Subjects -> PALEONTOLOGY (Total: 46 journals)
Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ameghiniana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de Paléontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Carnegie Museum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comptes Rendus Palevol     Full-text available via subscription  
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fossil Record     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geobios     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ichnos: An International Journal for Plant and Animal Traces     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Paleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Marine Micropaleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Micropaleontology     Full-text available via subscription  
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Novitates Paleoentomologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Quaternary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Palaeoworld     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PALAIOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Paläontologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Paleobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PaleoBios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paleoceanography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Paleontological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Paleontological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Papers in Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (Research In Paleontology and Stratigraphy)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spanish Journal of Palaeontology     Open Access  
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zitteliana     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Paleolimnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.019
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0417 - ISSN (Online) 0921-2728
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Enhanced middle Holocene organic carbon burial in tropical floodplain
           lakes of the Pantanal (South America)
    • Abstract: Abstract Wetland carbon storage is an important and environmentally sensitive ecosystem service. Carbon burial in the floodplain lakes of the Pantanal (tropical South America) appears to have varied during the late Quaternary, but several paleolimnological studies have recorded unusually high sediment organic carbon content from ~ 7.3 to 6.0 cal kyr BP in lakes connected to the Upper Paraguay River. We conducted a multi-indicator (phytoliths, sponge spicules, and geochemistry) study of a sediment core from Lake Cáceres (Bolivia), and found evidence for enhanced organic carbon burial during the middle Holocene that provides insights into the flooding history of the Upper Paraguay River. δ13Corg and C/N data suggest that organic matter deposited at that time in Lake Cáceres was from macrophytes. Similar datasets from three other floodplain lakes are consistent with this finding. We suggest that enhanced carbon burial occurred when lake levels declined under relatively dry climate conditions, which increased the littoral area at the expense of open water and captured floating macrophyte islands. This study sheds new light on hydroclimate controls on carbon cycling in the Pantanal wetlands, and improves interpretations of geochemical measures on bulk organic matter in floodplain lake cores.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Recent climate-driven ecological changes in tropical montane lakes of
           Rwenzori Mountains National Park, central Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract Rwenzori Mountains National Park, which straddles the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, has experienced rapid glacier loss since the beginning of the twentieth century, yet there has been little investigation of aquatic biodiversity change in the park. This study presents a paleolimnological analysis from Lake Mahoma (2990 m asl), which is situated in the bamboo-forest transition zone. Diatom and organic geochemistry data from a 39-cm-long sediment core with a basal age of c. 1715 CE were compared with new analyses of previously published data from Lakes Bujuku (3891 m asl) and Lower Kitandara (3989 m asl), in the alpine zone. Comparisons were made to determine if aquatic ecosystem changes exhibited similar inter-lake patterns over the past ~ 150 years of climate warming and glacial recession, or if only local change was apparent. The diatom flora of Lake Mahoma is acidophilous, dominated by Aulacoseira ikapoënsis since at least the mid eighteenth century. In recent decades, the obligate nitrogen-heterotroph Nitzschia palea increased in importance, concurrent with declining δ15Norg values. We suggest that these late twentieth century changes were linked to regional warming and increased thermal stratification of Lake Mahoma. Regional comparisons of the Rwenzori lakes were done using existing organic geochemistry records (total organic carbon, C/N and δ13Corg) and through diatom compositional turnover analyses, and categorisation of species into one of four diatom growth morphology traits, or guilds: tychoplanktonic, high-profile, low-profile and motile. Over the past 150 years, all three lakes showed unidirectional, compositional diatom turnover, indicating that deterministic processes had affected diatom communities. Declining turnover at each site is broadly mirrored by an increase in tychoplanktonic taxa, along with concomitant declines in high-profile diatoms at Lake Mahoma, and low-profile diatoms at Lake Bujuku, and at least for the past 60 years, at Lower Kitandara. The interplay between diatom guilds at all sites is mainly a consequence of competition for available resources. Sediment organic carbon at all sites comes from both autochthonous and allochthonous sources, the relative abundances of which are influenced by the time elapsed since lakes had glaciers in their catchment.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Reconstructing Holocene landscape and environmental changes at Lago
           Rogaguado, Bolivian Amazon
    • Abstract: Abstract We performed geochemical analyses of two lake sediment cores (1.25 and 1.5 m long) from Lago Rogaguado, which is a large (315 km2) and shallow lake in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon, to investigate Holocene environmental changes based on a multi-proxy dataset (XRF, density, grain size, C:N, and macrocharcoal). One of the two cores provides a history of environmental changes in the Llanos de Moxos from 8100 cal BP until present, which supplements previously published pollen and microscopic charcoal records. Our analyses indicate lake expansion at 5800 cal BP, which may relate to tectonic activity. This was followed by further increasing lake levels, peaking at approximately 1050–400 cal BP, which supports increasingly wetter conditions in the Llanos de Moxos after the mid-Holocene. A fourfold increase in macroscopic charcoal accumulation rate and a more than fivefold increase in sedimentation rates supports anthropogenic fire activity at around 1450 cal BP (500 CE), suggesting that pre-Columbian populations used fire to actively manage the landscape during a period of maximum lake levels around Lago Rogaguado. From 400–100 cal BP, higher C:N, larger grain sizes and peaks in macroscopic charcoal accumulation rates suggest increased watershed erosion associated with increased biomass burning, possibly related to intensified land use.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Building upon open-barrel corer and sectioning systems to foster the
           continuing legacy of John Glew
    • Abstract: Abstract The late John Glew contributed valuable equipment to the paleolimnology community for successful collection and processing of cores of sediment from aquatic ecosystems. Unfortunately, tubes that fit his hammer-gravity corer design are no longer conveniently available for purchase and, with his sudden passing, Glew gravity and coring equipment is difficult or impossible to access. In some field-sampling situations, other commercially available equipment present limitations. Here, we provide an updated design of the Glew gravity corer which accommodates a hammer-percussion instrument and overcomes limitations we have encountered when coring lakes in remote locations from floats of a helicopter or small, inflatable watercraft. Our approach integrates the ‘best of both worlds’ provided by the Glew and commercially available Uwitec designs, using readily available components. We updated the Glew corer tube collar to be compatible with standard, commercially available 90-mm external diameter (86-mm internal diameter) PVC tubing that fits Uwitec components (e.g., Uwitec rubber ‘piston’ and ‘stoppers’; using terminology of the Uwitec catalogue), and designed a spring-loaded gasket-style plunger that achieves greater suction than the standard Glew designs. We also updated the Glew vertical sectioner to be compatible with 90-mm-diameter core tubes typically ranging from 60–120 cm long. An outcome is consolidation of the Uwitec and Glew gravity coring systems, which has allowed for interchangeability and choice among use of original and hammer-driven Glew, Uwitec, and the new hybrid ‘Uwi-Glew-ee’ gravity corer and sectioner configurations, depending on logistical constraints of fieldwork and anticipated lake sediment composition. The parts and systems are available from University of Waterloo’s Science Technical Services (https://uwaterloo.ca/science-technical-services/).
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • A 450-year record of environmental change from Castle Lake, California
           (USA), inferred from diatoms and organic geochemistry
    • Abstract: Abstract A 39-cm sediment core from Castle Lake, California (USA) spans the last ~ 450 years and was analyzed for diatoms and organic geochemistry (δ15N, δ13C, and C:N), with the goal of determining sensitivity to natural climate variation and twentieth century anthropogenic effects. Castle Lake is a subalpine, nitrogen-limited lake with ~ 5 months of annual ice cover. Human impacts include light recreational use, past fish stocking, and experimental use by the Castle Lake Research Station. The base of the core (below 32 cm; pre mid-1700s) represents the period of maximum ice cover. In contrast, the end of the Little Ice Age (mid 1700s–early 1800s) is dominated by cyclotelloids (mostly Discostella stelligera), indicating significant open-water periods, a condition that persisted into the early 1900s. Cyclotelloids began to decline in the 1960s and were replaced by the Fragilaria tenera grp. (peak in 1970s), succeeded by Asterionella formosa (peak ~ 2010), and accompanied by a reduction in δ15N values and a decrease in C:N that may represent increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Another anthropogenic signal was discerned in the core and was interpreted to be the result of an ammonium nitrate fertilization experiment of the epilimnion that was conducted in 1980 and 1981. This signal was manifested in the core largely by a negative excursion in δ15N, possibly caused by fractionation during denitrification in surface sediment. A phytoplankton monitoring dataset collected by the Castle Lake Research Station from 1967 to 1984 corroborates the timing of increased araphid euplanktonic species in the 1970s, and increases in two benthic diatoms (Staurosirella pinnata and Tabellaria fenestrata), entrained in the phytoplankton tows during the experimentation years. Both ice cover and nitrogen addition appear to be strong drivers that affected the lake diatoms, although additional drivers, such as fish stocking and associated cascade effects need further exploration. These data will be helpful for interpreting longer core records from Castle Lake, should the opportunity arise, as well as cores from similar systems in the region.
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
       
  • Effects of climate change and industrialization on Lake Bolshoe Toko,
           eastern Siberia
    • Abstract: Abstract Industrialization in the Northern Hemisphere has led to warming and pollution of natural ecosystems. We used paleolimnological methods to explore whether recent climate change and/or pollution had affected a very remote lake ecosystem, i.e. one without nearby direct human influence. We compared sediment samples that date from before and after the onset of industrialization in the mid-nineteenth century, from four short cores taken at water depths between 12.1 and 68.3 m in Lake Bolshoe Toko, eastern Siberia. We analyzed diatom assemblage changes, including diversity estimates, in all four cores and geochemical changes (mercury, nitrogen, organic carbon) from one core taken at an intermediate water depth. Chronologies for two cores were established using 210Pb and 137Cs. Sedimentation rates were 0.018 and 0.033 cm year−1 at the shallow- and deep-water sites, respectively. We discovered an increase in light planktonic diatoms (Cyclotella) and a decrease in heavily silicified euplanktonic Aulacoseira through time at deep-water sites, related to more recent warmer air temperatures and shorter periods of lake-ice cover, which led to pronounced thermal stratification. Diatom beta diversity in shallow-water communities changed significantly because of the development of new habitats associated with macrophyte growth. Mercury concentrations increased by a factor of 1.6 since the mid-nineteenth century as a result of atmospheric fallout. Recent increases in the chrysophyte Mallomonas in all cores suggested an acidification trend. We conclude that even remote boreal lakes are susceptible to the effects of climate change and human-induced pollution.
      PubDate: 2021-01-23
       
  • Middle Pleistocene to recent diatoms and stratigraphy of the Magadi Basin,
           south Kenya Rift
    • Abstract: Abstract Two cores were recovered from the Lake Magadi and Nasikie Engida Basins in the south Kenya Rift. Core MAG14-2A (194 m) contains a middle Pleistocene to Holocene record, whereas core NAS15/19 (4.36 m) covers only the late Holocene. Surficial sediments from springs and shallow-water sites were sampled in both basins. MAG14-2A rests on trachyte dated at 1.08 Ma. Diatoms are rare in the oldest sediments, but well preserved after about 545 ka, documenting a trend from less to more saline water. Core MAG14-2A contains fifteen facies, five of which are diatomaceous. In contrast, NAS15/19 is dominated by two facies, each containing well-preserved diatoms. Both sequences are distinct from others of similar age in the Kenya Rift in lacking pedogenic horizons, reflecting the location of Lake Magadi and Nasikie Engida in a tectonic sump where aquatic environments were maintained by geothermal and meteoric springs. Canonical Correspondence Analysis distinguishes three assemblages in the modern surface muds of Lake Magadi and Nasikie Engida, but with no pre-Holocene counterparts. Eleven diatom zones are recognised in MAG14-2A: Zones D2 to D10 contain rare to common diatoms dominated by Aulacoseira granulata and its varieties, Aulacoseira agassizii, Thalassiosira faurii, Thalassiosira rudolfi and Cyclotella meneghiniana. Individual samples commonly include a mixture of benthic and planktonic taxa and saline and freshwater species. These assemblages indicate waters that ranged between pH 7.4 and 11.5 with conductivities of ~ 300 to > 25,000 μS cm−1. Correlations with the neighbouring Olorgesailie and Koora Basins indicate four major environmental phases that affected the south Kenya Rift during the last million years with fresh to moderately saline water, or land surfaces, developing during Phase I (1000 to 750 ka). These environments gave way to generally wetter conditions and freshwater lakes in all basins during Phase II (~ 750 to 500 ka). Phase III (~ 500 to 325 ka) was characterised by drier conditions with paleoenvironments becoming more variable and dry during Phase IV (325 ka to present).
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
       
  • Paleolimnological evidence for lacustrine environmental evolution and
           paleo-typhoon records during the late Holocene in eastern Taiwan
    • Abstract: Abstract The late Holocene lacustrine environmental evolution and paleo-typhoon records are poorly understood around lowland Liyu Lake and mountain Tunlumei Pond in eastern Taiwan. In this study, we use records of diatom populations, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and δ13C from two lacustrine sediment cores in eastern Taiwan to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and the paleo-typhoon records during the late Holocene. Significant changes in lithology and in multi-proxy data in the record from lowland Liyu Lake (LYL) show that LYL became hydrologically isolated by 2850 cal BP, possibly as a result of landslide-induced alluvial fan formation. Synchronous increases of the diatom-inferred lake level proxy for LYL and regional precipitation proxies reflect a strengthened East Asia summer monsoon since 1600 cal BP. Eutrophication of the water in LYL is also inferred, and this is interpreted to be related to agricultural activities, which provides evidence for changes in land use during the past 200 years. The occurrence of diatom valves in sediment of the mountain Tunlumei Pond (TLM) indicates that the pond area has been stable since 760 cal BP, which reflects an increase in the local precipitation. The decrease of diatom-inferred pH indicates an increase in the input of acid runoff from the watershed during typhoon-triggered heavy rainfall. Both lacustrine records suggest that the typhoon intensity increased during the early Little Ice Age. The sediment records in northeastern Taiwan also suggest an increase in typhoon activity during the late Little Ice Age. The asymmetric pattern of typhoon intensity during the last 1000 years is interpreted to reflect the control exerted by anomalies in both global temperature and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation intensity on typhoon tracks over several centuries.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
       
  • Paleolimnological studies on the East European Plain and nearby regions:
           the PaleoLake Database
    • Abstract: The PaleoLake Database contains available information on the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of bottom sediments from numerous lakes located on the East European Plain and nearby regions. The database includes results from more than 70 years of paleolimnological investigations, with information on deposits from 287 water bodies. The compiled data were published mainly in Russian and come from more than 145 monographs, journal articles, dissertations, abstracts, reports and other sources that were difficult to access by the broader science community.
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
       
  • Lake restoration time of Lake Taibai (China): a case study based on
           paleolimnology and ecosystem modeling
    • Abstract: Abstract Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is in principle the first adaptive management against eutrophication, whereas little is known about the recovery time of such intervention, especially in the context of global warming. Here, we use an ensemble approach of paleolimnological records and modeling PCLake to evaluate the recovery time of Lake Taibai, China under diverse combinations of nutrient reduction and climate change scenarios. The model was calibrated for seven sensitive parameters and further validated using the total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in sediment cores reconstructed using a diatom-TP transfer function. The paleolimnological records show that species indicative of eutrophic conditions and the diatom-inferred TP (DI-TP) were low before the 1980s and slightly increased thereafter. The calibrated model not only captures the dynamics of TP concentrations but also performs well in identifying the regime shift between the 2 alternative stable states of the lake: macrophyte-dominated (clear) and algae-dominated (turbid) states. The scenarios results suggest that lake restoration (from turbid to clear state) would take 10–20 years with an annual nutrient loading (both N and P) reduction rate of 15–25% from 2019. Meanwhile, global warming would impede the effectiveness of nutrient reduction by not only increasing the restoration time but also decreasing the vegetation restoration level (as indicated by vegetation dry weight in lake water) and critical nutrient loading for re-oligotrophication. Our results imply that in the long run, nutrient loading reduction measurement for sustainable lake restoration should be adjusted following temperature changes. The present study highlights the feasibility and relevance of a novel methodology using paleolimnological records for model calibration and projections. The modeling approach presented here may provide a better understanding and critical implications of the long-term dynamics and future restoration of Lake Taibai and other similar shallow lake ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-01-07
       
  • Climate change as the dominant driver of recent ecological changes in a
           semi-arid alpine lake from the Chinese Loess Plateau
    • Abstract: Abstract Semi-arid areas of northern China are under increasing pressures from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Although wetland areas in these drylands have experienced dramatic, unidirectional shifts in their ecological status in recent centuries, fundamental driving forces are poorly quantified. Here, we examine changes in sedimentary proxies (diatoms, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a, stable isotopes) preserved in a radiometrically-dated core from Tianchi Lake, an alpine lake within the margin of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) limit in China’s southwestern Loess Plateau. Our algal trends were compared with regional instrumental records, changes in EASM intensity, and with previously published paleolimnological data from this same lake to determine the principal drivers of regional ecological changes. We found no clear evidence that geochemical and biological proxies were strongly affected by deforestation and other human activities. Major environmental changes during the past ~ 200 years were found to be predominantly driven by climatic fluctuations, extreme precipitation events, and changes in EASM intensity. Prior to ~ 1965 CE, diatom assemblages indicate an oligotrophic, clear water state. Shifts in dominance between benthic Staurosirella pinnata and planktonic Lindavia comensis were likely controlled by ice-cover dynamics. Between ~ 1965 and 1980 CE an abrupt shift to a turbid water state during a period of extreme precipitation events was caused by excessive nutrient-laden soil erosion in the already susceptible deforested catchment. This turbid period was evidenced by a rapid increase to dominance of Achnanthidium minutissimum, a sharp decline in oligotrophic Lindavia comensis, increased primary production, and peaks in sediment grain size and SiO2 content. Post- ~ 1980 CE, we provide evidence that a shift towards planktonic diatom dominance can best be explained by changes in climate and EASM intensity, despite substantial nitrogen deposition in the region during the past few decades. Specifically, a drier and warmer climate together with weakened EASM wind strength resulted in decreased erosion and a return to a clear water state, coupled with enhanced thermal stability. Collectively, these observations expand our understanding of how changes in climate, extreme precipitation events, and fluctuations in EASM intensity influence semi-arid alpine lakes in northern China, as well as climate’s leading role in driving ecological change over the past two centuries, despite the intensification of human disturbances during recent decades.
      PubDate: 2021-01-06
       
  • Long-term primary production trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes: a
           comparison of geochemical methods
    • Abstract: Abstract Sediment cores from 12 locations throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes basin were analyzed for geochemical indicators of primary production. Sediment analytes included organic and inorganic contents, carbonates, sediment accumulation rates, total organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations, carbon and nitrogen isotope composition, and trends in spectroscopically inferred chlorophyll a (and its main diagenetic products). When multiple indicators were considered, production records related to recent cultural eutrophication and catchment activities were clear in the paleorecords. Indicators derived from loss-on-ignition (organic and inorganic content) were strongly associated with periods of human settlement in the catchments that increased overall sediment loads to the lakes. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen tracked catchment inputs of carbon, especially during periods of watershed development in western Lake Superior. Sediment records such as chlorophyll a and δ13Corg appear to be reliable indicators of trends in past algal abundance, particularly in Lake Erie, which has a well-known history of higher production and cultural eutrophication. These analytes also correlated well with past measured water quality surrogates for lake primary productivity and stressor data such as human populations in adjacent watersheds. A comparison among indicators revealed that several show redundancy as good proxies of production or productivity, though context was important. For instance, heavier isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are often prescribed as sedimentary indicators of lake productivity, but these two analytes were negatively correlated in Lake Superior, possibly due to long-term increases in cyanobacteria or changes in the nitrogen source. An increase in sediment carbonates can indicate summer blooms of cyanobacteria (a phenomenon that was clearly apparent in Lake Ontario) or catchment erosion. To make convincing geochemical inferences of primary production in the Great Lakes, it is recommended that a weight of evidence be built through the use of multiple indicators.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
       
  • Impacts of Norse settlement on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in
           Southwest Iceland
    • Abstract: Abstract Norse colonization of North Atlantic islands in the 1st millennium of the Common Era led to drastic prehistoric environmental changes in these previously “pristine” landscapes. In Iceland, Norse settlement is associated with a rapid decline in birch trees and heightened soil erosion, yet the timing of Norse exploration in the North Atlantic coincided with large climate changes that also influenced Icelandic environments. To date, there are few records that disentangle climatic and human impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, and there has been very little work on the impacts of Norse arrival on Iceland’s aquatic ecosystems. Here we use a high-resolution lake-sediment record from Vestra Gíslholtsvatn (VGHV), southwest Iceland to investigate these processes during the last 2,000 years. Norse arrival (c. 870 CE) in Iceland is followed by a rapid increase in sedimentation rate and a transition in leaf wax n-alkanes indicating a decrease in trees and expansion of grasses. This transition coincides with limnological changes, including increased primary productivity (i.e. C17 n-alkane and biogenic opal fluxes) and shifts in the haptophyte algal community. Many of these changes are still apparent today. Comparisons with a new winter-spring alkenone temperature reconstruction from VGHV and marine sea surface temperature records show little to no correlation between terrestrial and aquatic ecological changes and climate at this time. Similarly, volcanic eruptions recorded in VGHV are not associated with any long-term environmental changes. Rather, the VGHV record suggests that human settlement had a lasting impact on the catchment area of VGHV and changes within the lake ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
       
  • The first dated preglacial diatom record in Lake Ladoga: long-term marine
           influence or redeposition story'
    • Abstract: Abstract Preglacial environments in Lake Ladoga, the largest European lake, located within the limits of the Scandinavian glaciations, are very poorly investigated compared to postglacial ones. They were primarily reconstructed based on the studies of terrestrial boreholes and outcrops, often incomplete and poorly dated. Previous diatom studies established that during the Eemian marine transgression, the Ladoga basin became a part of the marine Baltic-White Sea connection. However, the environments established in Lake Ladoga after the regression of the Eemian Sea are not known. This article discusses the first Early Weichselian (MIS5, ~ 118–80 ka) diatom record in Lake Ladoga obtained within the frame of the Russian-German research project PLOT. Low concentrations and selective preservation of diatoms in the preglacial sediments point to unstable high-energy environments. The presence of marine diatoms is thought to result from reworking of marine Eemian sediments, rather than direct marine influence. We argue that post-Eemian environments in Lake Ladoga were neither marine nor glaciolacustrine, as previously suggested. The Early Weichselian diatom record formed in a shallow-water part of a lake affected by inflowing streams transporting large amounts of eroded material. No analogues of the preglacial environments can be found in the postglacial Lake Ladoga. Our record demonstrates close similarity to other Early Weichselian diatom records in the Ladoga region suggesting their formation under the same conditions. Similar trends in concentrations of diatoms, diatom fragments and other siliceous microfossils reflect changing sediment supply, hydrodynamics or reworking intensity. Their lower values ~ 118–113 and ~ 90–80 ka could reflect the Early Weichselian cooling stages, while their increase between ~ 113 and 90 ka might indicate enhanced erosion intensity and increased sediment supply corresponding to the climate amelioration.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
       
  • A multi-proxy paleoenvironmental interpretation spanning the last glacial
           cycle (ca. 117 ± 8.5 ka BP) from a lake sediment stratigraphy from
           Lake Kai Iwi, Northland, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Abstract A 9.3-m-long lake sediment core from dune-impounded Lake Kai Iwi in Northland, New Zealand provides a nearly continuous record of environmental changes from multi-proxy organic, physical index, and µ-XRF elemental data sets. The chronology for the upper 3 m of the core was established by 210Pb, 14C and tephrochronology and includes Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1 (Holocene), MIS 2 and late MIS 3. From this well-dated section of the core stratigraphy we were able to infer the environmental proxies that respond to wind and/or precipitation during cool periods (MIS 2 and 4) and with the warm periods (MIS 1 and 5). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were performed on the µ-XRF elemental data set including elements common in lake sediments (P, S, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, and Si) and five ratios (Sr/Ca, Br/Cl, Mn/Fe, Ti/K, and Inc/coh) to identify patterns in the µ-XRF proxy data associated with environmental change manifesting as changes in precipitation and wind deposition. The PCA indicates that Component (PC)-1 represents detrital versus organic deposition, and PC-2 is associated with nutrient influx versus anoxic conditions in the lake. The cool periods of MIS 2 and 4 are apparent in the µ-XRF data as having increased detrital influx in the form of Sr/Ca from marine derived sediments from the exposed continental shelf during low sea level indicating cool and dry conditions. Warmer and wetter periods (MIS 1 and 5) are identified by increased Ti/K influx from precipitation runoff and increased organic productivity as shown by Inc/coh and total organic carbon. The Holocene warm equivalent conditions of MIS 5e are not represented in the lower part of the Lake Kai Iwi core stratigraphy consistent with an extrapolated basal age of 117 ± 8.5 ka BP.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
       
  • Reconstruction of temporal variations of metal concentrations using
           radiochronology ( 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs) in sediments from Kizilirmak
           River, Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract Sediment cores retrieved from rivers, lakes, and coastal marine environment have been widely utilized to reconstruct historical variations of anthropogenic pollutants. A sediment core was collected in the Kizilirmak River, Turkey during 2014 and analyzed for a suite of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Co, Mn, As, Cd, Sb, V, Cr, Hg and Se) to reconstruct their temporal variations. Chronology was attempted using excess 210Pb (210Pbxs), 137Cs and 239,240Pu in the sediment cores. The vertical profile of excess 210Pb indicates that this core is not datable using excess 210Pb method. The 137Cs-based linear and mass apparent accumulation rates were estimated to be 0.84 cm year−1 and 0.93 g cm−2 year−1, respectively. These values are in agreement with the 239+240Pu peak-based linear (0.88 cm year−1) and mass apparent accumulation (0.97 g cm−2 year−1) rates. There is considerable broadening in the peaks of both 137Cs and 239,240Pu, likely due to post-depositional mixing processes. The measured sediment inventories of 210Pbxs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu were 38, 29, and 0.42 dpm cm−2, respectively, which were generally higher than the expected inventories based on local atmospheric depositional inventories. We attribute these enhanced inventories to potential sediment focusing and additional watershed erosional input. The Al-normalized enrichment factors (ANEF) were used to evaluate the contribution from natural versus anthropogenic sources. The ANEF of Ag, Ni, As, Cd and Se were > 1.5, which suggests a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources for these trace metals varied between 226% and 1163%. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values of the sediment column suggest that Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Sb, V and Hg were in an unpolluted level and the others were in a polluted level. Besides, both the ANEF and Igeo values of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, As, Se, Cd and Hg showed a peak at 28–30 cm layer (corresponds to 1978–1981), which is attributed to maximum metal release during 1970s.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
       
  • Ecological dynamics of a peri-urban lake: a multi-proxy paleolimnological
           study of Cultus Lake (British Columbia) over the past ~ 200 years
    • Abstract: Abstract Peri-urban lakes offer many valued ecosystem services, but their vulnerability to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances increases with increasing human populations the effects and interactions of multiple stressors on lakes can lead to unexpected outcomes, affecting societal and ecological values, it is necessary to evaluate ecosystem trajectories and respective drivers in peri-urban lakes. Better management practices could thus be applied to preserve ecosystem services of peri-urban lakes. We conducted a multi-proxy paleolimnological study on Cultus Lake, British Columbia, a Canadian peri-urban lake experiencing cultural eutrophication, to reconstruct a comprehensive ecological trajectory of the lake over the past ~ 200 years. We also integrated historical data as well as historical archival information to identify the potential drivers of the changes. We identified ca. 1800–1900 CE as a reference period, reflected in muted variations across most paleo-indicators. Minor increases in sedimentary δ15N ca. 1880–1940 CE coincided with the onset of anthropogenic modifications to the Cultus Lake watershed. Signs of early eutrophication were evident by ca. 1940 CE, as indicated by increases in all sedimentary pigments. By ca. 1970–1990 CE, elevated concentrations of sedimentary cyanobacterial pigments and changes in diatom species assemblages highlighted the potential interactive effects of multiple stressors, including cultural eutrophication, climate warming and declines in the endangered Cultus Lake sockeye salmon population. Recent (ca. 1990–2008 CE) declines in sedimentary pigments and increases in cladoceran fluxes suggested an increase in top-down control of the lake food web. From the collection of changes observed in the past ~ 200 years in our study, it is clear that Cultus Lake and its associated ecosystem services would benefit from abatement of nutrient loadings from terrestrial and atmospheric sources. Our study emphasizes the complexity and interactivity of drivers in peri-urban lake ecosystems and the necessity of long-term perspectives to contextualize modern ecological conditions to inform lake and watershed management.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
       
  • Lacustrine responses to middle and late Holocene anthropogenic activities
           in the northern tropical Andes
    • Abstract: Abstract A multi-proxy study on a sediment core from Pedro Palo Lake, a mid-altitude endorheic Andean Lake in northern South America, was carried out to understand the effects of human activities and climate variability on tropical mountain freshwater ecosystems. Results indicate that between ~ 7980 and 4110 cal year BP the lake maintained well-mixed, mesotrophic conditions, within which a diverse planktonic and benthic diatom community flourished. From 4110 to about 2050 cal year BP, benthic diatoms almost disappeared, and the planktonic community changed to include small Discostella spp. and large Fragilaria species, suggesting higher nutrient concentrations and possibly, more turbid waters. At this time, peaks in charcoal concentration and in the sedimentary C/N ratio imply that forest fires in the watershed intensified and that more organic matter, derived from terrestrial vegetation, accumulated in the lake. This period coincides with an increase in population, and in the social, technological and agricultural complexity of indigenous peoples. We propose that anthropogenic activities, burning and deforestation, increased the nutrient load to the lake causing the observed changes in the diatom communities. After 2050 cal year BP, periphytic diatoms returned, the intensity and frequency of fires diminished, and a secondary forest grew. We infer an associated decrease in nutrients, resulting from reforestation and/or lower water levels caused by drier climates. Estimations based on the age model of the core suggest that it took approximately 30 years for the lake to change from its most degraded state in the middle Holocene to its state in the late Holocene. However, the much-reduced diversity of the diatom community after ~ 2050 cal year BP indicates that the lake did not rebound to its previous middle Holocene conditions. The record from Pedro Palo is therefore a good example of the detrimental and long-lasting effects of anthropic deforestation.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01
       
  • Interpreting lacustrine bulk sediment δ 15 N values using metagenomics in
           a tropical hypersaline lake system
    • Abstract: Abstract Nitrogen (N) is often a limiting nutrient in lacustrine systems, and bulk organic matter stable isotope ratios of N (δ15N) are widely used in lake sediment studies to interpret N source inputs and lake trophic status. Although records of lacustrine sedimentary δ15N can provide critical information relating to past environmental change, often productivity interpretations from δ15N and lacustrine fossil records yield conflicting interpretations. Furthermore, components of the internal N cycle have substantial isotopic fractionation factors, and likely wield an enormous influence on bulk lacustrine sedimentary δ15N values. Yet apart from cyanobacteria N-fixation, few studies link specific microbial, N-related activity to δ15N variability in lake sediment records. Here, we assess the relationship between lacustrine sedimentary δ15N and microbiome profiles analyzed from extracted sediment DNA using metagenomics. In a ~ 1600-year-long sediment record from a hypersaline lake located on Kiritimati, Republic of Kiribati (1.9° N, 157.4° W), both δ15N and the taxonomy annotations from five unique metagenomes vary with depth. Despite the relatively high abundance of Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and N-fixation genes in the uppermost sediment, we find the highest δ15N values of the sediment record there. These high values are likely due to denitrification, supported by a relatively high abundance of denitrification genes and taxa responsible for denitrification, such as those found in family Chromatiaceae within the Gamma-proteobacteria. In the deep sediment, N-related biochemical processes are likely suppressed considering the low energy, low nutrient subsurface environment. Low δ15N values observed in deeper sediments co-occur with genes for assimilatory nitrate reduction and ammonification. Thus, metagenomics provides greater clarity with respect to the specific, microbial processes that alter primary δ15N signatures in the subsurface sediment.
      PubDate: 2020-10-14
       
  • Paleolimnology in support of archeology: a review of past investigations
           and a proposed framework for future study design
    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted a systematic review of 89 paleolimnological studies applied to archeological questions. Where we discuss the physical, chemical and biological sediment variables used in these studies in terms of their advantages and disadvantages as paleolimnological proxies for archeological studies. We make four key observations: (1) This field is rapidly growing, (2) More research is needed, (3) More standardization is required for future integrative analyses, and (4) More robust studies with multiple proxies are needed as the field grows. To address these challenges, we developed a framework to help researchers design paleolimnological studies in support of archeology. The framework includes standardized terminology of proxy characteristics and definition of a new term: orthogonality. This framework was then integrated with decision matrix analysis to build study scores that can be used to help researchers optimize their study design. This approach will help future researchers build more robust paleolimnology studies to more effectively complement independent archeological work. We also summarized new areas of archeology and chemistry that could be integrated with paleolimnology in the future.
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
       
 
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