Subjects -> JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (Total: 234 journals)
    - JOURNALISM (31 journals)
    - JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (163 journals)
    - NEW AGE PUBLICATIONS (8 journals)
    - PUBLISHING AND BOOK TRADE (32 journals)

JOURNALISM AND PUBLICATION (163 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 17 of 17 Journals sorted alphabetically
#PerDebate     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Journalism and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
African Journalism Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Âncora : Revista Latino-Americana de Jornalismo     Open Access  
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anuario de investigaciones     Open Access  
Apparence(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arethusa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Marketing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Astérion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atención Primaria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bibliothecae.it     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMS: Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Brazilian Journalism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Brookings-Wharton Papers on Financial Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the Comediantes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers d'histoire. Revue d'histoire critique     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de la Méditerranée     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CIC. Cuadernos de Informacion y Comunicacion     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Comics Grid : Journal of Comics Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Communication & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Communication and Media in Asia Pacific (CMAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communication Cultures in Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Communication Papers : Media Literacy & Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Comunicação Pública     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Comunicación y Ciudadanía     Open Access  
Comunicacion y Hombre     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos.info     Open Access  
Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
De Arte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Développement durable et territoires     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Die Kerkblad     Full-text available via subscription  
Digital Journalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Documentación de las Ciencias de la Información     Open Access  
E-rea     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
El Argonauta español     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
English in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Espaço e Tempo Midiáticos     Open Access  
Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études caribéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Science Editing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Filo de Palabra     Open Access  
French Studies in Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
General Relativity and Gravitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Géocarrefour     Open Access  
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Hipertext.net : Anuario Académico sobre Documentación Digital y Comunicación Interactiva     Open Access  
IFE Psychologia : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Image & Text : a Journal for Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Improntas     Open Access  
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Information Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
InMedia     Open Access  
International Journal of Bibliometrics in Business and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Entertainment Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investment Analysts Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IRIS - Revista de Informação, Memória e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Journal of European Periodical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Healthcare Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Illustration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Information Privacy and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Interactive Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Law and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Jewish Identities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Late Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Latin American Geography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Literacy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Early Republic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Short Story in English     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Transatlantic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of World History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journalism & Mass Communication Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journalism & Communication Monographs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journalism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journalistica - Tidsskrift for forskning i journalistik     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Komunika     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
L'Espace Politique     Open Access  
L'Homme     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
La corónica : A Journal of Medieval Hispanic Languages, Literatures, and Cultures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
La Presse Médicale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Language     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Latin American Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Latin American Research Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Law, State and Telecommunications Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers d'Outre-Mer     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Media & Jornalismo     Open Access  
Memory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Natural Language Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Newspaper Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Nordic Journal of Media Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norsk medietidsskrift     Open Access  
OJS på dansk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Papers of The Bibliographical Society of Canada     Open Access  
Periodica Mathematica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics of the Solid State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pollack Periodica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pozo de Letras     Open Access  
Prometheus : Critical Studies in Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Publishers Weekly     Free   (Followers: 3)
Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Religion, State and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista Observatório     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’économie industrielle     Open Access  
Revue européenne des migrations internationales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Sensorium Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Signo y Pensamiento     Open Access  
South African Radiographer     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern African Forestry Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Stellenbosch Theological Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stilet : Tydskrif van die Afrikaanse Letterkundevereniging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studia Socialia Cracoviensia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Multidisciplinarity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Syntax     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sztuka Edycji     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
TD : The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa     Open Access  
Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Tracés     Open Access  
Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Trípodos     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Letterkunde     Open Access  
Ufahamu : A Journal of African Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Variants : Journal of the European Society for Textual Scholarship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Veld & Flora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Verbum et Ecclesia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Word and Action = Woord en Daad     Full-text available via subscription  
World Futures: Journal of General Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

           

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Journal Cover
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.193
Number of Followers: 0  

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ISSN (Print) 0041-4751 - ISSN (Online) 2224-7912
Published by SciELO Homepage  [913 journals]
  • General CF Beyers: His world view as reflected in his public
           statements

    • Abstract: Generaal CF Beyers het uit die Anglo-Boereoorlog van 1899-1902 getree as 'n erkende militêre aanvoerder, strateeg én Afrikanerleier. Beyers is namens die Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) na die vredesamesprekings van die 60 Boere-afgevaardigdes by Vereeniging op 15-31 Mei 1902 gestuur. Hier is hy tot voorsitter van die vergadering verkies. Aanvanklik was Beyers van mening dat die Boere die stryd kon voortsit. Algaande het die argument hom egter oortuig: die Here sê dat sy kinders nie deur mag en krag sal slaag nie, maar deur sy Gees... Beyers word in 1912 die kommandant-generaal van die verdedigingsmag van die Unie van Suid-Afrika. Die uitbreek van die Eerste Wereldoorlog op 4 Augustus 1914 en die Unie se positiewe reaksie op 'n Britse versoek dat hy Duitswes-Afrika (tans Namibië) om strategiese redes inval, lok protes van Beyers en talle Afrikaners uit. Hy bedank as hoof van die Verdegingsmag op 15 September. Beyers is gekant teen 'n rebellie, maar word sonder enige ondersoek of navraag deur Regeringsmagte wat skiet, agtervolg. As 'n voortvlugtige verdrink hy op 8 Desember 1914 in die Vaalrivier naby die huidige Makwassie. Beyers het geglo in 'n bykans deterministiese voorsienigheid van God: 'n oortuiging wat hom in die laaste dae van sy lewe laat vlug en padgee. Na sy dood word sy bandolier met al sy patrone aan hom gevind. Hy het dwarsdeur sy agtervolging deur Regeringsmagte getrou aan Sagaria 4:6 gebly en nie een skoot teruggeskiet nie.One of the generals of the Boers in the Anglo-Boer War (ABO) of 1899-1902, General CF Beyers, emerged from this war as a leading Afrikaner. He was elected as the chairman of the meeting of the Boer delegates - 60 representatives of the South African Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State - at Vereeniging from 15-31 May 1902. This meeting was held to discuss the conditions for peace with Britain. The delegates had a strong feeling of trust in General Beyers. Not only was he a die-hard fighter against the British and known for his courage and good judgement in difficult circumstances on the battlefield, but he would also not easily accept conditions put forward by the British. The Boers were in a difficult position in the Transvaal and the Free State in 1902. More or less 20 000 die-hard Boers still offered resistance in the form of guerilla warfare, with hit and run tactics, until the end of the ABO. This made it difficult for the majority of soldiers in the service of Britain to end the war. Beyers entered the talks at Vereeniging as someone still prepared to go on with the war. According to his world view as based on his understanding of Scripture, the Boers had a just cause and he therefore firmly believed that the blessings of the Lord would not stay out. Beyers was known for his perseverance under pressure. However, during the talks he came under the impression of Zechariah 4:6, in which it is proclaimed that man will not succeed by means of violence and earthly power, but through the spirit of God. Especially the phrase "... by my Spirit, says the Lord" contributed to Beyers ' acceptance of the conditions for peace as formulated by the British. It was as if Beyers had accepted God's guidance as something which determines man's ways without the latter having any say in it. As if Beyers saw the providence of God as a form of determinism or in a deterministic way. As a Christian who held the view that life was something to be devoted to honouring God's wishes in everything, a reformed Calvinistic approach, Beyers became the speaker of the legislative assembly of the Transvaal, or former South African Republic, in 1907. He advocated school education which would allow parents an important role in the affairs of a school. At the same time Beyers believed that schools should also be run according to scriptural principles. He was convinced that every aspect of life should be guided by the principles and message of the Bible. His world view was that of a Christian who sought God's will in everything. In 1912 Beyers became the commanding officer (commandant-general) of the South African Defence Force. This made things difficult for him when the First World War broke out on 4 August 1914. According to him he became a coerced rather than a willing British subject after the Peace of Vereeniging in 1902 when he gave his word as a Christian at Vereeniging that he would honour the King and the British flag. But to fight an offensive war in 1914 against Germany in German West Africa was, he believed, an act without any provocation on the part of the Germans, and one that was contrary to the Bible and the biblically-based traditions of the Afrikaner. Like the former South African Republic (Transvaal), which became a British colony from 1902 until 1910, South Africa became a union or a self-governing dominion under the British throne in the British Commonwealth in 1910. In 1914 it appeared that South Africa's predominantly Afrikaner government was willing to assist Britain by undertaking an offensive war against Germany in German West Africa. It reacted positively when requested by Britain to invade German West Africa (today Namibia) because of strategic aims. According to Beyers such a decision left him no choice other than to resign as the commanding officer of the South African forces. While ostensibly and publicly favouring a peaceful resistance against the government publicly, he at the same time attended protest meetings in the Free State and Transvaal, gun in hand. The Rebellion of 1914-1915 started with shots fired on 27 October 1914 at Rooiwal near Pretoria. Beyers stuck to his viewpoint of a non-violent protest, but was persecuted by the government and had to flee. On 8 December 1914 in order to remain free, he was forced to swim across the Vaal River in close proximity to a town later to become known as Makwassie. He drowned in the river which was in flood. The question remains as to why Beyers would appear to have ac...
       
  • Constitutional propriety in the 21st century

    • Abstract: Europese kolonialisering het die Renaissance na Suider-Afrika gebring. Dit het Westerse liberalisme ingesluit, maar ook kulturele arrogansie en rassevooroordeel. Die liberalisme het in die tweede helfte van die 20ste eeu globaal getriomfeer. Ironies was die Suid-Afrikaanse regering van 1948 deur die ideale van Afrikanerbevryding en -oorlewing verblind toe, op presies die verkeerde wêreldhistoriese tydvak, besluit is op die institusionalisering van apartheid. In die dekades wat op die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gevolg het, het Westerse liberale konstitusionalisme die maatstaf geword vir wat as staatsregtelik behoorlik geag is. Die naoorlogse voorrang van Westerse konstitusionalisme is weens dekolonialisering en die val van die USSR in 'n groot aantal nuwe grondwette weerspieël - ook in die Suid-Afrikaanse grondwette van 1993 en 1996. Daarin is kompromieë tussen die sosialistiese ideologie van die ANC en 'n regering wat in die laat 1980's besluit het om weerstand teen Westerse konstitusionalisme te staak, opgeneem. Tans word dit egter duidelik dat die Westerse idees gefundeer in die irrasionele 18de- en 19de-eeuse teorieë van die liberalisme besig is om momentum te verloor. Die Weste is nie konseptueel daarvoor toegerus om populisme, radikalisme, globalisering of die sosialistiese aanslae van veral China die hoof te bied nie. Terselfdertyd het die ANC stelselmatig sosialistiese beleid, wetgewing en ideologie ingevoer in Suid-Afrika, sonder egter om dit as sodanig te tipeer. Wat in die wêreld en in Suid-Afrika in 2020 as staatsregtelik behoorlik verstaan moet word, kan alleen maar gemeet word aan die eeue-oue, multikulturele standaard van wederkerigheid, wat ook 'n Christelike grondbeginsel is.South African legal history is "modern": the Dutch brought the 17th-century European Renaissance to Southern Africa. North-Atlantic cultural arrogance and the rationalisation of political and economic immorality were an integral part of Western liberalism even up to World War II. When South Africa achieved statehood in 1910, it was founded upon the 19th-century colonial ethos. In 1948 the dual dream of the Afrikaners (liberation from the British yoke and securing their survival as a minority) blinded them from recognising the global implications of the American-sponsored liberal humanism, leading to the establishment of the United Nations (UN) and the institutionalisation of the notion of universal human rights. Following the end of WWII, numerous former colonies and dependencies obtained their independence from European states and the USSR, quadrupling the membership of the UN within a few decades. By the 1990s, liberal-democratic constitutionalism had crystallised as a range of interrelated elements, establishing the norm for good governance and economic success under North-Atlantic hegemony (see Table 1). When State President FW de Klerk announced the radical historical turning point in the history ofSouth Africa on 2 February 1990, the question was what would be "just, right and fair" in a hugely complicated situation. Although some constitutionalist elements had at the time been present in South African law, a liberal-democratic culture of human rights and constitutionalism did not exist. Nevertheless, to achieve the desired change, the ANC, as the only organisation capable of mobilising a political majority, was an unavoidable component of the political equation, despite having just emerged from at least three decades of Marxist/ Leninist indoctrination as a client of the collapsed USSR. What had to be clear for all to see, was that compromises had to be made, which could neither include continued racial separation nor take the form of a socialist revolution. Constitutionally, the most attractive available model on which the political compromises could be built, was liberal constitutionalism as it was exemplified in particular in the post-war constitutions of Germany and Canada. Ironically, now, three decades later, it is becoming increasingly clear that liberal constitutionalism has globally entered a crisis phase, unable to counter populism, extremist politics, digital ubiquity or the inhumane conduct of states such as China, Russia and various Middle-Eastern countries. The reasons for the crisis are complex, but it is suggested that they include the following: the foundational thinking underpinning liberal democracy is steadily losing its cogency; this loss of persuasiveness is fortified by factors such as exponential population growth and globalisation; and the lack of cogency of the foundations of liberal democracy, such as the fictional social contract, the nation state and natural law. Liberalism as civil religion, based on self-sufficient individualism, has become impotent in the face of the challenges faced by humanity in the 21st century. When the ANC got the opportunity to use its parliamentary majority to steer the writing of the "final" Constitution in 1995/96, it superimposed particular elements of socialism on the constitutionalism of the 1993 Constitution, including centralised presidential powers, the qualification of property rights, egalitarian standards of justice and the justification of selective discrimination in, for example, labour relations and state procurement. These were the first steps indicative of mere pragmatism on the part of the ANC when it acceded in 1993 to support the introduction of constitutionalism. Subsequently, on the level of social indoctrination, the elastic notion of "transformation" was canonised with the express purpose of promoting the interests of the "proletarian" (black) masses as policy imperative to turn colonial history against the (white) "bourgeoisie". Supported by parliamentary legislation adopted since 1998, patently socialist policies have systematically been introduced, including the "transformational" regulation of labour, (unconstitutional) "cadre deployment" at all levels of state employment, the virtual...
       
  • Substantive policy implementation and the erosion of voter trust as
           factors in the consolidation of the South African democracy

    • Abstract: As vertrekpunt vir hierdie artikel word Suid-Afrika beskryf as 'n ontwikkelingstaat, tans onderworpe aan 'n proses van demokratiese konsolidasie. Hierdie onafgehandelde proses word direk verbind aan die oorgang vanaf 'n ou (apartheids-) na 'n nuwe (demokratiese) bedeling. In hierdie opsig word Suid-Afrika dan ook ingesluit onder die definisie van 'n transformasionele staat. Die term "transformasionele demokrasie" verwys vervolgens na 'n demokrasie wat tot stand gekom het as gevolg van 'n bevrydingstryd, en getransformeer het vanaf 'n outokratiese of koloniale regime na 'n konstitusionele staatsorde. Daar word geargumenteer dat daar in vele opsigte voldoen is aan die vereistes van prosedurele transformasie ná 1994, met die aanvaarding van die grondwet in 1996 en die instelling van konstitusioneel-demokratiese strukture en instansies, en veral die hervorming van die regstelsel en die instelling van vrye en regverdige verkiesings. In terme van substantiewe transformasie bly die proses egter nog onafgehandel. Dit is juis hierdie gebrek aan substantiewe transformasie wat gelei het tot 'n afname in kiesersdeelname en kiesersvertroue. Teen hierdie agtergrond is die oogmerk van die artikel om die effek van die erosie van kiesersvertroue op die politieke landskap en die uiteindelike proses van sowel historiese as huidige demokratiese konsolidasie in Suid-Afrika te bepaal. Ten einde hierdie doel te bereik word daar eerstens, op 'n holistiese wyse, gefokus op die rol van die staat in moderne ontwikkelende demokrasieë. Tweedens word die artikel vernou tot die aard van kiesersvertroue in gevestigde en trans-formasionele demokrasieë. Teen hierdie kontekstuele agtergrond word derdens gefokus op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie. Hier word spesifiek verwys na die stygende trajek van onder-steuning vir die ANC in nasionale en plaaslike verkiesings tussen 1994 en 2004, met daarteenoor die moontlike oorsake vir die afname in ondersteuning vir die ANC-regering ná 2004. Terselfdertyd word die afname in stemopkoms reeds sedert die verkiesing in 1999 in teenstelling tot die groeiende stemouderdompopulasie (SOP) tot en met die nasionale verkiesing in 2019 onder die soeklig geplaas. Met die oog op die projeksie van 'n toekoms-scenario rakende politieke konsolidasie word die daling in stemopkoms en die onderliggende erosie van kiesersvertroue in die Suid-Afrikaanse politieke landskap, ter afsluiting, in verband gebring met mislukkings in die bereiking van veral substantiewe ontwikkelingsdoelwitte en -uitkomste.Internationally, voter trust in political systems is recognised as key to successful democratic governance and the effective co-ordination of collective interaction between government and civil society. For the purposes of this article, it is inferred that voter trust is largely based on the ability of the government to bring about successful transformation in a developmental society - within a period of time. Voter trust in the ANC originally showed increased levels in the first decade of democracy. However, after the 2004 election levels of voter trust started eroding in the ANC; in fact, since the 1999 elections voter trust has been consistently eroding in the South African democracy as a whole. In order to identify the nature and causes of this phenomenon, this article will focus primarily on the following narrative: the failure of transitional governments to implement effectively election promises in the substantive dimensions of the democracy and the effect of said failure on voter behaviour and trust. Based on these guidelines, the purpose of the article is therefore to identify the causes of the erosion of voter trust in the macro (ethical and moral), meso (economic) and application (social) dimensions of the democracy. The primary objective will be to establish the influence such erosion of voter trust has had on the ruling party, election outcomes and the democratic consolidation process generally in South Africa. To illustrate the trajectory of the erosion in voter trust, voting patterns from the post-1994 period to 2016 are discussed. The results ofvarious analytical studies regarding voting patterns were applied to substantiate the argument that the trajectory of voter trust in the ANC government at first reflected an increase, as opposed to the erosion thereof in the second decade of democracy and beyond. The analysis of voting patterns, especially under the so-called "born free" generation, revealed voter apathy, low political efficacy and the erosion of trust in the governing party, leaders, institutions and democratic processes. Various studies revealed that participation of the VAP (Voting Age Population) in elections from 1994 to 2004 was already on a downward trajectory since 1999 through to 2016. Urbanisation and the change in socio-economic needs of voters, as well as the ideological shift in their viewpoint from democratic ideals (freedom and equality) to bread and butter issues, coupled with the government's inability to eliminate poverty, rendered the original election message of liberation and the ANC as the only legitimate government, increasingly irrelevant in the last decade of democracy. Analysis of the implementation of election promises, as stipulated in the ANC manifestos, show that there were successes at procedural level in terms of the establishment of democratic institutions, but that the ANC was mostly ineffective in its management thereof (substantive implementation), and therefore failed in the establishment of socio-economic and interventional programmes and policies. The appearance of corruption, clientelism, maladministration and state capture is manifest not only in the ANC government structures, but also in democratic institutions, State Owned Enterprises (SOE's) and Nongovernmental Organisations (NGO's). Voter trust in a democracy follows a dynamic process where political (moral) trust is initially high, shifting to institutional trust (econo...
       
  • The constitutional requirements and processes to remove a president of the
           USAfrom office: The case of president Donald Trump in a politically
           charged atmosphere

    • Abstract: Om 'n president uit sy amp te verwyder, is 'n tweeledige proses wat sowel h politieke as 'n regskomponent behels en agtereenvolgens in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en die Senaat suksesvol afgehandel moet word. Uit die aard van die saak is beide ernstig en gewigtig, maar die spesifieke bepalings daaroor in die grondwet word nie altyd reg verstaan nie. In 1868 was president Andrew Johnson die eerste president teen wie die Huis wel ampsaanklagtes suksesvol geformuleer het, wat die Senaat nie goedgekeur het nie. Voordat die Huis oor amspaanklagtes teen president Richard Nixon kon stem, het hy in 1973 bedank. In 1995 het die Senaat vir president Bill Clinton op twee ampsaanklagtes onskuldig bevind. Die speaker van die Huis, Nancy Pelosi, gee op 24 September 2019 opdrag dat amps-aanklagtes teen president Trump ondersoek moet word met die doel om hom uit sy amp te verwyder. Eintlik was dit meer om 'n politieke proses aan die gang te kry sodat 'n politieke doelwit bereik kon word, eerder as om tot die verdediging van die grondwet te kom en die toepassing daarvan te verseker. Wat veronderstel was om 'n somber grondwetlike aange-leentheid te gewees het, het algaande in 'n politieke sirkus ontaard. Die Huis waar die Demo-krate in die meerdheid was, het wel twee aanklagte teen hom geformuleer. In die Senaat kon die Demokrate met hul minderheid nie 18 Republikeine oortuig om saam te stem nie. Toe die vereiste tweederdemeerderheid vir 'n skuldigbevinding as gevolg daarvan faal, het die Demokrate die verrigtinge in die Senaat as 'n skynverhoor veroordeel. In die finale ontleding het dit vir die Demokrate daaroor gegaan om president Trump persoonlik en polities af te kraak en te verketter met die oog op die presidentverkiesing in November 2020.Before news about the Covid-19 pandemic engulfed the world from February 2020, and the blanket media coverage of it in the USA in particular, one of the biggest news stories in the USA in recent times was the impeachment of president Trump. This event has prompted many to ask what it means and how it works. Impeachment is grave and momentous. This serious constitutional power is inherently a legal as well as a political process and has only been wielded by Congress on a few rare moments in US history. It is potentially a profoundly disruptive event and prudently consists of a two-step process that starts with the House of Representatives approving articles of impeachment (the formal accusations) against the president and their consequent referral to the Senate to conduct the trial and pronounce a ruling on the accusations. Each of the Chambers of Congress is entrusted with a specific but distinct responsibility in respect of impeachment that is prescribed in Article I of the Constitution. The House "shall have the sole Power of Impeachment" and the Senate "shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments". "Impeachment" as the term is often used is thus not synonymous with both impeachment and removal from office. The House must first formulate and approve the indictment against the president; its power is not dependent on the Senate's. The latter's is "to try" the president on the approved charges. With the Chief Justice presiding the Senate must vote by a required two-thirds majority for indictment. Only then it has to decide how to deal with this violation of oath of office, which is not a criminal conviction in the traditional sense of law breaking. While resembling a court, it is, however, vital to understand that the Senate conducts a political trial, not a judicial trial. Once both these prescribed steps have been successfully completed can the Senate declare the president unfit to serve and remove him from office. It is the Senate that has the final say in any impeachment. The House plays no role in how the Senate must dispose of an impeached president. There were several challenging points with the case for impeaching president Trump. After three years, during which Democrats publicly and very vociferously accused him of a host of criminal acts -from bribery and extortion to campaign finance violations, obstruction of justice, collusion with Russia, conspiracy and even treason - the two articles of impeachment eventually adopted allege none of those things. Instead two non-criminal allegations - abuse of power and obstruction of Congress - were formulated as charges. Both those seemed farcical to Republicans. Politically, the substance of the articles was a major retreat by Democrats. They thereby effectively admitted that the president did not commit any statutory crimes. It also meant that it would be the first presidential impeachment in history in which no statutory crimes were even alleged. In this alone, president Trump claimed vindication even before the Senate commenced with his trial. Unfortunately, Democrats refused to involve the courts and wait for judicial review. House speaker Pelosi said that they could not be at the mercy of the courts! These kinds of statements seem to belie ulterior political motives ahead of a presidential election less than a year away. She exposed her political playbook when in early 2019 she had first announced that she saw no need for impeachment to proceed only to reverse her stand a few months later in September 2019 when she called on the House to proceed immediately with hearings to formulate articles of impeachment in order to have the entire process completed by the end of 2019. Urgency became the justification for expediting this traditionally weighty and lengthy process. However, once the articles had been passed by the House she held onto them for several weeks into January 2020 before conveying them to the Senate for its process to start. So much for the urgency! Republicans locked ranks in support of the president. In the House, every Republican member voted against impeachment. When out of 51 Republican Senators the Democrats could convince only one to support one of the charges the trial ended w...
       
  • Poverty and human dignity: The magisterium of the Catholic Church on the
           interaction between the two

    • Abstract: Zich bewust van de kloof tussen rijk en arm die zich in de sociale en maatschappelijke omwentelingen aan het einde van de negentiende eeuw ontstond als gevolg van de Industriële Revolutie, legde paus Leo XIII vooral met zijn encycliek Rerum Novarum de basis voor een katholieke sociale leer. In deze bijdrage zijn de visies weergeven die zijn opvolgers vanaf 1878 in hun respectievelijke encyclieken en toespraken op basis van deze leer hebben ontwikkeld met betrekking tot de bestrijding van armoede. In de wijze waarop de pausen Pius IX, Joannes Paulus II en Franciscus alle mensen van goede wil aanzetten tot de bestrijding van de armoede is een ontwikkelingsgang te ontwaren. Al thematiseren de pausen Leo XIII, Pius XI, Joannes Paulus II en Benedictus XVI in hun respectievelijke sociale encyclieken de armoede niet uitdrukkelijk: de economische mechanismen, waardoor rijken steeds rijker en de armoede voor grote delen van de bevolking toeneemt, stellen zij voortdurend aan de kaak. Dit doen zij door enerzijds de oorzaken van deze mechanismen op noemer te brengen en anderzijds, oplossingsgericht, het bewustzijn aan te wakkeren dat in het besef van broeder- en zusterschap, in solidariteit evenals in empathie en wezenlijke betrokkenheid op mensen die onder de armoedegrens leven - de oplossing voor het armoedeprobleem besloten ligt. Zoals zijn voorgangers bekritiseert ook paus Franciscus de dominantie van een ongebreideld liberalisme en van een vrije markt, die niet van staatswege gereguleerd wordt. Ook hij pleit voor staatsinterventie teneinde de waardigheid van de mens te borgen, die voortkomt uit arbeid en die daardoor diens intrinsieke waardigheid tot zijn recht laat komen. Vooral deze paus benadrukt de intrinsieke band tussen de zuiverheid van de persoonlijke drijfveren en moraal en de dynamieken in de markteconomie. Als empathie en compassie bij de rijken aflaten is groeiende ongelijkheid in welvaart het gevolg. Ook dit gevolg bekritiseert hij stelliger dan zijn voorgangers.Pope LeoXIII laid the very foundation for a Catholic social doctrine with his encyclical Rerum Novarum. This came about because of his consciousness of the gap between rich and poor that arose in the social and societal upheavals of the late nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Focussing on the eradication of poverty, this contribution seeks to depict the visions that Pope Leo XlII's successors had developed from 1878 onwards in their respective encyclicals and speeches, on the basis of pope Leo's doctrine. In scrutinising successive encyclicals, a certain trend may be discerned regarding directives to all people of good will to reduce poverty. Even though Popes Leo XIII, Pius XI, John Paul II and BenedictXVI did not always explicitly mention poverty in their respective social encyclicals; they constantly denounced the economic mechanisms that made the rich ever richer while simultaneously increasing poverty for large sections of the population. This is done on the one hand, by identifying the causes of these mechanisms and, on the other hand - in a solution-focused way - by raising awareness that the solution to the problem of poverty lies in a sense of brotherhood and sisterhood, in solidarity as well as in empathy - in an essential commitment to people living below the poverty line. In Catholic social doctrine, economic activity is not seen in isolation from its underlying human motives and attitudes with which it is associated. Morality and the market are intrinsically linked, and there is a constant interaction between an understanding of one's own morality and an understanding of how an economy can contribute to the dignity of as many people as possible. This is constantly shown in the encyclicals under discussion in this article, as it also becomes clear that contributing to human dignity is the main purpose of any economic transaction. Attention to the interaction between virtues and the market, between economic and ethical realities, also entails the reflection on human dignity. In this context, the successive Popes stress the importance of the principle of subsidiarity, the primacy of labour over capital, because of the intrinsic value of labour for human dignity. They do not condemn capitalism, but argue that the market should be regulated by the state, because the greed of the haves can undermine the social position and the market position of the have nots, further exacerbating the poverty of the have nots. Like his predecessors, Pope Francis also criticizes the dominance of unbridled liberalism and of a free market which is not regulated by the state. He, too, advocates state intervention in order to guarantee the dignity of the human being, which stems from labour and which, in this way, does justice to his intrinsic dignity. But he is much more assertive and explicit than his predecessors in his articulation of criticism of economic developments. Even though he praised Europe's struggle for human rights and dignity in the European Parliament, he is at the same time highly critical of the individualism, indifference and unbridled consumerism of many Europeans, because he sees this as one of the causes of the poverty of non-Europeans. According to him, the latter are not "seen"; there is no solidarity or commitment towards fellow brothers and sisters in "the common house", the earth. It is possible that the occasional biting tone of the pope is a little too vehement. Even though this is understandable and can be traced back to his own increasing awareness of economic inequality and to Medellín 's influence; Western democracy has also had very positive effects on the distribution of capital. Pope Francis, in particular, emphasizes the intrinsic link between the purity of personal motives and morals and the dynamics of the market economy. The market economy is only good if it is based on principles, in which human dignity is predominant. If empathy and compassion among the r...
       
  • Diamond jubilee of decimalisation: 60 years of South African rand and
           cent

    • Abstract: Die Unie van Suid-Afrika het op 14 Februarie 1961 'n desimale geldstelsel, naamlik die rand en sent (R/c), in omloop geplaas. Die rand en sent het die imperiale geldstelsel van pond, sjielings en pennies (£/s/d) vervang. Desimalisasie in 1961 word dikwels met die republiekwording van Suid-Afrika op 31 Mei 1961 in verband gebring, maar hierdie was inderdaad twee verskillende prosesse wat net toevallig in dieselfde jaar plaasgevind het. Die besluit om 'n desimale muntstelsel in te stel is in 1956 geneem, terwyl die besluit om die volle onaf-hanklikheid van Suid-Afrika van die Verenigde Koninkryk as die Republiek van Suid-Afrika te oorweeg, eers in 1960 geneem is. Suid-Afrika het sy eie geldeenheid, hoewel gemodelleer op die stelsel van £/s/d soos gebruik in die VK, reeds teen 1910 in omloop gestel. Weens dieselfde benaming en struktuur (£/s/d) wat vir die twee geldeenhede gebruik is, het die algemene publiek dit verkeerdelik as homogeen beskou. Desimalisasie was dus nie die aankondiging van 'n onafhanklike geldeenheid nie; maar bloot die vervanging van een onafhanklike geldeenheid deur 'n ander. Desimalisasie in Suid-Afrika het desimalisasie in die Verenigde Koninkryk met presies 'n dekade voorafgegaan. Die Verenigde Koninkryk het op 15 Februarie 1971 gedesimaliseer. Desimalisasie het metrisering in Suid-Afrika ook met sowat 'n dekade vooruitgeloop, met laasgenoemde wat eers op 1 April 1971 'n aanvang geneem het. Ten tye van desimalisasie is die waarde van R2,00 aan £1/-/- gelykgestel. Sedertdien het die wisselkoers van die rand verswak en staan dit tans op sowat R21,00 = £1,00. Met hierdie navorsing word 'n hipotese getoets vir hierdie verswakking van die wisselkoers en daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat dit onder meer aan 'n politieke diskonto van sowat 45 persent toegeskryf kan word.The Union of South Africa, the precursor to the Republic of South Africa, introduced a decimal coinage system, comprising rand and cents, on 14 February 1961. The rand and cents replaced the imperial system of pounds, shillings and pennies (£/s/d). The decimalisation of 1961 is often associated with the establishment of the Republic of South Africa on 31 May 1961, but these were indeed two different processes that happened in the same year. Botswana (then the Bechuanaland Protectorate), Eswatini (then the Protectorate of Swaziland), Lesotho (then the Basutaland Protectorate) and Namibia (then South West Africa) also introduced a de facto decimal coinage system on 14 February 1961, since the South African currency served as legal tender in those countries at the time. The decision to introduce a decimal coinage system was taken as far back as 1956, while the decision to consider full independence of South Africa from the United Kingdom as the Republic of South Africa only came about in 1960. South Africa had its own currency, the South African pound, modelled on the system of £/s/d as used in the UK, as of 1910. Decimalisation was therefore not so much the announcement of an independent currency, but rather the replacement of one independent currency system with another. South Africa adopted a system of rand and cents, with an official conversion rate of R2,00 = £1/-/-. The conversion followed the report of the Decimal Coinage Commission appointed on 8 August 1956. The Commission was appointed to investigate (i) a decimal coinage system regarded as the most appropriate for the Union of South Africa; (ii) the conversion methodology considered most appropriate; and (iii) the cost of decimalisation. On 1 August 1958, the Commission published a report recommending a specific decimal system for South Africa. The South African government accepted the recommendation in the Commission's majority report that the country should establish a decimal monetary system on the basis of a 10 shillings/cent system. This system and conversion rate were recommended partly because it was found that the value of the vast majority of cash transactions at the time of the investigation was less than £1. The value of the pound as a base unit would therefore have been too large. The currency's name, rand, is derived from the Witwatersrand, the gold deposit where Johannesburg and the first gold mines were located. Decimalisation in South Africa preceded decimalisation in the United Kingdom by exactly a decade. The United Kingdom decimalised on 15 February 1971. Decimalisation also preceded metrication in South Africa by about a decade, with the latter commencing on 1 April 1971. At the time of decimalisation, the value of R2,00 was set to £1/-/-. Since then, the exchange rate of the rand has weakened and currently stands at around R21,00 = £1,00. This research uses a model to test a hypothesis for this weakening of the exchange rate based on economic growth, inflation and interest rate differentials as well as a political discount/premium between South Africa and the United Kingdom. The model analyses economic growth and the inflation rates in the United Kingdom and South Africa over the relevant period. The impact of interest rate differentials on the exchange rate is calculated as a forward exchange contract over the period of comparison. Any difference that is not explained by these aspects is considered a political discount/premium. On this basis, the model is therefore specified as: where pd = political discount, calculated by solving the model; £/R2020 = exchange rate in 2020, namely £1 = R21. tk = forward exchange rate. £/R1961 = exchange rate in 1961, namely £1 = R2. ∆n = difference in inflation between the United Kingdom and South Africa; and ∆y = difference in economic growth between the United Kingdom and South Africa. Based on this model, the rand trades at a very large political discount of about 45 per cent against the pound. Due to political uncertainty in South Africa, it is impossible to predict the value of the rand again...
       
  • Analysing the contributory role of the accounting profession to save
           our planet

    • Abstract: Volhoubaarheid en volhoubare ontwikkeling is dikwels betwiste konsepte wat geassosieer word met 'n wye verskeidenheid verbandhoudende betekenisse en teorieë. Verskillende wêreld-beskouings deur mense en organisasies beïnvloed die manier waarop volhoubare ontwikkeling hanteer word. Om volhoubaarheid en volhoubaarheidskonsepte na te streef, is meestal in direkte konflik met die dryfveer om winste te genereer. Hierdie oorsigartikel fokus op moontlike ontwikkelinge en aanpassings in die besigheidswêreld wat ten doel het om volhoubaarheid te verseker. Met die volhoubaarheidskonsep in gedagte, is die doelwit van hierdie artikel derhalwe om die rol en bydrae van die rekeningkundige professie in volhoubare ontwikkeling te ondersoek. Vorige studies dui aan dat Finansiële Rekeningkunde onderworpe is aan standaardisering en regulering in ooreenstemming met internasionale en plaaslike vereistes en dat dit daarom moeilik is om, gegewe dergelike gestandaardiseerde regulasies, volhoubaarheid te akkommo-deer. Die volgende stap was om te ontleed hoe die volhoubaarheidskonsepte in Bestuurs-rekeningkunde geïnkorporeer kan word. Omrede die meting en rapportering van omge-wingskostes steeds problematies blyk te wees, het 'n totale nuwe vakdissipline naamlik Omgewingsbestuursrekeningkunde ontwikkel. Die verhouding tussen monetêre inligting en verhoogde uitset enersyds en tegelykertyd daarmee die vermindering van omgewingsbe-soedeling of natuurlike hulpbronverbruik andersyds, kan uitgedruk word in terme van 'n eko-doeltreffendheidsverhouding of 'n ekonomiesedoeltreffendheidsindikator (EDI). Hierdie behoefte om te meet en te ontleed, gee aanleiding tot nuwe vakdissiplines as deel van Omge-wingsbestuursrekeningkunde, insluitende nuwe spesialisrigtings soos Water-rekeningkunde en Koolstofrekeningkunde wat tans ontwikkel word. Die implementering van 'n groot aantal omgewingsbestuursrekenkundige instrumente vorm die grondslag vir die bevordering van integrasie en volhoubaarheid. Bogenoemde ontwikkelinge en tendense, benader vanuit die perspektiefvan 'n rekeningkundige professie, kan 'n positiewe bydrae lewer tot die beskerming van ons omgewing. Groter samewerking tussen navorsers, akademici en professionele rekeningkundige liggame kan die volhoubaarheid van ons planeet bevorder.Sustainability and sustainable development are often contested concepts associated with a wide range of meanings and theories. Different worldviews by people and organisations influence the different concepts entertained in respect of sustainable development. Furhermore, pursuing sustainable and sustainability concepts is usually in direct conflict with the drive to generate profits. This review article focuses on potential developments and adjustments in the business world to ensure sustainability. With the sustainability concept in mind, the purpose of the article is to explore the role and contribution of the accounting profession with regard to sustainable development. Previous studies indicate that Financial Accounting is prone to standardisation and regulation in accordance with international and local accounting standards and that it is therefore problematical to accommodate sustainability. The next step was to analyse the manner in which the sustainability concepts could be incorporated into Management Accounting. As the measurement and reporting of environmental costs continue to be problematic, a whole new discipline has been developed, namely Environmental Management Accounting. The relationship between monetary information and increased output while simultaneously reducing environmental pollution or natural resource consumption can be expressed in an eco-efficiency ratio or an economic efficiency indicator (EDI). These trends of measuring and analysing require the establishment of new subject disciplines as part of Environmental Management Accounting, including the development of new specialist fields such as Water Accounting and Carbon Accounting. The implementation of a large number of environmental management accounting tools is fundamental to promote integration and sustainability. The above developments and trends, considered from the perspective of the accounting profession, can make a positive contribution to the protection of our environment. Greater collaboration between researchers, academics and professional accounting bodies can promote the sustainability of our planet.
       
  • An assessment of perceptions concerning digital transformation at a South
           African commercial bank - a case of Anthropocene denial for the
           economy'

    • Abstract: Die Suid-Afrikaanse bankbedryf is goed ontwikkel in vergelyking met ander geïndustrialiseerde lande. Die bankbedryf is egter onder druk weens redes soos verbruikers se eise vir meer naatlose bankervarings en die ekosisteembegrip van markte. Hierdie druk vind grootliks plaas vanweë die digitale transformasie wat op kommersiële instellings soos deposisionemende bankinstellings afgedwing word ten einde te oorleef en op die lang termyn volhoubaar te wees. Digitale transformasie word binne die konteks van die Vierde Nywerheidsrewolusie oor die algemeen beskou as die antwoord op die markuitdagings van bankinstellings. Kern digitale transformasiepraktyke soos leierskap, digitale neigings, digitale transformasievaardighede, digitale strategieë, die implementering van digitale tegnologie en kliënt-sentriese benaderings word gesien as invloedryk ten opsigte van die sogenaamde digitale volwassenheidsvlakke van bedrywe. Die dominante kommersiële banke in Suid-Afrika beleef die digitale ontwrigting op verskeie maniere en fokus daarop om besigheidsmodelle te wysig vanaf hoofsaaklik produksentries tot meer kliëntgesentreerd van aard. Hierdie navorsing fokus op die vasstelling van die wyses waarop digitale volwassenheid die Suid-Afrikaanse bankbedryf beïnvloed. Die navorsing fokus derhalwe op een van die groot kommersiële banke in Suid-Afrika as 'n verwysingsraamwerk/gevallestudie. Die deelnemers in die bedryf wat betrokke was in die navorsingsprojek is versoek om die spesifieke bank se digitale volwassenheidsvlak te bepaal onder die verskillende opsies wat gebruik word in die navorsing. Die resultate van die studie dui aan dat die meerderheid van die respondente die bank as ontwikkelend sien in terme van digitale volwassenheid. Statistiese tegnieke is gebruik om die verhouding tussen die kernfaktore van digitale volwassenheid en digitale transformasie vas te stel. 'n Regressie-analise is voorts gebruik om te bepaal watter verhouding daar tussen digitale volwassenheidsvlakke en die geïdentifiseerde kernfaktore is. Die navorsingsresultate toon aan dat 'n sekere verhouding wel bevestig kon word tussen digitale volwassenheid en die geïdentifiseerde kernfaktore. In die besonder het die studie getoon dat 'n onderling gekoppelde stel digitale transformasiekernfaktore die konteks van digitale volwassenheid beïnvloed.Compared to other industrialised countries the South African banking industry is at present well developed and controlled. However, the industry is under stress due to a number of reasons including customer demands for more seamless banking experience. The Fintechs and other digital disruptors such as Blockchain are also causing turmoil in the industry. The banks are under massive pressure to transform their business models to a more customer-centric approach in order to stay relevant. Digital transformation is seen as the solution to the challenges faced by banks. The core digital transformation practices such as leadership, digital trends, digital transformation skills, digital strategies, implementation of digital technologies, and customer-centric approach are seen as influences brought to bear on digital maturity levels. The Bank has felt the disruption and is working towards changing its business model from product-centric to customer-centric. This research was undertaken to assess how the core practices influence digital maturity in the Bank. The participants were asked to rate the Bank's maturity level among the options given; early, developing, and maturing. The majority of the respondents view the Bank as developing in terms of maturity. The statistical techniques were employed to assess the relationship between digital maturity and digital transformation core practices. Furthermore, an ordinal logistic regression analysis was employed to establish what relationship exists between digital maturity level and the combined core factors, i.e. a prediction was made about an ordinal response variable given a set of independent variables. The results revealed that a relationship exists between digital maturity and core practices. In particular, the research has shown that an interconnected set of digital transformation core practices work together to influence digital maturity.
       
  • Environmental identity in the Age of Man: New perspectives on Toorbos.
           Part 1

    • Abstract: Die rolprentweergawe van Dalene Matthee se roman, Toorbos, wat op die uitwissing van groot gedeeltes van die Knysnawoud en inheemse ekosisteme daarvan in die 1930's fokus, is verlede jaar vrygestel. Ook in 2019 het die tema van die Simposium van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, "Mensgemaakte bedreigings vir lewe op aarde", ons opnuut attent gemaak op die druk wat op die planeet se lewensonderhoudende sisteme geplaas word. My studie sluit by hierdie sake aan; die konteks daarvoor is die hedendaagse aandag aan iden-titeitskwessies in navorsingsgeledere waar die aandag op benaderings tot omgewingskonflik en -krisisse toegespits is. Die teoretiese raamwerk wat benut word in die ekokritiese herlees van Toorbos is Susan Clayton en Susan Opotow se omgewingsidentiteitsteorie en -model. In Deel 1 van hierdie studie word die belang van omgewingsidenteit teoreties gemotiveer. Ook word gepoog om die relevansie van hierdie beginsel vir omgewingsgeoriënteerde denke uit te klaar en te onderstreep, in aansluiting by die wêreldwye besorgdheid oor die bestaanskrisis vir die mens, sou die planeet se vermoë om te voorsien tot niet gaan. In Deel 2 (Maartuitgawe van 2021) word die belang van Clayton en Opotow se omgewingsidentiteitsidees prakties geïllustreer deur die toepassing van hulle omgewingsidentiteitsmodel op die hooffigure in Toorbos. Uiteindelik illustreer hierdie studie die effek van omgewingsidentiteitsverskille tussen romankarakters en werp dit lig op die onversoenbaarheid tussen mense as gevolg daarvan. Toorbos het potensiaal as bewusmaker van die kwessie van omgewingsidentiteit en as demon-strasie van die kragtige wyse waarop dit op menseverhoudings, sowel as op omgewingsgedrag en -oortuigings, kan inspeel.The film version of Dalene Matthee's novel Toorbos (2003; translated by the author as Dreamforest, 2004) was released in 2019. Media interest in the film has drawn new attention to the novel. In the same year as the release of the film - which focuses on the obliteration of large parts of the Knysna Forest and accompanying indigenous ecosystems in the 1930s - the Symposium of the South African Academy for Science and Arts reminded us of the current pressure on the planet's life-sustaining systems. The theme of the 2019 symposium was "Man-made threats to life on earth: the age of the Anthropocene". The Age of Man, or the Anthropocene, refers to a geological epoch during which the earth is reaching critical tipping points due to increasing human influence. This could lead to rapid and irreversible change and could make life on earth impossible (Kotzé 2014). This study is positioned within current debates on identity issues among researchers who focus on approaches to environmental conflicts and crises. Studies concentrating on the links between environmental identity, behaviour and decision-making make it clear that the self is the most important motivator of any behaviour; identity can play a greater role in influencing behaviour than specific attitudes and worldviews (Stets & Biga 2003:398; Freed 2015:2, 7). In the first part of this study, I introduce Susan Clayton and Susan Opotow's ideas about identity and the environment. In exploring various conceptions of justice with regard to environmental issues, Clayton and Opotow (2003a:7) focus on identity, arguing that beliefs about what is fair are fundamentally interwoven with who and what we believe we are, how we relate to others, and what this means for rights and obligations. Clayton also emphasises that identity is both a product and a force, an assortment of beliefs about the self and a motivator of particular ways of interacting with the world. A strong environmental identity, as a motivating force, can have a significant effect on personal, social and political behaviour (Clayton 2003:46). Furthermore, Clayton and Opotow (2003a:19) argue that environmental conflicts can be neither understood nor constructively resolved unless we recognise the ways in which they reflect individual and group identities. In the second part of the study, to be published in the March 2021 edition of this journal, Clayton and Opotow's ideas about environmental identity serve as the theoretical framework for an ecocritical rereading of Toorbos. Environmental identity is described as a sense of connection to some part of the nonhuman natural environment (based on history, emotional attachment or similarity) that affects how we perceive the world and act towards it; a belief that the environment is important to us and an important part of who we are (Clayton 2003:4546). According to Clayton and Opotow (2003a:10), it is useful to conceptualise environmental identity as occurring along a continuum anchored on the one end by minimal and on the other by strong levels of social influence. Their point of departure is that environmental identities inevitably contain a social component because they depend on social meaning. How we understand ourselves in nature is infused with a shared, culturally influenced understanding of what nature is - whether it is "to be revered, reviled, or utilised" (Clayton & Opotow 2003a:10). We are reminded that social variables affect the extent to which we are able and choose to focus on the natural environment and how we interpret what we see. Therefore, the scale for assessing individual differences in environmental identity is based on the reality that, although social influence is inevitable, the degree of influence varies for different individuals or groups (Clayton & Opotow 2003a:10). This study has two objectives: The importance of environmental identity is firstly theoretically motivated (Part 1 of my study) and, secondly, it is practically illustrated by applying Clayton and Opotow's model of environmental identity in analysing the main characters in Toorbos (Part 2). The theoretical argument constructed around the concept of environmental identity in this first part of the study s...
       
  • Parenting approaches of hearing mothers and fathers to children with
           hearing loss

    • Abstract: Navorsing toon dat 90% van kinders met gehoorverlies vir horende ouers gebore word (Cole & Flexer 2016; Lederberg, Schick & Spencer 2013). Hierdie ouers kan probleme ondervind om 'n effektiewe benadering tot die grootmaak van kinders te ontwikkel, en hulle kan dit 'n uitdaging vind om 'n kind met gehoorverlies met selfvertroue groot te maak (Calderon, Bargones & Sidman 1998). Studies dui aan dat interaksie tussen gesinslede, familiehulpbronne en ondersteuningsdienste alle areas van die gesinslewe beïnvloed wanneer daar 'n kind met 'n gehoorverlies in die familie is. Boonop ondervind horende ouers nie net uitdagings ten opsigte van hul kind se gehoorverlies nie, maar is daar sprake van verdere uitdagings soos stres, kommunikasie, maatskaplike ondersteuning en toegang tot inligting. Verder beïnvloed gehoorverlies in kinders ouers se vertroue in hulle vermoë om 'n kind met gehoorverlies groot te maak. In hierdie studie ondersoek ons of daar 'n verskil is tussen moeders en vaders se ouer-skapbenadering, en of daar enige bydraende faktore is wat ouers se self-effektiwiteit mag benadeel wanneer hulle 'n kind met gehoorverlies grootmaak.It is estimated that there are 32 million children in the world with a hearing loss. Research shows that 90% of children suffering from hearing loss are born to hearing parents who often know nothing or very little about hearing loss. Most research studies on child hearing loss have generally focussed on early intervention, language development and on parents' experiences at the time of diagnosis of child hearing loss. However, the effect of child hearing loss on parents 'parenting approaches and on parents 'parental self-efficacy in attempting to parent a child with a hearing loss, have received relatively little research attention. Parenting a child with a hearing loss may necessitate the need for parents to make accommodations for their child by adapting, adjusting, educating themselves about the needs of their child and may modify their parenting approaches, behaviour and attitudes in order to become more engaged in their parenting role. Furthermore, parents parenting a child with this particular disability may lack a sense of parental self-efficacy, and may be unable to put their parenting knowledge into action as they may feel overwhelmed by their extra responsibilities. In many cases, parents of children with a hearing loss are expected to take on new and multiple roles for which they are not prepared. The demands of these roles together with parents 'lack of parenting skills (knowledge on hearing loss, communication approaches for example), the need for information resources, social-emotional support leave parents vulnerable. As a result of their vulnerability parents may experience difficulties in developing effective parent child-rearing approaches and may struggle in their parental self-efficacy to parent a child with hearing loss. Research shows that parental self-efficacy is the key to a child's success. Given the abovementioned challenges, the aim of the present study was to examine and describe the parenting approaches and the contributory factors to parents 'parental efficacy when parenting children with a hearing loss. The research involved a sample of 103 hearing parents from the Western Cape, South Africa, whose children were between the ages of 10 and 17. Each parent completed a self-administered questionnaire made up of three sections that included (a) parents 'demographic details (b) the adaptation of the Parents as Social Context Questionnaire (PSCQ) and (c) the adaptation of the Parent Self-Efficacy Instrument (PSE). The results of our study show that mothers scored higher on chaotic parenting as well as on structured parenting approaches. Fathers scored higher on autonomy and supportive parenting approaches as well as on parental warmth than mothers. The results also show that there is a significant difference in parental self-efficacy between fathers and mothers, with fathers scoring significantly higher on knowledge, confidence, handling of stress, communication, positive interaction and satisfaction than mothers. The results of the study provide for a greater understanding of mothers' and fathers' differences in parenting approaches as well as the factors influencing their parenting approaches and confidence in parenting a child with a hearing loss. In summary, children with a hearing loss remain a vulnerable sector in our society just as any other child with a disability. Parents too form part of this vulnerability as they experience a myriad of challenges and a host of relational difficulties when parenting their child thus affected. A clearer awareness and understanding of parents 'perspectives of their parenting approaches and the factors contributing to their parental self-efficacy when parenting a child with a hearing loss have important implications for family centred practices. These implications could assist professionals in the development of specific interventions supporting mothers and fathers that will enhance parent child relationships and positive child outcomes. Furthermore, these implications and recommendations made by the current study can be considered for future research in the field ofparenting and childhood hearing loss.
       
  • Person-oriented citizenship education in public secondary education

    • Abstract: Om als veerkrachtige, verantwoordelijke en bewuste burgers deel te nemen aan de steeds veranderende samenleving hebben jongeren levensbeschouwelijke vorming nodig. Het ontwikkelen van de eigen identiteit en een persoonlijke levensbeschouwing geeft jongeren richting en betekenis aan hun leven en levensbeschouwelijke geletterdheid zorgt voor een stevige kennisbasis waardoor zij de samenleving beter begrijpen en hun overtuigingen, waarden en drijfveren kunnen uitdrukken en beargumenteren. In Nederland biedt het openbaar voortgezet onderwijs echter geen structurele levensbeschouwelijke vorming aan door de connotatie van dit vakgebied met het bijzonder onderwijs en het opvoeden in een religie. Dit artikel betoogt dat levensbeschouwelijke vorming door middel van persoonsgerichte burgerschapsvorming wel een structurele plek in het openbaar voortgezet onderwijs kan krijgen. Burgerschapsvorming is op de meeste scholen geen vak op zichzelf, maar wel een leergebied waar scholen aandacht aan moeten besteden. Burgerschapsvorming bestaat uit drie domeinen, namelijk democratie, participatie en identiteit. Persoonsgerichte burgerschapsvorming richt zich op het identiteit domein van burgerschapsvorming en komt overeen met levensbeschouwelijke vorming. Zowel de inhoud als de naam van persoonsgerichte burgerschapsvorming sluit aan bij de identiteit en opdracht van het openbaar voortgezet onderwijs.The generation of young people growing up in this challenging and ever-changing 21st-century society needs a solid foundation, and meaningful framework to participate in Dutch society as a resilient, responsible and conscious person. Young people need time and space to develop their own identity through thinking about values, norms and motives. They also need this to reflect on what gives meaning and direction to life. This is exactly what worldview education is all about. A worldview is a coherent set of ideas, experiences, values and images that a person develops about themselves, about living together with others, and about the world. Everyone has a perspective on life and this perspective is influenced by cultures, religion, or other (more secular) worldviews such as humanism. When we talk about worldview education, we distinguish two components. The first component is knowledge about and from different religions and worldviews. The second component is the development of a personal worldview and the unfolding of one's own identity. Worldview education is important because it helps young people to develop a moral compass that gives direction and meaning to life. Furthermore, it gives them roots which empower them in today's challenging society. All schools should recognise the relevance of worldview education and should give structural attention to this subject in their vision and curriculum. In the Netherlands, confessional secondary education offers worldview education as school subject "levensbeschouwing" (worldview education) or "godsdienst" (religious education). Most public secondary schools, however, do not offer any worldview education. Two reasons explain why most public secondary schools do not offer worldview education. First, Dutch public schools are established and managed by the government. The Dutch government has a neutral attitude towards certain topics such as religion, identity and worldview. Public education adopted this neutral attitude and substantiated this by arguing that all forms of confessional worldview education should take place outside of public education. This is called the active neutral attitude of public education. Second, worldview education is associated with (confessional) religious education and this association consists out of two parts: the religious identity of confessional schools (which is where confessional worldview education is taught) and the teaching of one specific religion in these schools (instead of learning about and from different religions and worldviews). However, we want to argue that public education still does justice to its identity and assignment when offering worldview education in an active pluralistic way. Public schools claim to be a meeting place for children with different backgrounds because every student, regardless of belief, culture, or other background, is welcome at a public school. This diversity is a distinctive aspect of the identity of a public school. Worldview education pays attention to this diversity and teaches about different religions and worldviews that play a role in society. Giving equal attention to different cultures, religions and worldviews is more "neutral" than giving preference to a secular vision where none of these subjects are taught. Apart from the above, the government has given public education the obligatory task that is called "active pluralism", which means that public schools have to pay attention to diversity in society, that students have to reflect critically on their own worldview, and that they should discuss different religions and worldviews with respect and without prejudice. One could say that, because of its identity and assignment, public education in particular is the place where worldview education should have a structural place. We argue that worldview education could have this structural place in public education by connecting worldview education to citizenship education. Citizenship education consists of three different domains: democracy, participation and identity. Worldview education is interwoven with all of these three domains, but especially with the domain "identity" and is, therefore, an essential part of citizenship education. Based on these three domains of citizenship education, two substantive aspects of citizenship education can be distinguished: society-oriented citizenship education (based on the democracy domain) and person-oriented citizenship education (based on the identity domain). Participation is an important part of both domains and an overall purpose of citizensh...
       
  • Empowering secondary-school principals in Ethiopia to perform their
           instructional leadership roles more effectively

    • Abstract: Skoolhoofde speel 'n belangrike rol om toe te sien dat skole goed bestuur word en, in die besonder, dat doeltreffende onderrig en leer plaasvind. Hoofde se onderrigleierskaprol behels die strategiese toepassing van kennis en vaardighede om konteks-spesifieke problème op te los en die doelwitte van onderwys te verwesenlik. 'n Kwantitatiewe benadering is in hierdie studie gevolg met die doel om ondersoek in te stel na hoe hoofde van openbare sekondêre skole in die Amhara-streek van Ethiopië bemagtig kan word om hulle onderrigleierskaprol te vervul. Onderwysers en skoolhoofde was die eenhede van ontleding in die studie, terwyl vraelyste as kwantitatiewe navorsingsinstrument gedien het. Die data wat bekom is, is met behulp van die Statistiese Pakket vir Sosiale Wetenskappe ontleed. Die studie het onder meer bevind dat aspekte soos strukturele en sielkundige bemagtiging en leierskapgedrag 'n beduidende verwantskap met doeltreffende onderrigleierskap en die bemagtiging van skoolhoofde toon. In teenstelling hiermee het die studie ook bevind dat aspekte soos gebrekkige ondersteuning vanaf topbestuur, 'n gebrek aan professionele ontwikkeling, 'n tekort aan die nodige hulpbronne, onbehoorlike inmenging deur die topleierskap en die intimidasie van skoolhoofde as vername hindernisse tot die bemagtiging van skoolhoofde in die streek ervaar word. Die studie is afgesluit met aanbevelings oor hoe skoolhoofde hulle onderrigleierskaprol doeltreffend kan vervul en enkele aanbevelings rakende die formulering en implementering van 'n bemagtigingsprosesmodel vir skoolhoofde in die die streek.The research literature clearly indicates that school leaders are faced with numerous and daunting problems and challenges in diverse contexts. This is mainly the result of rapid changes in the world, characterised by, inter alia, unending technological progression, an increase in the information society and globalisation. These and other factors influence the inherent goals of schools and, as a result, the leadership roles of school principals are shifting in tandem with these changes. School principals play a major role in ensuring that schools are well managed and, more specifically, to ensure effective teaching and learning. The instructional leadership role ofthe principal becomes vital in this process. Instructional leadership involves, inter alia, the strategic application of knowledge and skills to solve context-specific problems and to achieve the purposes of schooling. Surprisingly, little or no research has been done in the area of empowering public secondary school principals with regard to their instructional leadership roles in Ethiopian secondary schools. Although many other sub-sectors of education in Ethiopian education have adopted some kind of empowerment initiative for at least part of their workforce, less attention is paid to the empowerment of principals. The main aim of this study was to examine how public secondary school principals (PSSP) can be empowered to perform their instructional leadership roles more effectively in the Amhara region of Ethiopia (ARE). The study aspired to support school principals in becoming more aware of their perceptions and practices regarding instructional leadership, with particular reference to the possibilities offered by instructional leadership to influence teaching and learning positively. The objectives of the study were • to establish the relationships between empowerment, leadership behaviour and effectiveness in the instructional leadership role and performance of principals; • to determine which empowering opportunities were needed by PSSPs to perform their instructional leadership roles; and • to determine the challenges and significant predictors for empowering PSSPs to perform their instructional leadership roles in the ARE. This study is underpinned by a quantitative approach and its aim was to examine how public secondary school principals can be empowered to perform their instructional leadership roles in the ARE. The units of analysis were teachers and principals, while questionnaires were used as the quantitative research instrument. The data obtained was analysed by utilising the Statistical Package for Social Science. The population of this study consisted of all principals and teachers of the 415 public secondary schools from the four administrative zones in the ARE. Of these 415 secondary schools, 283 schools are administered and sponsored by the regional government. The remaining 132 schools are private secondary schools. From the abovementioned 283 public secondary schools, 108 were selected for the investigation using systematic random sampling techniques that enabled the researchers to collect a sufficient number of samples. Thus, random and comprehensive sampling methods were used to select teachers and principals from a population of 11 758 teachers and 108 principals and vice-principals. It was established in this study that principals mainly ascribed their empowerment to the fact that they had ready access to resources and could count on the support received from various stakeholders. In addition, aspects such as structural and psychological empowerment and leadership behaviour also have a significant bearing on effective instructional leadership and the empowerment of principals. In contrast, aspects such as inadequate support from top management, lack of professional development, shortage of the required resources, undue interference by top leaders and intimidation of principals were experienced as major challenges for empowering principals in the Amhara region. In conclusion, the study suggests recommendations for principals to perform their instructional leadership roles effectively. In this regard, the formulation and implementation of an empowerment process model for principals is recommended. Based on the reviewed literature, the field survey and empirical data, four main recommendations are m...
       
  • Entrepreneurial leadership style in schools: Good versus poor
           socio-economic circumstances

    • Abstract: Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om ondersoek in te stel na die entrepreneuriese leierskapstyl van skoolhoofde in skole wat blootgestel is aan sowel goeie as swak maatskaplik-ekonomiese omstandighede. Verskeie organisasies is gestig om te voorsien in die behoefte van onderwys aan almal. Tog sukkel skole in swakker maatskaplik-ekonomiese omgewings dikwels om te funksioneer weens 'n gebrek aan infrastruktuur en hulpmiddels. Voorts speel die kwintielin-deling van skole 'n rol wanneer finansies ter sprake kom. Skoolhoofde van skole wat blootgestel is aan swak maatskaplik-ekonomiese omstandighede moet dikwels kreatief en innoverend dink om voldoende fondse in te samel om te kan oorleef. Om die navorsingsvraag "Watter rol speel die skoolhoof se entrepreneuriese leierskapstyl in goeie en swak maatskaplik-ekonomiese omstandighede'" te beantwoord, is vier skole in gunstige omgewings in die Wes-Kaap en vier skole onderhewig aan swak maatskaplik-ekonomiese omstandighede in die Noord-Kaap in hierdie kwalitatiewe, fenomenologiese studie gekies. Onderhoude is met agt skoolhoofde gevoer om die rol van die entrepreneuriese leierskapstyl in verskillende maatskaplik-ekonomiese omgewings vas te stel. In die studie is bevind dat die skoolhoofde oor sterk leierseienskappe beskik het en dat hulle die entrepreneuriese leierskapstyl suksesvol gebruik het om hul skole effektief te bestuur. Die outonomie van die skoolhoofde het resultate opgelewer. Voorts het hul motivering daartoe gelei dat hulle die skole effektief bestuur het, ongeag die omstandighede waaronder die skole moet funksioneer.The purpose of this research was to investigate the entrepreneurial leadership style of the principals of schools operating in both good and poor socio-economic circumstances. In an effort to provide education to all, organisations have been established to support education worldwide. In recent decades, various organisations related to education have emerged in the world. These organisations include the Association for Childhood Education International (a global community of educators and advocates for education reform); the Global Partnership for Education, which operates in nearly 60 developing countries through a multilateral partnership that includes donor governments, international organisations and teachers; the United Nations International Fund for Emergencies, committed to a holistic and humanistic vision of quality education worldwide, the realisation of everyone's right to education and the belief that education plays a fundamental role in human, social and economic development; and the United Nations International Emergency Fund for Children, which recognises the rights of every child. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation and the United Nations Children's Fund both emphasise access to and equality and quality of learning in education, regardless of educational goals. The leadership as executed by the principal of a school plays an important role in the functioning of the school. However, the socio-economic circumstances will have a direct bearing on the success with which the principal will be able to perform his duties. Here finance plays an important role. If the school is graded as a quintile 5 school according to the quintile system, the principals are dependent on school fees and additional funding through the help of the school governing bodies. When the school is located in a good socio-economic environment, the funds are easier to raise. In contrast, lower quintile schools, which are usually located in poor socio-economic environments, often have to raise extra money under difficult circumstances to keep the school running. For this reason, it is important for principals to think like entrepreneurs to find creative and innovative ways to raise extra funds. Entrepreneurial leadership is a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with the challenges and crises of current organisational settings. Despite the debates on the definition of entrepreneurial leadership, there has been a relative consensus among researchers on the distinctive competencies that motivate and enable entrepreneurial leaders to lead an organisation successfully. These competencies are a combination of personal characteristics, skills and knowledge that have long-lasting and influential effects on entrepreneurial leaders ' organisational performance. Among the personal competencies that have been specified for entrepreneurial leaders, proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking are the ones most cited, indicating entrepreneurial orientations at both personal and organisational levels. To answer the research question "What is the role of the entrepreneurial leadership style ofthe school principal in good and poor socio-economic circumstances'" a qualitative design, embedded in the interpretivist paradigm, was used in the study. A phenomenological study was done in order to experience the daily practices of the school principals, with a focus on their entrepreneurial leadership styles. Four schools in favourable locations as opposed to four schools having to operate in poor socio-economic circumstances were purposefully selected in the Western Cape and Northern Cape. Eight principals were interviewed through semi-structured interviews to investigate the role of their entrepreneurial leadership styles in different circumstances. The data were transcribed first and then coded. The themes derived were scrutinisedfor patterns. It was found that all the principals had strong leadership qualities. The word "cannot" does not exist in the principals ' vocabulary. Regardless ofthe circumstances, it was clear that the principals had a clear vision for the schools and were convinced that they could achieve their goals for the schools. Furthermore, all of the principals applied the entrepreneurial leadership style. In this study, it was found that the principals all possessed the given character...
       
  • &rft.title=Tydskrif+vir+Geesteswetenskappe&rft.issn=0041-4751&rft.date=&rft.volume=">"Will you accept him as he is'": Faan (Faan se trein) and Lambert
           (Triomf) as filmic déstabilisation of hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity

    • Abstract: Hierdie artikel ondersoek die wyse waarop die randfiguur in die filmweergawes van onderskeidelik Faan se trein (2013) en Triomf (2008) hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid uitdaag en destabiliseer. RW Connell se teorie rondom hegemoniese manlikheid is ter sake en dien as teoretiese uitgangspunt. 'n Ondersoek na hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid in die spesifiek gekonstrueerde filmwêrelde hou onvermydelik verband met die apartheidsera in Suid-Afrika. Die herbesoek of heraktivering van die verlede in kontemporêre Suid-Afrikaanse films word dus ook onder die soeklig geplaas om sodoende die waarde daarvan vir die eietydse Suid-Afrikaanse kyker uit te lig. In beide films word 'n randfiguur op die voorgrond gestel, naamlik Faan in Faan se trein en Lambert in Triomf. Alhoewel hierdie karakters oënskynlik tipiese vergestaltings van wit hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid is, word hulle by nadere ondersoek uit die hegemoniese sentrum gesluit. Die onderskeie regisseurs skep elkeen 'n eiesoortige filmwereld waarbinne dié marginalisering gebruik word om kritiek te lewer op die sosiale bestel en hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid wat aan die orde van die dag was tydens apartheid. Die analises van die twee films toon aan hoe elkeen van die randfigure kommentaar lewer op die spesifieke politieke bestel, wat gekenmerk is deur diskriminasie, rassisme en magsverhoudings. Terselfdertyd word hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (weliswaar op verskillende maniere) gedestabiliseer.In her influential book, Masculinities, R.W. Connell (2005) formalised the term hegemonic masculinity. She explains that the term refers to the type of masculinity that dominates other forms of masculinity whereby society defines masculinity as social construct. Hegemonic masculinity gave rise to a plethora of research on masculinity. Morrell (2001), Swart (2001) and Du Pisani (2001, 2004) worked within the South African context and focused specifically on Afrikaner masculinity. They clearly show how hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity is deeply rooted in the Apartheid ideology and has significantly been influenced by puritanical values. Contrary to the hegemonic power that occupies a central role in society, the outsider emphasises the interdependent dialectical relationship between the hegemony and those who are excluded. Van Rensburg (2010:120) points out that the outsider, due to his feeblemindedness and exclusion, often comments honestly and directly on contemporary social order and structures. In other words, the author of a literary work (written or visual) uses the outsider character in a distinct way to comment on or criticise the community, albeit the community within which the character finds himself or the larger community and society. Despite obvious differences, the unifying factor of two recent Afrikaans films Faan se trein (2014) and Triomf (2008) is the fact that it includes an outsider who finds himself within a patriarchal, hegemonic Afrikaner order under the apartheid regime. This article examines the way in which the outsider in the film versions of Faan se trein (2014) and Triomf (2008) challenges and destabilises hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity. Firstly, the focus will be on the discourse regarding masculinity, hegemonic masculinity and hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, as well as the concept of the outsider to determine its relevance in film. An investigation into hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity in the era in which the narrative is set, inevitably exposes connections with the Apartheid era in South Africa. The re-visiting or reactivation of the past is therefore also discussed in order to highlight its possible value for the contemporary South African viewer. The analyses of the two films show that the ideologies of hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity and apartheid are at the centre of the relevant settings. The outsider destabilises these ideologies in different ways. In Faan se trein, Faan destabilises Afrikaner masculinity in two ways. Firstly, he unmasks male sexuality and desire. Through his ignorance of social conventions, Faan explicitly references and gazes at female characters ' breasts and makes offensive and inappropriate remarks. The sergeant, doctor and reverend who can be seen as exemplars of Afrikaner masculinity, regard Faan's actions and statements as insignificant and "normal" for a man. This incidentally demonstrates Afrikaner masculinity's belief that a woman's sexual desire manifests itself as a natural response to a man, and that women serve as objects of male desire. Secondly, Faan exposes the injustices of racial segregation and associated racism that are characteristic of the Apartheid era and Afrikaner masculinity. He does so through his friendship with Stinkhans, who is ultimately Faan's only true friend. Faan regards Stinkhans as his equal and treats him just like all other "important" authority figures. Faan is the embodiment of innocence that exposes the injustices residing in hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity and Apartheid. He also becomes the scapegoat and must unfairly bear the burden of others' sins. Nevertheless, through his innocence and feeble-mindedness he indirectly creates fellowship and relationality in the town. Lambert acts as a destabiliser of hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity in the film Triomf. He is the feeble-minded outsider in an already marginalised space, and the fruit of an incestuous relationship between his mother and her two brothers. It has been shown to be the utmost form of destabilisation. Lambert is thus regarded as a threat to the stability of a national Afrikaner identity. His friendship with Sonny (a black man) and his sexual advances towards a coloured prostitute, further destabilise and detract the racist views of the hegemony. Lambert, as an abject character brought to life by incest and repeating the process by having intercourse with his mother, directly comments on the cramped, inbred ideologies ofthe Afrikaner, ofwhich he is similarly victimised a...
       
  • Taboo language use as a key element in the construction of a zef
           identity

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
  • Een frase, verskeie sake

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
  • 'n Lofrede vir taal

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
  • Michel Serres, die ondeunde denker - 'n huldeblyk

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
  • HERFSLEWE

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
  • Die trekos en trektoerusting in Suid-Afrika: 'n historiese
           perspektief

    • Abstract: Die rol wat taal speel in die konstruksie van Afrikanermanlikheid en zefidentiteit is nog nie voorheen as selfstandige tema ondersoek nie. In hierdie artikel is die doel om te bepaal hoe manlikheid binne 'n zefidentiteit op die blog geskep en geprojekteer word, deur die gebruik van taboetaal. Zefidentiteit is 'n vorm van protesterende manlikheid wat sigself stel teenoor die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid (Du Pisani 2001), wat deur puriteinse moraliteit en openbare en ekonomiese mag gekenmerk word. Die WKJ'-korpus is gebruik vir die analise. Die korpus bestaan uit ongeveer 1,4 miljoen woorde. Vir hierdie analise is die data van die eerste inskrywings in 2000 tot en met 2017 gebruik. 'n Totaal van 50 tekste (ongeveer 30 000 woorde) is met die hand geselekteer en geanaliseer om verdere moontlike taboedomeine te identifiseer. Buiten die drie hoofdomeine wat uit vorige navorsing geïdentifiseer is, is daar nog twee domeine uit die korpus onttrek, naamlik die weerdomein en plantdomein. Die analise het getoon dat WKJ'-lesers en -bydraers doelbewus taboetaal op die blog gebruik om preutse lesers te skok en aanvaarbare sosiale norme te oortree. Hierdeur word die protesterende manlikheid via 'n zefidentiteit voorgehou, om die puriteinse waardes van die hegemoniese Afrikanermanlikheid op ironiese, en dikwels dubbelsinnige, wyse te opponeer maar ook te ontmasker.Masculinity (Benwell 2004; Connell 2016; Connell & Messerschmidt 2005; Kiesling 1996; Messerschmidt 2019), including Afrikaner masculinity (Du Pisani 2001, 2004, 2013; Swart 1998) has been thoroughly researched across the social sciences. Male identity, as it manifests itself in the South African zef subculture, has also come under investigation (Du Preez 2011; Krueger 2012), however, the role of language use in the creation ofsuch a zef identity has not yet been researched. This article investigates how protest masculinity is projected and maintained on the WatKykJy'-blog, a satiric online environment, through language use, and more pointedly, the use of taboo words. This projected masculinity also relates closely to what is perceived as important in the identity of a zef male, which in itself is a reaction to traditional Afrikaner identity and the negative associations it acquired in the post-apartheid years. The WKJ'-corpus is used to conduct the analysis. The corpus consists of 1,4 million words and has been divided into one-year periods, starting at the year 2000 and ending in 2017. A total of 50 texts have been selected randomly and analysed by hand in order to find and expand the taboo domains set out by Stapleton (2010) and van Huyssteen (1996). Apart from the scatological, blasphemous and sexual domains identified in previous research, two more domains (weather and plant domains) have been identified from the corpus. The weather domain is mainly employed to refer to violent behaviour, although it is occasionally used to express surprise. The plant domain is more frequently associated with the use of sexual metaphors. The analysis indicates that WKJ'-readers and -authors frequently use taboo language on the blog. A total of 29 389 taboo words are identified, which translates into a relative frequency of 20 taboo words per 1 000 words. Individual lexical items with the highestfrequency are fok 'fuck' (1709) and its derived form fokken 'fucking' (5631), as well as kak 'shit' (3162), poes 'pussy'(1249) andmoerse 'huge'(literally 'mothers') (1128). The semantic domain that is the most productive taboo domain is the sexual domain, where taboo words with a strong sexual connotation are used quite liberally, alongside words that are metaphorically invoked to convey sexual meanings as well, such as names of animals, e.g. haas 'hare', teef 'bitch', kat 'cat', and goose for females and slang 'snake', bastard or voël 'bird'for males. Women and/or their genitals are also portrayed as edible objects, such as vy 'fig', cherry or koek 'cake', while men are represented as the active eaters thereof. Sexual acts are metaphorically represented as if they inflict pain on women, e.g. brand 'burn', or saag 'saw'. The second most frequent domain is the scatological, where euphemisms and dysphemisms are encountered, such as the euphemism modderotter uitrol (literally "rolling out the mud beaver") for bowel movement, and the dysphemism kakhuis (literally "shit house") for toilet. The third domain of taboo words draws on weather, especially stormy weather, and is often used to refer to people (die dom donner, "the stupid thunder") or to fighting (ek fokken bliksem julle almal "Ifucking thunder (verb) you all"). These words have moderate taboo value in Afrikaans, but form a template for extension to sexual terms with a meaning in the fighting domain, with much higher taboo value, such as voordat ek iemand gaan poes "before I go and pussy (verb) somebody". The fourth domain, the final one with non-negligible frequency, is the domain of blasphemous word use, including the plain forms Jesus and Here 'Lord', but also euphemistic spelling variants such as Jissis 'Jesus' and Jirre 'Lord', which are typically employed as interjections at clause boundaries. Taboo language is used purposefully and deliberately to undermine the puritan values that are part of the traditional hegemonic Afrikaner masculinity, and also expose the duplicity and contradictions thereof. The protest masculinity that is offered instead emphasises physicality, but shares the homophobic and hierarchical gender role components of hegemonic masculinity. The male participants on the website are constructing and projecting a zef identity, for the purpose of creating a post-apartheid identity that denounces any political alliances but rejects the hegemonic masculinity of the traditional Afrikaner male associated with the apartheid era. Yet, the persistent use of irony makes it ambiguous whether the alternative zef masculinity is really held up as new model.
       
 
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