Subjects -> PALEONTOLOGY (Total: 46 journals)
Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ameghiniana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de Paléontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Carnegie Museum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boreas: An International Journal of Quaternary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comptes Rendus Palevol     Full-text available via subscription  
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Facies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fossil Record     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geobios     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ichnos: An International Journal for Plant and Animal Traces     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Paleolimnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Paleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Marine Micropaleontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Micropaleontology     Full-text available via subscription  
Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Novitates Paleoentomologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Quaternary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Palaeoworld     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PALAIOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Paläontologische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Paleobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
PaleoBios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Paleoceanography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Paleontological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Paleontological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Papers in Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (Research In Paleontology and Stratigraphy)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Spanish Journal of Palaeontology     Open Access  
Swiss Journal of Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zitteliana     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Quaternary Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.216
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 20  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0033-5894 - ISSN (Online) 1096-0287
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [395 journals]
  • QUA volume 99 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.129
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • QUA volume 99 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.130
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Fluvial incision caused irreversible environmental degradation of an
           ancient city in the Mu Us Desert, China
    • Authors: Penghui Wen; Nai'ang Wang, Yixin Wang, Yinzhou Huang, Hongyi Cheng, Tonghui He
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Ancient cities are excellent spatiotemporal indicators for the study of historical human activities and environmental change. The ancient city of Sanchahe is located at the southern margin of the Mu Us Desert, China. It is an ideal location for studying the complex relationships between historical desertification and human activities. Field observations of the ancient city walls, a well, and a spring, as well as 14C dating, grain size, spatial analysis of archaeological sites, and analyses of historical seismicity, indicated that neotectonics may have contributed to crustal uplift and accelerated fluvial incision of the Wuding River. This rapid incision caused a decline in groundwater levels, which is an important reason for the irreversible environmental degradation around Sanchahe city over the past 800 yr. This study provides new evidence for such environmental degradation and may contribute to a better understanding of historical desertification in the Mu Us Desert.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.46
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Mismatches of scale in the application of paleoclimatic research to
           Chinese archaeology
    • Authors: Yitzchak Y. Jaffe; Lorenzo Castellano, Gideon Shelach-Lavi, Roderick B. Campbell
      Pages: 14 - 33
      Abstract: Issues surrounding the difficult task of correlating archaeological and climatic trajectories are directly impacting the study of human-environmental interaction in Ancient China. We have chosen to focus on the 4.2 ka BP event due to the widespread belief in recent Chinese archaeological publications that it brought about the collapse of Neolithic cultures in multiple regions of China. Following a literature review concerning the many issues surrounding the reconstruction of the 4.2 ka BP event in East Asia, we present three short case studies from the Lower Yangzi, the Shaanxi loess plateau, and the Central Plains detailing a number of problems with Chinese archaeological attempts at using climate change as a causal mechanism for sociopolitical change. We then focus on a common but highly problematic methodology—the growing use of archaeological data compiled in the Atlas of Chinese Cultural Relics to correlate with climate proxies in order to generate linear, causal models explaining sociopolitical collapse. We follow with an example from Northeast China, where work from the past three decades has provided ample data with which to begin answering these questions in a more productive manner, and end with a set of suggestions for archaeologists and climate scientists going forward.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.60
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • A 3000-year record of vegetation changes and fire at a high-elevation
           wetland on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    • Authors: Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi; Rahab Kinyanjui, Anna Shoemaker, Cassian Mumbi, Veronica Muiruri, Laura Marchant, Stephen M. Rucina, Rob Marchant
      Pages: 34 - 62
      Abstract: Kilimanjaro is experiencing the consequences of climate change and multiple land-use pressures. Few paleoenvironmental and archeological records exist to examine historical patterns of late Holocene ecosystem changes on Kilimanjaro. Here we present pollen, phytolith, and charcoal (>125 μm) data from a palustrine sediment core that provide a 3000-year radiocarbon-dated record collected from a wetland near the headwaters of the Maua watershed in the alpine and ericaceous vegetation zones. From 3000 to 800 cal yr BP, the pollen, phytolith, and charcoal records show subtle variability in ericaceous and montane forest assemblages with apparent multicentennial secular variability and a long-term pattern of increasing Poaceae and charcoal. From 800 to 600 cal yr BP, montane forest taxa varied rapidly, Cyperaceae abundances increased, and charcoal remained distinctly low. From 600 yr cal BP to the present, woody taxa decreased, and ericaceous taxa and Poaceae dominated, with a conspicuously increased charcoal influx. Uphill wetland ecosystems are crucial for ecological and socioeconomic resilience on and surrounding the mountain. The results were synthesized with the existing paleoenvironmental and archaeological data to explore the high spatiotemporal complexity of Kilimanjaro and to understand historical human-environment interactions. These paleoenvironmental records create a long-term context for current climate, biodiversity, and land-use changes on and around Kilimanjaro.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.76
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Relating pollen representation to an evolving Amazonian landscape between
           the last glacial maximum and Late Holocene
    • Authors: Richard J. Smith; Francis E. Mayle, S. Yoshi Maezumi, Mitchell J. Power
      Pages: 63 - 79
      Abstract: In contrast to temperate regions, relationships between basin characteristics (e.g., type/size) and fossil pollen archives have received little attention in Amazonia. Here, we compare fossil pollen records of a small palm swamp (Cuatro Vientos; CV) and a nearby large lake (Laguna Chaplin, LCH) in Bolivian Amazonia, demonstrating that palm swamps can yield Quaternary pollen archives recording the history of terrestrial vegetation beyond the basin margin, rather than merely a history of localized swamp vegetation dynamics. The pollen assemblages from these two contrasting basins display remarkable agreement throughout their late Quaternary history, indicating past drier climates supported savanna landscape during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 24,000–18,000 cal yr BP) and savanna/semideciduous forest mosaic during the middle Holocene (7000-4750 cal yr BP) at both regional (inferred from LCH) and local (inferred from CV) spatial scales. Additionally, the local-scale catchment of CV and the basin's proximity to the riverine forests of the Río Paraguá enables exploration of the extent of gallery/riverine forests during the LGM and middle Holocene. We show that, between 24,000–4000 cal yr BP, riverine/gallery rainforests were substantially reduced compared with present, challenging the hypothesis that gallery rainforests were important refugia for rainforest species during the drier LGM and middle Holocene.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.64
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Interpreting the lake-status record of the East Asian monsoon using a
           hydrological model
    • Authors: Ge Yu; Liangtao Ye, Zhengyu Liu, Bin Xue
      Pages: 80 - 95
      Abstract: The East Asian monsoon (EAM) has experienced significant changes over the past 10,000 years that influenced East Asian agricultural development. However, the magnitude and extent of the EAM precipitation fluctuations at 6 ka remain unresolved, owing to uncertainty in individual lake records and substantial variations in the expansion limits in simulations of the mid-Holocene EAM precipitation. Here we present an approach based on multiple lake-level records using the “1D lake level—2D lake area—3D catchment hydrology” model to reconstruct the precipitation patterns in northern China, and to further quantify the extent of the EAM precipitation expansion in the mid-Holocene relative to today. The precipitation reconstructions suggest an ~550–1100 km northward expansion and an ~530–840 km westward migration of the EAM at 6 ka. At that time, the EAM precipitation domain covered over 6 million square kilometers. Thus, this approach mitigates the uncertainty and arbitrariness of reconstructions of the limit of the EAM precipitation fields and provides a benchmark for future climate modeling studies.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.63
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • In-phase and out-of-phase behavior of the East Asian summer and winter
           monsoons recorded in the South Yellow Sea sediment over the past 9.5 ka
    • Authors: Liyan Wang; Guangxue Li, Linmiao Wang, Wenchao Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangdong Wang, Haoyin Wang
      Pages: 96 - 113
      Abstract: The variability of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) during the Holocene exhibits significant regional response, and its evolution needs further discussion. A well-dated, high-resolution sea-surface temperature record based on long-chain unsaturated alkenones, grain-size data, and clay mineral assemblages from the South Yellow Sea sediment is presented to investigate the sedimentary provenance and reconstruct the EAM over the past 9.5 ka. The results show that the sediments are most likely supplied by the Huanghe. The evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can be divided into three periods: strong and relatively stable conditions during 9.5–7.0 ka, weakened conditions during 7.0–1.5 ka, and strengthened conditions during 1.5–0 ka. The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) has experienced five periods: weakened conditions during 9.5–6.7 ka, weak and relatively stable conditions during 6.7–5.6 ka, strong and relatively stable conditions during 5.6–2.6 ka, strengthened conditions during 2.6–1.5 ka, and weak and stable conditions during 1.5–0 ka. Moreover, in-phase correlation was found between the EAWM and EASM at the orbital time scale in response to orbital-driven solar insolation, but out-of-phase correlation at a centennial time scale is predominantly associated with solar activity.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.62
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Water Provenance at the Old River Bed Inland Delta and Ground Water Flow
           from the Sevier Basin of Central Utah during the Pleistocene-Holocene
    • Authors: Christopher D. Bradbury; Paul W. Jewell, Diego P. Fernandez, Jory C. Lerback, Jennifer V. DeGraffenried, Erich U. Petersen
      Pages: 114 - 127
      Abstract: To ascertain the provenance of water reaching wetlands in an area sustaining a population of Pleistocene–Holocene foragers, 87-strontium/86-strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of mollusks from channels of the Old River Bed inland delta of central Utah were measured. Potential provenances examined included overflow from Pleistocene–Holocene Lake Gunnison, ground water flow from the Sevier basin, ground water discharge from piedmont aquifers infiltrated by Lake Bonneville, and ground waters from local regional aquifers. Old River Bed inland delta channels active from ~13.2 cal ka BP until ~11.2 cal ka BP have 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70930–0.71049 that are consistent with water sourced from Lake Gunnison in the Sevier basin. Inland delta channels active from ~11.2 cal ka BP until shortly after ~9.3 cal ka BP have 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70977–0.71033, suggesting ground water flowed from the Sevier basin during the early Holocene. Ratios of 87Sr/86Sr did not match known values for Lake Bonneville, but the youngest Old River Bed inland delta channel system has an 87Sr/86Sr ratio consistent with a local ground water source, perhaps Government Creek. Consistent ground water discharge may explain the persistence of foragers in the region despite the increasingly arid climate of the Great Basin.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.66
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Late Pleistocene environments of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming-Montana, USA
    • Authors: Thomas A. Minckley; Mark Clementz, Marcel Kornfeld, Mary Lou Larson, Judson B. Finley
      Pages: 128 - 141
      Abstract: Limited numbers of high-resolution records predate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) making it difficult to quantify the impacts of environmental changes prior to peak glaciation. We examined sediments from Last Canyon Cave in the Pryor Mountains of Montana and Wyoming to construct a >45 ka environmental record from pollen and stable isotope analysis. Artemisia pollen was hyper-abundant at the beginning of the record. Carbon isotope values of bulk organic matter (>40 ka) showed little variation (-25.3 ± 0.4‰) and were consistent with a arid C3 environment, similar to today. After 40 cal ka BP, Artemisia pollen decreased as herbaceous taxa increased toward the LGM. A significant decrease in δ13C values from 40–30 cal ka BP (~1.0‰) established a new baseline (-26.6 ± 0.2‰), suggesting cooler, seasonally wetter conditions prior to the LGM. These conditions persisted until variation in δ13C values increased significantly with post-glacial warming, marked by two spikes in values at 14.4 (-25.2‰) and 13.5 cal ka BP (-25.4‰) before δ13C values dropped to their lowest values (-26.9 ± 0.2‰) at the onset of the Younger Dryas (12.8 ka). These results provide insights into late Pleistocene conditions and ecological change in arid intermontane basins of the Rocky Mountains.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.78
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Chronology of Laurentide glaciation in New Jersey and the New York City
           area, United States
    • Authors: Scott D. Stanford; Byron D. Stone, John C. Ridge, Ron W. Witte, Richard R. Pardi, Gerda E. Reimer
      Pages: 142 - 167
      Abstract: Deposits of at least three glaciations are present in New Jersey and the New York City area. The oldest deposits are magnetically reversed. Pollen and stratigraphic relations suggest that they are from the earliest Laurentide advance at ~2.4 Ma. Deposits of a second advance are overlain by peat dated to 41 ka and so are pre-Marine Isotope Stage (pre-MIS) 2. Their relation to marine deposits indicates that they predate MIS 5 but postdate MIS 11 and may postdate MIS 7 or 9, suggesting an MIS 6 age. The most recent deposits are of MIS 2 (last glacial maximum [LGM]) age. Radiocarbon dates and varve counts tied to glacial-lake events indicate that LGM ice arrived at its terminus at 25 ka, stood at the terminus until ~24 ka, retreated at a rate of 80 m/yr until 23.5 ka, and then retreated at a rate of 12 m/yr to 18 ka. At 18 ka the retreat record connects to the base of the North American Varve Chronology at Newburgh, New York. The 25–24 ka age for the LGM is slightly younger than, but within the uncertainty of, cosmogenic ages; it is significantly older than the oldest dated macrofossils in postglacial deposits in the region.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.71
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Late Pleistocene lake level, glaciation and climate change in the
           Mongolian Altai deduced from sedimentological and palynological archives
    • Authors: Michael Klinge; Frank Schlütz, Anja Zander, Daniela Hülle, Ochirbat Batkhishig, Frank Lehmkuhl
      Pages: 168 - 189
      Abstract: Glacial and lacustrine sediments from the Mongolian Altai provide paleoclimatic information for the late Pleistocene in Mongolia, for which only a few sufficiently studied archives exist. Glacial stages referred to global cooling events are reported for the last glacial maximum (27–21 ka) and the late glacial period (18–16 ka). Sedimentary archives from the first part of the last glacial period are infrequent. We present proxy data for this period from two different archives (88–63 and 57–30 ka). Due to the limitation of effective moisture, an increase of precipitation is discussed as one trigger for glacier development in the cold-arid regions of central Asia. Our pollen analysis from periods of high paleolake levels in small catchments indicate that the vegetation was sparse and of dry desert type between 42–29 and 17–11 ka. This apparent contradiction between high lake levels and dry landscape conditions, the latter supported by intensified eolian processes, points to lower temperatures and cooler conditions causing reduced evaporation to be the main trigger for the high lake levels during glacier advances. Rising temperatures that cause melting of glacier and permafrost ice and geomorphological processes play a role in paleolake conditions. Interpreting lake-level changes as regional or global paleoclimate signals requires detailed investigation of geomorphological settings and mountain–basin relationships.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.67
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Spatiotemporal variations and implications of luminescence sensitivity of
    • Authors: Tongyan Lü; Jimin Sun, James K. Feathers, Dongxia Sun
      Pages: 190 - 203
      Abstract: Although luminescence sensitivity of quartz grains of desert sands has been used in discriminating provenance, it still remains unclear about its spatiotemporal variations and climatic implications. In this paper, the luminescence sensitivity of quartz grains from the northern margin of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) was studied using single-aliquot optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and “pseudo” single-grain OSL measurements. Our results indicate that the OSL sensitivities have lower values in sand/loess beds and higher values in paleosols. We suggest that the variations in OSL sensitivity of quartz grains with depth on the CLP are mainly influenced by the origin of the quartz grains as they are related to the loess-sized material production processes and the migration of desert regions. More quartz grains of glacial origin with lower luminescence sensitivity, together with the reduced durations of irradiation and exposure cycles induced by shorter transport distance due to desert expansion, account for the lower luminescence sensitivity of glacial periods. Moreover, both the mountain processes and the retreat–advance of deserts are ultimately related to climatic changes, therefore, the orbital scale variations of luminescence sensitivity are controlled by glacial–interglacial oscillations on the CLP.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.53
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • A multiproxy record of sedimentation, pedogenesis, and environmental
           history in the north of West Siberia during the late Pleistocene based on
           the Belaya Gora section
    • Authors: Vladimir Sheinkman; Sergey Sedov, Lyudmila S. Shumilovskikh, Elena Bezrukova, Dmitriy Dobrynin, Svetlana Timireva, Alexey Rusakov, Fedor Maksimov
      Pages: 204 - 222
      Abstract: Recent revision of the Pleistocene glaciation boundaries in northern Eurasia has encouraged the search for nonglacial geological records of the environmental history of northern West Siberia. We studied an alluvial paleosol-sedimentary sequence of the high terrace of the Vakh River (middle Ob basin) to extract the indicators of environmental change since Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Two levels of the buried paleosols are attributed to MIS 5 and MIS 3, as evidenced by U/Th and radiocarbon dates. Palynological and pedogenetic characteristics of the lower pedocomplex recorded the climate fluctuations during MIS 5, from the Picea-Larix taiga environment during MIS 5e to the establishment of the tundra-steppe environment due to the cooling of MIS 5d or MIS 5b and partial recovery of boreal forests with Picea and Pinus in MIS 5c or MIS 5a. The upper paleosol level shows signs of cryogenic hydromorphic pedogenesis corresponding to the tundra landscape, with permafrost during MIS 3. Boulders incorporated in a laminated alluvial deposit between the paleosols are dropstones brought from the Enisei valley by ice rafting during the cold MIS 4. An abundance of eolian morphostructures on quartz grains from the sediments that overly the upper paleosol suggests a cold, dry, and windy environment during the MIS 2 cryochron.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.74
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Evidence for Middle Palaeolithic occupation and landscape change in
           central Armenia at the open-air site of Alapars-1
    • Authors: Ariel Malinsky-Buller; Phil Glauberman, Keith Wilkinson, Bo Li, Ellery Frahm, Boris Gasparyan, Rhys Timms, Daniel S. Adler, Jennifer Sherriff
      Pages: 223 - 247
      Abstract: Here we report the findings from excavations at the open-air Middle Palaeolithic site of Alapars-1 in central Armenia. Three stratified Palaeolithic artefact assemblages were found within a 6-m-thick alluvial-aeolian sequence, located on the flanks of an obsidian-bearing lava dome. Combined sedimentological and chronological analyses reveal three phases of sedimentation and soil development. During Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 5–3, the manner of deposition changes from alluvial to aeolian, with a development of soil horizons. Techno-typological analysis and geochemical sourcing of the obsidian artefacts reveal differential discard patterns, source exploitation, and artefact densities within strata, suggesting variability in technological organization during the Middle Palaeolithic. Taken together, these results indicate changes in hominin occupation patterns from ephemeral to more persistent in relation to landscape dynamics during the last interglacial and glacial periods in central Armenia.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.61
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Atapuerca Neanderthal landscape at Fuente Mudarra site in Burgos, Spain,
           during Marine Isotope Stages 5–3
    • Authors: Marta Santamaría; Marta Navazo, Alfonso Benito-Calvo, Rodrigo Alonso, Gloria I. López, Eudald Carbonell
      Pages: 248 - 269
      Abstract: Fuente Mudarra is on a gentle slope on the left bank of the Pico River, near Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain. A 12−m2 test pit was dug at this large open-air site between 2012 and 2017. Several upper Pleistocene archaeological levels were documented. Results from Fuente Mudarra confirm that Neanderthal groups, little represented at cave sites, occupied Sierra de Atapuerca from the end of the middle Pleistocene and during the upper Pleistocene. The site also provides insight into Neanderthal spatial organization in the Atapuerca area and whether they used the caves in an occasional, non-habitual way like the open-air sites.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.65
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Cave life histories of non-anthropogenic sediments help us understand
           associated archaeological contexts
    • Authors: Panagiotis Karkanas; Curtis Marean, Mira Bar-Matthews, Zenobia Jacobs, Eric Fisher, Kerstin Braun
      Pages: 270 - 289
      Abstract: Pinnacle Point (PP) near Mossel Bay in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, is known for a series of archaeological caves with important archaeological finds. Extensive excavations and studies in two of them (PP13B and PP5-6) have documented alternating periods of anthropogenic-dominated and geogenic-dominated sedimentation. A variety of caves do not bear evidence of anthropogenic remains. We have studied in detail the remnant deposits of three of them, Staircase Cave, Crevice Cave, and PP29, which have been formed under the same geologic and sedimentary conditions with those with anthropogenic contributions. Their remains are small and patchy but have extensive speleothem formations (as do most caves at PP) that were isotopically analyzed for paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These caves also offer the opportunity to understand the purely geogenic signature of the PP locality and thus offer a geogenic baseline for the anthropogenic caves. Archaeologists normally focus only on sites with strong anthropogenic signals, but by building cave life histories we “raise the bar” (Goldberg 2008, p. 30) on our contextual knowledge.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.72
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Tatra Mountains of the western
    • Authors: Marcin Błaszczyk; Helena Hercman, Jacek Pawlak, Jacek Szczygieł
      Pages: 290 - 304
      Abstract: The SC-3 speleothem from Szczelina Chochołowska Cave, located in the Tatra Mountains, was studied in detail. U-series dating and age–depth modeling allowed us to constrain the period of speleothem growth to between approximately 330 and 200 ka, that is, during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 9–7. The complementary use of stable isotope analyses, petrographic studies, and trace element analyses allowed the identification of warm and wet climatic conditions that were favorable for speleothem growth during MIS 9e and MIS 9c. Unfavorable climatic periods included the cold glacial conditions of MIS 8 and the MIS 9/MIS 8 transition. The breaks in the growth of the SC-3 stalagmite were most likely connected with a reduction in precipitation in MIS 9a and extreme hydrologic events during MIS 8. Comparisons with other European records suggest that the climatic variability recorded in the speleothem from the Tatra Mountains is not only a record of local environmental conditions but can also be linked to European climatic patterns during both interglacial and glacial intervals. This makes our study the northernmost paleoclimatic record for the whole Carpathian range and one of the very few records from those periods worldwide.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.69
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Optimizing extraction and targeted capture of ancient environmental DNA
           for reconstructing past environments using the PalaeoChip Arctic-1.0
    • Authors: Tyler J. Murchie; Melanie Kuch, Ana T. Duggan, Marissa L. Ledger, Kévin Roche, Jennifer Klunk, Emil Karpinski, Dirk Hackenberger, Tara Sadoway, Ross MacPhee, Duane Froese, Hendrik Poinar
      Pages: 305 - 328
      Abstract: Sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) has been established as a viable biomolecular proxy for tracking taxon presence through time in a local environment, even in the total absence of surviving tissues. SedaDNA is thought to survive through mineral binding, facilitating long-term biomolecular preservation, but also challenging DNA isolation. Two common limitations in sedaDNA extraction are the carryover of other substances that inhibit enzymatic reactions, and the loss of authentic sedaDNA when attempting to reduce inhibitor co-elution. Here, we present a sedaDNA extraction procedure paired with targeted enrichment intended to maximize DNA recovery. Our procedure exhibits a 7.7–19.3x increase in on-target plant and animal sedaDNA compared to a commercial soil extraction kit, and a 1.2–59.9x increase compared to a metabarcoding approach. To illustrate the effectiveness of our cold spin extraction and PalaeoChip capture enrichment approach, we present results for the diachronic presence of plants and animals from Yukon permafrost samples dating to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, and discuss new potential evidence for the late survival (~9700 years ago) of mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) and horse (Equus sp.) in the Klondike region of Yukon, Canada. This enrichment approach translates to a more taxonomically diverse dataset and improved on-target sequencing.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.59
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • Toward a standardized procedure for charcoal analysis
    • Authors: Margarita Tsakiridou; Laura Cunningham, Mark Hardiman
      Pages: 329 - 340
      Abstract: Sedimentary charcoal records are used for understanding fire as an earth system process; however, no standardized laboratory methodology exists. Varying sample volumes and chemical treatments (i.e., type of chemical for length of time) are used for the deflocculation and extraction of charcoal from sediment samples. Here, we present the first systematic assessment of the effect of commonly used chemicals on charcoal area and number of fragments. In modern charcoal the area of fragments was significantly different depending on the chemical treatment. We subsequently applied H2O2 (33%), NaClO (12.5%), and HNO3 (50%) to a late-glacial–early Holocene paleorecord and tested different sample volumes. The effects of the treatments were consistent between modern and fossil experiments, which demonstrates the validity of applying results from the modern experiment to the fossil records. Based on our experiments we suggest (1) H2O2 33%, especially for highly organic sediments; (2) avoidance of high concentrations of NaClO for prolonged periods of time, and of HNO3; and (3) samples of 1 cm3 provided typically consistent profiles. Our results indicate that charcoal properties can be influenced by treatment type and sample volume, thus emphasizing the need for a common protocol to enable reliable multi-study comparisons or composite fire histories.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.56
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
  • The impact of methodological decisions on climate reconstructions using
    • Authors: Mark G. Turner; Dongyang Wei, Iain Colin Prentice, Sandy P. Harrison
      Pages: 341 - 356
      Abstract: Most techniques for pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction use modern assemblages as a reference data set. We examine the implication of methodological choices in the selection and treatment of the reference data set for climate reconstructions using Weighted Averaging Partial Least Squares (WA-PLS) regression and records of the last glacial period from Europe. We show that the training data set used is important because it determines the climate space sampled. The range and continuity of sampling along the climate gradient is more important than sampling density. Reconstruction uncertainties are generally reduced when more taxa are included, but combining related taxa that are poorly sampled in the data set to a higher taxonomic level provides more stable reconstructions. Excluding taxa that are climatically insensitive, or systematically overrepresented in fossil pollen assemblages because of known biases in pollen production or transport, makes no significant difference to the reconstructions. However, the exclusion of taxa overrepresented because of preservation issues does produce an improvement. These findings are relevant not only for WA-PLS reconstructions but also for similar approaches using modern assemblage reference data. There is no universal solution to these issues, but we propose a number of checks to evaluate the robustness of pollen-based reconstructions.
      PubDate: 2021-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/qua.2020.44
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2021)
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