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ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (212 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 212 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Alergologia Polska : Polish Journal of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allergies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Allergo Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allergo Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allergology International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218)
American Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology     Hybrid Journal  
Annual Review of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Autoimmunity Highlights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmunity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical & Experimental Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical & Translational Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Clinical Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Drugs     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Critical Reviews in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Immunology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Current Opinion in Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Immunology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Treatment Options in Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Developmental & Comparative Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Vaccines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Genes & Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HLA Immune Response Genetics     Hybrid Journal  
HNO Nachrichten     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypersensitivity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Immunity, Inflammation and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Immuno-analyse & Biologie Spécialisée     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Immunobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunogenetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunologic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Immunological Investigations: A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Immunological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Immunology & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Immunology and Immunogenetic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Immunology and Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Immunology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Immunome Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoTargets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals: an Experimental and Clinical Approach     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inmunología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Innate Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Reviews Of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Internet Journal of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Allergy & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma and Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Cellular Immunotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Immunological Techniques in Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunology and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Immunotherapy Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Immunotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Innate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Genetics and Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Translational Autoimmunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Medical Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Mucosal Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nature Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
Nature Reviews Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 293)
Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
NeuroImmunoModulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Neurology : Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Vaccines     Hybrid Journal  
OA Immunology     Open Access  
Ocular Immunology & Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
OncoImmunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Open Allergy Journal     Open Access  
Open Cancer Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Forum Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Virology Journal     Open Access  
Oral Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Papillomavirus Research     Open Access  
Parasite Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Perspectives in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polish Pneumonology and Allergology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Alergia México     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Self/Nonself - Immune Recognition and Signaling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Seminars in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Seminars in Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sinusitis     Open Access  
South East European Journal of Immunology     Open Access  
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy     Open Access  
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transplant Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Transplantation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Trends in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)

        1 2 | Last

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International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.514
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1201-9712 - ISSN (Online) 1878-3511
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Discovery and development of safe-in-man broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Petter I. Andersen, Aleksandr Ianevski, Hilde Lysvand, Astra Vitkauskiene, Valentyn Oksenych, Magnar Bjørås, Kaidi Telling, Irja Lutsar, Uga Dampis, Yasuhiko Irie, Tanel Tenson, Anu Kantele, Denis E. Kainov Viral diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Virus-specific vaccines and antiviral drugs are the most powerful tools to combat viral diseases. However, broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs, i.e. compounds targeting viruses belonging to two or more viral families) could provide additional protection of general population from emerging and re-emerging viral diseases reinforcing the arsenal of available antiviral options. Here, we reviewed discovery and development of BSAAs and summarized the information on 119 safe-in-man agents in freely accessible database ( Future and ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies will increase the number of BSAAs, expand spectrum of their indications, and identify drug combinations for treatment of emerging and re-emerging viral infections as well as co-infections.
  • A unique immune signature of serum cytokine and chemokine dynamics in
           patients with zika virus infection from a tropical region in Southern

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Joaquín Zuñiga, José Alberto Choreño-Parra, Luis Jiménez-Alvarez, Alfredo Cruz-Lagunas, José Eduardo Márquez, Gustavo Ramírez-Martínez, Aminadab Goodina, Erika Hernández-Montiel, Luis Alejandro Fernández-López, María Fernanda Cabrera-Cornejo, Carlos Cabello, Manuel Castillejos, Andrés Hernández, Nora E. Regino-Zamarripa, Criselda Mendoza-Milla, Héctor Vivanco-Cid, Alejandro Escobar-Gutierrez, Salvador Fonseca, Pablo F. Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Santiago Pérez-Patrigeon ObjectivesTo describe the kinetics of circulating cytokines and chemokines in humans with ZIKAV infection.MethodsSerum levels of different immune mediators in patients with ZIKAV infection were measured at distinct stages of the disease, as well as in culture supernatants from human monocytes infected with a clinical ZIKAV isolate. We also looked for clinical features associated with specific immune signatures among symptomatic patients.ResultsWe evaluated 23 ZIKAV-infected patients. Their mean age was 32 ± 8.3 years and 65% were female. ZIKAV patients showed elevated IL-9, IL-17A, and CXCL10 levels at acute stages of the disease. At day 28, levels of CCL4 and CCL5 were increased, whereas IL-1RA, CXCL8 and CCL2 were decreased. At baseline, IL-7 was increased among patients with headache, whereas CCL2, and CCL3 were decreased in patients with bleeding and rash, respectively. Our clinical ZIKAV isolate induced a broad immune response in monocytes that did not resemble the signature observed in ZIKAV patients.ConclusionsWe showed a unique immune signature in our cohort of ZIKAV-infected patients. Our study may provide valuable evidence helpful to identify immune correlates of protection against ZIKAV.
  • Determinants of losses in the latent tuberculosis cascade of care in
           Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Nélia C.N. Araújo, Constança M.S. Cruz, María B. Arriaga, Juan M. Cubillos-Angulo, Michael S. Rocha, Paulo S. Silveira-Mattos, Gisela M. Matos, Izabella M.B. Marques, Isa Carolina P. Espirito Santo, Luiza L. Almeida, Caroline M. Andrade, Leonardo A. Souza, Eduardo M. Netto, Bruno B. Andrade BackgroundThe present study evaluated factors associated with losses in the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) cascade of care in contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients, in a referral center from a highly endemic region in Brazil.MethodsContacts of 1,672 TB patients were retrospectively studied between 2009 and 2014. Data on TB screening by clinical investigation, radiographic examination and tuberculin skin test (TST) were extracted from medical records. Losses in the cascade of care and TB incidence within 2-year follow-up were calculated.ResultsFrom a total of 1,180 TB contacts initially identified, only 495 were examined (58% loss), and 20 were diagnosed with active TB at this stage. Furthermore, 435 persons returned for TST result interpretation and 351 (∼81%) were TST positive. Among those with positive TST, 249 (73%) were treated with isoniazid for 6 months whereas 51 abandoned therapy early. Three individuals who did not receive LTBI treatment, one with incomplete treatment and another who completed treatment developed active TB. A logistic regression analysis revealed that increases in age were associated with losses in the LTBI cascade independent of other clinical and epidemiological characteristics.ConclusionsMajor losses occur at initial stages and older patients are at higher risk of not completing the LTBI cascade of care.
  • High rates of tenofovir failure in a CRF01_AE-predominant HIV epidemic in
           the Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Edsel Maurice T. Salvana, Genesis May J. Samonte, Elizabeth Telan, Katerina Leyritana, Rosario Jessica Tactacan-Abrenica, Patrick R. Ching, Geraldine M. Arevalo, Niña Theresa Dungca, Christine Peñalosa-Ramos, Kevin Anthony R. Mendoza, Lyka F. Trinidad, Angelo dela Tonga, Jodor Lim, Raul Destura, Marissa Alejandria, Rontgene Solante, Lalaine Arcangel, Noel S. Palaypayon, Brian E. Schwem BackgroundThe Philippines has the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the Asia-Pacific. This increase was accompanied by a shift in the predominant HIV subtype from B to CRF01_AE. Increasing evidence points to a difference in treatment responses between subtypes. We examined treatment failure and acquired drug resistance (ADR) in people living with HIV (PLHIVs) after one year on antiretrovirals (ARVs).MethodsPLHIV maintained on ARVs for one year were recruited. Treatment failure was defined as a viral load of ≥1000 copies/mL. Sanger sequencing for genotyping and drug resistance mutation (DRM) detection was performed on patients failing treatment.Results513 PLHIV were enrolled. The most common antiretroviral regimens were TDF+3TC+EFV (269) and AZT+3TC+EFV (155). 53 (10.3%) subjects failed treatment. Among these, 48 (90.6%) had DRMs, 84.9% were subtype CRF01_AE. Tenofovir-based regimens performed worse than zidovudine-based regimens (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.58 to 7.52 p
  • Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis incidentally diagnosed on 18F-FDG

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Laurence Champion, Claire Provost
  • Mycobacterium arupense finger osteomyelitis: Case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Alejandro Jaime-Villalonga, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovic We describe a case of persistent tenosynovitis in the right fourth finger of a 50-year-old man that after almost a year of workup was found to be related to osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium arupense. The few cases found in the literature were associated with traumatic injuries, environmental contamination, and months of misdiagnosis. Treatment is challenging as there are limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility and potential side effects of current therapy options.
  • Fournier’s gangrene mortality: A 17-year systematic review and

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Amr Ehab El-Qushayri, Khalid Muhammad Khalaf, Abdullah Dahy, Abdalla Reda Mahmoud, Amira Yasmine Benmelouka, Sherief Ghozy, Mohamed Usama Mahmoud, May Bin-Jumah, Saad Alkahtani, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim BackgroundTo provide better management of Fournier’s gangrene, mortality-associated comorbidities and common etiologies were identified.MethodsA systematic search was conducted using 12 databases, followed by meticulous screening to select relevant articles. Meta-analysis and meta-regression (for possible cofounders) were both done for all possible outcomes.ResultsOut of 1186 reports screened, 38 studies were finally included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. A higher risk of mortality was detected in patients with diabetes, heart disease, renal failure, and kidney disease, with risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 0.72 (0.59–0.89), 0.39 (0.24–0.62), 0.41 (0.27–0.63), and 0.34 (95% CI 0.16–0.73), respectively. However, there was no association between mortality rates and comorbid hypertension, lung disease, liver disease, or malignant disease (p> 0.05). The highest mortality rates were due to sepsis (76%) and multiple organ failure (66%), followed by respiratory (19.4%), renal (18%), cardiovascular (15.7%), and hepatic (5%) mortality.ConclusionsModifications to the Fournier’s Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) are recommended, in order to include comorbidities as an important prognostic tool for FG mortality. Close monitoring of the patients, with special interest given to the main causes of mortality, is an essential element of the management process.
  • 3T magnetic resonance for evaluation of adult pulmonary tuberculosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Qinqin Yan, Shuyi Yang, Jie Shen, Shuihua Lu, Fei Shan, Yuxin Shi ObjectivesTo evaluate image quality and detection rate of four 3 T magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) sequences and MRI performances of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB)when compared to computed tomography (CT).MethodsForty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis separately underwent CT and 3 T-MRI with T1-weighted free-breathing star-volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination(Star VIBE) and standard VIBE, T2-weighted two-dimensional fast BLADE turbo spin-echo(2D-fBLADE TSE) and three-dimensional isotropic turbo spin-echo(3D-SPACE). Four MRI sequences were compared in terms of detection rate and image quality, which consisted of signal to noise ratio(SNR), contrast to noise ratio(CNR) and 5-points scoring scale. The total sensitivity was also compared between CT and MRI.Inter-observers agreement on 5-points scoring scale was calculated by cohen’s kappa(k). SNR, CNR and 5-points scoring scale were compared using two-tailed pared t-test. Using CT as reference, the MRI detection rate of pulmonary abnormality was evaluated by Pearson’s Chi-square test. Furthermore, the sizes of the nodules (≥5 mm) were compared using intraclass correlation coefficient.ResultsIn this study, Free-breathing Star-VIBE had significantly better SNR and identical CNR compared with standard VIBE. 2D-fBLADE TSE had statistically higher SNR but uniform or inferior CNR compared with 3D-SPACE. Inter-observers showed excellent agreement on 5-points scoring scale. The average score of Star-VIBE and VIBE had no difference. The average score of 2D-fBLADE TSE was higher than 3D-SPACE. There were no statistical differences in the detection rates of non-calcified parenchymal lesions between Star-VIBE and standard VIBE, 2D-fBALDE TSE and 3D-SPACE. MRI is comparable to CT in detecting consolidation, cavity, non-calcified nodules of ≥5 mm and tree-in-bud signs compared to CT. MRI detected non-calcified nodules of <5 mm, 5-10 mm, ≥10 mm and calcified nodules with sensitivity of 69.6%, 90.6%, 100% and 89.5% respectively. In addition, the sizes of the nodules (≥5 mm) had statistical consistency. MRI is more sensitive in detecting caseous necrosis, liquefaction, active cavity, abnormalit ies of lymph nodes and pleura.ConclusionsT1-weighted free-breathing Star-VIBE and T2-weighted 2D-fBLADE TSE, both with satisfactory image quality, are suitable for patients with pulmonary TB who need long-term follow-ups in clinical routine, especially for children, young women and pregnant women.
  • Testicular pain associated with clear fluid meningitis: How many cases of
           Toscana virus are we missing'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Hélène Mascitti, Ruxandra Calin, Aurélien Dinh, Sabrina Makhloufi, Benjamin Davido Toscana virus (TOSV) is a common cause of meningitis in Mediterranean area. However, rare publications reported extra-meningeal signs. We report the third case of testicular pain associated with TOSV meningitis despite there is no evidence of semen involvement in other well-known arboviruses, excepted in Zika virus.
  • Disease burden and Risk Factors of diarrhoea in children under five years:
           Evidence from Kenya's demographic health survey 2014

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Diana Mutuku Mulatya, Caroline Ochieng ObjectiveThis study aimed at examining the socio-demographic, environmental and behavioural determinants of diarrhoea in children under five years in Kenya.MethodsThe study entailed an analysis of secondary data from the Kenya Demographic Health Survey (DHS) 2014 using STATA Corp 2010. A total of 19,889 children
  • Characterizing the role of porin mutations in susceptibility of beta
           lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftaroline and

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Ali Khalid, Alicia Fajardo Lubián, Li Ma, Ruby CY Lin, Jonathan R. Iredell ObjectivesEvaluate the role of porins in the susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceftaroline and ceftaroline-avibactam.MethodsSusceptibility to ceftaroline and ceftaroline-avibactam was tested by broth microdilution method in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (n = 65), including isogenic mutants (n = 30) and clinical isolates (n = 35), with different outer membrane porin defects in the presence or absence of beta lactamases.ResultsCeftaroline exhibited excellent activity against all the isogenic porin mutants with a MIC range of 0.125-0.25 µg/ml. Ceftaroline showed limited activity in the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in isogenic mutant constructs as expected but regained effectiveness in combination with avibactam against these isolates except those carrying metallo-carbapenemase (IMP-4) with a MIC range of 0.25->32 µg/ml. Ceftaroline-avibactam was able to inhibit 86% of the clinical isolates (n = 35) of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying porin defects and multiple beta lactamases with only four isolates showing raised MICs against the combination (MIC range 0.125-4 µg/ml). One clinical isolate with IMP-4 carbapenemase had an MIC value of>32 µg/ml.ConclusionOuter membrane porins play a key role in the transport of ceftaroline in Klebsiella pneumoniae but it remains effective in isolates with altered permeability due to common porin mutations. The addition of avibactam substantially enhances the potency of ceftaroline providing an effective remedy to the problem of omnipresent beta lactamases in these bacteria.
  • Hepatitis C virologic response in hepatitis B and C coinfected persons
           treated with directly acting antiviral agents: Results from ERCHIVES

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Adeel A. Butt, Peng Yan, Samia Aslam, Kenneth E. Sherman, Dawd Siraj, Nasia Safdar, Bilal Hameed BackgroundThere are scant data regarding hepatitis C (HCV) virologic response to directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and HCV coinfected persons. HCV treatment response in those with spontaneously cleared HBV infection is unknown.MethodsAll HCV infected persons treated with a DAA regimen in ERCHIVES were identified and categorized into HBV/HCV-coinfected (HBsAg, HBV DNA or both positive), HCV-monoinfected, and resolved HBV (isolated HBcAb+). SVR rates were determined and compared for all groups. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with SVR.ResultsAmong 115 HCV/HBV-coinfected, 38,570 HCV-monoinfected persons, and 13,096 persons with resolved HBV, 31.6% of HCV/HBV-coinfected, 24.6% of HCV-monoinfected and 26.4% with resolved HBV had cirrhosis at baseline. SVR was achieved in 90.4% of HCV/HBV-coinfected, 83.4% of HCV-monoinfected and 84.5% of those with resolved HBV infection (P = 0.04 HCV/HBV vs. HCV monoinfected). In a logistic regression model, those with HCV/HBV were more likely to achieve SVR compared with HCV monoinfected (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17, 4.31). For HCV/HBV coinfected, the SVR rates dropped numerically with increasing severity of liver fibrosis (P-value non-significant). Factors associated with a lower likelihood of attaining SVR included cirrhosis at baseline (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80, 0.92), diabetes (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87, 0.99) and higher pre-treatment HCV RNA (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84, 0.87).ConclusionHBV/HCV-coinfected persons have higher overall SVR rates with newer DAA regimens. Though not statistically significant, the virologic response is graded, with decreasing SVR rates with increasing degree of liver fibrosis as determined by the FIB-4 scores.
  • Mycobacterium chelonae, an ‘atypical’ cause of an
           LVAD driveline infection

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Stefan Roest, Hannelore I. Bax, Nelianne J. Verkaik, Jasper J. Brugts, Alina A. Constantinescu, Chantal C. de Bakker, Ozcan Birim, Kadir Caliskan, Olivier C. Manintveld We describe the first patient with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) driveline infection caused by Mycobacterium chelonae presenting with persistent infection despite conventional antibiotics. Treatment was successful with surgical debridement, driveline exit relocation, and a 4-month period of antibiotics. In the case of a culture-negative LVAD driveline infection, non-tuberculous mycobacteria should be considered. This case illustrates that multidisciplinary collaboration is essential in providing optimal care for LVAD patients.
  • Use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF on a single pooled sputum specimen to exclude
           pulmonary tuberculosis among hospital inpatients placed in respiratory

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Clarence Yeong, Anthony L. Byrne, Jin-Gun Cho, Vitali Sintchenko, Taryn Crighton, Ben J. Marais BackgroundPatients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are usually placed in respiratory isolation awaiting three sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli (3AFB). GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) on a pooled sample from two sputa may allow for more rapid de-isolation.ObjectivesTo compare the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of Xpert performed on a single pooled sputum sample (‘pooled Xpert’) to 3AFB, in order to exclude PTB in patients placed in respiratory isolation.MethodsHospital inpatients in respiratory isolation for possible PTB were enrolled prospectively. Three expectorated sputum samples were obtained for smear microscopy. Two of the same samples had 0.5 ml removed from each and pooled for pooled Xpert. The diagnostic accuracy of pooled Xpert and 3AFB were assessed and compared to liquid culture at 8 weeks as the reference standard.ResultsOf 56 participants, nine (16.1%) were diagnosed with PTB. Compared to liquid culture, pooled Xpert had a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 57–99%) and NPV of 97.9% (95% CI 89–99%). 3AFB had a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% CI 35–88%) and NPV of 93.5% (95% CI 83–98%).ConclusionsA single pooled Xpert was non-inferior to 3AFB, with a strong trend towards greater sensitivity and better NPV. These findings support the use of a single pooled Xpert as an effective rapid screening approach for ruling out PTB in low incidence settings. Its value in high incidence settings and optimal combination with smear microscopy and culture warrant further evaluation.
  • Correlation of the vancomycin 24-h area under the concentration-time curve
           (AUC24) and trough serum concentration in children with severe infection:
           A clinical pharmacokinetic study

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Satja Issaranggoon na Ayuthaya, Wasan Katip, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Aroonrut Lucksiri BackgroundVancomycin is a common drug used in children with severe infection. In adults, at least 15 mg/L of the optimal vancomycin trough concentration (Ctrough) is needed to generate the target 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 for a pathogen with the MIC ≤1 mg/L.ObjectivesTo determine vancomycin PK in children with severe infection and to explore the correlation between vancomycin Ctrough and AUC24 in children, as well as to propose the appropriate vancomycin dosages using Monte Carlo simulation.Materials and methodsChildren aged 2–18 years who were admitted to Chiang Mai University Hospital and received intravenous vancomycin for severe infection were included in the study. Serum samples for vancomycin PK were obtained before and serially after the administration of the first dose according to the protocol. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using Phoenix WinNonlin® 7.0 and NLME™7.0.ResultsFourteen children with 64% males and age range from 2 to 13 years were included in this study. Non-compartmental analysis revealed the median volume of distribution, clearance, and elimination half-life of 0.58 L/kg, 2.82 mL/kg/min and 2.33 h, respectively. Vancomycin serum concentrations were best described by a two-compartmental model with first-order elimination.The observed Ctrough at 6 h correlated well with the AUC24. The median vancomycin Ctrough at steady state that correlated with the AUC24 ≥ 400 and
  • Screening and identification of plasma lncRNAs uc.48+ and NR_105053 as
           potential novel biomarkers for cured pulmonary tuberculosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Zhi-Bin Li, Yu-Shuai Han, Li-Liang Wei, Li-Ying Shi, Wen-Jing Yi, Jing Chen, Huai Huang, Ting-Ting Jiang, Ji-Cheng Li BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) treatment takes a long time, and a gold standard test to define TB cure is lacking. This may lead to early discharge of TB patients, resulting in an increased risk of disease transmission and drug resistance. Plasma lncRNAs might act as potential biomarkers to evaluate TB cure in an efficient and precise manner.MethodsA lncRNA microarray assay was used to screen differentially expressed plasma lncRNAs in untreated TB and cured TB subjects. The expression levels of lncRNAs were verified by qPCR. Target genes of lncRNAs were predicted using a coding–non-coding gene co-expression network and mRNA–lncRNA–miRNA interaction network analysis.ResultsThe expression levels of lncRNAs uc.48+ (p < 0.001) and NR_105053 (p = 0.03) were found to differ significantly between the untreated TB group and the cured TB group. The predicted target genes of uc.48+ were EP300, BAI1 and NR_105053 were TLR9, MYD88, BAI1, respectively. A predictive model for cured TB was established by the combination of uc.48+ and NR_105053 expression, with a sensitivity of 90.00% and specificity of 86.36%, and an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945.ConclusionslncRNAs uc.48+ and NR_105053 may serve as potential biomarkers to distinguish between untreated TB patients and cured TB subjects. This study provides an experimental basis to evaluate the effect of TB treatment and may also provide new clues to the pathological mechanisms of TB.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • First case of human neurocoenurosis caused by Taenia serialis: A
           case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Erika Yamazawa, Makoto Ohno, Kaishi Satomi, Akihiko Yoshida, Yasuji Miyakita, Masamichi Takahashi, Natsuko Satomi, Taku Asanome, Akiko Maeshima, Mika Shiotsuka, Satoshi Iwata, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Yasuyuki Morishima, Hiromu Sugiyama, Yoshitaka Narita Human coenurosis is caused by the larval stages of Taenia species, mainly Taenia multiceps and Taenia serialis. T. multiceps has been reported to cause human central nervous system (CNS) infections, but no CNS case caused by T. serialis has been reported. The authors report the first case of human neurocoenurosis caused by T. serialis, which was confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. A 38-year-old man presented with visual disturbance and headache, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a ring-enhancing cystic lesion in the left occipital lobe. Biopsy was performed, and the resultant histopathological diagnosis was that of low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy was initiated, but a subsequent MRI showed increased ring enhancement. Due to the unexpected clinical course, a surgical resection of the lesion was performed. The lesion was completely removed. Pathological examination showed multiple scolices with hooklets, suckers, and numerous calcareous corpuscles. Therefore, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was made. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the disease was definitively coenurosis caused by T. serialis. Albendazole was administered, with no evidence of recurrence at 12 months following the operation. In this study, we demonstrate that T. serialis can cause CNS infection and that genetic analysis is recommended to establish a definitive diagnosis.
  • A highly sensitive one-tube nested quantitative Real-Time PCR assay for
           specific detection of Bordetella pertussis using the LNA technique

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Rui-qing Zhang, Zheng Li, Gui-xia Li, Yan-qing Tie, Xin-na Li, Yuan Gao, Qing-xia Duan, Le Wang, Li Zhao, Guo-hao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Rui-huan Wang, Zi-wei Chen, Jin-rong Wang, Yong Wu, Meng-chuan Zhao, Zhi-shan Feng, Ji Wang, Xue-jun Ma ObjectivesAs a highly contagious respiratory agent, Bordetella pertussis is the causative pathogen of pertussis, which primarily affects children. However, the in-practice diagnostic techniques for this pathogen has a variety of limitations including longer culture time, low bacterial load and lack of specificity.MethodsHere we report on the development of a one-tube nested quantitative real-time PCR using the LNA technique (LNA-OTN-q-PCR) study targeting BP485 gene using a simple inexpensive extraction method. There are 130 clinical samples with clinically suspected pertussis collected from the children's hospital of Hebei, China, and tested by LNA-OTN-q-PCR assay. In parallel, RT-PCR and two-step semi-nested PCR were also performed for comparison.ResultsOnly strains of B. pertussis were identified positive, whereas all the remaining other strains were appropriately identified as negative by the LNA-OTN-q-PCR assay. A single copy per reaction can be detected by the LNA-OTN-q-PCR assay. Additionally, the sensitivity of this method was 100 times that of the RT-PCR assay (100 copies per reaction). 63 out of 130 clinical samples were detected positive by LNA-OTN-q-PCR assay, on the contrary, RT-PCR was able to detect 41 samples only. Afterwards, this sixty-three samples had been positively identified by two-step semi-nested PCR. Compared with two-step semi nested PCR assay, both the specificity and sensitivity of the LNA-OTN-q-PCR assay using Purified DNA and Crude extraction were 100%.ConclusionThis assay was able to detect Bordetella pertussis infection with high sensitivity and specificity. In the future, this test might be of great potential to become a promising technique that detect B. pertussis in both clinical laboratories and public health settings.
  • Disseminated meningococcal infection, early petechiae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Lauro Damonti, Jonas Marschall, Elia Lo Priore, Niccolò Buetti
  • Invasive Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans infections in
           pediatric patients: Analysis of 55 cases from FungiScope® and the

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Danila Seidel, Angela Hassler, Jon Salmanton-García, Philipp Koehler, Sibylle C. Mellinghoff, Fabianne Carlesse, Matthew P. Cheng, Iker Falces-Romero, Raoul Herbrecht, Alfredo Jover Sáenz, Nikolai Klimko, Mihai Mareş, Cornelia Lass-Floerl, Pere Soler-Palacín, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Oliver A. Cornely, Zoi Pana, Thomas Lehrnbecher ObjectivesCurrent knowledge on infections caused by Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans in children is scarce. We therefore aim to provide an overview of risk groups, clinical manifestation and treatment strategies of these infections.MethodsPediatric patients (age ≤18 years) with proven/probable Scedosporium spp. or L. prolificans infection were identified in PubMed and the FungiScope® registry. Data on diagnosis, treatment and outcome were collected.ResultsFifty-five children (median age 9 years [IQR: 5–14]) with invasive Scedosporium spp. (n = 33) or L. prolificans (n = 22) infection were identified between 1990 and 2019. Malignancy, trauma and near drowning were the most common risk factors. Infections were frequently disseminated. Most patients received systemic antifungal therapy, mainly voriconazole and amphotericin B, plus surgical treatment.Overall, day 42 mortality was 31%, higher for L. prolificans (50%) compared to Scedosporium spp. (18%). L. prolificans infection was associated with a shorter median survival time compared to Scedosporium spp. (6 days [IQR: 3–28] versus 61 days [IQR: 16–148]). Treatment for malignancy and severe disseminated infection were associated with particularly poor outcome (HR 8.33 [95% CI 1.35–51.40] and HR 6.12 [95% CI 1.52–24.66], respectively). Voriconazole use at any time and surgery for antifungal treatment were associated with improved clinical outcome (HR 0.33 [95% CI 0.11–0.99] and HR 0.09 [95% CI 0.02–0.40], respectively).ConclusionsScedosporium spp. and L. prolificans infections in children are associated with high mortality despite comprehensive antifungal therapy. Voriconazole usage and surgical intervention are associated with successful outcome.
  • Can we ‘WaSH’ infectious diseases out of slums'

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Allen G. Ross, Mahbubur Rahman, Munirul Alam, K. Zaman, Firdausi Qadri The world is becoming increasingly urban and most of this growth is taking place in urban slums of the developing world. The current (2019) global population stands at 7.7 billion, with approximately one billion (13%) living in urban slums. By 2030 the world’s population is projected to grow to 8.5 billion, with an estimated two billion (24%) living in slums. Slums are typically overcrowded, with most residents sharing a single room with four to five family members. There is usually no formal sewage or waste disposal system. Open sewage, with antimicrobial-resistant organisms, typically flows just outside the door, which during the rainy season often enters the home and contaminates the household drinking source. Hygiene is difficult if not impossible to maintain, hence the significant burden of infectious diseases, especially those with a faecal–oral mode of transmission. Transmission is year-round and the leading enteric pathogens are rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholera. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) will be crucial components of a future integrated control strategy for infectious diseases in slums. Cheap WaSH interventions have been trialled, but their impact has been modest and short-lived. More expensive WaSH alternatives that will provide lasting change now need to be explored. Can we ‘WaSH’ infectious diseases out of slums'
  • MDR/XDR-TB management of patients and contacts: challenges facing the new
           decade. The 2020 clinical update by the Global Tuberculosis Network

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Giovanni Battista Migliori, Simon Tiberi, Alimuddin Zumla, Eskild Petersen, Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, Christian Wejse, Marcela Muñoz Torrico, Raquel Duarte, Jan Willem Alffenaar, H. Simon Schaaf, Ben J Marais, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Riccardo Alagna, Adrian Rendon, Emanuele Pontali, Alberto Piubello, José Figueroa, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Alberto García-Basteiro, Rosella Centis The continuous flow of new research articles on MDR-TB diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation requires frequent update of existing guidelines. This review is aimed at providing clinicians and public health staff with an updated and easy-to-consult document arising from consensus of Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN) experts.The core published documents and guidelines have been reviewed including the recently published MDR-TB WHO rapid advice and ATS/CDC/ERS/IDSA guidelines.After a rapid review of epidemiology and risk factors, the clinical priorities on MDR-TB diagnosis (including whole genome sequencing and drug-susceptibility testing interpretations) and treatment (treatment design and management, TB in children) are discussed. Furthermore, the review comprehensively describes the latest information on contact tracing and LTBI management in MDR-TB contacts, while providing guidance on post-treatment functional evaluation and rehabilitation of TB sequelae, infection control and other public health priorities.
  • Population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in plasma and subcutaneous
           tissue in patients on continuous renal replacement therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Mats Bue, Tomás Sou, Anna Sophie L. Okkels, Pelle Hanberg, Anders Thorsted, Lena E. Friberg, Torben L. Andersson, Kristina Öbrink-Hansen, Steffen Christensen ObjectivesPiperacillin is a β-lactam antimicrobial frequently used in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, data regarding piperacillin tissue concentrations in this patient population is limited. We conducted a prospective observational study of free piperacillin concentrations during a single 8 h dosing interval in plasma (eight samples) and subcutaneous tissue (SCT) (thirteen samples) in 10 patients treated with CRRT following piperacillin 4 g given every 8 h as intermittent administration over 3 min.MethodsA population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using NONMEM 7.4.3, to simulate alternative administration modes and dosing regimens. SCT concentrations were obtained using microdialysis. Piperacillin concentrations were compared to the clinical breakpoint MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 mg/L), with evaluation of the following PK/PD targets: 50% fT>1xMIC, 100% fT>1xMIC and 100% fT>4xMIC.ResultsSCT concentrations were generally lower than plasma concentrations. For the target of 50% fT>1xMIC and 100% fT>1xMIC, piperacillin 4 g q8h resulted in PTA > 90% in both plasma and SCT. PTA > 90% for the target of 100% fT>4xMIC was only achieved for continuous infusion (CI).ConclusionsPiperacillin 4 g q8h is likely to provide sufficient exposure in both plasma and SCT to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in critically ill patients on CRRT, given that targets of 50% fT>1xMIC or 100% fT>1xMIC are adequate. However, if a more aggressive target of 100% fT>4xMIC is adopted, CI is needed.
  • Cardiac device Q fever endocarditis — A delayed diagnosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): J. Nader, Henri Kugener, Jean-Paul Remadi
  • Prevalence and risk of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus among households: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Nivedita Shankar, Phyu-mar Soe, Clarence C. Tam ObjectiveMany studies have reported methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission from patients infected or colonized with MRSA to their household contacts, but the importance of household transmission for persistence of MRSA in the community and reintroduction into healthcare settings is not well understood.MethodsThis review was performed to evaluate evidence on (1) MRSA prevalence, (2) MRSA contact positivity, and (3) MRSA carriage duration in household contacts of MRSA-positive individuals. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched covering the period from January 1, 1960 to November 15, 2019 for studies with data on these outcomes. A random-effects model meta-analysis was conducted with included studies to calculate pooled prevalence ratios.ResultsA total 22 relevant articles were included. The meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of MRSA among culture-positive MRSA household contacts was 25.0% (95% confidence interval 20.0–30.0%). A subset of studies with adequate comparison groups reported higher colonization prevalence among household contacts of MRSA-positive individuals compared with household contacts of MRSA-negative individuals. MRSA contact positivity varied between 19.0% and 33.0%, but variation in sampling frequency and follow-up duration made between-study comparisons challenging.ConclusionsSubstantial MRSA transmission occurs in household settings. Improved understanding of household transmission dynamics and the relationship between transmission in healthcare and household settings will be critical to inform improved strategies to control MRSA.
  • Roles and potential applications of lncRNAs in HIV infection

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Li Shen, Cuisong Wu, Jun Zhang, Hong Xu, Xiaoxia Liu, Xiao Wu, Ting Wang, Lingxiang Mao Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as a class of RNA molecules with a length of more than 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein, and are known to participate in a variety of biological processes. They have recently been implicated as having roles in viral infections, and several research groups have identified that complex interactions exist between lncRNAs and the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. lncRNAs derived from both the human host and HIV itself are emerging as key regulators of various cellular functions, playing crucial roles in virus–host interactions and viral pathogenesis. This review provides a brief discussion of the roles and associated mechanisms of lncRNAs in HIV infection. Moreover, due to the continued lack of effective HIV vaccines or treatments, we provide an insight into the complex interplay between lncRNAs and HIV and suggest innovative therapeutic strategies for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The available data on lncRNAs that have been associated with HIV infection and their potential applications for the treatment of HIV are summarized for the first time, providing a new perspective for the future development of therapeutic strategies.
  • Successful treatment of meningococcal bacteremia using oral doxycycline: A
           case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): S. Berbescu, M. Matt, A. Dinh, S. Simeon, L. Noussair, L. Armand-Lefevre, B. Davido We report the case of an 18-year-old immunocompetent man who presented to the hospital with fever, headaches, and arthromyalgia, which progressed to include an erythematous rash. He had a history of a tick bite 72 h earlier. The diagnosis of rickettsial infection was suspected and a course of doxycycline was initiated for a total of 5 days. His evolution was rapidly favorable under treatment, with resolution of the symptoms within 24 h. Blood cultures came back positive for Neisseria meningitidis serotype B, indicating an authentic purpura fulminans. Purpura fulminans is a medical emergency, a syndrome of intravascular thrombosis characterized by a very rapid evolution that requires early recognition and specific treatment. It is commonly described in the young and healthy patient and has high mortality and morbidity. Common bacteria mainly associated with purpura fulminans are Meningococcus spp., Pneumococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.
  • Single-dose rifampicin and BCG to prevent leprosy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Diana N. Lockwood, Barbara De Barros, Stephen L. Walker
  • Accelerating reductions in antimicrobial resistance: Evaluating the
           effectiveness of an intervention program implemented by an infectious
           disease consultant

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Naoki Kishida, Hiroshi Nishiura ObjectivesVery few infectious disease physicians exist in Japan. A concerted infection control intervention program involving antimicrobial stewardship team and multiple components was designed and implemented in multiple hospitals from 2010. Here, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the intervention program’s effectiveness.MethodsThe frequencies of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were monitored in four acute-care hospitals. The primary goal of the program was to accelerate the speed of decline of such resistance. A quasi-experimental study design was used to detect accelerated rates of increases in drug susceptibility, comparing time before and after the intervention.ResultsBoth MRSA and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa exhibited decreasing trends (p 
  • Reply to: Single-dose rifampicin and BCG to prevent leprosy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk, on behalf of all co-authors of the MALTALEP trial
  • Lasting benefit of infant hepatitis B vaccination in adolescents in the
           Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Lisa Hefele, Souphaphone Vannachone, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Nouanthong Phonethipsavanh, Somphou Sayasone, Sengchang Kounnavong, Phetsavanh Chantavilay, Claude P. Muller, Antony P. Black ObjectivesHepatitis B is endemic in Lao PDR with 8-10% of the adult population being chronically infected. We investigated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination on infection in adolescents born shortly before and after the introduction of the vaccine in 2001.Methods779 students from Vientiane Capital and Bolikhamxay province were tested for HBV markers by ELISA. Socio-demographic information was collected with a standardized questionnaire. Predictors/risk factors for seroprotection or exposure to hepatitis B infection were assessed by bivariate and multivariable analyses.ResultsThe prevalence of a serological vaccination profile increased significantly after the introduction of the vaccine (13.2% to 21.9%, p 
  • A public-private model to scale up diabetes mellitus screening among
           people accessing tuberculosis diagnostics in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Kishor Kumar Paul, Yosra M.A. Alkabab, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Shahriar Ahmed, Md Jobaer Amin, Md Delwar Hossain, Scott K. Heysell, Sayera Banu BackgroundData are scarce regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Bangladesh. This study was undertaken to estimate the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify a case of DM among those with TB symptoms and those with confirmed TB disease, and to identify factors predicting treatment outcomes of TB patients with and without DM.MethodsPersons attending public–private model screening centres in urban Dhaka for the evaluation of TB were offered free blood glucose testing in addition to computer-aided chest X-ray and sputum Xpert MTB/RIF.ResultsAmong 7647 people evaluated for both TB and DM, the NNS was 35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 31–40) to diagnose one new case of DM; among those diagnosed with TB, the NNS was 21 (95% CI 17–29). Among those with diagnosed TB, patients with DM were more likely to have cavitation on chest X-ray compared to those without DM (31% vs 22%). Treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 18.9, 95% CI 5.43–65.9) and death (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.11–3.90) were more common among TB patients with DM than among TB patients without DM. DM was the most important predictor of a poor treatment outcome in the classification analysis for TB patients aged 39 years and above.ConclusionsA considerable burden of DM was found among patients accessing TB diagnostics through a public–private model in urban Bangladesh, and DM was associated with advanced TB disease and a high rate of poor treatment outcome.
  • Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel
           coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven
           analysis in the early phase of the outbreak

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Shi Zhao, Qianyin Lin, Jinjun Ran, Salihu S Musa, Guangpu Yang, Weiming Wang, Yijun Lou, Daozhou Gao, Lin Yang, Daihai He, Maggie H Wang BackgroundsAn ongoing outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia hit a major city of China, Wuhan, December 2019 and subsequently reached other provinces/regions of China and countries. We present estimates of the basic reproduction number,R0, of 2019-nCoV in the early phase of the outbreak.MethodsAccounting for the impact of the variations in disease reporting rate, we modelled the epidemic curve of 2019-nCoV cases time series, in mainland China from January 10 to January 24, 2020, through the exponential growth. With the estimated intrinsic growth rate (γ), we estimated R0 by using the serial intervals (SI) of two other well-known coronavirus diseases, MERS and SARS, as approximations for the true unknown SI.FindingsThe early outbreak data largely follows the exponential growth. We estimated that the meanR0 ranges from 2.24 (95%CI: 1.96-2.55) to 3.58 (95%CI: 2.89-4.39) associated with 8-fold to 2-fold increase in the reporting rate. We demonstrated that changes in reporting rate substantially affect estimates of R0.ConclusionThe mean estimate ofR0 for the 2019-nCoV ranges from 2.24 to 3.58, and significantly larger than 1. Our findings indicate the potential of 2019-nCoV to cause outbreaks.
  • Distinctive EBV infection characteristics in children from a developing

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): NM Ferressini Gerpe, AG Vistarop, A Moyano, E De Matteo, MV Preciado, PA Chabay BackgroundIn developing countries, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is mostly asymptomatic in early childhood. EBV persistence may lead to different malignancies, such as B cell derived lymphomas. In Argentina, most children are seropositive at three years and an increased association between EBV and lymphoma was proved in children under 10 years old by our group.ObjectiveOur aim was to characterize EBV infection at the site of entry and reactivation of viral infection -the tonsils- in order to better understand the mechanism of viral persistence in pediatric patients.MethodsA cohort of 54 patients was described. We assessed specific antibodies profile in sera; viral proteins presence by IHC on FFPE samples and EBV type from fresh tissue.ResultsEBV type 1 was prevalent, mostly in the youngest. Asymptomatic primary infected patients presented higher viral loads and Latency 0/I or II patterns, whereas Latency III pattern was observed mostly in healthy carriers. There were no differences between groups in the expression of viral lytic antigens. This study discloses new features in patients undergoing primary infection from a developing population. Low viral inoculum and restricted viral antigen expression may be responsible for the lack of symptoms in children from our country.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Novel Hepatitis B virus Subgenotype A8 and Quasi-subgenotype D12 in
           African-Belgian chronic carriers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Marijn Thijssen, Nídia Sequeira Trovão, Thomas Mina, Piet Maes, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim BackgroundHepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health threatening virus and is classified into more than eight genotypes and more than forty subgenotypes.ObjectivesTo characterize and propose novel subgenotypes assigned as A8 and D12.MethodsFour out of 133 HBV complete genome sequences, isolated from Belgian chronic carriers with African origin were phylogenetically analyzed.ResultsPhylogenetic analyses of HBV genotypes A and D strains exhibited separate clusters supported by significant bootstrap values. The two genotype A strains isolated from Congolese patients, and two genotype D strains isolated from Ghanaian carriers clustered separately from the other known subgenotypes A (A1-A6 and quasi-subgenotypes) and subgenotypes D (D1-D11). The mean inter-subgenotypic nucleotide divergence over the full-length genome sequence between the novel strains (A8 and D12) and A1–A5 and D1-D11 subgenotypes was higher than 4%.ConclusionsPhylogenetic analysis of the full-length HBV genome sequences revealed a novel subgenotype and quasi-subgenotype based on the nucleotide divergence and identification of novel amino acids motifs in different ORFs. We identified two strains of the novel subgenotype A8 and two strains of the novel quasi-subgenotype D12. Notably, the analysis demonstrated that the subgenotype A8 strains are a basal lineage that diverged before the other African subgenotypes A.
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) - surveillance and
           testing in North England from 2012 to 2019

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Hamzah Z Farooq, Emma Davies, Shazaad Ahmad, Nicholas Machin, Louise Hesketh, Malcolm Guiver, Andrew J Turner BackgroundMiddle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and caused an epidemic in the Middle East. Public Health England (PHE) Manchester is one of the two PHE centres in the UK that perform testing for MERS-CoV. The results of the PHE Manchester MERS surveillance from 2012 to 2019 are presented in this report.MethodsRetrospective data were collected for returning travellers from the Middle East fitting the PHE MERS case definition. Respiratory samples were tested for respiratory viruses and MERS-CoV using an in-house RT-PCR assay.ResultsFour hundred and twenty-six (426) samples from 264 patients were tested for MERS Co-V and respiratory viruses. No MERS-CoV infections were identified by PCR. Fifty-six percent of samples were PCR positive for viral or bacterial pathogen with Influenza A as the predominant virus (44%). Sixty-two percent of all patients had a pathogen identified with the highest positivity from sputum samples. Patients with multiple samples demonstrated a 100% diagnostic yield.ConclusionsAlthough no cases of MERS were identified, the majority of patients had Influenza infection for which oseltamivir treatment was indicated and isolation warranted. Sputum samples were the most useful in diagnosing respiratory viruses with a 100% diagnostic yield from patients with multiple samples.
  • Delayed-onset paraparesis in Lassa fever: A case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): A. Duvignaud, M. Doutchi, C. Abejegah, I. Etafo, M. Jaspard, B. Serra, E. Tricaud, C. Levy-Marchal, X. Anglaret, L.A. Ahmed, A.N. Adedosu, D. Malvy, O.O. Ayodeji Lassa fever (LF) is an endemic viral hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. Among the serious complications of the disease are neurological manifestations whose spectrum is incompletely known. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old man who developed a delayed-onset paraparesis a few weeks after getting infected with Lassa virus, thereby suggesting a possible association between LF and spinal cord disorders.
  • Occurrence of occult hepatitis B virus infection associated with envelope
           protein mutations according to anti-HBs carriage in blood donors

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Jiawen Wang, Panli Zhang, Jinfeng Zeng, Peng Du, Xin Zheng, Xianlin Ye, Weigang Zhu, Yongshui Fu, Daniel Candotti, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li, Tingting Li ObjectivesOccult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) carries a risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and hepatocellular carcinoma. As previous studies have had a limited sample size, the characteristics of OBI with genotype B and C (OBIB and OBIC) mutations relating to hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) elicited by vaccination or a limited host immune response to HBV have not been fully explored.MethodsIn this study, the occurrence of OBIB or OBIC strains associated with envelope protein (pre-S/S) amino acid substitutions obtained from 99 blood donors stratified according to anti-HBs carriage were characterized extensively.ResultsAccording to the presence of anti-HBs within each genotype, the number and frequency of substitution sites specific for anti-HBs(−) OBIB were higher than those specific for anti-HBs(+) OBIB strains (67 vs 31; 117 vs 41), but the reverse pattern was found in OBIC strains (3 vs 24; 3 vs 26). Mutations pre-s1T68I and sQ129R/L were found uniquely in 15–25% of anti-HBs(+) OBIB carriers and mutation pre-s1A54E was found preferentially in anti-HBs(+) OBIC, while 17 substitutions were found preferentially in 11–38% of anti-HBs(−) OBIB strains. In the major hydrophilic region (MHR) region, mutations sS167 in OBIB, sT118 in OBIC, and sA166 in both genotypes were possibly immune-induced escape mutation sites.ConclusionsSeveral mutations in pre-S/S of OBI appeared to be associated with carrier anti-HBs pressure, which might be risk factors for potential reactivation of viruses under anti-HBs selection in OBI carriers.
  • Immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent versus trivalent inactivated
           subunit influenza vaccine in children and adolescents: A phase III
           randomized study

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Timo Vesikari, Jos Nauta, Giulia Lapini, Emanuele Montomoli, Serge van de Witte ObjectivesTo analyse the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated subunit quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) versus trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in children and adolescents 3–17 years of age.MethodsIn this phase III, multicentre, double-blind study, 1200 subjects were randomized to receive QIV (n = 402), TIV with the B-strain of the Victoria lineage (n = 404), or TIV with the B-strain of the Yamagata lineage (n = 394). The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of QIV to TIV for immunogenicity against shared influenza strains, based on post-vaccination hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titres. Secondary objectives were to show superiority of QIV to TIV for immunogenicity against alternate-lineage B-strains, and to further characterize the immune response by analysing virus neutralization and neuraminidase inhibition titres. Reactogenicity and safety were also compared post-vaccination.ResultsQIV elicited a non-inferior response for shared strains (upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals for the HI geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of TIV/QIV 
  • Full-length genome sequence of a dengue serotype 1 virus isolate from a
           traveler returning from Democratic Republic of Congo to Italy, July 2019

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Francesca Colavita, Francesco Vairo, Fabrizio Carletti, Chiara Boccardo, Federica Ferraro, Giancarlo Iaiani, Samir Al Moghazi, Gioacchino Galardo, Eleonora Lalle, Carla Selvaggi, Paola Scognamiglio, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Concetta Castilletti We report the full-genome sequence of a Dengue serotype-1 virus (DENV-1) isolated from a traveler returning in July 2019 to Italy from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which is currently affected by Ebola and measles outbreaks. The sequence shows high similarity with two 2013 strains isolated in Angola and China.
  • Ischio-anal fossa hydatid cyst

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Khalid M. Abdalla, Ahmed H. Al Sharie, Yazan O. ALzu’bi, Majd N. Daoud, Abdelwahab J. Aleshawi, Kamal I. Gharaibeh Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal ischio-anal fossa hydatid cysts. We present a case of a 46-year-old female who had complained of painless left perianal mass for 8 months. The first clinical and radiological diagnosis was a cystic lesion of the perianal region. However, surgical and pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of hydatid disease of ischio-anal fossa. The patient underwent surgical excision. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was disease-free. Hydatid disease of the perianal area, although rare must be kept in the differential diagnosis of pathologies of any perianal mass of lump.
  • Vaccinating pregnant women against influenza needs to be a priority for
           all countries: An expert commentary

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 92Author(s): Philippe Buchy, Selim Badur, George Kassianos, Scott Preiss, John S. Tam BackgroundIn 2012, the World Health Organization recommended influenza vaccination for all pregnant women worldwide and the prioritisation of pregnant women in national influenza vaccination programmes. Nevertheless, vaccination rates in pregnant women often remain much lower than national targets.ObjectivesTo assess the benefits and risks associated with influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy, and to consider obstacles that work against influenza vaccine uptake during pregnancy.ResultsThere is strong evidence that maternal and foetal outcomes can be compromised if women develop influenza infections during pregnancy. Influenza vaccines have been administered to millions of pregnant women and have demonstrated benefits in terms of disease prevention in mothers and their infants. There is a consensus amongst several recommending authorities that influenza vaccines may be safely administered during all stages of pregnancy. Healthcare professionals are recognised as the most important influencers of vaccine uptake, being well placed to recommend vaccination and directly address safety concerns.ConclusionsDespite data supporting the value of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, vaccine uptake remains low globally. Low uptake appears to be largely due to ineffective communication with pregnant women about the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination. A graphical abstract is available online.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Surveillance and impact of occult hepatitis B virus, SEN virus, and Torque
           teno virus in Egyptian hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C
           virus infection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Fatma Amer, Monkez M. Yousif, Heba Mohtady, Rania A. Khattab, Ergenekon Garagoz, Khan F.M. Ayaz, Noha M. Hammad ObjectivesEgypt ranks first regarding the prevalence of HCV infection. Many patients have concomitant diseases like kidney disorders compelling hemodialysis, a procedure carrying the hazard of transmitting other hepatitis viruses. The purpose of this study is to surveil occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), SEN virus (SENV), and torque teno virus (TTV) among chronic HCV patients on maintenance hemodialysis to identify their impacts.MethodsA total of325 hemodialysis patients were enrolled and divided into two groups based on HCV RNA testing. Blood samples were collected before hemodialysis. Sera were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B core (HBc) and surface antigens using ELISA. HBV, SENV, and TTV DNAs were detected by PCR. The ALT serum level was measured.ResultsHBc antibodies and HBV DNA were detected in 73.1% and 50.8% of group 1 versus 36.4% and 22.6% of group 2. ALT level was higher in group 1 than group 2. SENV was detected in 11.5% of group 1 versus 8.2% of group 2. TTV was detected in 29% of group 1 versus 27% of group 2.ConclusionThere is an increased prevalence of occult HBV in our locality among chronic HCV patients undergoing hemodialysis. The existence of SEN and TT viremia has no clinical impact.
  • Human Trichinosis mimicking polymyositis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Laura Nuzzolo-Shihadeh, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Daniel Villarreal-Salinas, Alvaro Barbosa-Quintana, Rita Pineda-Sic, Eduardo Perez-Alba
  • Polymorphisms in Interferon Pathway Genes and Risk of Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Infection in Contacts of Tuberculosis Cases in Brazil

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Juan Manuel Cubillos-Angulo, María B. Arriaga, Mayla G.M. Melo, Elisangela C. Silva, Lucia Elena Alvarado-Arnez, Alexandre S. de Almeida, Milton O. Moraes, Adriana S.R. Moreira, Jose R. Lapa e Silva, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Timothy R. Sterling, Thomas R. Hawn, Afrânio L. Kritski, Martha M. Oliveira, Bruno B. Andrade BackgroundHost genetic polymorphisms may be important in determining susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, but their role is not fully understood. Detection of microbial DNA and activation of type I interferon (IFN) pathways regulate macrophage responses to Mtb infection.MethodsWe examined whether seven candidate gene SNPs were associated with tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in close contacts of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Independent associations with TST positivity were tested using multivariable logistic regression (using genotypes and clinical variables) and genetic models.ResultsAmong 482 contacts of 145 TB index cases, 296 contacts were TST positive. Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for population admixture, age, family relatedness, sex and clinical variables related to increased TB risk demonstrated that SNPs in PYHIN1-IFI16-AIM2 rs1101998 (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.72; 95%CI = 1.15–12.0; p = 0.028) and in PYHIN1-IFI16-AIM2 rs1633256 (aOR = 24.84; 95%CI = 2.26–272.95; p = 0.009) were associated with TST positivity in a recessive model. Furthermore, an IRF7 polymorphism (rs11246213) was associated with reduced odds of TST positivity in a dominant model (aOR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.93; p = 0.029).ConclusionsPolymorphisms in PYHIN1-IFI16-AIM2 rs1633256, rs1101998 and in IRF7 rs11246213 were associated with altered susceptibility to Mtb infection in this Brazilian cohort.
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