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ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (220 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 220 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Alergologia Polska : Polish Journal of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Allergo Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergo Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allergology International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
American Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Autoimmunity Highlights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmunity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical & Experimental Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical & Translational Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Drugs     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Critical Reviews in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Immunology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Current Opinion in Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Immunology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Treatment Options in Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Developmental & Comparative Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Vaccines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Genes & Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HLA Immune Response Genetics     Hybrid Journal  
HNO Nachrichten     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypersensitivity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Immunity, Inflammation and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Immuno-analyse & Biologie Spécialisée     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Immunobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunogenetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunologic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Immunological Investigations: A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Immunological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Immunology & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Immunology and Immunogenetic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Immunology and Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Immunology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Immunome Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoTargets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals: an Experimental and Clinical Approach     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inmunología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Innate Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Blood Transfusion and Immunohematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Immunological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunotherapy and Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Reviews Of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Internet Journal of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Allergy & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Asthma and Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Cellular Immunotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Immunological Techniques in Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunology and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Immunotherapy Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Immunotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Innate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Genetics and Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Translational Autoimmunity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vaccine & Immunotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Medical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Medical Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Mucosal Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nature Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 342)
Nature Reviews Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 317)
Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
NeuroImmunoModulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Neurology : Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
npj Vaccines     Hybrid Journal  
OA Immunology     Open Access  
Ocular Immunology & Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
OncoImmunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Allergy Journal     Open Access  
Open Cancer Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Forum Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Virology Journal     Open Access  
Oral Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Papillomavirus Research     Open Access  
Parasite Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Perspectives in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polish Pneumonology and Allergology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Alergia México     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Self/Nonself - Immune Recognition and Signaling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Seminars in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Seminars in Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Signals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sinusitis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South East European Journal of Immunology     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Frontiers in Immunology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.803
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 21  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1664-3224
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Colorectal Cancer Immunotherapy: Options and Strategies

    • Authors: Nor Adzimah Johdi, Nur Fazilah Sukor
      Abstract: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world with increasing incidence and mortality rates globally. Standard treatments for colorectal cancer have always been surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may be used in combination to treat patients. However, these treatments have many side effects due to their non-specificity and cytotoxicity toward any cells including normal cells that are growing and dividing. Furthermore, many patients succumb to relapse even after a series of treatments. Thus, it is crucial to have more alternative and effective treatments to treat CRC patients. Immunotherapy is one of the new alternatives in cancer treatment. The strategy is to utilize patients’ own immune systems in combating the cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy overcomes the issue of specificity which is the major problem in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The normal cells with no cancer antigens are not affected. The outcomes of some cancer immunotherapy have been astonishing in some cases, but some which rely on the status of patients’ own immune systems are not. Those patients who responded well to cancer immunotherapy have a better prognostic and better quality of life.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Evolving Landscape of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Head and Neck Cancer

    • Authors: Xin-wei Qiao, Jian Jiang, Xin Pang, Mei-chang Huang, Ya-jie Tang, Xin-hua Liang, Ya-ling Tang
      Abstract: Over the past 10 years, cancer immunotherapy has made significant progress in multiple cancer types and has been gradually been applied to clinical cancer care, in which the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is one of the most attractive targets. Compared with traditional therapies, the emerging PD-1/PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy exhibited more satisfactory curative effects and lower toxicity for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This review analyzes the expression characteristics and clinical significance of PD-1/PD-L1 in HNSCC, the immunosuppressive roles of tumor cell and stromal cell expressing PD-1/PD-L1 in this disease, and presents the development landscape of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, which may provide new curative alternatives for recurrent or metastatic HNSCC.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • CD4+ T Cell Defects in a Mulibrey Patient With Specific TRIM37 Mutations

    • Authors: Sara Bruzzaniti, Emilia Cirillo, Rosaria Prencipe, Giuliana Giardino, Maria Teresa Lepore, Federica Garziano, Francesco Perna, Claudio Procaccini, Luigi Mascolo, Cristina Pagano, Valentina Fattorusso, Enza Mozzillo, Maurizio Bifulco, Giuseppe Matarese, Adriana Franzese, Claudio Pignata, Mario Galgani
      Abstract: Mulibrey (muscle-liver-brain-eye) syndrome (MUL) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the TRIpartite motif (TRIM)37 gene, encoding for TRIM37 a member of the TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligase protein family. MUL patients are characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic features, and a wide range of abnormalities affecting different organs. However, T-cell abnormalities have not been observed in MUL subjects, to date. Here we described the immunological features of a MUL child carrying recently identified TRIM37 mutations, a 17q22 deletion of maternal origin combined with a TRIM37 variant of paternal origin. Here we found quantitative and functional defects in CD4+ T cells from this MUL case. Low levels of TRIM37 protein were specifically detected in CD4+ T cells of MUL patient and associated with their altered proliferation and cytokine production. Of note, both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of MUL child displayed an effector memory phenotype compared with healthy children. This clinical case research highlighted the possible role of TRIM37 in the control of immune cell number and function, especially in CD4+ T cells. Finally, this study may contribute to the novel mechanistic studies aim of identifying, in depth, the role of the TRIM37 protein in the immune system.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Chemokines in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and
           Network Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Xiongfeng Pan, Atipatsa Chiwanda Kaminga, Aizhong Liu, Shi Wu Wen, Jihua Chen, Jiayou Luo
      Abstract: Background: Previous results on the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chemokine concentrations were inconsistent. The purpose of this network meta-analysis was to evaluate the link between chemokine system and NAFLD.Methods: Relevant data, published not later than June 31, 2019, were searched in the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. A network meta-analysis was used to rank the chemokines by surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. In addition, standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as group differences in the chemokine concentrations.Results: The search in the databases identified 46 relevant studies that investigated the relationship between 15 different chemokines and NAFLD using 4,753 patients and 4,059 controls. Results from the network meta-analysis showed that the concentrations of CCL2 and CXCL8 in the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMDs of 1.51 and 1.95, respectively), and the concentrations of CCL3, CCL4, CCL20, CXCL8, and CXCL10 in the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMDs of 0.90, 2.05, 2.16, 0.91, and 1.46, respectively). SUCRA probabilities showed that CXCL8 had the highest rank in NAFL for all chemokines and CCL20 had the highest rank in NASH for all chemokines.Conclusion: Elevated concentrations of CCL2, CCL4, CCL20, CXCL8, and CXCL10 may be associated with NAFL or NASH. In this regard, more population-based studies are needed to ascertain this hypothesis.Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO: CRD42020139373.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Communications Between Peripheral and the Brain-Resident Immune System in
           Neuronal Regeneration After Stroke

    • Authors: Fangxi Liu, Xi Cheng, Shanshan Zhong, Chang Liu, Jukka Jolkkonen, Xiuchun Zhang, Yifan Liang, Zhouyang Liu, Chuansheng Zhao
      Abstract: Cerebral ischemia may cause irreversible neural network damage and result in functional deficits. Targeting neuronal repair after stroke potentiates the formation of new connections, which can be translated into a better functional outcome. Innate and adaptive immune responses in the brain and the periphery triggered by ischemic damage participate in regulating neural repair after a stroke. Immune cells in the blood circulation and gut lymphatic tissues that have been shaped by immune components including gut microbiota and metabolites can infiltrate the ischemic brain and, once there, influence neuronal regeneration either directly or by modulating the properties of brain-resident immune cells. Immune-related signalings and metabolites from the gut microbiota can also directly alter the phenotypes of resident immune cells to promote neuronal regeneration. In this review, we discuss several potential mechanisms through which peripheral and brain-resident immune components can cooperate to promote first the resolution of neuroinflammation and subsequently to improved neural regeneration and a better functional recovery. We propose that new insights into discovery of regulators targeting pro-regenerative process in this complex neuro-immune network may lead to novel strategies for neuronal regeneration.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mumps Outbreaks in Vaccinated Populations—Is It Time to Re-assess the
           Clinical Efficacy of Vaccines'

    • Authors: Anna R. Connell, Jeff Connell, T. Ronan Leahy, Jaythoon Hassan
      Abstract: History illustrates the remarkable public health impact of mass vaccination, by dramatically improving life expectancy and reducing the burden of infectious diseases and co-morbidities worldwide. It has been perceived that if an individual adhered to the MMR vaccine schedule that immunity to mumps virus (MuV) would be lifelong. Recent mumps outbreaks in individuals who had received two doses of the Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR) vaccine has challenged the efficacy of the MMR vaccine. However, clinical symptoms, complications, viral shedding and transmission associated with mumps infection has been shown to be reduced in vaccinated individuals, demonstrating a benefit of this vaccine. Therefore, the question of what constitutes a good mumps vaccine and how its impact is assessed in this modern era remains to be addressed. Epidemiology of the individuals most affected by the outbreaks (predominantly young adults) and variance in the circulating MuV genotype have been well-described alluding to a collection of influences such as vaccine hesitancy, heterogeneous vaccine uptake, primary, and/or secondary vaccine failures. This review aims to discuss in detail the interplay of factors thought to be contributing to the current mumps outbreaks seen in highly vaccinated populations. In addition, how mumps diagnoses has progressed and impacted the understanding of mumps infection since a mumps vaccine was first developed, the limitations of current laboratory tests in confirming protection in vaccinated individuals and how vaccine effectiveness is quantified are also considered. By highlighting knowledge gaps within this area, this state-of-the-art review proposes a change of perspective regarding the impact of a vaccine in a highly vaccinated population from a clinical, diagnostic and public perspective, highlighting a need for a paradigm shift on what is considered vaccine immunity.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Macrophage TLR4 and PAR2 Signaling: Role in Regulating Vascular
           Inflammatory Injury and Repair

    • Authors: Sheikh Rayees, Ian Rochford, Jagdish Chandra Joshi, Bhagwati Joshi, Somenath Banerjee, Dolly Mehta
      Abstract: Macrophages play a central role in dictating the tissue response to infection and orchestrating subsequent repair of the damage. In this context, macrophages residing in the lungs continuously sense and discriminate among a wide range of insults to initiate the immune responses important to host-defense. Inflammatory tissue injury also leads to activation of proteases, and thereby the coagulation pathway, to optimize injury and repair post-infection. However, long-lasting inflammatory triggers from macrophages can impair the lung's ability to recover from severe injury, leading to increased lung vascular permeability and neutrophilic injury, hallmarks of Acute Lung Injury (ALI). In this review, we discuss the roles of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and protease activating receptor 2 (PAR2) expressed on the macrophage cell-surface in regulating lung vascular inflammatory signaling.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • CNS Macrophages and Infant Infections

    • Authors: Alexander Oschwald, Philippe Petry, Katrin Kierdorf, Daniel Erny
      Abstract: The central nervous system (CNS) harbors its own immune system composed of microglia in the parenchyma and CNS-associated macrophages (CAMs) in the perivascular space, leptomeninges, dura mater, and choroid plexus. Recent advances in understanding the CNS resident immune cells gave new insights into development, maturation and function of its immune guard. Microglia and CAMs undergo essential steps of differentiation and maturation triggered by environmental factors as well as intrinsic transcriptional programs throughout embryonic and postnatal development. These shaping steps allow the macrophages to adapt to their specific physiological function as first line of defense of the CNS and its interfaces. During infancy, the CNS might be targeted by a plethora of different pathogens which can cause severe tissue damage with potentially long reaching defects. Therefore, an efficient immune response of infant CNS macrophages is required even at these early stages to clear the infections but may also lead to detrimental consequences for the developing CNS. Here, we highlight the recent knowledge of the infant CNS immune system during embryonic and postnatal infections and the consequences for the developing CNS.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Transcriptome Profiling of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Upon CCL2
           Neutralization Reveals an Association Between Activation of Innate Immune
           Pathways and Restriction of HIV-1 Gene Expression

    • Authors: Daniela Angela Covino, Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Jing Lu, Maria Vincenza Chiantore, Gianna Fiorucci, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Laura Catapano, Cristina Purificato, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Roberta Amici, Mauro Andreotti, Maria Cristina Gauzzi, Matteo Pellegrini, Laura Fantuzzi
      Abstract: Macrophages are key targets of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and main producers of the proinflammatory chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), whose expression is induced by HIV-1 both in vitro and in vivo. We previously found that CCL2 neutralization in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) strongly inhibited HIV-1 replication affecting post-entry steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we used RNA-sequencing to deeply characterize the cellular factors and pathways modulated by CCL2 blocking in MDMs and involved in HIV-1 replication restriction. We report that exposure to CCL2 neutralizing antibody profoundly affected the MDM transcriptome. Functional annotation clustering of up-regulated genes identified two clusters enriched for antiviral defense and immune response pathways, comprising several interferon-stimulated, and restriction factor coding genes. Transcripts in the clusters were enriched for RELA and NFKB1 targets, suggesting the activation of the canonical nuclear factor κB pathway as part of a regulatory network involving miR-155 up-regulation. Furthermore, while HIV-1 infection caused small changes to the MDM transcriptome, with no evidence of host defense gene expression and type I interferon signature, CCL2 blocking enabled the activation of a strong host innate response in infected macrophage cultures, and potently inhibited viral genes expression. Notably, an inverse correlation was found between levels of viral transcripts and of the restriction factors APOBEC3A (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 A), ISG15, and MX1. These findings highlight an association between activation of innate immune pathways and HIV-1 restriction upon CCL2 blocking and identify this chemokine as an endogenous factor contributing to the defective macrophage response to HIV-1. Therapeutic targeting of CCL2 may thus strengthen host innate immunity and restrict HIV-1 replication.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • MicroRNAs of Human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid
           of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    • Authors: María I. Domínguez-Mozo, Alejandro Nieto-Guerrero, Silvia Pérez-Pérez, María Á. García-Martínez, Rafael Arroyo, Roberto Álvarez-Lafuente
      Abstract: Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and −6B (HHV-6B) might be involved in the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially the HHV-6A. We aim at assessing, for the first time in the scientific literature, the HHV-6A/B microRNAs in MS patients. We analyzed the miRNAs of HHV-6A: miR-U86, and −6B: hhv6b-miR-Ro6-1, −2, −3-3p, −3-5p, and −4 in paired samples of serum and CSF of 42 untreated MS patients and 23 patients with other neurological diseases (OND), using Taqman MicroRNA Assays. Intrathecal HHV-6A/B antibody production and anti-HHV-6A/B IgG/IgM levels in serum were measured. MS clinical data were available. We detected the following miRNAs: hhv6b-miR-Ro6-2 (serum: MS:97.7%, OND:95.7%; CSF: MS:81%, OND:86.4%), 3-3p (serum: MS:4.8%, OND:0%; CSF: MS:2.4%, OND:4.5%), −3-5p (serum: MS:95.2%, OND:91.3%; CSF: MS:50%, OND:54.5%), and miR-U86 (serum: MS:54.8%, OND:47.8%; CSF: MS:11.9%, OND:9.1%). In the serum of the whole population (MS and OND patients) we found a significant correlation between the levels of hhv6b-miR-Ro6-2 and −3-5p (Spearman r = 0.839, pcorr = 3E-13), −2 and miR-U86 (Spearman r = 0.578, pcorr = 0.001) and −3-5p and miR-U86 (Spearman r = 0.698, pcorr = 1.34E-5); also in the CSF, between hhv6b-miR-Ro6-2 and −3-5p (Spearman r = 0.626, pcorr = 8.52E-4). These correlations remained statistically significant when both populations were considered separately. The anti-HHV-6A/B IgG levels in CSF and the intrathecal antibody production in positive MS patients for hhv6b-miR-Ro6-3-5p were statistically significant higher than in the negative ones (pcorr = 0.006 and pcorr = 0.036). The prevalence of miR-U86 (30.8%) in the CSF of individuals without gadolinium-enhancing lesions was higher (p = 0.035) than in the ones with these lesions (0%); however, the difference did not withstand Bonferroni correction (pcorr = 0.105). We propose a role of HHV-6A/B miRNAs in the maintenance of the viral latency state. Further investigations are warranted to validate these results and clarify the function of these viral miRNAs.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Glucocorticoids Regulate Circadian Rhythm of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    • Authors: Akihiro Shimba, Koichi Ikuta
      Abstract: Animals have evolved circadian rhythms to adapt to the 24-h day-night cycle. Circadian rhythms are controlled by molecular clocks in the brain and periphery, which is driven by clock genes. The circadian rhythm is propagated from the brain to the periphery by nerves and hormones. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex under the control of the circadian rhythm and the stress. GCs have both positive and negative effects on the immune system. Indeed, they are well known for their strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Endogenous GCs inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at the active phase of mice, regulating the circadian rhythm of tissue inflammation. In addition, GCs induce the rhythmic expression of IL-7R and CXCR4 on T cells, which supports T cell maintenance and homing to lymphoid tissues. Clock genes and adrenergic neural activity control the T cell migration and immune response. Taken together, circadian factors shape the diurnal oscillation of innate and adaptive immunity. Among them, GCs participate in the circadian rhythm of innate and adaptive immunity by positive and negative effects.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Gene Expression in Spontaneous Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
           Is Linked to Human Multiple Sclerosis Risk Genes

    • Authors: Hans Faber, Dunja Kurtoic, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy, Peter Weber, Benno Pütz, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Frank Weber, Till F. M. Andlauer
      Abstract: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified over 230 genetic risk loci for multiple sclerosis. Current experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models requiring active induction of disease may not be optimally suited for the characterization of the function of these genes. We have thus used gene expression profiling to study whether spontaneous opticospinal EAE (OSE) or MOG-induced EAE mirrors the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis more faithfully. To this end, we compared gene expression in OSE and MOG EAE models and analyzed the relationship of both models to human multiple sclerosis risk genes and T helper cell biology. We observed stronger gene expression changes and an involvement of more pathways of the adaptive immune system in OSE than MOG EAE. Furthermore, we demonstrated a more extensive enrichment of human MS risk genes among transcripts differentially expressed in OSE than was the case for MOG EAE. Transcripts differentially expressed only in diseased OSE mice but not in MOG EAE were significantly enriched for T helper cell-specific transcripts. These transcripts are part of immune-regulatory pathways. The activation of the adaptive immune system and the enrichment of both human multiple sclerosis risk genes and T helper cell-specific transcripts were also observed in OSE mice showing only mild disease signs. These expression changes may, therefore, be indicative of processes at disease onset. In summary, more human multiple sclerosis risk genes were differentially expressed in OSE than was observed for MOG EAE, especially in TH1 cells. When studying the functional role of multiple sclerosis risk genes and pathways during disease onset and their interactions with the environment, spontaneous OSE may thus show advantages over MOG-induced EAE.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Human Chondrocyte Activation by Toxins From Premolis semirufa, an Amazon
           Rainforest Moth Caterpillar: Identifying an Osteoarthritis Signature

    • Authors: Isadora M. Villas-Boas, Giselle Pidde, Flavio Lichtenstein, Ana Tung Ching Ching, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Carlos DeOcesano-Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Madureira Trufen, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi, Kátia Luciano Pereira Morais, Denise V. Tambourgi
      Abstract: Pararamosis is a disease that occurs due to contact with the hairs of the larval stage of the Brazilian moth Premolis semirufa. Envenomation induces osteoarticular alterations with cartilage impairment that resembles joint synovitis. Thus, the toxic venom present in the caterpillar hairs interferes with the phenotype of the cells present in the joints, resulting in inflammation and promoting tissue injury. Therefore, to address the inflammatory mechanisms triggered by envenomation, we studied the effects of P. semirufa hair extract on human chondrocytes. We have selected for the investigation, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), complement components, eicosanoids, and extracellular matrix (ECM) components related to OA and RA. In addition, for measuring protein-coding mRNAs of some molecules associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), reverse transcription (RT) was performed followed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and we performed the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the chondrocytes transcriptome. In the supernatant of cell cultures treated with the extract, we observed increased IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, prostaglandin E2, metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-13), and complement system components (C3, C4, and C5). We noticed a significant decrease in both aggrecan and type II collagen and an increase in HMGB1 protein in chondrocytes after extract treatment. RNA-seq analysis of the chondrocyte transcriptome allowed us to identify important pathways related to the inflammatory process of the disease, such as the inflammatory response, chemotaxis of immune cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Thus, these results suggest that components of Premolis semirufa hair have strong inflammatory potential and are able to induce cartilage degradation and ECM remodeling, promoting a disease with an osteoarthritis signature. Modulation of the signaling pathways that were identified as being involved in this pathology may be a promising approach to develop new therapeutic strategies for the control of pararamosis and other inflammatory joint diseases.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Hip Fracture Leads to Transitory Immune Imprint in Older Patients

    • Authors: Héléne Vallet, Charles Bayard, Héléne Lepetitcorps, Jessica O'Hana, Soléne Fastenackels, Tinhinane Fali, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Frédéric Khiami, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce
      Abstract: Background: Hip fracture (HF) is common in the geriatric population and is associated with a poor vital and functional prognosis which could be impacted by immunological changes. The objective here is to decipher immune changes occurring in the 1st days following HF and determine how phenotype, function, and regulation of innate and adaptive compartments adapt during acute stress event.Methods: We included HF patients, aged over 75 years. For each patient, blood samples were taken at five different timepoints: four in the perioperative period (day 0 to hospital discharge) and one at long term (6–12 months). Phenotypical and functional analysis were performed longitudinally on fresh blood or cryopreserved PBMCs. Clinical data were prospectively collected.Results: One-hundred HF patients and 60 age-matched controls were included. Innate compartment exhibits pro-inflammatory phenotypes (hyperleukocytosis, increase of CD14+ CD16+ proportion and CCR2 expression), maintaining its ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adaptive compartment extends toward a transitory immunosuppressive profile (leucopenia) associated with an active T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, increases of LAG-3 and PD-1 and a decrease of 2-B4 expression are observed on T-cells, reinforcing their transitory suppressive status. Of note, these immune changes are transitory and sequential but may participate to a regulation loop necessary for homeostatic immune control at long term.Conclusion: HF is associated with several transitory immunological changes including pro-inflammatory phenotype in innate compartment and immunosuppressive profile in adaptive compartment. A comprehensive assessment of immune mechanisms implicated in the patient's prognosis after HF could pave the way to develop new immune therapeutics strategies.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 Is Required for Granuloma
           Progression|Background|Methods|Results|Conclusions

    • Authors: Arjun Mohan, Nicole Neequaye, Anagha Malur, Eman Soliman, Matthew McPeek, Nancy Leffler, David Ogburn, Debra A. Tokarz, Warren Knudson, Sina A. Gharib, Lynn M. Schnapp, Barbara P. Barna, Mary Jane Thomassen
      Abstract: BackgroundSarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by granuloma formation. Mechanisms for chronic persistence of granulomas are unknown. Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) degrades extracellular matrix elastin and enables infiltration of immune cells responsible for inflammation and granuloma formation. Previous studies report increased MMP12 in sarcoidosis patients and association between MMP12 expression and disease severity. We also observed elevated MMP12 in our multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) murine model of granulomatous inflammation. Here we hypothesized that MMP12 is important to acute and late phases of granuloma pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed granulomatous and inflammatory responses of Mmp12 knock-out (KO) mice at 10 (acute) and 60 days (late) after MWCNT instillation.MethodsC57BL/6 (wildtype) and Mmp12 KO mice underwent oropharyngeal instillation of MWCNT. Lungs were harvested at 3, 10, 20, and 60 days post instillation for evaluation of MMP12 expression and granulomatous changes. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were analyzed 60 days after MWCNT instillation for expression of mediators thought to play a role in sarcoid granulomatosis: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and CCL2 (MCP-1).ResultsPulmonary granuloma appearance at 10 days after MWCNT instillation showed no differences between wildtype and Mmp12 KO mice. In contrast, by 60 days after MWCNT instillation, Mmp12 KO mice revealed markedly attenuated granuloma formation together with elevated PPARγ and reduced IFNγ expression in BAL cells compared to wildtype. Unexpectedly, Mmp12 KO mice further demonstrated increased alveolar macrophages with increased CCL2 at 60 days.ConclusionsThe striking reduction of granuloma formation at day 60 in Mmp12 KO mice suggests that MMP12 is required to maintain chronic granuloma pathophysiology. The increased PPARγ and decreased IFNγ findings suggest that these mediators also may be involved since previous studies have shown that PPARγ suppresses IFNγ and PPARγ deficiency amplifies granuloma formation. Interestingly, a role of MMP12 in granuloma resolution is also suggested by increases in both macrophage influx and CCL2. Overall, our results strongly implicate MMP12 as a key factor in granuloma persistence and as a possible therapeutic target in chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Strategies for Targeting SARS CoV-2: Small Molecule Inhibitors—The
           Current Status

    • Authors: Narasimha M. Beeraka, Surya P. Sadhu, SubbaRao V. Madhunapantula, Rajeswara Rao Pragada, Andrey A. Svistunov, Vladimir N. Nikolenko, Liudmila M. Mikhaleva, Gjumrakch Aliev
      Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) cases have been increasing at an alarming rate (7.4 million positive cases as on June 11 2020), causing high mortality (4,17,956 deaths as on June 11 2020) and economic loss (a 3.2% shrink in global economy in 2020) across 212 countries globally. The clinical manifestations of this disease are pneumonia, lung injury, inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Currently, there is no vaccine or effective pharmacological agents available for the prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV2 infections. Moreover, development of a suitable vaccine is a challenging task due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and Th-2 immunopathology, which aggravates infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the emerging SARS-CoV-2 strain exhibits several distinct genomic and structural patterns compared to other coronavirus strains, making the development of a suitable vaccine even more difficult. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors (NSMIs) that can interfere with viral entry or viral propagation is of special interest and is vital in managing already infected cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the binding of viral Spike proteins (S-protein) to human cells through a 2-step process, which involves Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS)-2. Therefore, the development of novel inhibitors of ACE2/TMPRSS2 is likely to be beneficial in combating SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the usage of ACE-2 inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires additional studies as there are conflicting findings and severe health complications reported for these inhibitors in patients. Hence, the current interest is shifted toward the development of NSMIs, which includes natural antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to manage a SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is imperative to investigate the efficacy of existing antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, in this review, we have reviewed structural features of SARS-CoV-2 with special emphasis on key molecular targets and their known modulators that can be considered for the development of NSMIs.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cell-Free Therapies: Novel Approaches for COVID-19

    • Authors: Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez, Patricia R. M. Rocco
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Eosinophils Control Liver Damage by Modulating Immune Responses Against
           Fasciola hepatica

    • Authors: Sofía Frigerio, Valeria da Costa, Monique Costa, María Florencia Festari, Mercedes Landeira, Santiago A. Rodríguez-Zraquia, Steffen Härtel, Jorge Toledo, Teresa Freire
      Abstract: Eosinophils are granulocytes that participate in the defense against helminth parasites and in hypersensitivity reactions. More recently, eosinophils were shown to have other immunomodulatory functions, such as tissue reparation, metabolism regulation, and suppression of Th1 and Th17 immune responses. In the context of parasitic helminth infections, eosinophils have a controversial role, as they can be beneficial or detrimental for the host. In this work, we investigate the role of eosinophils in an experimental infection in mice with the trematode parasite Fasciola hepatica, which causes substantial economical losses around the world due to the infection of livestock. We demonstrate that eosinophils are recruited to the peritoneal cavity and liver from F. hepatica-infected mice and this recruitment is associated with increased levels of CCL11, TSLP, and IL-5. Moreover, the characterization of peritoneal and hepatic eosinophils from F. hepatica-infected mice showed that they express distinctive molecules of activation and cell migration. Depletion of eosinophils with an anti-Siglec-F antibody provoked more severe clinical signs and increased liver damage than control animals which were accompanied by an increase in the production of IL-10 by hepatic and splenic CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also report that eosinophils participate in the modulation of humoral immune responses during F. hepatica infection, contributing to their degranulation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that eosinophils are beneficial for the host during F. hepatica infection, by limiting the production of IL-10 by specific CD4+ T cells and favoring eosinophil degranulation induced by specific antibodies. This work contributes to a better understanding of the role of eosinophils in parasitic helminth infections.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • β-Arrestin1 and β-Arrestin2 Are Required to Support the Activity of the
           CXCL12/HMGB1 Heterocomplex on CXCR4

    • Authors: Gianluca D’Agostino, Marc Artinger, Massimo Locati, Laurent Perez, Daniel F. Legler, Marco E. Bianchi, Curzio Rüegg, Marcus Thelen, Adriano Marchese, Marco B. L. Rocchi, Valentina Cecchinato, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
      Abstract: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a fundamental role in homeostasis and pathology by orchestrating recruitment and positioning of immune cells, under the guidance of a CXCL12 gradient. The ability of chemokines to form heterocomplexes, enhancing their function, represents an additional level of regulation on their cognate receptors. In particular, the multi-faceted activity of the heterocomplex formed between CXCL12 and the alarmin HMGB1 is emerging as an unexpected player able to modulate a variety of cell responses, spanning from tissue regeneration to chronic inflammation. Nowadays, little is known on the selective signaling pathways activated when CXCR4 is triggered by the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex. In the present work, we demonstrate that this heterocomplex acts as a CXCR4 balanced agonist, activating both G protein and β-arrestins-mediated signaling pathways to sustain chemotaxis. We generated β-arrestins knock out HeLa cells by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and show that the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex-mediated actin polymerization is primarily β-arrestin1 dependent, while chemotaxis requires both β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2. Triggering of CXCR4 with the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex leads to an unexpected receptor retention on the cell surface, which depends on β-arrestin2. In conclusion, the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex engages the β-arrestin proteins differently from CXCL12, promoting a prompt availability of CXCR4 on the cell surface, and enhancing directional cell migration. These data unveil the signaling induced by the CXCL12/HMGB1 heterocomplex in view of identifying biased CXCR4 antagonists or agonists targeting the variety of functions it exerts.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Mast Cells in Alveolar Septa of COVID-19 Patients: A Pathogenic Pathway
           That May Link Interstitial Edema to Immunothrombosis

    • Authors: Jarbas da Silva Motta Junior, Anna Flavia Ribeiro dos Santos Miggiolaro, Seigo Nagashima, Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula, Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Julio Scharfstein, Lucia de Noronha
      Abstract: It is currently believed that innate immunity is unable to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper airways to the alveoli of high-risk groups of patients. SARS-CoV-2 replication in ACE-2-expressing pneumocytes can drive the diffuse alveolar injury through the cytokine storm and immunothrombosis by upregulating the transcription of chemokine/cytokines, unlike several other respiratory viruses. Here we report histopathology data obtained in post-mortem lung biopsies of COVID-19, showing the increased density of perivascular and septal mast cells (MCs) and IL-4-expressing cells (n = 6), in contrast to the numbers found in pandemic H1N1-induced pneumonia (n = 10) or Control specimens (n = 10). Noteworthy, COVID-19 lung biopsies showed a higher density of CD117+ cells, suggesting that c-kit positive MCs progenitors were recruited earlier to the alveolar septa. These findings suggest that MC proliferation/differentiation in the alveolar septa might be harnessed by the shift toward IL-4 expression in the inflamed alveolar septa. Future studies may clarify whether the fibrin-dependent generation of the hyaline membrane, processes that require the diffusion of procoagulative plasma factors into the alveolar lumen and the endothelial dysfunction, are preceded by MC-driven formation of interstitial edema in the alveolar septa.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18T00:00:00Z
       
 
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