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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 188 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 33)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science     [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
   [192 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2584 journals]
  • A new Cambrian black pigment used during the late Middle Palaeolithic
           discovered at Scladina Cave (Andenne, Belgium)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dominique Bonjean , Yves Vanbrabant , Grégory Abrams , Stéphane Pirson , Christian Burlet , Kévin Di Modica , Marcel Otte , Jacqueline Vander Auwera , Mark Golitko , Rhy McMillan , Eric Goemaere
      Sedimentary Unit 1A at Scladina Cave, Belgium has yielded archaeological material from a Middle Palaeolithic occupation dating to between 40,210 +400/-350 BP and 37,300 +370/-320 BP. Fifty-one fragments of a black, friable rock with a black streak were found in association with 194 burned bone fragments and several thousand lithic artefacts. This black material is interpreted as a pigment brought to the site by Neandertals. The pigment was analysed by petrography, XRD, Raman microspectroscopy, and other geochemical methods. It was identified as a highly siliceous graphitic siltstone. This is a very unique discovery, as European archaeological research has so far only recorded black pigments comprised of manganese oxides from the Middle Palaeolithic. Raman microspectroscopy is a non-destructive method able to distinguish the attributes of black siliceous materials that originate from different tectono-sedimentary contexts. By measuring the degree of alteration of the carbonaceous material, this method allowed for the determination of its geographical and geological origins: a Cambrian formation of very limited extent located near Ottignies, about 40 kilometres north-west of Scladina Cave. The absence of a drainage network connecting the two locations eliminates the possibility of natural transport, and supports its anthropogenic origin.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • An LA-ICP-MS trace element classification of ochres in the Weld Range
           environ, Mid West region, Western Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Rachel Scadding , Vicky Winton , Viviene Brown
      Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is successfully used to distinguish ochre from two nationally heritage listed Aboriginal ochre mines in the Mid West region of Western Australia: Wilgie Mia and Little Wilgie. The same technique is then used to test whether either ochre mine is the likely source of ochre used at archaeological sites in the local landscape. The archaeological samples were retrieved from rock-art and the surface of artefacts in excavated and surface contexts. LA-ICP-MS offers advantages over other techniques for the geochemical characterisation of ochre including direct analysis of solid sample, reduced laboratory preparation and breadth of trace element isotopes analysed. This work highlights the potential for trace elemental analyses and profiling to develop an understanding of the past cultural significance of ochre, from sources which are also important mythological sites.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Kathu Pan 1 points and the assemblage-scale, probabilistic approach: a
           response to Rots and Plisson, “Projectiles and the abuse of the
           use-wear method in a search for impact”
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jayne Wilkins , Benjamin J. Schoville , Kyle S. Brown , Michael Chazan
      Rots and Plisson (2014) question our conclusion that 500,000-year-old points from Kathu Pan 1, South Africa were used as spear tips (Wilkins et al., 2012). However, their reinterpretation of the fractures we identify as diagnostic impact fractures are incorrect. Despite the assertion, knapping processes alone do not explain the basal modifications on the KP1 points. Although Rots and Plisson are critical of the edge damage distribution method, it provides objective, quantitative and statistical comparisons of experimental and archaeological datasets. The data we present stand as reliable evidence for early hafted hunting technology. We suggest that the disagreement stems from a differing perspective on how lithic functional studies should deal with equifinality and the challenge of confidently assessing stone tool function.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Finding the Paleoindian spearthrower: quantitative evidence for
           mechanically-assisted propulsion of lithic armatures during the North
           American Paleoindian Period
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): W. Karl Hutchings
      Archaeologists have long assumed that fluted points were used by North American Paleoindians as spearthrower dart armatures despite a lack of empirical evidence of the spearthrower from the Paleoindian Period. Employing non-subjective, quantitative data derived from velocity-dependent micro-fracture features observed on damaged fluted and un-fluted Paleoindian lithic points, this research presents empirical evidence for the existence of the Paleoindian spearthrower. In addition, the research serves as proof-of-concept for a novel quantitative method of lithic analysis that has far-reaching potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the human past.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Residue analysis links sandstone abraders to shell fishhook production on
           San Nicolas Island, California
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Kevin N. Smith , Sebastian K.T.S. Wärmländer , René L. Vellanoweth , Chelsea M. Smith , William E. Kendig
      Excavations at the upper component of the Tule Creek site (CA–SNI–25), dating between approximately 600–350 cal BP, yielded numerous well-preserved sandstone abraders referred to as saws. Many of these tools show heavy use-wear and abundant white residue still adhering to the surface. We used X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to characterize the residue from two of the abraders, which identified the mineral phases calcite and aragonite (both CaCO3), albite (NaAlSi3O8), and quartz (SiO2). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped for Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDS) analysis identified the elements C, Ca, S, Na, and Al in the samples, confirming the XRD results. Albite, quartz, and calcite in the scrapings are consistent with the mineralogy of sandstone, though the presence of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and aragonite suggests marine shell is also present in the residue samples. XRD and SEM analysis of a modern red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) shell indicates that the inner-layer (nacre) consists mostly of aragonite phase calcium carbonate, whereas the outer layer (epidermis) is made up mostly of calcite phase. SEM images revealed that calcite and aragonite from the archaeological residues display similar morphologies as the material from a modern abalone sample, and a greater presence of aragonite over calcite suggests the abraders were primarily used to work the inner layer of the abalone shell. These results provide a functional linkage between sandstone saws and shell fishhook production at CA–SNI–25.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Using ZooMS to identify fragmentary bone from the Late Middle/Early Upper
           Palaeolithic sequence of Les Cottés, France
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Frido Welker , Marie Soressi , William Rendu , Jean-Jacques Hublin , Matthew Collins
      We report the application of a molecular barcode method (ZooMS) to identify fragmentary bone remains (>2.5 cm) from a Middle to Upper Palaeolithic sequence at Les Cottés, France. ZooMS uses peptide mass fingerprinting of collagen (the most abundant protein in bone) to discriminate fauna (typically to genus level). Using previously reported peptide markers we initially conducted a blind test using 34 morphologically identified bones, followed by the application of ZooMS on 145 morphologically unidentified bone specimens. For the blind test, ZooMS was in agreement with morphological identifications in all cases, but in some instances taxonomic resolution is lower than morphological identifications. Further, 93.8% (136/145) of spectra obtained for morphologically unidentified bone specimens result in identifications that cannot be taxonomically improved by ZooMS. These include ten bone specimens showing signs of carnivore digestion. Focussing on the unidentified bone specimens of the Châtelperronian unit at Les Cottés (US06), ZooMS identified an additional ≈30% of the total number of bones discovered, increasing the total number of identified bone specimens to 61.8%. Further, ZooMS revealed higher taxonomic richness compared to morphological identifications for US06, thereby providing a more informed interpretation of the faunal community present at Les Cottés during the Châtelperronian.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Saiga antelope hunting in Crimea at the Pleistocene–Holocene
           transition: the site of Buran-Kaya III Layer 4
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): François B. Lanoë , Stéphane Péan , Aleksandr Yanevich
      The Swiderian tradition of the Tanged Point Complex (Late Upper Palaeolithic) is attested in Crimea through a few ill-known sites dated to the Younger Dryas and early Preboreal. Little information on subsistence is available on this period yet; with this article, we present the results of zooarchaeological analyses conducted on the site of Buran-Kaya III Layer 4, in central Crimea. Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is the dominant species of the assemblage, followed by red fox (Vulpes vulpes), horse (Equus ferus), and hare (Lepus europaeus). Despise the important presence of canid remains, taphonomic observations as well as archaeological context suggest that human is the main accumulator of saiga antelope remains. Hunter–gatherers likely brought the antelope carcasses whole to the site and performed skinning activity, as well as consumption of meat and bone marrow. Seasonality data from juvenile antelope suggest that the animals were acquired in the late summer or Fall. Based on the ethology of modern populations of saiga antelope, we infer that hunter–gatherers took advantage of the particular geographic setting of the Crimean mountains to efficiently exploit this resource. By drawing comparisons with other known sites of this period, we call attention for future research in exploring the seasonality of subsistence in the Crimea at the Pleistocene–Holocene transition.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Unexpected uses for obsidian: experimental replication and
           use-wear/residue analyses of chopping tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Nina Kononenko , Robin Torrence , Peter White
      Large flaked stemmed artefacts with a morphological resemblance to axes or adzes have been recovered from stone quarries in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea, but they are made from obsidian, a volcanic glass generally considered too brittle for tasks demanding tough, long-lasting edges, such as chopping wood. To evaluate the potential of obsidian for percussive woodworking, 11 replica obsidian tools were used as axes and adzes. Although breakage was common and the tools suffered extensive edge damage, they were surprisingly effective as chopping tools. The patterns of use-wear and residue traces on the experimental tools informed the analysis of 27 archaeological artefacts which were found to have been used as axes or adzes with the addition of sawing in a few cases. As these tools have not been found outside the quarries, their occurrence suggests that during this period some forms of woodworking took place only where there was an abundant supply of raw material. The limited spatial distribution of obsidian chopping tools raises questions about the nature of forest clearance and woodworking in this tropical environment.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Chronology and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the sub-tidal zone: a
           case study from Hinkley Point
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Seren Griffiths , Fraser Sturt , Justin K. Dix , Benjamin Gearey , Michael J. Grant
      Evidence from the Severn Estuary demonstrates that this region was exploited by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers (Bell, 2007). The potential for future archaeological discoveries (Bell, 2007; Webster, 2007: 273; Bell and Warren, 2013: 39), and the well-preserved palaeoenvironmental evidence in the fine-grained and organic sediments of the Somerset, Avon and Gwent Levels (Hosfield et al., 2007a: 40) makes the area of importance for archaeological study. Small quantities of worked flint have been recovered from the foreshore around Stolford, Porlock and Minehead Bay (Mullin et al., 2009; Canti et al., 1995) implying human activity in the present intertidal zone, which is further enhanced by the suggestion of possible deliberate burning of reed swamps (Jones et al., 2005) similar to that postulated in the Severn Estuary (Brown, 2005; Timpany, 2005; Bell, 2007). While considerable research has been carried out within terrestrial and intertidal contexts, remarkably little archaeological work has been undertaken below the mean low water mark (Webster, 2007: 273). The Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary has seen considerable change in sea-level since the Last Glacial Maximum (Long et al., 2002; Philips and Crisp, 2010). Extending our knowledge beyond the intertidal zone is therefore of key importance for understanding the Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic palaeogeography of the region (Hosfield et al., 2007b). Developments in the recovery of offshore Holocene peat and sediment sequences now permit the production of multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental datasets and landscape reconstructions from submerged sample sites. This paper uses evidence from three cores, recovered from submarine peat deposits at Hinkley Point, Bristol Channel, UK, to explore the issues and challenges associated with producing radiocarbon chronologies from deeply submerged peat sequences within a marine environment. We emphasise the importance of analysis of multiple sequences to construct robust chronologies for local hydrological change and landscape reconstruction (Edwards, 2006). The need for local evidence is critical if we are to move beyond generalised and potentially misleading models of human–environment interaction (Scaife, 2011), because as this case study demonstrates, complex processes and landscape variability might have been features of even highly-localised palaeoenvironments.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • The three lives of a uniface
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Brian N. Andrews , Edward J. Knell , Metin I. Eren
      Three different sorts of unifacial stone tool allometric patterns – representing three different sorts of flake design and exploitation patterns – are used to consider the role landscape familiarity plays in producing variability in hunter–gatherer lithic technologies. It had been previously hypothesized that colonizers' unifacial tools (on the population level) should possess the design property of longevity because as people travel in unfamiliar landscapes they could not be certain of encountering new stone outcrops to replenish their stock. Previous analyses of Clovis unifacial tools were consistent with this hypothesis and showed the first allometric pattern, namely that larger tools possessed flatter, less spherical shapes than the smaller tools, suggesting Clovis foragers exploited the retouch potential afforded by the larger, flatter blanks. Here, we hypothesized that the design property of longevity in unifacial tools would be less important to non-colonizing post-Clovis foragers because they would have been more familiar with environments and stone outcrop locations, and thus better able to tailor their unifacial tools to habitat-specific functional and scheduling requirements. Operationally, this lack of concern with tool longevity would be demonstrated by a second or third allometric pattern, namely that there is no relationship between tool size and shape, or that larger tools are rounder than smaller tools. We tested this prediction with analyses of 435 unifacial stone tools from several post-Clovis groups in vastly different environments, including Parkhill (Great Lakes), Folsom (Rocky Mountains), and Cody/Alberta (High Plains). Regardless of whether the post-Clovis dataset was examined in its entirety or by individual cultures, no iteration of the analyses exhibited an allometric pattern similar to the Clovis one. Overall, these results suggest that landscape familiarity plays a significant role in hunter–gatherer unifacial stone tool technological organization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Potential of Cone Penetrating Testing for mapping deeply buried
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Tine Missiaen , Jeroen Verhegge , Katrien Heirman , Philippe Crombé
      Geoarchaeological mapping of wetlands conventionally involves extensive coring. Especially in wetlands marked by a deep palaeosurface (>3 m deep) this can be very difficult and time-consuming. In this paper we therefore present an alternative approach based on Cone Penetration Testing (CPT) for structured, rapid and cost-effective evaluation of buried palaeolandscapes. Both estuarine and river floodplain environments were investigated, including the water-land transition zone (marsh). The efficiency, reliability and repeatability of the CPT method was tested through the comparison with ground-truth core data. The CPT data generally allowed highly accurate mapping of the palaeotopography of the prehistoric surfaces and the overlying peat sequences. Thin organic-rich clay intercalations within the peat layers could often still be identified. Additional pore pressure, conductivity and seismic velocity data (from CPT-U, CPT-C and S-CPT) did not add much crucial information and their main use seems to lie in the added value for near surface geophysical measurements. The results of this research clearly illustrate the importance of CPT information for mapping of palaeolandscapes in archaeology.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Characterizing prehistoric archery: technical and functional analyses of
           the Neolithic bows from La Draga (NE Iberian Peninsula)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Raquel Piqué , Antoni Palomo , Xavier Terradas , Josep Tarrús , Ramon Buxó , Àngel Bosch , Júlia Chinchilla , Igor Bodganovic , Oriol López , Maria Saña
      The discovery in 2012 of a complete yew bow (Taxus baccata) in the lakeside Neolithic site of La Draga, together with two more fragmented bows from previous field seasons, are the oldest evidence of archery among farming communities in Europe. This group of bows has allowed different aspects of prehistoric archery to be considered. Firstly with regard to the manufacturing processes of these weapons, which show great uniformity in terms of the raw material used, but some variety in shapes and sizes. Secondly about the socioeconomic significance of weapons in societies which no longer based their economy on hunting and gathering.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Early Islamic pigments used at the Masjid-i Jame of Fahraj, Iran: a
           possible use of black plattnerite
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Parviz Holakooei , Amir-Hossein Karimy
      Based on micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman), micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and optical microscopy, this paper presents the results of our analytical studies on the early Islamic pigments used in the Masjid-i Jame of Fahraj, central Iran. Our investigations showed that ultramarine blue and haematite were used as blue and red pigments, respectively. Moreover, huntite was identified as white pigment with which whewellite was associated as a degradation product. Interestingly, the black paint was identified to be mainly composed of black plattnerite mixed with mimetite, hydromorphite and galena. Our geological survey at the Darreh Zanjir mine, located 35 km west of Fahraj, suggested this mine to be a possible source for supplying the black plattnerite. Accordingly, black plattnerite is suggested to be most probably used as a pigment and not to have formed as a degradation product of lead-based pigments.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Palaeolithic dogs and Pleistocene wolves revisited: a reply to Morey
           (2014)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Mietje Germonpré , Mikhail V. Sablin , Martina Lázničková-Galetová , Viviane Després , Rhiannon E. Stevens , Mathias Stiller , Michael Hofreiter
      This is a reply to the comments of Morey (2014) on our identification of Palaeolithic dogs from several European Palaeolithic sites. In his comments Morey (2014) presents some misrepresentations and misunderstandings that we remedy here. In contrast to what Morey (2014) propounds, our results suggest that the domestication of the wolf was a long process that started early in the Upper Palaeolithic and that since that time two sympatric canid morphotypes can be seen in Eurasian sites: Pleistocene wolves and Palaeolithic dogs. Contrary to Morey (2014), we are convinced that the study of this domestication process should be multidisciplinary.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Anthropogenic origin of siliceous scoria droplets from Pleistocene and
           Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): P. Thy , G. Willcox , G.H. Barfod , D.Q. Fuller
      Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The findings demonstrate that the presence of siliceous scoria droplets are independent of age and thus are not specific to the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Occurrences have not been reported from natural deposits, but are instead associated with buildings destroyed by fire and thus appear to be restricted to archaeological sites. We therefore conclude that melting of building earth in ancient settlements can occur during fires reaching modest temperatures. There is no evidence to suggest that siliceous scoria droplets result from very high temperature melting of soil and are the result of a cosmic event.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • On optimal use of a patchy environment: archaeobotany in the Argentinean
           Andes (Argentina)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Carina Llano
      In this paper, optimal foraging theory is used to interpret wild plant collecting behaviors using experimental data and remains recovered from eleven archaeological sites in the Argentine Andes. Using simple techniques believed to approximate those of traditional hunting and gathering societies, I collected and processed twelve plant species endemic to southern Mendoza Province to assess their utility as human food resources. Experimental collection and processing events were timed and total caloric yield weighed against post-encounter handling time to determine each resource's relative rank. In addition, I calculated maximum transport distances to better understand which resources are likely to be recovered in the archaeological record. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each plant gathering site determines the whether particular plants will be collected since people should maximize caloric yield relative to both handling costs and transport distance. I conclude by cautioning that optimal foraging theory does not explain all of the variation in hunter-gatherer plant collection, but suggest that the value of the approach lies in its capacity to provide testable hypotheses of foraging behavior and behavioral changes likely to occur under different circumstances.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Between Egypt, Mesopotamia and Scandinavia: Late Bronze Age glass beads
           found in Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jeanette Varberg , Bernard Gratuze , Flemming Kaul
      New research results from glass beads found in Denmark reveal surprising evidence for contact in the 14th–12th centuries BC between Egypt, Mesopotamia and Denmark, indicating a complex and far-reaching trade network. 290 annular glass beads ranging from dark blue to green, white and yellow, along with four polychrome beads, have been found in 14th–12th century burials from Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein in North Germany. Coming from well dated contexts, twenty-three well-preserved Danish glass beads were chosen for analysis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • A medieval case of digitalis poisoning: the sudden death of Cangrande
           della Scala, lord of verona (1291–1329)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Gino Fornaciari , Valentina Giuffra , Federica Bortolotti , Rossella Gottardo , Silvia Marvelli , Marco Marchesini , Silvia Marinozzi , Antonio Fornaciari , Giorgio Brocco , Franco Tagliaro
      The natural mummy of Cangrande della Scala was exhumed from its tomb in the church of Santa Maria Antiqua in Verona and was submitted to a multidisciplinary study, that included archaeological, palaeopathological, palynological, toxicological and historical investigation. The body of Cangrande, still wearing his precious clothes, was in a good state of preservation. Palynological analyses demonstrated the presence of pollen grains of Digitalis sp./foxglove in the rectum content, along with Matricaria chamomilla/chamomille and Morus nigra/black mulberry. Toxicological analyses showed toxic concentrations of digoxin and digitoxin, two Digitalis glycosides, in the liver and faeces samples. Both palynological and toxicological data suggest an intoxication through the oral administration of an infusion or decoction of leaves and flowers of Digitalis. Cangrande died on July 22 1329, four day after his triumphal entrance in the city of Treviso. The sudden death was preceded by vomit and diarrhoea with fever that, according to written documents, he had contracted a few days before by “drinking from a polluted spring”. The gastrointestinal symptoms manifested by Cangrande in his last hours of life are compatible with the early phase of Digitalis intoxication and the hypothesis of poisoning is mentioned by some local historical sources. The palaeopathological analyses confirm a Digitalis poisoning. The most likely hypothesis on the causes of death is that of a deliberate administration of a lethal amount of Digitalis. Although several cases of poisoning through the use of organic substances are known from historical sources, no other direct evidences are documented in the palaeopathological literature.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Swedish oak, planks and panels: dendroarchaeological investigations on the
           16th century Evangelistas altarpiece at Seville Cathedral (Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Eduardo Rodríguez-Trobajo , Marta Domínguez-Delmás
      The results of the dendroarchaeological research carried out on the 16th century altarpiece from the Evangelistas chapel at Seville Cathedral (Spain) are presented. The altarpiece consists of nine panels and was commissioned from the Flemish artist Hernando de Esturmio in AD 1553, who signed the completed work in AD 1555. The research aimed at i) registering information about the processing of the wood and panel making, ii) verifying the AD 1555 construction date, and iii) finding out the provenance of the wood. Five panels were selected for this research. The observed technological features allowed the reconstruction of the production process from borne (oak wainscots) to the final product and, based on that, two types of panels were described. Dendrochronological results showed that the wood employed in both types of panels represents a rather homogeneous group, implying that the raw material was probably transported to Seville in the same batch, and was prepared and assembled using slightly different methods to meet the requirements stipulated by the contract. Sapwood was identified in 12 of the 33 researched planks. The most recent tree-ring dates in AD 1549. Using a Bayesian approach, we obtained the combined felling date range AD 1549 to 1554 for six of the trees with a 99.7% confidence level. This would allow for a seasoning time of a couple of weeks up to four years, although we cannot discard that some of the other trees were cut earlier and had longer seasoning periods. Interestingly, our research provides evidence that the wood originated from the southwest of Sweden, representing an alternative source to the south-eastern Baltic oak commonly used for panel paintings in northern Europe in the 16th century. This is the first time that such procurement source is reported by dendrochronology in an altarpiece. Wood technological features of the planks and panels are compared to those of Baltic oak wainscots and to contemporary altarpieces in Spain and Portugal. Possible reasons for the use of this alternative procurement source are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • A comparative ethnoarchaeological analysis of corporate territorial
           ownership
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jacob Freeman , John M. Anderies
      Ecological models are a fundamental tool that archaeologists use to clarify our thinking about the processes that generate the archaeological record. Typically, arguments reasoned from a single model are bolstered by observing the consistency of ethnographic data with the argument. This validation of a model establishes that an argument is reasonable. In this paper, we attempt to move beyond validation by comparing the consistency of two arguments reasoned from different models that might explain corporate territorial ownership in a large ethnographic data set. Our results suggest that social dilemmas are an under appreciated mechanism that can drive the evolution of corporate territorial ownership. When social dilemmas emerge, the costs associated with provisioning the public goods of information on resources or, perhaps, common defence create situations in which human foragers gain more by cooperating to recognize corporate ownership rules than they lose. Our results also indicate that societies who share a common cultural history are more likely to recognize corporate ownership, and there is a spatial dynamic in which societies who live near each other are more likely to recognize corporate ownership as the number of near-by groups who recognize ownership increases. Our results have important implications for investigating the coevolution of territorial ownership and the adoption of food production in the archaeological record.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Livestock management in Spain from Roman to post-medieval times: a
           biometrical analysis of cattle, sheep/goat and pig
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Idoia Grau-Sologestoa
      The aim of this paper is to present the results of the biometrical analysis carried out on cattle, sheep/goat and pig measurements from a number of Spanish archaeological sites, dated between Roman and post-medieval times. The results show that important transformations occurred in livestock management, as it is visible through various changes in the body size of the main domesticates. The Romans had a great interest in improving 1 cattle breeds, 2 while during the Middle Ages most effort was put in improving sheep breeds. The size of the three taxa decreased after Roman times, reaching their minimum size between the 8th and 9th centuries, probably in association with changes in livestock management, including free-range keeping and non-selective breeding.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Testing of a single grain OSL chronology across the Middle to Upper
           Palaeolithic transition at Les Cottés (France)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Zenobia Jacobs , Bo Li , Nathan Jankowski , Marie Soressi
      The timing of the Middle Palaeolithic to Upper Palaeolithic transition in France is important to help understand when, where and how Neanderthals have been replaced by Homo sapiens. Radiocarbon dating has been the dating workhorse in constructing the chronological framework pertinent to these questions. In this study, we are testing whether single grain OSL dating has the accuracy and precision to be useful as a complementary dating method. The site of Les Cottés provides an ideal testing ground because of its stratigraphic integrity and reliable radiocarbon chronology. We applied single grain OSL dating of quartz to 19 samples and multi-aliquot MET-pIRIR dating of potassium-rich feldspar grains to 5 samples to explicitly test assumptions of pre-depositional resetting of the OSL signal and post-depositional exposure to variable beta dose rates. The good agreement between the single grain OSL and the multi-aliquot MET pIRIR ages suggest that the optical signals of both quartz and feldspar grains were reset prior to deposition and that much of the extra scatter observed in the equivalent dose distribution of quartz grains are likely due to the small-scale differences in beta dose delivered to individual grains. Both the quartz OSL and feldspar MET-pIRIR ages show great consistency with the 14C ages on bone collected from the same units. This gives confidence in the measurement and analytical approaches used to derive both the equivalent dose and dose rate, the numerator and denominator, respectively, of the luminescence age equation. These results suggest that a systematic and detailed single grain OSL dating study can have the accuracy and precision that is necessary to play a powerful role in the dating of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic transition and other questions of importance in this time range and geographical area.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • The colour of ceramics from Bell Beaker contexts in NW Spain: relation to
           elemental composition and mineralogy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Óscar Lantes-Suárez , Beatriz Prieto , M. Pilar Prieto-Martínez , Cruz Ferro-Vázquez , Antonio Martínez-Cortizas
      In this paper we characterise the mineralogical and elemental composition and the colour (CIELab space) of Bronze Age pottery sherds from NW Spain, using X-Ray diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. For half of the samples we also determined the content in secondary iron oxi-hydroxides (sFe, iron extracted with dithionite–citrate), using atomic absorption. The aim of the investigation was to study the relationship between the colour and the elemental and mineralogical composition, and to explore the intentionality of the resulting colour. Samples had a low luminosity and were located in the quadrant of the CIELab space ranging from red to yellow (hab: 0–90°), showing low hue variability but a wider range of variation in chromaticity. In terms of composition they showed a large mineralogical (12 different minerals were identified) and chemical (from acidic/felsic to basic-ultrabasic/mafic compositions) variation. A principal components analysis using elemental composition and colour parameters demonstrated that luminosity (L*) depends on organic matter (OM) content and to a lesser extent on sFe content. Chromaticity (C*ab) depends on sFe content, but also on the felsic/mafic relative composition and OM content, while hue (hab) is only related to iron mineral phases. We also verified that these general trends differ to a certain extent depending on whether the pottery contains amphibole or not: the effect of sFe on L* and of OM on b* (yellowing) and C*ab was only detected for pottery sherds without amphibole, while an increase in felsic in relation to mafic minerals has a more decisive effect on the chromaticity (C*ab) of the amphibolic clays. Thus, colour seems to result from the interplay between i) the original colour of the raw material/clays, ii) compositional factors (overall composition -felsic vs mafic-, and sFe and OM content), and iii) interactions between composition and processing (sFe and firing conditions controlling yellowing). We interpret that there was an intentional selection of raw materials (felsic or mafic) and their processing (addition of iron oxides and organic matter) and a control over the firing conditions in order to give the vessels a specific colour.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Improved high-resolution GPR imaging and characterization of prehistoric
           archaeological features by means of attribute analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Wenke Zhao , Emanuele Forte , Sara Tiziana Levi , Michele Pipan , Gang Tian
      We propose a novel procedure for the analysis and interpretation of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from archaeological data and we test the method in challenging conditions at a prehistoric settlement on the Stromboli Island (Italy). The main objective of the proposed procedure is to enhance the GPR capability of identifying and characterizing small-size and geometrically irregular archaeological remains buried beneath rough topographic surface conditions. After the basic GPR processing sequence, including topographic correction using a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model acquired from 3-D Laser Scanner, the procedure encompasses a multi-attribute analysis and iso-attribute surfaces calculation with different volume extraction solutions to emphasize vertical and lateral variations within GPR data cubes. The test was performed in cooperation with the archaeological team to calibrate the results and to provide detailed information about buried targets of potential archaeological interests to plan further excavations. The results gave evidence of localized buried remains and allowed detailed pre-excavation planning. The archaeological excavations validated the results obtained from the GPR survey. The research demonstrates that the proposed GPR procedure enhances the ability to identify and characterize archaeological remains with high accuracy even in complex surface and subsurface conditions. Such logistical situation is very common, particularly in prehistoric sites, which are often characterized by discontinuous, small and irregular targets that cannot be identified by standard processing and analysis strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Woodland modification in Bronze and Iron Age central Anatolia: An
           anthracological signature for the Hittite state?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Nathan J. Wright , Andrew S. Fairbairn , J. Tyler Faith , Kimiyoshi Matsumura
      The Bronze and Iron Ages of central Anatolia encompass a period of significant social and political change. In contrast to the well-documented changes in the social landscape, the environmental landscape for the region at this time is poorly understood. The limited temporal and spatial coverage from environmental records means it is difficult to understand the finer details of environmental change, especially in relation to the archaeology of specific sites. This paper offers a complete and continuous diachronic wood charcoal assemblage for the Middle Bronze Age to Late Iron Age from Kaman-Kalehöyük in central Anatolia. Results show a significant decline in taxa richness from the Middle Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age, particularly during the Hittite Empire period. The decline in richness is followed by a dramatic increase in pine use from the beginning of the Iron Age. The timing and exploitation of key taxa in Kaman-Kalehöyük assemblage do not match that indicated in the regional pollen data but rather show a clear local signature chronologically matched to the Hittite Empire.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Limpet shells as unmodified tools in Pleistocene Southeast Asia: an
           experimental approach to assessing fracture and modification
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Katherine Szabó , Brent Koppel
      Pleistocene tools manufactured in shell are rarely identified. This may in part be due to the complexity of shell as a raw material and associated challenges in recognising and interpreting shell modification. A series of unusually-shaped Scutellastra flexuosa limpets from c. 30,000 year old deposits in Golo Cave, eastern Indonesia were identified as putatively modified during midden analysis. A pilot programme of investigations into the microstructure and natural fracture patterns of this species, coupled with a series of use-wear experiments, demonstrates that some S. flexuosa shells were used as scrapers. The shells were used in unmodified form and were ‘repurposed’ after having been gathered for subsistence purposes. Taken together with other forms of early shell-working already reported for Golo Cave, the identification of these new unmodified shell tools expands the corpus of shell tool use at the site and presents a picture of diversity and complexity not seen in the associated lithic assemblage.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • “Dotting the joins”: a non-reconstructive use of Least Cost
           Paths to approach ancient roads. The case of the Roman roads in the NW
           Iberian Peninsula
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Alejandro Güimil-Fariña , César Parcero-Oubiña
      The use of GIS tools to explore questions related to movement in archaeological contexts has been common in the last years. Least Cost Paths (LCP) have been especially successful among them, most often with the objective of predicting or reconstructing the layout of ancient routes. In this paper we propose an alternate use of those tools, aimed at trying to identify the main locations taken into account when defining the routes, rather than at predicting or reconstructing them. Through a rather simple and straightforward methodological sequence, based on the successive testing of very explicit hypotheses, we show how this approach can produce significant new knowledge while dodging some typical issues of LCP analysis. We illustrate the approach with the case study of the Roman roads in the north-west Iberian Peninsula.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Heating of flint debitage from Upper Palaeolithic contexts at Manot Cave,
           Israel: changes in atomic organization due to heating using infrared
           spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Steve Weiner , Vlad Brumfeld , Ofer Marder , Omry Barzilai
      The heat treatment of flint is known to change its mechanical properties and improve its fracture behaviour during knapping. Here we examine 20 flint artifacts from Upper Paleolithic contexts from Manot Cave, Israel, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and compare them to geogenic flint beds from the walls inside the cave and from outcrops just above the cave. We show that the 512 and 467 cm−1 peaks are broader in most of the flint debitage pieces as compared to the geogenic flint, and that broadening of these peaks occurs when geogenic flint from the cave wall is heated. We also present an empirical simple method to monitor these changes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Differentiating dietary and non-dietary microfossils extracted from human
           dental calculus: the importance of sweet potato to ancient diet on Rapa
           Nui
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Monica Tromp , John V. Dudgeon
      Human dental calculus is an excellent target for examining the plant component of ancient diets. Microfossils become imbedded within dental calculus throughout life, providing an overall picture of plant foods available (at least those that produce recoverable microfossils). Here we evaluate previous phytolith results (Dudgeon and Tromp, 2012) by examining starch grains from 30 human dental calculus samples from 10 archaeological sites throughout Rapa Nui (Easter Island), dating between AD 1330–1900. The unobscured starch grains recovered are consistent with descriptions of modern reference samples of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). These results indicate the importance of sweet potato to the Rapanui diet prior to European contact in 1722. The analysis of modern sweet potato skins show that they incorporate phytoliths as they grow in phytolith rich sediment, and we argue that the high frequency of palm phytoliths recovered from dental calculus, in conjunction with our starch results points to the consumption of sweet potato.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Reconstituting community: 3D visualization and early Iron Age social
           organization in the Heuneburg mortuary landscape
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Kevin Garstki , Bettina Arnold , Matthew L. Murray
      3-dimensional visualizations are becoming a very useful tool in various archaeological contexts, from representations of individual artifacts to complex sites and architectural reconstructions. Useful as these applications are, what is often missing is the ability to illuminate detailed intra-site patterning. Here, we provide background on a pilot project that uses data derived from excavation records to create a 3D visualization focused on identifying new burial patterns within a single site. This project digitized burial data (location and artifact) from Tumulus 18 in the Speckhau mound group associated with the early Iron Age (700–400 BC) Heuneburg hillfort in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Based on the spatial data obtained from digitized excavation maps, topographic and locational data were entered into Esri's ArcScene to construct a 3D model of the mound prior to excavation as well as schematic representations of individual burials within the tumulus. Spatial and attribute data for both graves and artifacts were used to identify preliminary patterns of deposition and social relationships. We address the potential of this method of visualization for highlighting spatiotemporal patterns within burial mounds, and for generating research questions that have not been previously recognized using conventional mortuary analysis methods.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Geographical variation in the size and shape of the European aurochs (Bos
           primigenius)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Elizabeth Wright , Sarah Viner-Daniels
      The aurochs (Bos primigenius) is generally agreed to be the wild ancestor of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and an in-depth knowledge of this animal is therefore key to research exploring human–cattle interactions, and the origins and spread of cattle domestication. Domestic cattle are smaller than their wild ancestors, but there is also a degree of overlap between the two species, which means that distinguishing them can be problematic. However, previous analyses of aurochs morphology have generally been patchy, and do not provide a picture of aurochs variation across Europe according to environment, climate and geography. As a consequence, zooarchaeologists often refer to comparative biometrical data from geographical areas and time periods which may not be suitable for identifying remains from their study area. This paper presents results from a wide-ranging study of aurochs biometrical data, in order to provide an overview of its morphological variation across Europe, and highlight the importance of using geographically and climatically appropriate comparative data when attempting to identify and interpret the significance of aurochs remains. We also propose a set of ‘standard’ measurements from an aurochs population excavated at the site of Ilford (Essex, UK) dated to Marine Isotope Stage 7 with the hope that they will be of use to others seeking a suitable standard for the biometrical analysis of cattle populations, especially when looking for the presence of wild specimens.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Selective attack of waterlogged archaeological wood by the shipworm,
           Teredo navalis and its implications for in-situ preservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Anne Marie Eriksen , David Gregory , Yvonne Shashoua
      When exposed to open seawater, waterlogged wood can be subject to rapid degradation by Teredo navalis (commonly known as shipworm). However, in certain instances archaeological wood is not always attacked by shipworm. This does not appear to be related to wood species alone but more to the state of preservation of the wood. The aim of the current paper was to assess what effect the state of preservation of the wood has on attack by shipworm. To address this, sections of 6000 year-old waterlogged oak wood (Quercus sp.) that were heavily microbially degraded, were submerged at Lynæs in the southern part of Kattegat, Denmark, where shipworm are known to be prolific. Following four months exposure the wood samples were assessed visually, physically and chemically. Visually it was immediately apparent that only the heartwood was attacked by shipworm, whilst the surrounding sapwood was left intact. There was a significant difference in the state of preservation (density) of the sapwood (153 kg/m3) when compared with the heartwood (370 kg/m3). Further characterisation of the sapwood and heartwood by wet chemical methods and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the amount of cellulose in the non-attacked sapwood was very low when compared to the attacked heartwood. This suggests that a certain amount of cellulose is needed before there is enough nutrition for the shipworm to attack. These initial results indicate that the state of preservation of timbers has an effect on the attack of wood by shipworm and therefore should be taken into consideration when planning any in-situ preservation/stabilisation of timbers.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • An ancient fishery of Banded dye-murex (Hexaplex trunculus):
           zooarchaeological evidence from the Roman city of Pollentia (Mallorca,
           Western Mediterranean)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 54
      Author(s): Alejandro Valenzuela Oliver
      The Banded dye-murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the main component of the Purple dye, was one of the most valued marine resources in Roman times. Its ancient exploitation appears described in the written sources. Until now, the archaeological record documenting the industry of Purple dye consisted of middens of broken shells that only allowed the identification of the harvested species and the derivation of some 14C dates, while the identity of the fishing methods used remained elusive. An integrated study of a zooarchaeological assemblage recovered at the Roman city of Pollentia (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean) has thrown light on this unknown aspect of the muricid gastropod fishery. I present sound evidence supporting that at this Roman site, the gastropod Cerithium vulgatum was used at least during the 3rd century AD as bait to collect the Banded dye-murex. This is derived from the high frequency of drilled shells – especially of shells showing incomplete drills – recorded in the deposit, suggesting that these specimens were unnaturally over-exposed to predatory gastropods. This is exactly what could be expected if these cerithids were encased as bait in traps used to collect muricids.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Production, mixing and provenance of Late Bronze Age mixed alkali glasses
           from northern Italy: an isotopic approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Julian Henderson , Jane Evans , Paolo Bellintani , Anna-Maria Bietti-Sestieri
      Late Bronze Age glass in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece was made from silica and plant ashes. Around 1200 BC in Europe a new glass type appears of a mixed alkali composition. Although the highest concentration of this glass is found at Frattesina in the Veneto, northern Italy there is no absolute proof that it was fused there from raw materials. A variety of possible alkali raw materials have been suggested but there is still no certainty about its identity. The chemical compositions of these mixed alkali glasses are characterised by a series of mixing lines which suggest that raw materials or glasses were mixed. To address these issues we present here the first set of radiogenic isotope (87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd) results for highly coloured samples of 11th century BC raw and waste glass from Frattesina together with new isotopic results for northern Italian silica and plant samples. Although a relatively small number, the isotopic results suggest that primary production of mixed alkali glass occurred in northern Italy. Moreover, it can be suggested that two of the samples were made from a mixture of different glasses, with contrasting isotopic signatures, one probably deriving from northern Italy and the other from a non-local source. This indicates that there were two production centres for mixed-alkali glass. We have shown that Frattesina glasses were made using isotopically distinct raw materials from those used to make the slightly earlier Late Bronze Age Mesopotamian and Egyptian plant ash glasses. Even though we have tested a small number of samples the isotopic results nevertheless provide significant new evidence for these mixed-alkali glasses being the first European glasses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • A new system for computing long-bone fusion age profiles in Sus scrofa
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Melinda A. Zeder , Ximena Lemoine , Sebastian Payne
      In this paper we present the results of a study of post-cranial fusion in pigs (Sus scrofa) and propose a new system for the construction of harvest profiles of pigs based on epiphyseal fusion. The study examined post-crania of 40 Asian wild boar in museum and personal collections. It finds a regular pattern in the sequence of fusion of elements in this sample that also agrees with the fusion sequences of 56 European wild boar published in earlier studies. The fusion sequence of post-cranial elements is grouped into eleven different age classes (A–K). Comparison of the dentition based age classes assigned to 38 of the wild boar studied here and in an earlier study (Lemoine et al., 2014) shows a close correspondence between dental and fusion based age classes. Although the age at death of these specimens is not known, it is possible to assign age estimates for the fusion based age classes defined here based on the relatively secure age estimates for the dentition based age classes. A comparison of the fusion based harvest profile for a large assemblage of pig remains from the Epipaleolithic site of Hallan Çemi (southeastern Anatolia) constructed using the system proposed here with dentition based profiles using the three systems proposed in Lemoine et al. shows a very close correspondence, especially in the younger age classes. We conclude with a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of fusion based and dentition based harvest profiles finding that when taphonomic conditions permit fusion based harvest profiles are a valuable tool for understanding ancient exploitation strategies, especially when used in tandem with dentition based profiles.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Breakage patterns in Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Nohemi Sala , Juan Luis Arsuaga , Ignacio Martínez , Ana Gracia-Téllez
      Fracture pattern analysis implement the taphonomic information obtained and it help understanding the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) sample. The SH hominin long bones exhibit a fracture pattern characterized especially by the dominance of transverse fractures of the long axis, complete circumferences and fracture edges with right angles and jagged surfaces. These properties are expected for post-depositional fractures and are compatible with collective burial assemblages. The very small proportion of fractures typical of biostratinomic stage could be due to a blunt force trauma produced by a free-fall down the vertical 13 m shaft that constitutes the access to the SH chamber.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Solutrean and Magdalenian ferruginous rocks heat-treatment: accidental
           and/or deliberate action?
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Hélène Salomon , Colette Vignaud , Sophia Lahlil , Nicolas Menguy
      Heating of prehistoric coloring materials can induce radical changes in color indicative of structural matter transformation. For instance, the structure of the yellow iron oxide-rich mineral, goethite, changes into the red iron oxide-rich mineral, hematite, when it is heated to around 250–300 °C. For a long time, heating has been thought to be the reason for the high frequencies of red rocks used in camp sites and the red pigments in rock art paintings. However, records of heat-treatment of coloring materials are usually not well documented; the contextual information is not clear enough to confirm intentional heating. Two Solutrean camp sites (the flint workshop Les Maîtreaux and the hunting site Combe Saunière I) and one middle Magdalenian cave with rock art (Grotte Blanchard, La Garenne) allow us to study the heating process of ferruginous rocks. All three sites, which have been excavated relatively recently, have well-defined archaeological records and strong associations between the ferruginous rocks and other artifacts. With the use of X-ray diffraction and electron µ-diffraction for identifying structural modification and SEM-FEG and TEM-FEG for detecting dehydration nano-pores, we have strong evidence for intentional heat-treatment of yellow goethite-rich materials in two archaeological contexts and one site for unintentional heating, where rocks were only partially transformed. Intentional heating to obtain red hematite from primary goethite would have required ingenious methods of temperature control in fireplace settings and purpose-built ground ovens.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Maize consumption in pre-Hispanic south-central Andes: chemical and
           microscopic evidence from organic residues in archaeological pottery from
           western Tinogasta (Catamarca, Argentina)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): I. Lantos , J.E. Spangenberg , M.A. Giovannetti , N. Ratto , M.S. Maier
      Pre-Hispanic Andean societies depended economically on the cultivation of maize (Zea mays), the main staple food crop in the region after its introduction from highland Mexico. Here we report new data from residue analysis of potsherds recovered in archaeological sites in western Tinogasta, Catamarca province, Argentina, ca. 3rd to 16th centuries AD. Molecular and isotopic (δ 13C values) compositions of fatty acids and microscopically identified maize starch granules from organic residues absorbed in archaeological potsherds were compared with Andean ingredients and food residues obtained from experimental replica pots, where traditional recipes were cooked. Complex mixtures of lipids and starch remains observed in archaeological cooking pots indicated combinations of Andean ingredients such as llama, beans, algarroba, and maize, and suggest continuity in the domestic foodways through time. The distribution and δ 13C values of lipids preserved in vessels used for alcoholic beverage preparation, storage and transport in Inka sites suggested the possible consumption of two drinks with distinct patterns: traditional Andean maize beer (chicha) and a local fermented drink made from algarroba flour (aloja). This is potential evidence for consumption practices in festive contexts sponsored by the Inka state.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Tissue-based analysis of a charred flat bread (galette) from a Roman
           cemetery at Saint-Memmie (Dép. Marne, Champagne-Ardenne,
           north-eastern France)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Andreas G. Heiss , Nathalie Pouget , Julian Wiethold , Anne Delor-Ahü , Isabelle Le Goff
      During a rescue excavation by the Institut de recherches archéologiques préventives (Inrap) at the Gallo-Roman cemetery of Saint-Memmie (Champagne-Ardenne, France) in 2006, a remarkably well-preserved charred flat bread was unearthed from a pit containing a secondary deposit of burnt objects (feature 109/110), dating to a time frame between the middle of the 1st century AD and the beginning of the Flavian period (69 AD). As a part of the archaeobotanical research on the charred plant remains from the site, the bread was analyzed with the aim to reveal the cereals used in the bread's preparation and to investigate the processes involved (grinding, sieving, leavening, baking). The results indicate that the bread is composed of finely ground flour of a mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and either einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) or emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank.), and apparently was prepared without leavening.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Deciphering public spaces in urban contexts: geophysical survey,
           multi-element soil analysis, and artifact distributions at the
           15th–16th-century AD Swahili settlement of Songo Mnara, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Jeffrey Fleisher , Federica Sulas
      Open spaces are an integral part of past urban settlement worldwide. Often large and devoid of visible traces of past activities, these spaces challenge mainstream archaeological approaches to develop methodologies suitable to investigate their history. This study uses geophysical survey, geochemical sampling and artifact distributions to examine open spaces at the Swahili stonetown of Songo Mnara, Tanzania. Initial, magnetic susceptibility survey revealed a set of anomalies associated with activities across the open spaces at the site; a systematic soil/sediment sampling program was applied to map artifact and geochemical distributions across these areas. These data provided a means to distinguish a ‘public space’ at the site: correlations were found between anomalies, daub, certain chemical elements (Fe, P, K, Mn) while areas without anomalies—the ‘public space’—correlated with more fragmented ceramics and other chemical elements (Ca, Na, Mg, Sr). The integrated methodological framework developed at Songo Mnara offers a new way to define areas that may have functioned as ‘public spaces’ as well as possible activities that were carried out in them. The results suggest that open spaces at this Swahili site contained defined and protected public areas where small-scale production may have occurred.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Archaeology, taphonomy, and historical ecology of Chesapeake Bay blue
           crabs (Callinectes sapidus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Torben C. Rick , Matthew B. Ogburn , Margaret A. Kramer , Sean T. McCanty , Leslie A. Reeder-Myers , Henry M. Miller , Anson H. Hines
      Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), an important commercial and ecological species in the eastern United States, are a key part of Chesapeake Bay culture, tourism, and fisheries. Blue crab remains are rare in Middle Atlantic North American archaeological sites, however, leading to speculation that Native Americans did not eat crabs, that taphonomic processes and/or excavation strategies are not suitable to crab preservation or recovery, or that seasonal use of estuarine foods limited blue crab exploitation. We explore these hypotheses through examination of archaeological blue crab remains, analysis of allometric relationships to investigate changes in crab size, and experiments (soil pH, animal scavenging, etc.) focused on the preservation and recovery of blue crab remains. These data demonstrate that blue crab remains are fragile and that their preservation and recovery is strongly influenced by taphonomic processes, excavation strategies, and perhaps seasonal exploitation. Despite these potential biases, blue crabs have been identified in 93 Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites from at least 3200 years ago through the 20th century. Blue crabs were an important food source for Native Americans, EuroAmerican colonists, and African Americans, with size estimates demonstrating that a range of crab sizes were harvested in the past, including a higher proportion of large crabs than those found in the Bay today under the intense modern fishery. Our experimental and archaeological analyses provide an approach that can be used generally by archaeologists working in marine environments and on other species around the world.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Form and Flow: The ‘Karmic Cycle’ of Copper
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): P. Bray , A. Cuénod , C. Gosden , P. Hommel , Ruiliang Liu , A.M. Pollard
      The analysis and interpretation of the chemical composition of copper-alloys is one of the longest ongoing research projects within archaeological science. Beginning in the late 18th century these data have been consistently used to try and link objects with distinct metal sources. This paper argues the traditional provenance model for copper alloys is fatally flawed. Through pursuing a ‘pure’ source signal, chemical and isotopic datasets have been removed from their context and history. Social engagement with metal through processes such as reuse, recycling, and curation were rarely considered important by analysts. We offer an alternative model that unites the available legacy scientific datasets with process-metallurgy, archaeological and geographical context, and new conceptual approaches. Rather than provenance, we offer an empirical model of metal flow. Here objects are seen as snapshots of a wider metal stream; their final scientific characterisation including echoes of their previous forms and contexts. Through a series of case studies we highlight how the reinterpretation of existing datasets can disentangle the complex life histories of units of copper.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • X-ray Computed Tomography for the Anatomical and Dendrochronological
           Analysis of Archaeological Wood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jörg Stelzner , Sebastian Million



      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Cultural evolutionary approaches to artifact variation over time and
           space: Basis, progress, and prospects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Stephen J. Lycett
      It has becoming increasingly common for archaeologists to draw on evolutionary theory and methods to analyze artifactual variation over time and space. The term “evolution” and its traditionally biological connotations, however, can provide a source of confusion, which might cause hindrance to those trying to understand the growing array of case studies that utilize these methods. Given this, a brief review of the current theoretical basis for cultural evolutionary approaches is given, which largely draws on social transmission theory. Thereafter, recent advances in the field are discussed, which have involved both methodological developments and a flourishing of empirical examples of application. Finally, future directions are considered, which, as in any developing field, will probably involve further development of both its theoretical and empirical basis, and the interaction of the two. As David Clarke identified almost half a century ago, the great strength of the archaeological record is its power to reveal meaningful patterns of artifactual variation over temporal and spatial scales, especially in statistical terms. Cultural evolutionary approaches offer a set of theoretical and methodological tools to approach, discover, and scientifically analyze this potential wealth of information about past societies. Future developments will necessarily follow, but the place of this related body of theory and techniques within archaeology is now firmly established.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Geographic scale and zooarchaeological analysis of Late Holocene foraging
           adaptations in western Argentina
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Clara Otaola , Steve Wolverton , Miguel A. Giardina , Gustavo Neme
      Previous research on intensification in hunter gatherer strategies from Central West Argentina ca. 2000 years BP states that human demographic packing and overhunting of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) may have caused resource depression of this large prey animal. As a result, people broadened their diet to include smaller prey animals. Evidence supporting this conclusion includes an increase in Shannon's Diversity Index and a decrease in the abundance of artiodactyl remains over time in southern Mendoza. However, these studies about change in diet breadth did not consider the importance of spatial scale on analysis of prey choice and diet breadth and used the entire region as a unit of analysis. This is problematic because southern Mendoza has a heterogeneous landscape. In this paper we analyze different faunal abundance indices considering different spatial scales and the representativeness of the zooarchaeological samples. The results of the analyses show distinctive patterns of resource use over time at the macro- and subregional scales. Some of the difference can be explained by environmental differences between subregions and others might relate to differences in sample representativeness between subregions.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • A study on the strength and thermal shock resistance of Egyptian
           shale-tempered pottery
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 55
      Author(s): Ashten Warfe
      The characteristic shale-tempered pottery found in Egypt's Western Desert is often discussed for its potential strength properties and resistance to thermal shock. This paper reports on a recent experiment that tests these properties using replicate shale-tempered ceramic beams. The beams were thermally treated and flexure-tested on a three-point loading jig. The results indicate that shale in sufficient concentrations and size has an effect on vessel strength and thermal shock resistance, though the relationship is more complex than expected. Importantly, this study highlights the potential for integrating new methods of materials analysis into research on ancient Egyptian ceramics.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T12:55:42Z
       
  • Changes in glass consumption in Pergamon (Turkey) from Hellenistic to late
           Byzantine and Islamic times
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Th. Rehren , P. Connolly , N. Schibille , H. Schwarzer
      We present compositional data for nearly 100 glass samples from Pergamon, western Turkey, spanning 1500 years from the Hellenistic to Late Byzantine and Islamic periods. The data shows the use of already-known Roman glass groups during the first half of the time frame, for imported vessels as well as locally worked glass. No compositional change is seen related to the introduction of glass blowing for either of the glass groups in use during this time. During the first half of the 1st millennium AD, two previously little-known boron- and alumina-rich compositional groups emerge. These glass groups, thought to be regionally produced, dominate glass compositions in Pergamon during the mid-to late Byzantine and Islamic periods, indicating a major shift in glass supply and a fragmentation of the economy into more regional units. Plant-ash glass, from the 9th century AD replacing mineral natron glass in the Levant, plays only a minor role in Byzantine and Islamic Pergamon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-23T18:22:19Z
       
  • Upper Palaeolithic population histories of Southwestern France: A
           comparison of the demographic signatures of 14C date distributions and
           archaeological site counts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jennifer. C. French , Christina Collins
      Radiocarbon date frequency distributions and archaeological site counts are two popular proxies used to investigate prehistoric demography, following the assumption that variations in these data reflect fluctuations in the relative size and distribution of past populations. However, the two approaches are rarely applied to the same data-set and their applicability is heavily conditioned by the archaeological record in question, particularly research histories, agendas, and funding availability. In this paper we use both types of data to examine the population history of the Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers (∼40 000–12 000 cal BP) of Southwestern France, comparing the demographic signatures generated. Both proxies produce similar signatures across the Upper Palaeolithic sequence of the region, strengthening the interpretation of relative demographic changes as the cause of the pattern. In particular, a marked population decline is seen in both datasets during the Late Gravettian (∼28 000 cal BP), as well as a population increase in the Late Solutrean (∼25 000 cal BP) supporting the notion that the region acted as a population refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum. Where the two proxies diverge in the demographic signatures they produce, the radiocarbon date distribution shows peaks compared to troughs in site counts; the opposite pattern expected given taphonomic issues surrounding cultural carbon. Despite differences in chronological resolution and sampling bias, our data suggest that the two proxies can be considered broadly equivalent; a finding which warrants the investigation of prehistoric demography in regions where either extensive survey data or radiometric dating programmes are unavailable. While some preliminary observations are made, the impact of changing mobility on diachronic patterns seen in both proxies remains, however, difficult to assess.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T15:44:24Z
       
  • Bullion production in imperial China and its significance for sulphide ore
           smelting world-wide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Siran Liu , Thilo Rehren , Jianli Chen , Changqing Xu , Pira Venunan , David Larreina , Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Gold and silver production was of major importance for almost all ancient societies but has been rarely studied archaeologically. Here we present a reconstruction of a previously undocumented technology used to recover gold, silver and lead at the site of Baojia in Jiangxi province, China dated between the 7th and 13th centuries AD, and discuss its relevance for the study of lead/precious metal production world-wide. Smelting a mixture of sulphidic and gossan ores in a relatively low temperature furnace under mildly reducing conditions, the process involved the use of metallic iron to reduce lead sulphide to lead metal, which acted as the collector of the precious metals. An experimental reconstruction provides essential information, demonstrating both the significant influence of sulphur on the silicate slag system, and that iron reduction smelting of lead can be carried out at a relatively low temperature. These new findings are relevant for further studies of lead and precious metal smelting slags world-wide.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-01-09T15:21:58Z
       
  • Metallurgical traditions under Inka rule: A technological study of metals
           and technical ceramics from the Aconcagua Valley, Central Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): María Teresa Plaza , Marcos Martinón-Torres
      The spread of the Inka state in the Aconcagua Valley (Central Chile) is thought to have been culturally mediated, avoiding military coercion, and thus leading to different forms of cultural acceptance, resistance or hybridisation. However, there has been no previous attempt to investigate the extent to which these interactions are reflected in the use of metals and metallurgical technologies. Here we present analytical work on metallic artefacts and technical ceramics from Cerro La Cruz and Los Nogales, two Valley sites with evidence dated to the Late Period (ca. AD 1400-1540). The analyses included SEM-EDS, optical microscopy, petrography, XRD and FTIR. The results suggest that the sites represent different technological traditions. At Cerro La Cruz, the style of the metal objects and the lack of tin bronzes reflect continuity with an ancient metallurgical tradition with bases in the Diaguita Culture, rather than a wholesale adoption of an Inka metallurgical tradition. In Los Nogales, the presence of tin bronze and the use of perforated crucibles and other technical ceramics lined with bone ash is consistent with a tradition closely related to the Inka expansion and north-western Argentina, perhaps reflecting a stronger receptivity towards the new technologies. This disparity supports the idea that the Inka domination in the Valley was not forceful, and suggests a closer relationship between the state and some local groups, not previously identified.


      PubDate: 2014-12-06T07:33:15Z
       
 
 
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