the key role of mitochondrial connexin43 (Cx43) in cardiac protection initiated by ischemic preconditioning, we aimed to determine the implication of mitochondrial Cx43 in sex-related myocardial responses and to examine the effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol, E2) on Cx43, particularly mitochondrial Cx43-involved cardiac protection following I/R. Mouse primary cardiomyocytes and isolated mouse hearts (from males, females, ovariectomized females, and doxycycline-inducible Tnnt2-controlled Cx43 knockout without or with acute post-ischemic E2 treatment) were subjected to simulated I/R in culture or Langendorff I/R (25-min warm ischemia/40-min reperfusion), respectively. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were measured in cardiomyocytes. Myocardial function and infarct size were determined. Cx43 and its isoform, Gja1-20k, were assessed in mitochondria. Immunoelectron microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation were also used to examine mitochondrial Cx43 and its interaction with estrogen receptor-α by E2 in mitochondria, respectively. There were sex disparities in stress-induced cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function. E2 partially restored mitochondrial activity in cardiomyocytes following acute injury. Post-ischemia infusion of E2 improved functional recovery and reduced infarct size with increased Cx43 content and phosphorylation in mitochondria. Ablation of cardiac Cx43 aggravated mitochondrial damage and abolished E2-mediated cardiac protection during I/R. Female mice were more resistant to myocardial I/R than age-matched males with greater protective role of mitochondrial Cx43 in female hearts. Post-ischemic E2 usage augmented mitochondrial Cx43 content and phosphorylation, increased mitochondrial Gja1-20k, and showed cardiac protection.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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