Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8529 journals)
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ALLERGOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY (216 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 216 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Alergologia Polska : Polish Journal of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Allergo Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergo Journal International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allergology International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Allergy & Rhinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
American Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology     Hybrid Journal  
Annual Review of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology     Open Access  
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Autoimmunity Highlights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autoimmunity Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada     Free   (Followers: 1)
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical & Experimental Allergy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical & Experimental Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical & Translational Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Clinical Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Drugs     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Critical Reviews in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Immunology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Current Opinion in Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Protocols in Immunology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Treatment Options in Allergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Developmental & Comparative Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Emerging Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Epidemiologic Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Vaccines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Food and Agricultural Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Genes & Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Journal of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HLA Immune Response Genetics     Hybrid Journal  
HNO Nachrichten     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hypersensitivity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Immunity, Inflammation and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Immuno-analyse & Biologie Spécialisée     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Immunobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Immunogenetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoHorizons     Open Access  
Immunologic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Immunological Investigations: A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Immunological Medicine     Open Access  
Immunological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Immunology & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Immunology and Immunogenetic Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Immunology and Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Immunology Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents - Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Immunome Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ImmunoTargets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals: an Experimental and Clinical Approach     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inmunología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Innate Immunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunological Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Immunotherapy and Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Reviews Of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Internet Journal of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access  
Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Allergy & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Asthma Allergy Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Asthma and Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Cellular Immunotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Immunological Techniques in Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Immunology and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Immunotherapy Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Immunotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Innate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Genetics and Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Neuroimmunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of NeuroVirology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Reproductive Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Translational Autoimmunity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vaccines and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Medical Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Mucosal Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nature Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 316)
Nature Reviews Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 301)
Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
NeuroImmunoModulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Neurology : Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
npj Vaccines     Hybrid Journal  
OA Immunology     Open Access  
Ocular Immunology & Inflammation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
OncoImmunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Open Allergy Journal     Open Access  
Open Cancer Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Forum Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Immunology Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Virology Journal     Open Access  
Oral Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Papillomavirus Research     Open Access  
Parasite Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Perspectives in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polish Pneumonology and Allergology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research Journal of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Alergia México     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Science Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Self/Nonself - Immune Recognition and Signaling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Seminars in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Seminars in Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Signals     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sinusitis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South East European Journal of Immunology     Open Access  
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy     Open Access  
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 | Last

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Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.789
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1684-1182
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3204 journals]
  • Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Leila Mousavizadeh, Sorayya Ghasemi
       
  • Prolonged Viral Shedding in Feces of Pediatric Patients with Coronavirus
           Disease 2019

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yu-Han Xing, Wei Ni, Qin Wu, Wen-Jie Li, Guo-Ju Li, Wen-Di Wang, Jian-Ning Tong, Xiu-Feng Song, Gary Wing-Kin Wong, Quan-Sheng Xing
       
  • COVID 19 in INDIA: Strategies to combat from combination threat of life
           and livelihood

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Balaji Krishnakumar, Sravendra Rana
       
  • The association between international and domestic air traffic and the
           coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Hien Lau, Veria Khosrawipour, Piotr Kocbach, Agata Mikolajczyk, Hirohito Ichii, Maciej Zacharksi, Jacek Bania, Tanja Khosrawipour
       
  • A national survey on fungal infection diagnostic capacity in the clinical
           mycology laboratories of tertiary care hospitals in China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): He Wang, Yao Wang, Qi-Wen Yang, Yu-Xing Ni, Li-Kai Lin, Yan-Ping Luo, Zi-Yong Sun, Min Li, Wen-Juan Wu, Qiang-Qiang Zhang, Dan-Hong Su, Hua Yu, Mei Kang, He-Ping Xu, Wei Liu, Qing Yang, Cui Jian, Li-Na Guo, Wen-Hang Yang, Meng Xiao
       
  • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever- A Systemic Literature Review of Current
           Perspectives on Pathogenesis, Prevention and Control

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Wen-Hung Wang, Aspiro Nayim Urbina, Max R. Chang, Wanchai Assavalapsakul, Po-Liang Lu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Sheng-Fan Wang
       
  • The first imported case of extensively drug-resistant Salmonella enterica
           serotype Typhi Infection in Taiwan and the antimicrobial therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Po-Yu Liu, Kung-Ching Wang, Yu-Ping Hong, Bo-Han Chen, Zhi-Yuan Shi, Chien-Shun Chiou
       
  • Duration of serum neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2: lessons from
           SARS-CoV infection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Qingqing Lin, Li Zhu, Zuowei Ni, Haitao Meng, Liangshun You
       
  • Can COVID-19 present unusual GI symptoms'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Ahmad Hormati, Alireza Shahhamzeh, Mahboubeh Afifian, Fatemeh Khodadust, Sajjad Ahmadpour
       
  • The Preventive Strategies of Community Hospital in the Battle of Fighting
           Pandemic COVID-19 in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chih-Jen Yang, Tun-Chieh Chen, Yen-Hsu Chen
       
  • Do children need a longer time to shed SARS-CoV-2 in stool than
           adults'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Xiang Ma, Liang Su, Yunkui Zhang, Xiuzhen Zhang, Zhongtao Gai, Zhongfa Zhang
       
  • Evolving reporting criteria of COVID-19 in Taiwan during the epidemic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yhu-Chering Huang, Ping-Ing Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance comparison of Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogens
           isolated from intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in different
           organs, hospital departments and regions of China between 2014 and 2017

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Hui Zhang, Ge Zhang, Yang Yang, Jingjia Zhang, Dongxue Li, Simeng Duan, Qiwen Yang, Yingchun Xu
       
  • Emergence of multiple drug-resistant Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 in
           immunocompetent patients from the community

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Ching-Hsun Wang, Ching-Mei Yu, Rui-Xin Wu, Jung-Chung Lin
       
  • Internationally lost COVID-19 cases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Hien Lau, Veria Khosrawipour, Piotr Kocbach, Agata Mikolajczyk, Hirohito Ichii, Justyna Schubert, Jacek Bania, Tanja Khosrawipour
       
  • Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic
           control bundling: implications for global prevention and control efforts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Muh-Yong Yen, Jonathan Schwartz, Shey-Ying Chen, Chwan-Chuen King, Guang-Yang Yang, Po-Ren Hsueh
       
  • Prevalence of B. pertussis infection in children with clinically
           suspected pertussis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Wujun Jiang, Luyi Mao, Kun Wang, Yuqing Wang, Chuangli Hao, Xuejun Shao, Jun Xu
       
  • Featuring COVID-19 cases via screening symptomatic patients with
           epidemiologic link during flu season in a medical center of central Taiwan
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Wen-Hsin Hsih, Meng-Yu Cheng, Mao-Wang Ho, Chia-Huei Chou, Po-Chang Lin, Chih-Yu Chi, Wei-Chih Liao, Chih-Yu Chen, Lih-Ying Leong, Ni Tien, Huan-Cheng Lai, Yi-Chyi Lai, Min-Chi Lu
       
  • Clinical characteristics and relevance of coagulase-negative Staphylococci
           other than S. epidermidis by positive blood culture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Nobuhiro Asai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
       
  • TH17 Responses in Cytokine Storm of COVID-19: An Emerging Target of JAK2
           Inhibitor Fedratinib

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Dandan Wu, Xuexian O. Yang
       
  • Composition of human-specific slow codons and slow di-codons in SARS-CoV
           and 2019-nCoV are lower than other coronaviruses suggesting a faster
           protein synthesis rate of SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chu-Wen Yang, Mei-Fang Chen
       
  • A case of COVID-19 and pneumonia returning from Macau in Taiwan: clinical
           course and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG dynamic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Nan-Yao Lee, Chia-Wen Li, Huey-Pin Tsai, Po-Lin Chen, Ling-Shan Syue, Ming-Chi Li, Chin-Shiang Tsai, Ching-Lung Lo, Po-Ren Hsueh, Wen-Chien Ko
       
  • A Patient with SARS-CoV-2 Infection during Pregnancy in Qingdao, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Rong Wen, Peng Sun, Quan-Sheng Xing
       
  • Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due
           to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2): Facts and
           myths

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chih-Cheng Lai, Yen Hung Liu, Cheng-Yi Wang, Ya-Hui Wang, Shun-Chung Hsueh, Muh-Yen Yen, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh
       
  • Genetic Analysis and Plasmid-Mediated bla CMY-2 in Salmonella and Shigella
           and the Ceftriaxone Susceptibility regulated by the ISEcp-1
           tnpA-bla CMY-2-blc-sugE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Jen-Jain Lee, Mei-Hui Wang, Chishih Chu
       
  • Activation of apoptosis by Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 effectors
           through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in Salmonella-infected
           macrophages

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Hsin-Hung Lin, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Chang-Ching Weng, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
       
  • Effects of Lactoferrin on Infectious Diseases in Japanese Summer: A
           Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Hirotsugu Oda, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi, Miyuki Tanaka, Koji Yamauchi, Chihiro Sugita, Hiroki Yoshida, Fumiaki Abe, Tohru Sonoda, Masahiko Kurokawa
       
  • Are children less susceptible to COVID-19'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Ping-Ing Lee, Ya-Li Hu, Po-Yen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Po-Ren Hsueh
       
  • Effectiveness of half-a-tablet efavirenz plus 2 nucleos(t)ide
           reverse-transcriptase inhibitors as maintenance therapy with the guidance
           of therapeutic drug monitoring among virologically suppressed HIV-positive
           patients: A prospective study

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Sung-Hsi Huang, Shu-Wen Lin, Sui-Yuan Chang, Ya-Ting Lin, Hsin-Yun Sun, Wen-Chun Liu, Yi-Ching Su, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
       
  • Taiwan guideline on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention
           – 2018 update

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Isaac Yen-Hao Chu, Stephane Wen-Wei Ku, Chia-Wen Li, Han Siong Toh, Chia-Jui Yang, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Huei-Jiuan Wu, Shu-Sheng Chen, Jiann-Horng Kuo, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Nai-Ying Ko
       
  • First report on Giardia duodenalis assemblage F in Slovakian children
           living in poor environmental conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Jana Pipiková, Ingrid Papajová, Viktória Majláthová, Jindřich Šoltys, Júlia Bystrianska, Ingrid Schusterová, Veronika Vargová
       
  • Non-typeable Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a medical center in
           Taiwan after wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Hsin-Hang Chen, Mei-Hua Hsu, Tsu-Lan Wu, Hsin-Chieh Li, Chyi-Liang Chen, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Lin-Hui Su, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
       
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in Taiwan from 2014 to 2017: Clinical
           manifestations and outcomes between pediatric and adult patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Hsin-Yao Lee, Chun-Yi Lu, Ping-Ing Lee, Jong-Min Chen, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
       
  • The clinical implication of serotype distribution and drug resistance of
           invasive pneumococcal disease in children: A single center study in
           southern Taiwan during 2010–2016

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Meng-Chien Lee, Kuang-Che Kuo
       
  • Determining the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for the
           outcomes of Japanese encephalitis in adults: A multicenter study from
           southern Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Shih-Hao Lo, Hung-Jen Tang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Jen-Chieh Lee, Jien-Wei Liu, Wen-Chien Ko, Ko Chang, Chun-Yuan Lee, Ya-Ting Chang, Po-Liang Lu
       
  • Effects of influenza vaccine and sun exposure time against
           laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among young children
           during the 2012–13 to 2015–16 influenza seasons

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Ching-Yun Wang, Yi-Hsuan Chang, Li-Min Huang, Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Luan-Yin Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Jian-Te Lee, Ching-Chuan Liu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Yu-Huai Ho, Yi-Hsuan Tu, Jin-Yuan Wang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Taiwan Pediatric Infectious Disease Alliance
       
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection in
           Taiwan: Establishment and implementation

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Tien-Ching Lin, Yuan-Pin Hung, Wen-Chien Ko, Jhen-Wei Ruan
       
  • Loss of core fucosylation suppressed the humoral immune response in
           Salmonella Typhimurium infected mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Danish Zahid, Nianzhu Zhang, Hui Fang, Jianguo Gu, Ming Li, Wenzhe LiAbstractThe humoral immune response is pivotal to protect the host from Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection. Previously, we found that core fucosylation catalyzed by core fucosyltransferase (Fut8) could regulate the immune responses. However, the role of core fucosylation during S. Typhimurium infection remains unclear. To demonstrate the role of Fut8 in S. Typhimurium infection, we infected Fut8+/+ and Fut8-/- mice using S. Typhimurium. Compared to Fut8+/+ mice, the number of S. Typhimurium colonized in the cecum was markedly increased in Fut8-/- mice. The production of the IgG and sIgA specific for S. Typhimurium was significantly decreased in Fut8-/- mice. Moreover, loss of Fut8 decreased the induction of Th2-type cytokines from splenic cells of Fut8-/- mice during S. Typhimurium infection. In addition, we found that the core fucosylation regulated the interaction between B and T cells in the lipid raft formation. These results suggested that core fucosylation plays important roles in host defence against S. Typhimurium infection.
       
  • The decreased number and function of lymphocytes is associated with
           Penicillium marneffei infection in HIV-negative patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Feng Hu, Shuanglin Liu, Yiwen Liu, Xun Li, Ran Pang, Feng WangAbstractBackground/purposePenicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) infection, which has been traditionally considered as an indicator of immunosuppression, is one of the most common systemic opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS. Recently, more and more P. marneffei infections have been documented in HIV-negative patients without underlying diseases, which challenges the traditional view that P. marneffei infection is an indicator of immunosuppression. We aimed to evaluate the number and function of lymphocytes in HIV-negative patients with P. marneffei infection.Methods15 HIV-negative P. marneffei-infected patients and 18 healthy controls were recruited and investigated. The number and function of lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry.ResultsMost laboratory tests were within the reference ranges, except for a significant increase in total IgE in P. marneffei-infected patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis showed that the number of CD4+ T cells and NK cells was significantly decreased in HIV-negative marneffei-infected patients compared with healthy controls. However, almost half of the marneffei-infected patients still had normal levels of lymphocytes. A further analysis of cell function showed that the activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells, the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and the cytokine secretion potential of CD4+ T cells and NK cells were all impaired, in comparison with healthy controls.ConclusionsP. marneffei infection has to be regarded as an indicator of immunosuppression. A further investigation of cell function is required in patients with opportunistic infection, as the cell function may be impaired in this condition.
       
  • Active and passive immunizations with HtsA, a streptococcal heme
           transporter protein, protect mice from subcutaneous group A S treptococcus
           infection

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Yingli Song, XiaoLan Zhang, Minghui Cai, Chunmei Lv, Yuan Zhao, Deqin Wei, Hui ZhuAbstractBackground/PurposeHtsA (Streptococcus heme transporter A) is the lipoprotein component of the streptococcal heme ABC transporter (HtsABC). The aim of this study is to investigate whether the HtsA protein has immunoprotective effect against group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection in mice.MethodsThe HtsA protein was purified by sequential chromatography on Ni-sepharose, DEAE-sepharose and Phenyl-sepharose, CD-1 mice were actively immunized with ALUM (control) or HtsA/ALUM, and passively immunized with control or anti-HtsA serum. Mice were challenged with GAS after immunization, and the survival rate, skin lesion size and systemic GAS dissemination were determined.ResultsThe HtsA gene was cloned, and the recombinant protein HtsA was successfully purified. HtsA has a strong antigenicity, and active immunization with the HtsA protein significantly protected mice against lethal subcutaneous GAS infection, inhibited invasion of the skin by GAS, and reduced GAS systemic dissemination in blood and organs. In addition, passive immunization with anti-HtsA serum also significantly protected mice against subcutaneous GAS infection, and inhibited invasion of the skin by GAS.ConclusionThe results showed that both active and passive immunization with the HtsA protein protected mice against subcutaneous GAS infection, suggesting that HtsA may be a candidate of GAS vaccine to protect against GAS infection.
       
  • Human papillomavirus infection is not associated with laryngeal squamous
           cell carcinoma in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Chung-Guei Huang, Li-Ang Lee, Tuan-Jen Fang, Hsueh-Yu Li, Chun-Ta Liao, Chung-Jan Kang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Tse-Ching Chen, Shin-Ru ShihAbstractBackground/PurposeTo examine whether the prevalence rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Taiwanese patients with primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is different from that in those with a vocal polyp (VP) or vocal fold leukoplakia (VFL).MethodsThis prospective cohort study recruited 41 consecutive patients with primary LSCC and 27 and 20 patients with VP and VFL, respectively. The HPV L1 gene in surgical specimens was detected using polymerase chain reaction. High-risk HPV DNA in tissue microarray specimens was detected using in situ hybridization. Expression of p16INK4a in tissue microarray specimens was determined through immunohistochemistry.ResultsThe prevalence of HPV L1 DNA in the LSCC group was equivalent to that in the VP and VFL groups (7.3% vs. 7.4% vs. 10.0%; P = 0.929; effect size = 0.20). High-risk HPV DNA detected using in situ hybridization was relatively rare in all groups (2.6% vs. 5.3% vs. 0.0%; P = 0.636; effect size = 0.81). The prevalence of p16INK4a positivity was significantly lower in the LSCC group than in the VP and VFL groups (5.1% vs. 58.8% vs. 14.3%; P 
       
  • Diabetic patients suffering dengue are at risk for development of dengue
           shock syndrome/severe dengue: Emphasizing the impacts of co-existing
           comorbidity(ies) and glycemic control on dengue severity

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Ing-Kit Lee, Ching-Jung Hsieh, Chien-Te Lee, Jien-Wei LiuAbstractBackground/PurposeThe impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on clinical severity of dengue has not been fully understood. We aimed to assess risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and severe dengue (SD) (defined based on the World Health Organization 1997 and 2009 dengue classifications), and additionally identify, among DM2 patients, who are at risk for developing DHF/DSS and severe dengue.MethodsA retrospective analysis of dengue patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2010. Risk factors for development of DHF/DSS/SD were identified using multivariate analysis. To elucidate the impacts of coexisting comorbidity(ies) (i.e., hypertension, chronic kidney disease, old stroke, and/or ischemic heart disease) and glycemic control on clinical outcomes of dengue in DM2 patients, the overall DM2 patients and stratified DM2 patients (HbA1c 
       
  • Genetic analysis of virulence and antimicrobial-resistant plasmid pOU7519
           in Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Chyi-Liang Chen, Lin-Hui Su, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chun-Yen Lin, Cheng-Hsun ChiuAbstractBackgroundZoonotic Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), causing paratyphoid in pigs and bacteremia in humans, commonly carry a virulence plasmid and sometimes a separate antimicrobial-resistant plasmid or merging together. This study aimed to analyze the likely mechanism of how to form a virulence-resistance chimera of plasmid in S. Choleraesuis.MethodsWhole plasmid sequence of pOU7519 in S. Choleraesuis strain OU7519 was determined using shotgun cloning and sequencing. Sequence annotation and comparison were performed to determine the sequence responsible for the formation of a chimeric virulence-resistance pOU7519. Other chimeric plasmids among the collected strains of S. Choleraesuis were also confirmed.ResultsThe sequence of pOU719, 127,212 bp long, was identified to be a chimera of the virulence plasmid pSCV50 and a multidrug-resistant plasmid pSC138 that have been found in S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67. The pOU7519 is a conjugative plasmid carrying various mobile DNAs, including prophages, insertion sequences, integrons and transposons, especially a Tn6088-like transposon. By dissecting the junction site of the pSCV50-pSC138 chimera in pOU7519, defective sequences at integrase gene scv50 (int) and its attachment site (att) were found, and that likely resulted in a stable chimera plasmid due to the failure of excision from the pSCV50-pSC138 chimera. Similar structure of chimera was also found in other large plasmids.ConclusionThe deletion of both the int and att sties could likely block chimera excision, and result in an irreversible, stable pSCV50-pSC138 chimera. The emergence of conjugative virulence and antimicrobial-resistant plasmids in S. Choleraesuis could pose a threat to health public.
       
  • Streptococcus pyogenes nuclease A (SpnA) mediated virulence does not
           exclusively depend on nuclease activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Callum Chalmers, Adrina Hema J. Khemlani, Chae Ryeong Sohn, Jacelyn Mei San Loh, Catherine (Jia-Yun) Tsai, Thomas ProftAbstractBackgroundStreptococcus pyogenes, or Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases, including pharyngitis, necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. The bacterium produces a large arsenal of virulence factors, including the cell wall-anchored Streptococcus pyogenes nuclease A (SpnA), which facilitates immune evasion by degrading the DNA backbone of neutrophil extracellular traps. SpnA consists of a C-terminal endo/exonuclease domain and a N-terminal domain of unknown function.MethodsRecombinant SpnA mutants were generated by alanine conversion of selected residues that were predicted to play a role in the enzymatic activity and tested for their ability to degrade DNA. A GAS spnA deletion mutant was complemented with a plasmid-borne catalytic site mutant and analyzed for virulence in a Galleria mellonella (wax moth) infection model.ResultsSeveral predicted residues were experimentally confirmed to play a role in SpnA enzymatic activity. These include Glu592, Arg696, His716, Asp767, Asn769, Asp810 and Asp842. Complementation of a GAS spnA deletion mutant with a spnA H716A mutant gene partially restored virulence in wax moth larvae, whereas complementation with the spnA wt gene completely restored activity. Furthermore, complementation with a secreted form of SpnA showed reduced virulence.ConclusionOur results show that abolishing the enzymatic activity of SpnA only partially reduces virulence suggesting that SpnA has an additional virulence function, which might be located on the N-terminal domain. Furthermore, cell wall-anchoring of SpnA results in higher virulence compared to secreted SpnA, probably due to a higher local density of the enzyme.
       
  • Role of tubulointerstitial lesions in predicting renal outcome among
           pediatric onset lupus nephritis – A retrospective cohort study

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Chao-Yi Wu, Hui-Ping Chien, Huang-Yu Yang, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Min-Hua Tseng, Mei-Chin Yu, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Jing-Long HuangAbstractBackgroundRaising evidence suggested a prognostic utility of tubulointerstitial lesions in lupus nephritis (LN). The exact prevalence of tubulointerstitial abnormalities and its predictive value among pediatric onset systemic lupus erythematous (pSLE) cases, however, remained unknown.MethodsSixty-seven pSLE subjects diagnosed with LN with initial renal samples available were enrolled and followed for an average of 6.49 ± 3.06 years. Renal histology was evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, National Institute of Health classification and tubulointerstitial activity index (TIAI).ResultsTubulointerstitial injuries were observed in 38.81% of all LN cases, including 13.33% with non-proliferative lupus nephritis (nPLN) and 46.15% of with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Tubulointerstitial injuries occurred solitarily in cases with nPLN(13.33%), but always associated glomerular changes and significantly impacted renal survival (p = 0.032) among those with PLN. TIAI associated glomerular abnormalities (p = 0.031) but did not correlate renal performance or subsequent outcome (p = 0.445). Among the chronicity index, it was the chronic tubulointerstitial lesions that provided prognostic information (p = 0.012). None of the individual tubulointerstitial factors, however, reached statistical significance in end-stage renal disease prediction. Finally, considering tubulointerstitial injuries in PLN further discriminated subsequent renal outcome (p = 0.006).ConclusionTubulointerstitial abnormalities were found in nearly one-third of all pediatric LN cases. With its importance in early identifying those at risk of renal failure, histologic classification considering tubulointerstitial lesions may potentially assist outcome prediction.
       
  • Monosodium urate crystals induced ICAM-1 expression and cell–cell
           adhesion in renal mesangial cells: Implications for the pathogenesis of
           gouty nephropathy

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Shue-Fen Luo, Chia-Yin Chin, Ling-Jun Ho, Wen-Yi Tseng, Chang-Fu Kuo, Jenn-Haung LaiAbstractBackgroundRenal disease is prevalent in gouty patients and monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in the kidney can be detected in some gouty nephropathy patients. MSU crystals can induce inflammatory events, we investigated the MSU-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) and the involved signal transduction mechanisms.MethodsThe HRMCs cell line was purchased from ScienCell Research Laboratories. MSU crystals were made by dissolving uric acid in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The involvement of MAPKs, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) was investigated using pharmacological inhibitors, transfection with short hairpin RNA (shRNA), or monoclonal antibodies. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. The functional activity of ICAM-1 was evaluated with cell–cell adhesion assay and immunofluorescence analysis.ResultsMSU stimulation increased expression of ICAM-1 and adhesion between HRMCs and human monocytic THP-1 cells. The interaction between HRMCs and THP-1 was suppressed by ICAM-1 neutralizing antibodies. MSU stimulation induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but only p38 was responsible for MSU-induced expression of ICAM-1 and cell–cell adhesion. ASC also play a role in MSU-induced effects. Pretreatment with monoclonal antibodies against toll-like receptor (TLR)2 or TLR4 reduced MSU-induced ICAM-1 expression, cell–cell adhesion, p38 phosphorylation but the reduction of ASC activation is insignificant.ConclusionThe MSU induced ICAM-1 expression on HRMCs and cell–cell adhesion involved TLR2/4-p38-ICAM1 pathway and TLR2/4 independent ASC-p38-ICAM1 axis. These findings might partly explain the mechanisms underlying gouty nephropathy.
       
  • Immunodominance of LipL3293–272 peptides revealed by leptospirosis sera
           and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Tippawan Pissawong, Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Nonglucksanawan Ritthisunthorn, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Onrapak Reamtong, Poom Adisakwattana, Thareerat Kalambaheti, Urai Chaisri, Galayanee DoungchaweeAbstractBackground/PurposeLeptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis, imposing significant human and veterinary public health burdens. In this study, recombinant LipL3293–147 and LipL32148–184 middle domain of LipL3293–184, and LipL32171–214, and LipL32215–272 of c-terminal LipL32171–272 truncations were defined for immunodominance of the molecule during Leptospira infections revealed by leptospirosis sera.ResultsIgM-dominant was directed to highly surface accessible LipL32148–184 and Lipl32171–214. IgG dominance of LipL32148–184 revealed by rabbit anti-Leptospira sera and convalescent leptospirosis paired sera were mapped to highly accessible surface of middle LipL32148–184 truncation whereas two LipL32148–184 and LipL32215–272 truncations were IgG-dominant when revealed by single leptospirosis sera. The IgM-dominant of LipL32148–214 and IgG-dominant LipL32148–184 peptides have highly conserved amino acids of 70% identity among pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira species and were mapped to the highly surface accessible area of LipL32 molecule that mediated interaction of host components. IgG dominance of two therapeutic epitopes located at LipL32243–253 and LipL32122–130 of mAbLPF1 and mAbLPF2, respectively has been shown less IgG-dominant (
       
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related extra-pulmonary diseases and
           antimicrobial therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Dimitri PoddigheAbstractThe findings by Yang-TI et al. suggested that macrolide-resistance and/or delayed appropriate antimicrobial treatment may contribute to the development of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related extra-pulmonary diseases in children. Indeed, these conditions can have variable clinical expression and severity, and may arise in immunologically predisposed children after recurrent/persistent exposure to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
       
  • Reply to correspondence of Dr. Dimitri Poddighe

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Tzu-I. Yang, Luan-Yin Chang
       
  • C1q nephropathy in a patient complicated with nephrotic syndrome and
           refractory to steroid therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Yun-Hong Yang, Wen-Sen Lee, Chung-Yi Cheng
       
  • Group B streptococcal transmission via a prolonged colonizer in a neonatal
           intensive care unit

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Yoon-Joo Kim, Young Mi Yoon, Young Ree Kim, Sang Taek Heo, Jeong Rae Yoo, Keun Hwa Lee, Jae Hong ChoiAbstractThis article reports five invasive Group B streptococcal (GBS) infections that occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit for about 3 months. This outbreak might have been associated with a prolonged GBS colonized infant and adjacent environmental contaminations. Infection control interventions prevented the additional spread of GBS infections.
       
  • Viability of Leishmania in blood donors: A tangible possibility
           of transfusion transmission

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Adriana de Oliveira França, Luiza de Oliveira Ramos Pereira, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Márcia Pereira de Oliveira, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros DorvalAbstractAsymptomatic individuals apparently able for blood donation, could be infected with Leishmania imposing risks for immunologically vulnerable recipients. Reverse transcribed conventional PCR targeting the 28S ribosomal subunit was conducted, in order to confirm the viability of the parasite in blood donors positive for Leishmania infection.
       
  • Identification of a novel protein in the genome sequences of Leptospira
           interrogans with the ability to interact with host's components

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): A.D. Rossini, A.F. Teixeira, A. Souza Filho, G.O. Souza, S.A. Vasconcellos, M.B. Heinemann, E.C. Romero, A.L.T.O. NascimentoAbstractBackgroundLeptospirosis is an infectious disease that affects humans and animals worldwide. The etiological agents of this disease are the pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms involved in the leptospiral pathogenesis are not full understood. The elucidation of novel mediators of host-pathogen interaction is important in the detection of virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.ObjectiveThis work focused on identification and characterization of a hypothetical protein of Leptospira encoded by the gene LIC10920.MethodsThe protein of unknown function was predicted to be surface exposed. Therefore, the LIC10920 gene was cloned and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) Star pLysS strain. The recombinant protein was purified by metal affinity chromatography and evaluated with leptospirosis human serum samples. The interaction with host components was also performed.ResultsThe recombinant protein was recognized by antibodies present in leptopsirosis human serum, suggesting its expression during infection. Immunofluorescence and intact bacteria assays indicated that the bacterial protein is surface-exposed. The recombinant protein interacted with human laminin, in a dose-dependent and saturable manner and was named Lsa24.9, for Leptospiral surface adhesin, followed by its molecular mass. Lsa24.9 also binds plasminogen (PLG) in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion, fulfilling receptor ligand interaction. Moreover, Lsa24.9 has the ability to acquire PLG from normal human serum, exhibiting similar profile as observed with the human purified component. PLG bound Lsa24.9 was able of generating plasmin, which could increase the proteolytic power of the bacteria.ConclusionsThis novel leptospiral protein may function as an adhesin at the colonization steps and may help the invasion process by plasmin generation at the bacterial cell surface.
       
  • Plasma proteome profiling reveals differentially expressed
           lipopolysaccharide-binding protein among leptospirosis patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Cheng-Yee Fish-Low, Leslie Thian Lung Than, King-Hwa Ling, Qingsong Lin, Zamberi SekawiAbstractBackgroundHuman leptospirosis, or commonly known as “rat urine disease” is a zoonotic disease that is caused by the bacteria called Leptospira sp. The incidence rate of leptospirosis has been under-reported due to its unspecific clinical symptoms and the limitations of current laboratory diagnostic methods. Leptospirosis can be effectively treated with antibiotics in the early stage, and it is a curable disease but the accuracy to diagnose the infection is rarely achieved.MethodsThe present pilot study investigated plasma protein profiles of leptospirosis patients and compared them against two control groups which consisted of dengue patients and healthy individuals. The plasma protein digests were analyzed using shotgun approach by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein abundances were estimated from the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) values. Plasma proteins in leptospirosis patients with at least two-fold differential expression compared to dengue and healthy control groups (p 
       
  • Detection of circulating IgG autoantibody to FcεRIα in sera from chronic
           spontaneous urticaria patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Bastsetseg Ulambayar, Yi-Hsing Chen, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Chang-Gyu Jung, Eun-Mi Yang, Hae-Sim Park, Young-Min YeAbstractBackgroundsChronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common skin disorder characterized by itchy wheals of at least 6 weeks in duration, wherein the autoimmune mechanism is involved to activate IgE receptors (FcεRIα) on mast cells. We aimed to assess levels of IgG autoantibody against FcεRIα in sera from CSU patients using dot-blot immunoassay.MethodsWe performed a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 125 CSU patients (64 ASST-positive, 61 ASST-negative) and 64 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. The cut-off value of IgG FcεRIα autoantibody was determined as the mean intensity plus two standard deviations of values in controls. Positivity for IgG autoantibody to FcεRIα was analyzed according to clinical parameters of disease duration, urticaria activity score (UAS), ASST, response to antihistamine treatment, complement levels, and the presence of other autoantibodies. Nonparametric tests were applied for statistical analyses.ResultsIgG positivity to FcεRIα was noted in 24.8% of CSU patients and was significantly more frequent in ASST-positive patients than in ASST-negative patients (32.8% vs 16.4%, P = 0.040). Only 3.1% of healthy controls had this autoantibody. Complement 3 levels were significantly lower in anti-FcεRIα antibody-positive patients than antibody-negative patients (109.8 ± 19.9 vs 123.1 ± 30.9, P = 0.035). No significant associations were found between IgG positivity to FcεRIα and UAS, serum total IgE levels, atopic status, clinical responses to antihistamines, or the presence of anti-thyroid and anti-nuclear antibodies.ConclusionThese findings suggest that circulating IgG autoantibody to FcεRIα in a subset of patients may be involved in the autoimmune mechanism of CSU. Further studies are needed to clarify its clinical significance.
       
  • Policy-driven revolution of prescription record in outpatient use of
           fluoroquinolones

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Shu-Chen Kuo, Shu-Man Shih, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, I-Shou Chang, Yee-Chun Chen, Chao A. Hsiung, Shang-Chwen ChangAbstractObjectiveA policy initiated in 2001 by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Administration has effectively reduced outpatient antibiotic use except fluoroquinolones (FQs). The influence of differential regulation policy of narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum FQs on the prescriptions is unknown.MethodsThis study analyzed the claim records of oral FQs prescription at outpatient visits during 2000–2010 using the NHI Research Database and compared prescriptions for narrow-spectrum FQs, which are inactive against Streptococcus pneumoniae and lack formulary restriction, with those for broad-spectrum FQs.ResultsOral antibiotics were prescribed in 13.3% of visits and FQs accounted for 2.2% of them. During the study period the population-based rates of FQ prescription visits to children decreased, which was offset by increased use in the adult and geriatric populations (all p 
       
  • Antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of 25 genetically confirmed
           Aspergillus species collected from Taiwan and Mainland China

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Ying Li, He Wang, Yu-Pei Zhao, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren HsuehAbstractBackgroundTo investigate the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of 25 genetically confirmed Aspergillus species collected from Taiwan and Mainland China.MethodsA total of 390 non-duplicate and consecutive Aspergillus isolates representing of 25 species recovered from clinical sources at two teaching hospitals in Taiwan and Mainland china were preserved for this study. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) of those Aspergillus isolates against seven antifungal agents was performed using Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) system. The susceptibility profiles of isolates were analyzed according to the general interpretation code drawn from the SYO instruction. The CYP51A gene sequencing analysis was performed for triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.ResultsAmong the 390 Aspergillus isolates, 76.7% (n = 299) exhibited complete susceptibility to all the tested antifungals, and 23.3% (91/390) of different Aspergillus species isolates showed resistance to one or two classes of antifungal agents with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of>2 mg/L. Resistance to amphotericin B was found in 91.2% (83/91) of those less susceptible isolates and most of them focused on species being resistant to Amphotericin B innately. The total rate of triazole resistance in this study was low (3.3%, 13/390), and only 3 (2.8%) A. fumigatus isolates were resistant to at least one of the triazoles with mutations of TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A in CYP51A gene. The echinocandins were highly potent to the tested Aspergillus isolates.ConclusionThe existence of triazole resistance among A. fumigatus isolates in Taiwan and Mainland China indicates the need for continuous monitoring from now on.
       
  • Candida albicans Aro1 affects cell wall integrity, biofilm
           formation and virulence

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Ying-Chieh Yeh, Hung-Yen Wang, Chung-Yu LanAbstractBackgroundCandida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing life-threatening systemic infections. The C. albicans ARO1 gene encodes an arom multifunctional enzyme, which can possibly catalyze reactions of the shikimate pathway to synthesize aromatic amino acids. However, the functions of C. albicans Aro1 have not been extensively characterized.MethodsARO1 knockdown mutant strain was constructed, using a tetracycline-regulated (TR) expression system. Cell growth of the mutant strain was compared with wild type. Effects of the ARO1 gene knockdown on cell wall properties, adhesion to polystyrene and biofilm formation were further investigated. Finally, Galleria mellonella was used as a model host to study the role of ARO1 in virulence of C. albicans.ResultsWe showed that defective growth in the ARO1 knockdown strain was rescued by supplemental aromatic amino acids. In addition, the ARO1 knockdown strain was easily aggregated and precipitated. The knockdown of ARO1 also caused changes in cell wall properties and compositions and promoted C. albicans cell adhesion to polystyrene and biofilm formation. Finally, the ARO1 knockdown strain showed attenuation of C. albicans virulence.ConclusionThis work provides new insights into C. albicans metabolism, cell wall and virulence.
       
  • Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary invasive
           fungal infection among adult patients with hematological malignancy in a
           medical centre in Taiwan, 2008–2013

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Chien-Yuan Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Feng-Ming Tien, Po-Chu Lee, Shang-Yi Huang, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren HsuehAbstractBackground/purposeThis study was aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary invasive fungal infection (IFI) among patients with hematological malignancy.MethodsAll patients with hematological malignancy who were treated at a medical centre from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Pulmonary IFI was classified according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 2008 consensus.ResultsDuring the study period, 236 (11.3%) of 2083 patients with hematological malignancy were diagnosed as pulmonary IFI, including 41 (17.4%) proven, 75 (31.8%) probable, and 120 (50.8%) possible cases. Among the 116 patients of proven and probable cases of pulmonary IFI, aspergillosis alone (n = 90, 77.6%) was predominant, followed by cryptococcosis alone (n = 9, 7.8%), and mucormycosis (n = 4, 3.4%). The overall incidence of patients with pulmonary IFI was 5.9 per 100 patient-years. The highest incidence (per 100 patient-year) was found in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (13.7) followed by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (11.3), and myelodysplastic syndrome/severe aplastic anaemia (6.7). Fourteen (5.9%) of the 236 patients with pulmonary IFI died within 12 weeks after diagnosis of pulmonary IFI. Univariate analysis revealed that elderly age (>65 years) (P = 0.034), lack of response to anti-fungal treatment (P 
       
  • A novel pathogenic mutation on Interleukin-7 receptor leading to severe
           combined immunodeficiency identified with newborn screening and whole
           exome sequencing

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 53, Issue 1Author(s): Cheng-Yu Liao, Hui-Wen Yu, Chao-Neng Cheng, Jiann-Shiuh Chen, Ching-Wei Lin, Peng-Chieh Chen, Chi-Chang ShiehAbstractBackgroundPatients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is caused by genetic defects in immune-related genes involved in the development or activation of the adaptive immune system, often died in infancy due to severe infections before definite molecular diagnosis could be made. Although recent improvement in early diagnosis has been achieved by newborn screening, the genetic basis of many of the patients is still unknown.MethodsHere we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the underlying genetic causes of SCID in a proband identified with newborn screening. Inheritance of the mutation was confirmed with targeted sequencing of the parents. Homozygosity mapping from the WES was used to investigate the consanguinity of the parents. Immunoblotting was used to confirm the loss of expression of the mutant protein.ResultsA novel homozygous frameshift mutation of IL7R was identified through WES. Both parents are carriers for this 1-bp deletion. HLA typing and exome-wide homozygous stretch mapping suggested that the parents are consanguineous. Immunoblotting showed no expression of IL7Rα isoform in the whole blood sample of the proband. The proband received peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and her general condition became stable. Our results suggest that IL7R is essential for T cell development but dispensable for the development of certain human NK cells B cells and suggest that WES can be a useful tool for precise genetic diagnosis of SCID following newborn screening in the index patient without the need to screen other members of the whole family.
       
  • A multicenter study on clinical characteristics of Acinetobacter
           bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Chang-Pan Liu, Tsung-Ta Chiang, Yuag-Meng Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Ya-Sung Yang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Te-Li Chen, Shou-Chuan Shih, YeaYuan Chang, Yuag-Meng Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Chang-Pan Liu, Te-Li Chen, Yi-Tzu Lee, Ya-Sung YangAbstractBackgroundClinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality of Acinetobacter bacteremia in cirrhotic patients have not been investigated.MethodsAcinetobacter bacteremia cases from four medical centers were collected from 2009 to 2014, to compare between patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Risk factors for mortality of Acinetobacter bacteremia among cirrhotic patients were identified using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsAmong the patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia, 72 had liver cirrhosis and 816 had not. Patients with cirrhosis were younger (57.5 [50–71] vs. 72 [50.25–71], p 
       
  • Bloodstream infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing
           Escherichia coli: The role of virulence genes

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Wan-Ting Hung, Ming-Fang Cheng, Fan-Chen Tseng, Yao-Shen Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Tsung-Hsien Chang, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Chih-Hsin Hung, Jiun-Ling WangAbstractBackgroundExtraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains hold the responsibility for the majority of E. coli infections. Numerous extraintestinal virulence factors (VFs) were possessed by ExPEC which are involved in the pathogenesis of infection. However, the effect of comorbidities or infection syndrome in the association of VFs and mortality remains inconclusive.MethodThis study addressed whether specific sequence type (ST) and VFs of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) are associated with different outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection. 121 adults from southern Taiwan with ESBL-EC bloodstream infections were enrolled during a 6-year period. Demographic data, including infection syndromes, underlying disease and outcomes, were collected. The virulence factors in isolates were analyzed by PCR and multilocus sequence typing analyses were also performed.ResultPositivity for the virulence genes iha, hlyD, sat, iutA, fyuA, malX, ompT, and traT was associated with ST131 positivity (P 
       
  • Risk factors for and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among healthy children in
           southern Taiwan, 2005–2010

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Chih-Ho Chen, Kuang-Che Kuo, Kao-Pin Hwang, Tzou-Yien Lin, Yhu-Chering HuangAbstractBackground/purposeNasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-defined risk factor for subsequent infection. This study investigated the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in southern Taiwan and aimed to identify the host factors for S. aureus colonization and the virulence factor of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes.MethodsIn a hospital-based study in Kaohsiung from Oct. 2005 to Dec. 2010, we performed nasal swab in the healthy children aged 2–60 months. We examined the relationship between the demographic characteristics and S. aureus nasal colonization. MRSA isolates were further analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics.ResultsAmong 3020 healthy children, 840 (27.8%) children had S. aureus nasal colonization. Of 840 isolates, 246 (29.3%) isolates were MRSA. MRSA colonization was significantly associated with age 2–6 months, day care attendance, and influenza vaccination. Breastfeeding was a protective factor against MRSA colonization. Most MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. Ninety-four percent of MRSA isolates carried either type IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) or SCCmec VT and 87% belonged to the local community strains, namely clonal complex 59/SCCmec IV or VT. MRSA isolates with PVL-negative was associated with children with passive smoking.ConclusionsBetween 2005 and 2010, 27.8% and 8.14% of healthy children in southern Taiwan had nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA, respectively. Most MRSA isolates were local community strains. Several demographic factors associated with nasal MRSA colonization were identified.
       
  • Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG immunopathologic changes in chronic
           mouse asthma model

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Chia-Ta Wu, Fei-Hung Lin, Yu-Tzu Lee, Min-Sho Ku, Ko-Haung LueAbstractBackgroundAsthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder of the airway. A Th2 response usually contributes to high levels of allergen-specific IgE and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Several findings have demonstrated that neutrophils, not eosinophils, are the major inflammatory cells in chronic asthma patients with steroid-resistance. Lactobacillus rhammosus GG (LGG) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on OVA-induced acute airway inflammation.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that orally administrated LGG should reduce airway remodeling in chronic experimental models.MethodsFemale Balb/c mice were sensitized with OVA. LGG was used to investigate whether oral administrations of LGG inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in a chronic asthma model and the different intervention times between LGG pre-treatment and post-treatment groups. BALF was analyzed with Liu's stain and ELISA assay. Lung histopathology was assayed with HE, IHC and Masson's trichrome staining. Lung tissues were assayed with PCR (T-bet, GATA3, RORrt and Foxp3). Many cytokines were detected in the serum and BALF.ResultsLGG significantly decreased the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells. We also found that the oral LGG group suppressed not only Th2 cytokine, but also IL-17, TNF-α and HMGB1 in the BALF levels. However, GATA3 and RORrt decreased significantly in the RNA level in the LGG groups, but the T-bet and Foxp3 increased in the RNA level.ConclusionsLGG not only had anti-inflammatory effects on OVA-induced airway inflammation, but also improved airway remodeling and collagen expression in the chronic asthma mouse model. Moreover, LGG might be an additional or supplementary therapy for allergic airway diseases.
       
  • Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in a neonate intermediate care unit:
           Direct detection of rotavirus from a computer keyboard and mouse

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Hsing-Chen Tsai, Meng-Tsen Tsai, Wang-Huei Sheng, Jann-Tay Wang, Po-Nien Tsao, Hung-Chieh Chou, Chien-Yi Chen, Luan-Yin Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Li-Min HuangAbstractBackgroundDuring one week in September, one index case, followed by two cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis infection, was identified in a neonate intermediate care unit of a tertiary teaching children's hospital. An outbreak investigation was launched to clarify the possible infection source and to stop the spread of infection.MethodsCohort care and environmental disinfection were immediately implemented. We screened rotavirus in all the unit neonates' stool samples as well as environmental swab samples. The precautionary measures with regard to hand hygiene and contact isolation taken by healthcare providers and family members were re-examined.ResultsThe fourth case was identified 5 days after commencement of the outbreak investigation. There were total 39 contacts, including 6 neonates, 8 family members, and 25 healthcare providers. Nineteen stool samples collected from other neonates in the units revealed one positive case (the fourth case). However, one sample taken from the computer keyboard and mouse in the ward was also positive. The observation of hygiene precautions and the use of isolation gowns by healthcare workers were found to be inadequate. Following the intensification of infection control measures, no further cases of infection were reported.ConclusionsHand hygiene and an intensive isolation strategy remained the most critical precautions for preventing an outbreak of healthcare-associated viral gastroenteritis in the neonate care unit.
       
  • Dual therapy with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) plus
           lamivudine versus triple therapy with ritonavir-boosted PI plus two
           nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor in HIV-infected patients
           with viral suppression

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Tung-Che Hung, Guan-Jhou Chen, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Jhen-Hong Chen, Jheng-Lun Wei, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chien-Ching HungAbstractBackgroundDual antiretroviral regimens are attractive options to optimize the combination antiretroviral therapy in light of potential toxicities with long-term cumulative exposure to nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).MethodsIn this retrospective observational study, we included HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with plasma viral load (PVL) 
       
  • Manifestations of enterovirus D68 and high seroconversion among children
           attending a kindergarten

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Ya-Li Hu, Li-Min Huang, Chun-Yi Lu, Tsui-Yen Fang, Ai-Ling Cheng, Luan-Yin ChangAbstractBackground/purpose(s)Enterovirus D68(EV-D68) is an emerging disease that affects mostly children. There have been few relevant investigations to clarify transmission and seroprevalence within daycares and kindergartens.MethodsThis prospective cohort study investigated respiratory viral transmission among preschool children in a public kindergarten in Taipei City of Taiwan between September 2006 and June 2008. After children were enrolled, daily monitoring of illness and regular biweekly physical examinations were performed. We performed viral isolation to detect acute EV-D68 infection and neutralization tests to detect specific EV-D68 antibodies and to measure the seroprevalence and seroconversion rates.ResultsAmong 190 kindergarten attendees aged between two to five years old, nine children had acute EV-D68 infection in September 2007. The clinical manifestations included pharyngitis, cough and other unspecified upper respiratory tract infection. None of the infected children had acute flaccid paralysis or severe respiratory illness. The phylogenetic tree of partial viral protein 3 and viral protein 1 was clustered in clade A1. The EV-D68 seropositive rate increased from 19% (25/130) at the beginning to 67% (83/124) at the end of the study. The seroconversion rate of 49 children with initial seronegative and paired sera was 73% (36/49).ConclusionsA high seroconversion rate (73%) for EV-D68 was found among kindergarten attendees, which indicates preschool-aged children are highly susceptible to EV-D68 infection and that the disease burden may be extremely underestimated. Once EV-D 68 circulates, preventive measures may be advocated, especially within kindergartens or daycares, to reduce transmission and subsequent development of severe cases.
       
  • Treatment of allergic rhinitis reduces acute asthma exacerbation risk
           among asthmatic children aged 2–18 years

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Chiu-Lin Yu, Wan-Ting Huang, Chuang-Ming WangAbstractBackground/purposeAsthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) frequently coexist in the same individuals in childhood and adolescence. We evaluated whether AR had an impact on acute exacerbation (AE) and whether intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) and second-generation antihistamines (SGH) for AR modified the association of AR with AE in asthmatics aged 2–6 years and 7–18 years.MethodsUsing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) Database 2005 of Taiwan, we investigated patients who had been diagnosed with asthma in the years 2000 through 2012 and who had then been followed-up with for at least one year. The risk factors of AE were evaluated using multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.ResultsThe incidence of AE was higher in the preschool group than the older group (adj. HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.44–1.95). The AR with INCS and/or SGH group was found to have a lower risk of AE than the non-AR group (adj. HR: 0.32, 0.44 and 0.30), but the AR without treatment group did not have a significant difference with the non-AR group. After propensity score matching, the use of INCS and/or SGH was associated with a significant reduction in the occurrence of AE among AR patients aged 2–6 years old (adj. HR: 0.38, 0.57 and 0.45) and 7–18 years old (adj. HR: 0.50, 0.52 and 0.35).ConclusionThe preschool patients had a higher incidence of AE than the older patients in general. Adequate treatment with INCS and/or SGH in asthma with AR patients is important for reducing the incidence of AE of asthma.
       
  • Invasive mold infections in acute leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic
           hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 6Author(s): Sheng-Hsuan Chien, Yao-Chung Liu, Chia-Jen Liu, Po-Shen Ko, Hao-Yuan Wang, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Jyh-Pyng GauAbstractBackground/purposePatients with acute leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are exposed to high risk of developing invasive fungal infections, and the invasive mold infections (IMIs) are becoming more and more common after transplantation. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to analyze demographics, microbiology, and risk factors for IMIs development in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT.MethodsWe reviewed 245 adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT from January 2003 to December 2014. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, conditioning regimens, European Group for Blood and Bone marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk score, and presence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) were collected and analyzed. Cox proportional hazard model was adopted to explore the independent risk factors for IMIs developments.ResultsSeventeen of 245 patients developed IMIs during the study period. The cumulative incidence of IMIs in this cohort was 8.7% and 16.8% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, with Aspergillus species being the most common pathogen. The significant risk factors predicting IMIs were unrelated donor transplantation (hazard ratio [HR] 5.11), smoking (HR 3.55), EBMT risk score > 2 (HR 4.22), and moderate to severe cGVHD (HR 3.76).ConclusionsWe identified four risk factors-unrelated donor transplantation, smoking, EBMT risk score>2 and moderate to severe cGVHD to predict IMIs among acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT. This cohort study suggests early identification of high-risk patients and to provide better prevention strategies would reduce the incidence and severity of IMIs in these patients.
       
  • Performance of a multiplex PCR pneumonia panel for the identification of
           respiratory pathogens and the main determinants of resistance from the
           lower respiratory tract specimens of adult patients in intensive care
           units

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Sze Hwei Lee, Sheng-Yuan Ruan, Sung-Ching Pan, Tai-Fen Lee, Jung-Yien Chien, Po-Ren HsuehAbstractBackgroundTimely diagnostic investigation to establish the microbial etiology of pneumonia is essential to ensure the administration of effective antibiotic therapy to individual patients.MethodsWe evaluated a multiplex PCR assay panel, the FilmArray® pneumonia panel (FilmArray PP, BioFire Diagnostics), for detection of 35 respiratory pathogens and resistance determinants and compared the performance of the standard-of-care test in intensive care unit patients with lower respiratory tract infections.ResultsAmong the 59 endotracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens obtained from 51 adult patients, FilmArray PP was effective in detecting respiratory bacterial pathogens with an overall positive percent agreement of 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.5–97.9%) and negative percent agreement of 97.4% (95% CI, 96.0–98.4%). FilmArray PP semi-quantitative reporting demonstrated a concordance rate of 53.6% for the culture-positive specimens and 86.3% for the culture-negative specimens. FilmArray PP detected 16 viral targets, whereas the conventional viral isolation failed, except influenza A, which showed 100% concordance with PCR. Coinfections were detected in 42.3% of the specimens. Substantial discrepancies were observed in identifying antimicrobial resistance gene targets and in the susceptibility testing. However, FilmArray PP may still be useful at the early stage of pneumonia before culture and susceptibility test reports are available. Consequently, the results of FilmArray PP might alter the antibiotic prescription in 40.7% of the patients.ConclusionsFilmArray PP offers a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for lower respiratory tract infections. However, clinical correlation is advised to determine its significance in interpreting multiple pathogens and detection of genes involved in antimicrobial resistance.
       
  • Streptococcus constellatus septicemia complicating endocarditis and liver
           abscess associated with gastric adenocarcinoma

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yi-Hsuan Wong, Po-Jui Huang, Fu-Lun Chen, Wen-Sen Lee, Wen-Sen Lee
       
  • Azithromycin Suppresses Th1- and Th2-related Chemokines IP-10/MDC in Human
           Monocytic Cell Line

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chang-Hung Kuo, Min-Sheng Lee, Hsuan-Fu Kuo, Yi-Ching Lin, Chih-Hsing HungAbstractBackgroundCytokines and chemokines play critical roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Azithromycin, a macrolides, is frequently used in asthmatic children with lower respiratory tract infection and is reported having anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, the effects of azithromycin on the expression of TNF-α, Th1- and Th2- related chemokines, and neutrophil chemoattractant are unknown. We investigated the in vitro effects of azithromycin on the expression of TNF-α, Th1-related chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and neutrophil chemoattractant growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α/CXCL1) in THP-1 cells as a model for human monocytes.MethodsTHP-1 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of azithromycin before Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. TNF-α, IP-10, MDC and GRO-α were measured by ELISA. Intracellular signaling was investigated by pathway inhibitors and western blot.ResultAzithromycin suppressed MDC and IP-10 expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. However, azithromycin had no effect LPS-induced TNF-α and GRO-α expression. Western blotting revealed that azithromycin suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-JNK and ERK expression, and also suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF) κB-p65 expression.ConclusionAzithromycin suppressed LPS-induced MDC expression via the MAPK-JNK and the NFκB-p65 pathway. Azithromycin also suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 via the MAPK-JNK/ERK and the NFκB-p65 pathway. Azithromycin may benefit asthmatic patients by suppressing chemokines expression.
       
  • The clinical characteristics of Acinetobacter bacteremia differ among
           genomospecies: a hospital-based retrospective comparative analysis of
           genotypically identified strains

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Tomoko Ohno, Atsuko Yamada, Arufumi Shiota, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Masaya Watarai, Murotani Kenta, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroshige MikamoAbstractBackground/PurposeAcinetobacter is an aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus, which causes nosocomial infections including bacteremia. Recent development of molecular techniques has made classification of the Acinetobacter genomospecies possible, but there are still only a few studies comparing clinical features of the subspecies. We investigated bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter, isolated subspecies, and compared clinical features for each group.MethodsA retrospective analysis of Acinetobacter bacteremia cases was made in a 900-bed hospital in Japan. In addition to conventional procedures, subspecies identification based on rpoB sequence was made, and comparison of clinical characteristics between each subspecies were analyzed.ResultsWe collected 35 cases (A. baumannii 14, A. nosocomialis 12, A. ursingii 6, and A. seifertii 3). All of the A. seifertii bacteremia cases were blood stream infection occurring in cerebrovascular disease patients, showing particularly higher incidence of shock (100%) and high Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) (6.33±2.52) in comparison to A. baumannii (43% and 2.86±2.25, respectively). Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the PBS were slightly higher in A. nosocomialis in comparison to A. baumannii, and the 7 day mortality rate was higher in A. nosocomialis (25%) than in A. baumannii (7%), though this difference was not found to be significant.ConclusionsA.seifertii, the recently defined novel species, showed distinctive clinical features of bacteremia. And, in contrast to previous studies, the severity of A. nosocomialis infection was not lower than that of A. baumannii, which might suggest the influence of local epidemiology. Further characterization of these subspecies should be continued.
       
  • Lemierre’s syndrome in an acute myocardial infarction patient

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yu-Hsiang Chung, Tsong-Yih Ou, Shao-Jung Li, Min-Kai Chuang, Te-I. Chang
       
  • Viral etiologies of acute respiratory tract infections among hospitalized
           children-a comparison between single and multiple viral infections

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chun-Yu Yen, Wan-Tai Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ying-Chi Wong, Chou-Cheng Lai, Yu-Jiun Chan, Keh-Gong Wu, Miao-Chiu HungAbstractBackgroundAcute respiratory tract infections are commonly caused by viruses in children. The differences in clinical data and outcome between single and multiple viral infections in hospitalized children were analyzed.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of hospitalized children who had fever and a xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) test over a 2-year period. The clinical data were analyzed and compared between single and multiple viral infections. Viral etiologies in upper and lower respiratory infections were analyzed and compared.ResultsA total of 442 patients were enrolled. Patients with positive viral detection (N=311) had a significantly lower rate of leukocytosis (p=0.03), less evidence of bacterial infection (p=0.004), and shorter duration of hospitalization (p=0.019) than those with negative viral detection. The age of patients with multiple viral infections was younger than those with single viral infection; however, there were no significant differences in duration of fever, antibiotics treatment and hospitalization between these two groups.The most commonly identified virus was human rhinovirus. About 27% (n=83) of patients had multiple viral infections. Overall, the highest percentage of human bocavirus infection was detected in multiple viral infections (79%). Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was independently associated with multiple viral infections (p=0.022), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (p=0.001) and longer hospitalization duration (p=0.011).ConclusionMultiple viral infections were associated with younger age and a higher risk of developing LRTI. However, multiple viral infections did not predict a worse disease outcome. More studies are needed to unveil the interplay between the hosts and different viruses in multiple viral infections.
       
  • Enteroviral infection in neonates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yu-Yu Chuang, Yhu-Chering HuangAbstractEnteroviruses generally cause mild and self-limited diseases, but they have been found to affect neonates much differently, and often more severely than older children. Clinical manifestations are difficult to differentiate from those of bacterial sepsis, such as fever, poor feeding, lethargy, respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse. Severe life threatening complications, including hepatic necrosis with coagulopathy, meningoencephalitis and myocarditis, usually present during the first week of life. Factors affecting severity and outcome include virus serotype, mode of transmission, and presence or absence of passively acquired, serotype-specific maternal antibodies. Echoviruses and coxsackievirus B viruses are most common serotypes associated with the neonatal sepsis. An awareness of the clinical syndromes, recognition of the risk factors and monitoring parameters associated with severe cases and use of rapid reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test for viral load may help physicians in diagnosing severe cases in a timely manner. Prompt aggressive treatment including early intravenous immunoglobulin treatment may help in reducing morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus infections in neonates are common and should be routinely considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile neonates, particularly during enterovirus season. This article provides an overview of what is known about non-polio enteroviruses in neonates including epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
       
  • Streptococcus pyogenes cutaneous infection following sandfly
           bites

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Shun-Chung Hsueh, Yu-Tsung Huang, Po-Ren Hsueh
       
 
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