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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 231 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 43)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription  
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal  
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [50 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Painting Altamira Cave? Shell tools for ochre-processing in the Upper
           Palaeolithic in northern Iberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): D. Cuenca-Solana, I. Gutiérrez-Zugasti, A. Ruiz-Redondo, M.R. González-Morales, J. Setién, E. Ruiz-Martínez, E. Palacio-Pérez, C. de las Heras-Martín, A. Prada-Freixedo, J.A. Lasheras-Corruchaga
      Much of our knowledge of the symbolic world of Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers is based on the study of the graphic representations found in Western European caves. However, to date, few studies have been conducted on rock art apart from chronological and stylistic characterisation. Altamira Cave (northern Iberia) is characterised by an outstanding rock art ensemble, whose representations cover practically the whole Upper Palaeolithic. The site is equally important for the rich Upper Palaeolithic deposits in the cave entrance, which contain large shell assemblages. Traditionally, the presence of shells in hunter-fisher-gatherer settlements has been interpreted as part of the diet and/or the symbolic world (through the creation of ornaments) of these groups, regardless of their possible use as an instrument. In this paper we utilise use-wear methodology, chemical analysis and analytical experimentation to verify the initial hypothesis that shells in the archaeological deposits of Altamira were used to obtain the ochre powder utilised to produce the magnificent and diverse rock art ensemble in the cave. The results provide new information on the process of obtaining pigments for the realisation of paintings and confirm that the use of shells to obtain ochre was a systematic activity throughout the whole study period. Finally, our conclusions support the explanatory model that highlights the role played by marine resources for Upper Palaeolithic human populations.


      PubDate: 2016-08-19T06:30:42Z
       
  • The geoarchaeology of hominin dispersals to and from tropical Southeast
           Asia: A review and prognosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley
      Tropical Southeast Asia is a critically important region for addressing the major questions and grand challenges that concern us today regarding Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals across the Old World. Geoarchaeological science is widely employed in many regions of the world to contextualise archaeological material and provide an environmental backdrop against which to explore archaeological narratives. However, in Southeast Asia there is an apparent lag in the routine use of this Earth-Science approach despite the abundance of archaeological sites important in explicating past hominin dispersals to and from the region. In this review of the state-of-the-art of geoarchaeological research in Southeast Asia, I examine the role of the discipline in addressing the important issues in archaeology today. I identify where geoarchaeology is being used and to what effect, highlighting gaps in the geoarchaeological dataset. From a methodological point of view it is imperative that archaeologists and geoarchaeologists working in Southeast Asia (and other humid tropical regions of the world) fully appreciate how to interpret the geoarchaeological signatures associated with this climate regime so that methods and practice can be refined. A series of steps that will serve to drive forward geoarchaeological research in the region are also proposed.


      PubDate: 2016-08-19T06:30:42Z
       
  • Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western
           Europe: Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Rowin J. van Lanen, Esther Jansma, Jan van Doesburg, Bert J. Groenewoudt
      To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly has focussed on the spatial analyses of luxery goods such as jewellery, weapons and religious artefacts. Relatively little attention has been paid to the spatial modelling of common exchange networks and transport routes. In this study we used a dendroarchaeological approach to model long-distance transport of oak (a common good) to the Roman and early-medieval Netherlands. By combining established and newly-derived provenances of imported timbers with data on Roman and early-medieval route networks, we were able to reconstruct: (a) Roman and early-medieval exchange networks of imported timbers, (b) changing transport routes and (c) spatially shifting frequent-travel zones. The findings were compared with distribution patterns of other commodities for daily use: pottery and stone household goods. Results show that in the early and middle-Roman periods (12 BCE – CE 270) timbers were imported from the German Rhineland, the Ardennes and the Scheldt region. We have no evidence for wood import to the current Netherlands during the late-Roman period and first phase of the Early Middle Ages (CE 270–525). In the following centuries, between CE 525–900, oak again was brought to the current Netherlands, this time exclusively originating from the German Rhineland. This pattern significantly changed during the last phase of the Early Middle Ages (CE 900–1050) when timbers were derived from the Ardennes only. We used these patterns to calculate changes in long-distance transport routes and frequent-travel zones in the research area. Through our analyses existing data on Roman and early-medieval route networks could be expanded and improved. The calculated wood-transport patterns agree well with the distribution of imported pottery and (other) household goods in these periods.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T07:01:39Z
       
  • Quartz backed tools as arrowheads and hand-cast spearheads: Hunting
           experiments and macro-fracture analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Justin Pargeter, John Shea, Benjamin Utting
      The invention of the bow and arrow was a milestone in Late Pleistocene technological evolution. Preservation biases and methodological problems imped our ability to detect its presence in the archaeological record. Currently, South Africa has the earliest suggested evidence for arrowheads, amongst others, small quartz backed tools dating 65–60 ka. These artefacts' inferred function is based on their small size, micro and macro wear traces and micro-residues recorded on quartz segments from Sibudu Cave. Experimental support for these inferences, or to show that similar artefacts are associated with bow hunting, are however lacking. Here we describe breakage patterns on 150 quartz backed tools hafted as transverse arrowheads and hand-cast spearheads in simulated hunting experiments. These experiments controlled for hafting variability to test the effects of propulsion velocity on the types, patterns and area of diagnostic impact fractures (DIFs). Our results show step terminating bending fracture, spin-off fracture and impactburination frequencies, DIF locations, and ventrally situated DIF frequencies to be robust means of distinguishing arrowheads from spearheads. Our experiments verify previous observations that overall DIF frequencies differentiate between these weapon types. Importantly, we confirm that DIF size is linked to weapon propulsion velocity, but that fracture area is affected by tool area. These findings provide methods for future testing of the hypothesis that bow and arrow technology was in use at least 65 ka in southern Africa and in other regions where quartz was used to tip weapons.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T07:01:39Z
       
  • Six complete mitochondrial genomes from Early Bronze Age humans in the
           North Caucasus
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): A.S. Sokolov, A.V. Nedoluzhko, E.S. Boulygina, S.V. Tsygankova, F.S. Sharko, N.M. Gruzdeva, A.V. Shishlov, A.V. Kolpakova, A.D. Rezepkin, K.G. Skryabin, E.B. Prokhortchouk
      The North Caucasus region is rich in early Bronze Age sites, with burials yielding many artifacts, including those from the Chekon, Natukhaevskaya, Katusvina-Krivitsa kurgan groups (at Krasnodar Krai, Russia) and Klady kurgan (near Novosvobodnaya Village, Republic of Adygea, Russia). According to the mainstream archaeological hypothesis, these sites belong to the Maikop culture (3700–3000 years BC), with Novosvobodnaya communities representing an offshoot of Maikop ancestry. However, due to specific differences in Novosvobodnaya artifacts, the Maikop and Novosvobodnaya assemblages could represent two synchronous archaeological cultures living in almost sympatry but showing independent ancestry, from the Near East and Europe respectively. Here, we used target-enrichment together with high-throughput sequencing to characterize the complete mitochondrial sequence of three Maikop and three Novosvobodnaya individuals. We identified T2b, N1b1 and V7 haplogroups, all widely spread in Neolithic Europe. In addition, we identified the Paleolithic Eurasian U8b1a2 and M52 haplogroups, which are frequent in modern South Asia, particularly in modern India. Our data provide a deeper understanding of the diversity of Early Bronze Age North Caucasus communities and hypotheses of its origin. Analyzing non-human sequencing reads for microbial content, we found that one individual from the Klady kurgan was infected by the pathogen Brucella abortus that is responsible for zoonotic infections from cattle to humans. This finding is in agreement with Maikop/Novosvobodnaya livestock groups, mostly consisting of domestic pigs and cattle. This paper represents a first mitochondrial genome analysis of Maikop/Novosvobodnaya culture as well as the earliest brucellosis case in archaeological humans.


      PubDate: 2016-08-14T07:01:39Z
       
  • CFD analysis for the validation of archaeological hypotheses – The
           indoor microclimate of ancient storage-rooms
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): F. Pagliaro, F. Nardecchia, F. Gugliermetti, F. Bisegna
      The indoor microclimate of ancient storage buildings has been widely investigated since they could reach optimal conditions for goods preservation only through passive systems. However it is difficult to fully understand the real behaviour of these systems since they are often not existing anymore nowadays: this is the case of the warehouses of Portus, an archaeological site originally composed of about 300 storage-rooms. A significant amount of important information, like the one related to shape and structure, are not available for the archaeologists who investigate the site. A detailed analysis of these buildings has been carried out in order to assess the optimal indoor microclimate for wheat storage. Different hypotheses focusing on the presence of openings have been developed, even if the archaeologists suppose that the rooms were completely closed. The combination of numerical tools and historical research allowed to formulate, test and validate a hypothesis regarding the architecture and the operation of these ancient buildings. In the present paper, conjugated heat transfer in different configurations of the warehouses of Portus has been numerically studied, taking into account the models subjected to different transient temperatures as a consequence of the summer outdoor microclimate. This work aims to propose and validate archaeological and structural hypotheses regarding the functioning of storage-rooms in Ancient Rome, through an improved and optimized definition of the reconstruction of one of the warehouses of Portus.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T23:38:06Z
       
  • Settlement scaling and economic change in the Central Andes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Scott G. Ortman, Kaitlyn E. Davis, José Lobo, Michael E. Smith, Luis M.A. Bettencourt, Aaron Trumbo
      There is a longstanding debate in anthropology and history regarding the extent to which the determinants of past economic change are similar in any specific ways to those that operate today. In this paper, we examine the extent to which increasing returns to settlement scale in material outputs, which are apparent in contemporary urban systems, also operated in the Late Pre-Hispanic Tarma and Mantaro drainages of the Peruvian Central Andes. Proxy measures for material outputs across settlements and households show that this region experienced a marked economic expansion following its incorporation into the Inka Empire ca. 1450 CE. We argue that these changes in living standards are consistent with expectations of an emerging framework known as settlement scaling theory that specifies relationships between human aggregation, social connectivity and material outputs. Our results suggest that intensification of human social connectivity and material flows—as measured through settlement size distributions—can be sufficient to raise living standards even in the absence of markets.


      PubDate: 2016-08-09T23:38:06Z
       
  • Finding Britain's last hunter-gatherers: A new biomolecular approach to
           ‘unidentifiable’ bone fragments utilising bone collagen
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Sophy Charlton, Michelle Alexander, Matthew Collins, Nicky Milner, Paul Mellars, Tamsin C. O'Connell, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Oliver E. Craig
      In the last decade, our knowledge of the transition from foraging, fishing, and hunting to agricultural food production has been transformed through the molecular analysis of human remains. In Britain, however, the lack of Late Mesolithic human remains has limited our understanding of this dietary transition. Here, we report the use of a novel strategy to analyse otherwise overlooked material to identify additional human remains from this period. ZooMS, a method which uses bone collagen sequences to determine species, was applied to unidentifiable bone fragments from 5th millennium deposits from the Late Mesolithic site of Cnoc Coig (Oronsay, Inner Hebrides) using an innovative new methodology. All samples bar one produced ZooMS results, with 14/20 bone fragments identified as human, and the remainder a mixture of pig and seal. 70% of bone fragments had sufficient collagen for stable isotope analyses, however none of three human bone fragments analysed had sufficient endogenous DNA. By conducting AMS dating and stable isotope analysis on this identified collagen, we provide new data that supports the view that the exploitation of marine resources partially overlapped with the earliest agricultural communities in Britain, and thus argues against the idea that forager lifeways in Britain were immediately replaced by agriculture c.4000 cal. BC. Unfortunately, we were unable to explore the genetic relationship between contemporaneous farmers and foragers. However, the more persistent bone protein could be used to identify species, determine date, and assess diet. This novel approach is widely applicable to other early prehistoric sites with fragmentary skeletal material.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72




      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
       
  • Identifying ancient water availability through phytolith analysis: An
           experimental approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Emma Jenkins, Khalil Jamjoum, Sameeh Nuimat, Richard Stafford, Stephen Nortcliff, Steven Mithen
      Water management was critical to the development of complex societies but such systems are often difficult, if not impossible, to recognise in the archaeological record, particularly in prehistoric communities when water management began. This is because early irrigation systems are likely to have been ephemeral and as such would no longer be visible in the archaeological record. We conducted a three year crop growing experiment in Jordan to test the hypothesis that phytoliths (opaline silica bodies formed in plants) can be used to detect the level of past water availability and hence be used as a source of information for inferring past water management. Over a three year period we grew native land races of six-row barley (Hordeum vulgare) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) at three crop growing stations in Jordan with the crops being subjected to different irrigation regimes. Seeds were sown in the autumn and the crops harvested in the spring. The plants were then exported to the University of Reading for phytolith processing. Our results show that while there were unknown factors that influenced phytolith production between years, at the higher levels, the ratio of 'fixed' form phytoliths (those formed as a result of genetically determined silicon uptake) to 'sensitive' form phytoliths (those whose silicon uptake is environmentally controlled) can be used to assess past water availability. Our study is the first large scale experimental project to test this method and take into account multiple variables that can affect phytolith production such as soil composition and chemistry, location, climate and evapotranspiration rates. Results from the cereals grown at two of the crop growing stations, Deir 'Alla and Ramtha, which received between 100 mm and 250 mm rainfall per annum, demonstrate that if the ratio of fixed to sensitive phytolith forms is >1, the level of past water availability can be predicted with 80% confidence. Results from the crops grown at the other growing station, Kherbet as-Samra, which received less than 100 mm of rainfall per year show that if the ratio of fixed to sensitive forms is >0.5, the level of past water availability can be predicted with 99% confidence. This demonstrates that phytolith analysis can be used as a method to identify past water availability.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
       
  • Cereal cultivation and domestication as shown by microtexture analysis of
           sickle gloss through confocal microscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Juan José Ibáñez, Patricia C. Anderson, Jesús González-Urquijo, Juan Gibaja
      When and where cereal cultivation and domestication took place in the Near East are still matters of debate. This quantitative analysis, using confocal microscopy to study “sickle gloss” texture on flint tools used for cereal harvesting, shows that wild cereals were most probably cultivated during the 13th millennium BP in the Middle Euphrates. At that moment, a local and continuous process of cereal domestication began to unfold in this region of the Northern Levant, lasting for over 3 millennia and culminating at the end of the 10th millennium BP. Thus, our research provides a new method for investigating the origins of agriculture, while the data gathered allow us to support the hypothesis of early cereal cultivation during the Younger Dryas and the protracted model of plant domestication, pointing to the Middle Euphrates as one region where this process occurred.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
       
  • Buried in ashes: Site formation processes at Lapa do Santo rockshelter,
           east-central Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ximena S. Villagran, André Strauss, Christopher Miller, Bertrand Ligouis, Rodrigo Oliveira
      Few archaeological sites in the Americas contain high concentrations of human burials dating back to the early Holocene. The tropical karstic region of Lagoa Santa, in central Brazil (state of Minas Gerais) is one of the richest bioanthropological records available to study the behaviors and funerary practices of early Holocene South Americans, with more than 200 skeletons found so far. One of the key locations to examine the history of human settlement in Lagoa Santa is the site of Lapa do Santo, a rockshelter known to contain the oldest rock art and the earliest evidence of funerary complexity in the continent. In this geoarchaeological investigation we focus on the early Holocene settlement at Lapa do Santo (7.9–12.7 cal kyBP) applying high-resolution geoarchaeological techniques, such as micromorphology, organic petrology and μFTIR, on both archaeological, modern reference and experimental samples. This is the first time that a micro-contextual approach integrated with experimental geoarchaeology has been applied to study the formation of rockshelter deposits in a tropical setting. Our results show that the stratigraphic sequence formed under the dual influence of anthropogenic sedimentation—through continuous combustion activities—and geogenic sedimentation in the form of oxisol aggregates which fell from above the limestone cliff into the rockshelter. Intact hearths and remobilized combustion debris, possibly hearth rake-out, are close to the graves suggesting repeated burning activities as part of the ritual behavior of early Holocene South Americans. Large amounts of ash are intermixed with heated and unheated oxisol aggregates. Heated termite mound fragments were also found mixed within the sediments. Post-depositional alteration of the site includes limited bioturbation and localized, low energy surface water and sub-surface concentrations of moisture, leading to precipitation of dense, secondary carbonates. The age inversions can be attributed to the human action of reworking the ashy sediments and not to post-abandonment processes. Despite this, the overall preservation of the sediments is good and most human burials can be considered to be in primary context.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
       
  • Immunological detection of denatured proteins as a method for rapid
           identification of food residues on archaeological pottery
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Jaroslav Pavelka, Ladislav Smejda, Radovan Hynek, Stepanka Hrdlickova Kuckova
      Our understanding of human diet in different periods of history can be enhanced by investigating direct evidence represented by accidentally preserved food remains found on pottery. So far, this task has been accomplished by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, often in combination with stable isotope analysis. These methods require specialised laboratories and their cost prevents wider penetration into the daily practice of archaeology and related disciplines. We have tested commercially available immunochromatographic kits for this task, which are designed to detect contaminants and allergens in the modern food industry. Unlike the previously published studies on archaeological material, we focus specifically on the identification of damaged and denatured proteins, which correspond better to the state of preservation of proteins in desiccated and carbonised organic residues that have survived from antiquity. We report the first successful qualitative detection of bird eggs, animal meat, milk (and species of origin), and to some extent also the presence of plant food, especially cereals and hazelnuts. The immunoassay is a methodology that is well suited for use in the field and resource-poor environments, so it is ideal for most archaeological excavations and museums. With necessary caution, the results can be used as a proxy for human diet in the past and reconstructions of anthropogenically modified environments.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
       
  • Middle Pleistocene subsistence in the Azraq Oasis, Jordan: Protein residue
           and other proxies
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): A. Nowell, C. Walker, C.E. Cordova, C.J.H. Ames, J.T. Pokines, D. Stueber, R. DeWitt, A.S.A. al-Souliman
      Excavations at Shishan Marsh, a former desert oasis in Azraq, northeast Jordan, reveal a unique ecosystem and provide direct family-specific protein residue evidence of hominin adaptations in an increasingly arid environment approximately 250,000 years ago. Based on lithic, faunal, paleoenvironmental and protein residue data, we conclude that Late Pleistocene hominins were able to subsist in extreme arid environments through a reliance on surprisingly human-like adaptations including a broadened subsistence base, modified tool kit and strategies for predator avoidance and carcass protection.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
       
  • Distinct ancestries for similar funerary practices? A GIS analysis
           comparing funerary, osteological and aDNA data from the Middle Neolithic
           necropolis Gurgy “Les Noisats” (Yonne, France)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Mélie Le Roy, Maïté Rivollat, Fanny Mendisco, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Clément Coutelier, Christine Couture, Anne-marie Tillier, Stéphane Rottier, Marie-France Deguilloux
      The French Paris Basin is well known as a complex cultural area of the Early/Middle Neolithic, particularly with respect to funerary practices. Gurgy “Les Noisats”, which is an important necropolis in the southern Paris basin, is a burial site (N = 128) associated with the first Neolithic groups established in that area. The understanding of the necropolis composition and organization is complicated given the substantial homogeneity of the site's spatial organization in relation to a great diversity of characterized funerary traits. The unprecedented quantity of genetic (mitochondrial DNA), osteological (sex, age), and archaeological (funerary) data obtained for the Gurgy necropolis facilitates the search for potential correlations between cultural and biological (i.e. genetic and osteological) diversity at the site level. Despite the application of the powerful geographic information system, no correlation could be detected (i) between individual maternal lineages and specific bioarchaeological profiles (ii) or between maternal lineages and spatially identified bio-archaeological clusters. Therefore, analyses were performed to test for a correlation between the maternal ancestries of the individuals (i.e., hunter-gatherer/Central European farmer and Southern European farmer ancestries) and specific funerary traits. Again, the homogeneity of the funerary treatment of all of the individuals regardless of their potential maternal ancestries is striking. Taken together, our results regarding the way in which the Gurgy necropolis functioned provide strong evidence for the acculturation of all maternal ancestries groups, at least in terms of funerary practice. In addition, the demonstration of a recurrent association of adult men and immature individuals suggests a patrilocal system, which could be consistent with the detected acculturation of women who present a hunter-gatherer ancestry.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
       
  • The rachitic tooth: A histological examination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Lori D’Ortenzio, Isabelle Ribot, Emeline Raguin, Annabelle Schattmann, Benoit Bertrand, Bonnie Kahlon, Megan Brickley
      Diagnosing previous episodes of vitamin D deficiency is particularly challenging due to the subtle changes retained in the skeleton. This study investigates whether abnormal mineralisation in tooth dentin can be observed in archaeological individuals with past vitamin D deficiency. Methods taken from the clinical literature were used, where defects in tooth dentin of those with deficiency have been identified. SEM and histological analysis of tooth dentin were utilized to diagnose vitamin D deficiency in adult and juvenile skeletal remains in individuals who recovered from a period of deficiency. Archaeological skeletons were from St. Matthew and St. Marie, Quebec (1771–1860), and St. Jacques, France (1225–1798). The objective was to determine if interglobular dentin could be observed in individuals with skeletal evidence of vitamin D deficiency. A differential diagnosis revealed that the only conditions that cause mineralisation defects are those that disrupt vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous pathways, with nutritional rickets being the most common cause. Results found that all of the archaeological individuals (6/6) who showed skeletal evidence of past deficiency displayed the formation of interglobular dentin (spaces) due to unfused calcospherites, whereas interglobular dentin was absent in modern healthy controls (n = 3). We propose that a temporary inhibition of dentin growth leads to modification of calcospherite shape and size, resulting in characteristic interglobular spaces in individuals with deficiency. Although further research is needed, we conclude that systemic mineralisation problems of individuals with deficiency may cause dentin mineralisation to stop or falter, preventing further dentin growth and fusion. Dentin has the potential to enable past episodes of vitamin D deficiency to be recognized in cases where skeletal indicators are not clear.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
       
  • Sediments or soils? Multi-scale geoarchaeological investigations of
           stratigraphy and early cultivation practices at Kuk Swamp, highlands of
           Papua New Guinea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Tim Denham, Elle Grono
      Kuk Swamp is a globally significant archaeological site of early agriculture in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mixed-method and multi-scalar investigations of the stratigraphy and selected feature fills at Kuk were instrumental in determining the character of plant exploitation and agricultural practices there during the early and mid Holocene. In this paper, macro-scale (field recording), meso-scale (X-radiography) and micro-scale (thin section micromorphology) analyses are presented in summary form for a stratigraphic column, as well as for a palaeochannel and palaeosurfaces associated with plant exploitation at c.10,000 cal BP and cultivation at 7000–6400 cal BP. Major and minor stratigraphic units have been characterised, primary and secondary formation processes differentiated, and the anthropic associations of specific stratigraphic units determined, especially in regards to cultivation. The Kuk research highlights several methodological problems with the investigation of early cultivation on allophane-rich soils in tropical environments.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
       
  • A field processing model that accounts for central place labor
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Michael Holton Price
      I extend Metcalfe and Barlow’s field processing model to account for the opportunity cost of home labor and test the model using ethnographic observations of clove harvesting, cacao harvesting, and sago processing on the island of Seram in eastern Indonesia. The ethnographic observations are consistent with the opportunity cost of home labor time being between 0.58 and 0.96 that of field labor time. Since the Metcalfe-Barlow model assumes that the opportunity cost of home labor is zero, this refinement of the Metcalfe-Barlow model is warranted in the social and ecological context in which the data was collected and in archaeological contexts where the opportunity cost of home labor cannot clearly be ignored. The extended model predicts a lower threshold than the Metcalfe-Barlow model for the critical transport time beyond which field processing should occur, which has broad implications for recognizing and explaining archaeological and paleoecological signatures of subsistence transitions. I illustrate this by showing that for sago processing the extended model predicts a threshold that is less than half that predicted by the Metcalfe-Barlow model. This low threshold suggests that sago is unlikely to be processed at home. Given this and the perishable nature of both sago starch and traditional containers used to transport it, the limited evidence for sago in archaeological assemblages should not be taken as evidence that it was an unimportant resource in prehistory.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
       
  • Of lakes and fields: A framework for reconciling palaeoclimatic drought
           inferences with archaeological impacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Eelco J. Rohling
      Quantitative estimates of climate variability are increasingly important in interpretations of archaeological turnovers in arid regions. Variations in lake levels or lake-water oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) are often used to infer droughts or humid periods, along with speleothem δ18O, pollen, and windblown dust records. Key examples are the centennial-scale Holocene events associated with the end of the Bronze Age (∼1200 BCE), the end of the Copper Age (∼4000 BCE), and the onset of Neolithic expansion (∼6200 BCE). Whether explicitly stated or only implied, causality between archaeological turnovers and inferred droughts is often ascribed to a disturbance to food resources, which means a disturbance to the agricultural potential of the study region. In the present study, a simple framework of equations is presented for evaluation of this causality. It quantitatively reveals significant complications. In one example, substantially improved crop-growing potential is found to coincide with dropping lake levels, which reflect significant net drought. The complications mainly arise from: (1) control of annually averaged climate conditions on lake changes versus control of seasonal conditions on the yield potential of fields; and (2) changes in the ratios between the overall catchment area of a lake or field, and the surface area of the lake or field itself. The results demonstrate that lake records per se do not satisfactorily reflect agricultural potential, but also that this gap may be bridged with targeted information collection about the regional setting. In particular, improved results may be obtained from detailed assessments of change in the catchment ratios of the lake(s) and field(s) that are being studied (e.g., using digital elevation models), along with expert opinions on field irrigation potential. The scenarios presented here then allow initial field-based assessments and hypothesis formulation to prompt more sophisticated modelling.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
       
  • The transition from Roman to Late Antique glass: new insights from the
           Domus of Tito Macro in Aquileia (Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Sarah Maltoni, Alberta Silvestri, Alessandra Marcante, Gianmario Molin
      The present paper focuses on the archaeological, chemical and isotopic characterisation of glass finds from the Domus of Tito Macro (former Domus dei Fondi Cossar) in Aquileia (Italy), dated between the 1st and the 7th century AD. The assemblage comprises both vessels and glassworking residues, including a few chunks. Aims of the study are the identification of the main glass compositions and their contextualisation in Roman and Late Antique reference groups, and of provenance of primary glass. Chemical analyses were conducted by XRF and EPMA. All the analysed fragments are silica-soda-lime glasses, produced with natron as a flux, and are compositionally similar to the Roman coloured (intentionally and unintentionally) and colourless (antimony-, manganese-, and antimony + manganese-decoloured) groups and to the Late Antique groups HIMT, Série 3.2 and Levantine 1. Specific compositional traits of HIMT glass circulating in the north-Adriatic area and a scarcity of Levantine 1 glass are evidenced. The presence of rare HIT blue glasses including a chunk suggests that colouring took place also at primary stage of production. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses, performed on a selection of samples, confirmed the eastern Mediterranean origin of the glasses, although with minor internal differences depending on the compositional group. Chemical and isotopic data suggest a continuity between the Roman and Late Antique glassmaking in terms of sand deposits and sand/flux ratio, although with a major change in the decolouring technique after the 4th century AD. The prompt reception of the Late Antique glass compositions took place in Aquileia alongside the persistence of earlier compositions, probably with the aim of satisfying different segments of the glass market.


      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
       
  • Impact of grinding technology on bilateral asymmetry in muscle activity of
           the upper limb
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Vladimír Sládek, Martin Hora, Kristýna Farkašová, Thomas R. Rocek
      This paper proposes and tests the idea that a major change in technology associated with the grinding of cereals may account for changes in asymmetry in the upper arms of women in the Neolithic through Iron Age across a large area of Europe. It has been observed that bilateral asymmetry in humeral strength (i.e., polar section modulus) decreased to near zero in early agricultural females, but increased again during the Iron Age. These changes in asymmetry in females have been interpreted as the direct consequence of the adoption of the saddle quern at the start of the Neolithic and its subsequent replacement by the rotary quern in the Iron Age. To test the impact of these alternative cereal grinding methods, we tested the efficiency of saddle and rotary quern grinding with 16 female volunteers and the effect of grinding on muscle activity of the upper limb with 20 female volunteers. We used electromyography to measure muscle activity in the pectoralis, deltoideus, infraspinatus and triceps muscles and adjusted muscle activity for efficiency and muscle size. Saddle quern grinding was 4.3 times less efficient than rotary quern grinding and produced a significantly higher amount of coarse- and middle-grained flour but a significantly lower amount of very fine grained flour than rotary quern grinding. Saddle quern grinding showed symmetrical muscle activity in all four studied muscles, whereas rotary quern grinding yielded consistent directional asymmetry in a majority of muscles even during bimanual rotation. Saddle quern grinding required about twice as much muscle activity per kg of grain when adjusted for muscle size than rotary quern grinding. Our results support the view that saddle quern grinding may have played a major role in the decrease in directional asymmetry in humeral strength in early agricultural females and that the adoption of the rotary quern during the Iron Age may have increased humeral directional asymmetry mainly because of increased asymmetrical loading and the reduced time needed for grinding in favor of other manipulative tasks.


      PubDate: 2016-07-16T19:48:26Z
       
  • Evaluation of chronological changes in bone fractures and age-related bone
           loss: A test case from Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Anna E. Spinek, Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Joanna Mietlińska, Ewa Sewerynek, Arkadiusz Kłys, David Caramelli, Elżbieta Żądzińska
      Objectives Paleopathological studies suggest different patterns of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis in past populations compared with those of modern times. However, the observed interpopulational differences are often difficult to interpret due to considerable environmental and biological heterogeneity between populations from which the analyzed skeletal samples come. In the present paper, we try to determine whether there was a directional trend in occurrence of this phenomenon in the past as a consequence of changes in life conditions over the last six thousand years of human history. Materials and methods The study involved 276 female skeletons from four geographically homogeneous populations dated from Neolithic to early modern times coming from a region located in present-day Poland. Bone mineral density and bone fractures were examined for all the skeletons. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene associated with low BMD were analyzed using PCR in individuals randomly selected from all of the studied skeletal series. Results In all the analyzed populations, BMD was found to significantly decrease with age. The only statistically significant interpopulational differences were found for the Neolithic skeletal series, with females in all age groups exhibiting higher BMD values and no osteoporotic fractures compared with the historical populations. Discussion The much better bone maintenance in Neolithic women may have resulted from a favorable confluence of high levels of physical activity, exposure to UV radiation, and a diet with an appropriate calcium intake.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T09:02:59Z
       
  • Finding Harappan seal carvers: An operational sequence approach to
           identifying people in the past
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Adam S. Green
      The engravings on Harappan stamp seals allow the identification of particular artisans in the past. Toward this end, this article employs three-dimensional optical microscopy of stamp seal engravings to provide a non-destructive source of data for reconstructing specific sequences of action. Comparing these operational sequences (chaînes opératoire) reveals similarities that probably resulted from past production events undertaken by differing individual carvers. Applying this high resolution approach to a sample of five unicorn stamp seals from Mohenjo-daro (2600–1900 B.C.) strongly suggests that their engravings are the work of three artisans. The differences in their operational sequences provide preliminary insights into the boundaries between the communities of practice that produced Harappan seals. This approach can extend archaeological inquiry into many aspects of the social conditions in which seal production occurred. A close analysis of operational sequences reveals how the traces of specific actions, faithfully recorded in stone, can help us find people in the past whose specific activities would otherwise lie outside of scholarly investigation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-06T09:02:59Z
       
  • Initial micromorphological results from Liang Bua, Flores (Indonesia):
           Site formation processes and hominin activities at the type locality of
           Homo floresiensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg, Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, Linda C. Prinsloo, Jatmiko, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Sri Wasisto, Richard G. Roberts
      Liang Bua, a karstic cave located on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, is best known for yielding the holotype of the diminutive hominin Homo floresiensis from Late Pleistocene sediments. Modern human remains have also been recovered from the Holocene deposits, and abundant archaeological and faunal remains occur throughout the sequence. The cave, the catchment in which it is located and the gross aggradational phases of the sediment sequence have all been subject to a great deal of scientific scrutiny since the discovery of the holotype of H. floresiensis in 2003. A recent program of geoarchaeological research has extended analyses of the site’s deposits to the microstratigraphic (micromorphological) level. The stratigraphic sequence in the cave is well defined but complex, comprising interstratified sediments of diverse lithologies and polygenetic origins, including volcanic tephras, fine-grained colluvium, coarse autogenic limestone gravels, speleothems and anthropogenic sediments, such as combustion features. The sedimentological and chemical heterogeneity suggest that processes of site formation and diagenesis varied markedly through time, both laterally and vertically. We present initial results from samples collected in 2014 from an excavation area near the rear of the cave, which yielded radiocarbon ages from charcoal that fill an important temporal gap in the chrono-stratigraphic sequence of previously excavated areas of the site. The results indicate marked changes in site environment and hominin activity during the Late Pleistocene, relating primarily to the degree to which the cave was connected to the hydrogeological system and to the varying intensities of use of the cave by hominins. Importantly, we identify anthropogenic signs of fire-use at the site between 41 and 24 thousand years ago, most likely related to the presence of modern humans.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T21:20:36Z
       
  • On graphical representations of similarity in geo-temporal frequency data
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Daniel Weidele, Mereke van Garderen, Mark Golitko, Gary M. Feinman, Ulrik Brandes
      Its focus on dependencies and patterns in relational data makes network science a promising addition to the analytic toolbox in archaeology. Despite its tradition in a number of other fields, however, the methodology of network science is only in development and its scope and proper usage are subject to debate. We argue that the historical linkage with graph theory and limitations in commonly available software form an obstacle to leveraging the full potential of network methods. This is illustrated via replication of a study of Maya obsidian (Golitko et al. Antiquity, 2012), in which it seemed necessary to discard detailed information in order to represent data in networks suitable for further processing. We propose means to avoid such information loss by using methods capable of handling valued rather than binarized data. The resulting representations corroborate previous conclusions but are more reliable and thus justify a more detailed interpretation of shifting supply routes as an underlying process contributing to the collapse of Maya urban centers. Some general conclusions for the use of network science in archaeology are offered.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:23:01Z
       
  • Assessing 3D metric data of digital surface models for extracting
           archaeological data from archive stereo-aerial photographs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Heather Papworth, Andrew Ford, Kate Welham, David Thackray
      Archaeological remains are under increasing threat of attrition from natural processes and the continued mechanisation of anthropogenic activities. This research analyses the ability of digital photogrammetry software to reconstruct extant, damaged, and destroyed archaeological earthworks from archive stereo-aerial photographs. Case studies of Flower’s Barrow and Eggardon hillforts, both situated in Dorset, UK, are examined using a range of imagery dating from the 1940s to 2010. Specialist photogrammetric software SocetGXP® is used to extract digital surface models, and the results compared with airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data to assess their accuracy. Global summary statistics and spatial autocorrelation techniques are used to examine error scales and distributions. Extracted earthwork profiles are compared to both current and historical surveys of each study site. The results demonstrate that metric information relating to earthwork form can be successfully obtained from archival photography. In some instances, these data out-perform airborne laser scanning in the provision of digital surface models with minimal error. The role of archival photography in regaining metric data from upstanding archaeology and the consequent place for this approach to impact heritage management strategies is demonstrated.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Geoarchaeology of urban space in tropical island environments: Songo
           Mnara, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Federica Sulas, Jeffrey Fleisher, Stephanie Wynne-Jones
      Past urban settlements in tropical island environments offer particularly challenging sites for mainstream archaeology. Often associated with shallow stratigraphic sequences, archaeological sediments and soils in these sites are strongly influenced by local geology and seawater. This study discusses the advantages and challenges of developing an integrated geoarchaeological programme to examine the use of space at the Swahili stonetown of Songo Mnara Island, Tanzania. This exceptionally well preserved site, occupied for less than two centuries (C14th–16th AD), comprises a complex urban layout with stone-built houses, wattle-and-daub structures, funerary complexes, activity areas such as wells, and open areas. The programme has combined geoarchaeological (soil macro- and micromorphology, ICP-AES, pH, EC), geophysical (magnetic susceptibility) and archaeological (large excavations, test trenches, artefact distribution mapping) techniques to investigate the use of space across different contexts. Initial geoarchaeological prospection and opportunistic soil sampling have allowed framing of the island’s environmental settings and archaeological deposits as well as outlining open spaces in between buildings. Subsequent research applied a systematic sampling strategy to map geochemical and artefact distributions in conjunction with context-specific soil micromorphology. The results provide a means to map out the impact of occupation across the site as well as to differentiate between open, roofed and unroofed spaces. ICP-AES results, for example, demonstrate that measurements of Ca, Mg, P, S and Sr levels can help discriminate occupation/activity areas in tropical island environments. They also indicate that the depletion of certain elements (e.g. Na, K, and Ni) should be considered as a means of differentiating between roofed and unroofed spaces. The combination of different methodologies demonstrates the importance of addressing discrepancies as well as correlations between multiple datasets for deciphering features within urban spaces in tropical environments and interpreting ancient activities that occurred within them.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Marco Gonzalez, Ambergris Caye, Belize: A geoarchaeological record of
           ground raising associated with surface soil formation and the presence of
           a Dark Earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Richard I. Macphail, Elizabeth Graham, John Crowther, Simon Turner
      Marco Gonzalez, on the south-west end of the island of Ambergris Caye, Belize, has well-preserved Maya archaeological stratigraphy dating from Preclassic times (ca. 300 B.C.) to the Late Classic period (ca. A.D. 550/600 to 700/760). Although later occupations are recorded by house platforms and inhumations (Terminal Classic to Early Postclassic), and use of the site continued until the 16th century A.D., intact stratigraphy is rare in these cases owing to a greater degree of disturbance. Nonetheless, understanding site formation entails accounting for all processes, including disturbance. The site’s depositional sequence—as revealed through soil micromorphology and chemistry and detailed here—has yielded critical information in two spheres of research. As regards archaeology and the elucidation of Maya activities on the caye over time, soil micromorphology has contributed beyond measure to what we have been able to distinguish as material remains of cultural activity. Detailed descriptions of the nature of the material remains has in turn helped us to clarify or alter interpretations based on artefacts that have been identified or sediments characterised according to traditional recovery techniques. The other major sphere in which soil micromorphology and chemistry play a critical role is in assessment of the environmental impact of human activity, which enables us to construct and test hypotheses concerning how the site formed over time; what materials and elements contributed to the character of the sediments, especially in the formation of a specific Maya Dark Earth type that is developed from carbonate rich deposits; and how the modern surface soils acquired the appearance of a Dark Earth, but essentially differ from them. In terms of agricultural soil sustainability, the Marco Gonzalez surface soil is neo-formed by a woodland vegetation drawing upon the nutrients and constituents present in both the Dark Earth and underlying better preserved stratified deposits.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Statistically robust representation and comparison of mortality profiles
           in archaeozoology
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Pascale Gerbault, Rosalind Gillis, Jean-Denis Vigne, Anne Tresset, Stéphanie Bréhard, Mark G. Thomas
      Archaeozoological mortality profiles have been used to infer site-specific subsistence strategies. There is however no common agreement on the best way to present these profiles and confidence intervals around age class proportions. In order to deal with these issues, we propose the use of the Dirichlet distribution and present a new approach to perform age-at-death multivariate graphical comparisons. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach using domestic sheep/goat dental remains from 10 Cardial sites (Early Neolithic) located in South France and the Iberian Peninsula. We show that the Dirichlet distribution in age-at-death analysis can be used: (i) to generate Bayesian credible intervals around each age class of a mortality profile, even when not all age classes are observed; and (ii) to create 95% kernel density contours around each age-at-death frequency distribution when multiple sites are compared using correspondence analysis. The statistical procedure we present is applicable to the analysis of any categorical count data and particularly well-suited to archaeological data (e.g. potsherds, arrow heads) where sample sizes are typically small.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • The limits and potential of paleogenomic techniques for reconstructing
           grapevine domestication
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Nathan Wales, Jazmín Ramos Madrigal, Enrico Cappellini, Aldo Carmona Baez, José Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, J. Alberto Romero-Navarro, Christian Carøe, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Fernando Peñaloza, J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Boris Gasparyan, Diana Zardaryan, Tamara Bagoyan, Alexia Smith, Ron Pinhasi, Giovanna Bosi, Girolamo Fiorentino, Anna Maria Grasso, Alessandra Celant, Guy Bar-Oz, Yotam Tepper, Allan Hall, Simone Scalabrin, Mara Miculan, Michele Morgante, Gabriele Di Gaspero, M. Thomas P. Gilbert
      In ancient DNA (aDNA) research, evolutionary and archaeological questions are often investigated using the genomic sequences of organelles: mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. Organellar genomes are found in multiple copies per living cell, increasing their chance of recovery from archaeological samples, and are inherited from one parent without genetic recombination, simplifying analyses. While mitochondrial genomes have played a key role in many mammalian aDNA projects, including research focused on prehistoric humans and extinct hominins, it is unclear how useful plant chloroplast genomes (plastomes) may be at elucidating questions related to plant evolution, crop domestication, and the prehistoric movement of botanical products through trade and migration. Such analyses are particularly challenging for plant species whose genomes have highly repetitive sequences and that undergo frequent genomic reorganization, notably species with high retrotransposon activity. To address this question, we explored the research potential of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plastome using targeted-enrichment methods and high-throughput DNA sequencing on a collection of archaeological grape pip and vine specimens from sites across Eurasia dating ca. 4000 BCE–1500 CE. We demonstrate that due to unprecedented numbers of sequence insertions into the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the grape plastome provides limited intraspecific phylogenetic resolution. Nonetheless, we were able to assign archaeological specimens in the Italian peninsula, Sardinia, UK, and Armenia from pre-Roman to medieval times as belonging to all three major chlorotypes A, C, and D found in modern varieties of Western Europe. Analysis of nuclear genomic DNA from these samples reveals a much greater potential for understanding ancient viticulture, including domestication events, genetic introgression from local wild populations, and the origins and histories of varietal lineages.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Procurement strategies of Neolithic colouring materials: Territoriality
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jean-Victor Pradeau, Didier Binder, Chrystèle Vérati, Jean-Marc Lardeaux, Stéphan Dubernet, Yannick Lefrais, Martine Regert
      In the N.-W. Mediterranean area, the development of the Neolithic way of life during the 6th millennium cal. BCE is related to the spread of sailing pioneer groups. In the course of the 5th millennium cal. BCE, more stable agro-pastoral settlements expand their hold on the hinterland and exchange networks increase in complexity (obsidian, flints, clastic rocks). Although previous research showed high variability in the N.W. Mediterranean Neolithic diffusion modalities, the place of colouring materials, naturally abundant in this area, has received scant attention despite their technical and symbolic value. With the aim of assessing the place of these materials in the initial Neolithic package and within the development of the neolithisation process, we investigated series of more than 2000 blocks of colouring materials from two key-sites (Pendimoun and Giribaldi) recently excavated by one of us (DB), with dates ranging from 5750 to 3650 cal. BCE. This study was implemented by geological surveys that allowed the establishment of cartography of putative sources of raw colouring materials and the determination of their nature and composition. Combining petrographic examination and physico-chemical-characterisation (SEM-EDS, XRD), we determined a wide range of raw materials: psammitic sandstone, allochthonous and parallochthonous bauxite, oolithic ironstone, oxidised marcasite and ferruginous rocks derived from weathered glauconitic limestones. Comparing archaeological series to this frame of reference highlights two contrasting economic systems: one based on exploitation of local sources from the Early to the Middle Neolithic, the other one founded on a dual use of both close geomaterials and exogenous rocks during Middle Neolithic.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Long-term rhythms in the development of Hawaiian social stratification
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Thomas S. Dye
      The tempo plot, a statistical graphic designed for the archaeological study of rhythms of the long term that embodies a theory of archaeological evidence for the occurrence of events, is introduced. The graphic summarizes the tempo of change in the occurrence of archaeological events using the model states generated by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine at the heart of Bayesian calibration software. Tempo plots are applied to the archaeological record of Hawai‘i to expose rhythms of i) tradition in taro pond-field construction, ii) innovation in temple construction, and iii) fashion in the harvest of branch coral for use as a religious offering. Rhythms of the long term identify a hitherto unrecognized transformation of religious practice in Hawai‘i, establish temporal coincidence in temple construction in leeward sections of Maui and Hawai‘i Islands previously described as regionally idiosyncratic, suggest shallow temporal limits to the use of the direct historical approach in Hawai‘i, and disclose processes at work in the political economy recorded at the time of western Contact.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Secrets of the Anglo-Saxon goldsmiths: Analysis of gold objects from the
           Staffordshire Hoard
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Eleanor Blakelock, Susan La Niece, Chris Fern
      The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest ever find of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. The collection comprises many hundreds of objects, in approximately 3900 fragments. Most objects are fittings from swords, but there are also fragments from at least one helmet, and a small but significant collection of Christian objects. An initial study of 16 gold objects from the collection suggested that some form of deliberately induced depletion gilding had taken place to remove both silver and copper from the surface of the metal (Blakelock, In press). Subsequently, both surface and quantitative core alloy SEM-EDX analysis was undertaken on a further 114 Hoard objects. Over 222 individual components (i.e. different parts of objects) were analysed during this study. This is the largest quantitative survey of Anglo-Saxon gold and, contrary to expectations, no reliable relationship was found between the fineness of alloy used and object date, although the low copper content is consistent with the use of recycled coinage as a source of gold. However, over 100 components were judged to be deliberately depleted in silver at their surface which, it is argued, was the result of a deliberate and probably widespread Anglo-Saxon workshop practice. Previously unrecognised, this involved the depletion gilding of sheet gold to create contrast between decorative components, as well as to enhance colour. Furthermore, in the light of the identification of this systematic surface enrichment, similar approaches should be considered to investigate goldsmithing practices in other cultures and time frames.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Early Bronze Age copper production systems in the northern Arabah Valley:
           New insights from archaeomagnetic study of slag deposits in Jordan and
           Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): E. Ben-Yosef, A. Gidding, L. Tauxe, U. Davidovich, M. Najjar, T.E. Levy
      This paper presents results of an archaeomagnetic study of slag from four Early Bronze (EB) Age copper production sites in the Faynan Copper Ore District and the northern Arabah Valley (modern Israel and Jordan). The results provide age constraints for metallurgical activities at these sites. Together with previously published data, they indicate copper production around ca. 2900 cal. BCE (EB II-III transition) and between ca. 2600-1950 cal. BCE, spanning the later part of the EB III and the entire EB IV period. These data strongly suggest a direct link between Faynan and the Old Kingdom of Egypt, which is reflected in the most significant phase of copper production and trade in the northern Arabah prior to the Iron Age, and in a settlement wave in the Negev Highlands. In addition, the results indicate that during the late EB II copper was smelted up to 40 km away from the mines. This is evident at the unique cultic site of Ashalim, located on the main road between Faynan, southeast of the Dead Sea, and the settled areas in the core of Canaan.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • The Sima de los Huesos Crania: Analysis of the cranial breakage patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Nohemi Sala, Ana Pantoja-Pérez, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Adrián Pablos, Ignacio Martínez
      The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site has provided the largest collection of hominin crania in the fossil record, offering an unprecedented opportunity to perform a complete Forensic-Taphonomic study on a population from the Middle Pleistocene. The fractures found in seventeen crania from SH display a postmortem fracturation pattern, which occurred in the dry bone stage and is compatible with collective burial assemblages. Nevertheless, in addition to the postmortem fractures, eight crania also display some typical perimortem traumas. By using CT images we analyzed these fractures in detail. Interpersonal violence as a cause for the perimortem fractures can be confirmed for one of the skulls, Cranium 17 and also probable for Cranium 5 and Cranium 11. For the rest of the crania, although other causes cannot be absolutely ruled out, the violence-related traumas are the most plausible scenario for the perimortem fractures. If this hypothesis is confirmed, we could interpret that interpersonal violence was a recurrent behavior in this population from the Middle Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Documenting the initial appearance of domestic cattle in the Eastern
           Fertile Crescent (northern Iraq and western Iran)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Max D. Price, Hitomi Hongo, Banu Öksüz
      In this paper we address the timing of and mechanisms for the appearance of domestic cattle in the Eastern Fertile Crescent (EFC) region of SW Asia through the analysis of new and previously published species abundance and biometric data from 86 archaeofaunal assemblages. We find that Bos exploitation was a minor component of animal economies in the EFC in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene but increased dramatically in the sixth millennium BC. Moreover, biometric data indicate that small-sized Bos, likely representing domesticates, appear suddenly in the region without any transitional forms in the early to mid sixth millennium BC. This suggests that domestic cattle were imported into the EFC, possibly associated with the spread of the Halaf archaeological culture, several millennia after they first appear in the neighboring northern Levant.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Bell Beaker and the evolution of resource management strategies in the
           southwest of the Iberian Peninsula
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Daniel García Rivero, Jesús María Jurado Núñez, Ruth Taylor
      This paper addresses the plain common pottery associated with Beaker contexts in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The detailed systematic study focuses on the pottery assemblage provided by one of the region’s most important settlements, San Blas (Badajoz, Spain), while comparisons are made with other important sites in the study area. By means of the stratigraphic, typological and statistical analysis of the data, the main patterns of change in this material culture throughout the temporal sequence are identified and the historical explanatory factors are inferred. Specifically, during the second half of the 3rd millennium cal BC, an important change took place in the management of economic risk, which is materialised by a significant reduction in food storage and by the more immediate direct or indirect consumption of resources. We suggest that these patterns reflect a shift towards a short-term projection of the future, in a context with strong evidence of instability.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Evidence of Eurasian metal alloys on the Alaskan coast in prehistory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): H. Kory Cooper, Owen K. Mason, Victor Mair, John F. Hoffecker, Robert J. Speakman
      Six metal and composite metal artifacts were excavated from a late prehistoric archaeological context at Cape Espenberg on the northern coast of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. X-ray fluorescence identified two of these artifacts as smelted industrial alloys with large proportions of tin and lead. The presence of smelted alloys in a prehistoric Inuit context in northwest Alaska is demonstrated here for the first time and indicates the movement of Eurasian metal across the Bering Strait into North America before sustained contact with Europeans.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Airborne laser scanning as a method for exploring long-term
           socio-ecological dynamics in Cambodia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Damian Evans
      Early Khmer societies developed extensive settlement complexes that were largely made of non-durable materials. These fragile urban areas perished many centuries ago, and thus a century and a half of scholarly research has focussed on the more durable components of Khmer culture, in particular the famous temples and the texts and works of art that are normally found within them. In recent years however there has been a considerable effort to broaden the perspective beyond conventional approaches to Khmer history and archaeology. Remarkable advances have been made in the domain of remote sensing and archaeological mapping, including the application of advanced geospatial techniques such as airborne laser scanning within studies of heritage landscapes at Angkor and beyond. This article describes the most recent applications of the technology in Cambodia, including the results of a newly-completed campaign of airborne laser scanning in 2015—the most extensive acquisition ever undertaken by an archaeological project—and underscores the importance of using these methods as part of a problem-oriented research program that speaks to broader issues within history and archaeology.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Ferrous metallurgy from the Bir Massouda metallurgical precinct at
           Phoenician and Punic Carthage and the beginning of the North African Iron
           Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Brett Kaufman, Roald Docter, Christian Fischer, Fethi Chelbi, Boutheina Maraoui Telmini
      Excavations of the Phoenician and Punic layers at the site of Bir Massouda in Carthage have provided evidence for ferrous metallurgical activity spanning several centuries. Archaeometallurgical analyses of slagged tuyères, slag, and alloys using optical microscopy, portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (VPSEM-EDS) show that Carthaginian smiths were conducting primary smithing and forging of wrought iron and steel. Although the majority of slag specimens are remnant from ferrous production, a few select finds are from bronze recycling. The corpus represents the earliest known ferrous metallurgy in North Africa. As a Phoenician colony then later as an independent imperial metropolis, Carthage specialized in centrally organized ferrous technology at the fringes of the settlement in areas such as Bir Massouda and the Byrsa Hill from before 700 to 146 BC.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • From radiocarbon analysis to interpretation: A comment on “Phytolith
           Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case
           Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the
           Previous Dating Evidence”, Journal of Archaeological Science (2015),
           doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2015.06.002.” by Dolores R. Piperno
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Guaciara M. Santos, Anne Alexandre, Christine A. Prior
      The paper “Phytolith Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the Previous Dating Evidence” by Dolores R. Piperno presents radiocarbon analysis of phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants collected between 1964 and 2013. The analyses presented were intended to rebut the emerging hypothesis that invokes root-plant uptake, transport and reallocation of soil organic carbon into phytoliths that has been recently put forward as an explanation for the anomalous radiocarbon (14C) ages (of hundreds to thousands of years old) reported for modern grass phytoliths in Santos et al., 2010a,b, 2012a. We believe that the results presented in Piperno (2006) lack methodological rigor, mostly due to the absence of any procedural blank assessment, and that the attempts to disprove the hypothesis of uptake of soil organic matter (SOM) by phytoliths in Santos et al. (2012a) are not supported by a careful analysis. Rather than supporting the position that 100% of the carbon in phytoliths is of photosynthetic origin, which allows the use of phytolith carbon (or phytC) as a dating tool, the analysis of 14C in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in the study shows that the 14C ages are strongly affected by other sources of carbon. In this comment, we carefully reassess the 14C results in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in Piperno (2006) in the context of the 14C bomb-pulse methodology, SOM ages and turnover rates, and offer an alternative interpretation of the experimental results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • The technology of the earliest European cave paintings: El Castillo Cave,
           Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Francesco d'Errico, Laure Dayet Bouillot, Marcos García-Diez, Africa Pitarch Martí, Daniel Garrido Pimentel, João Zilhão
      The red disks from El Castillo Cave are among the earliest known cave paintings. Here, we combine the morphometric and technological study of red disks from two areas located at the end of the cave with the microscopic, elemental, and mineralogical analysis of the pigment and compare the results obtained with observations derived from experimental replication. Ergonomic constraints imply that a number of disks were made by adults, and the differences in pigment texture and composition suggest that they correspond to an accumulation through time of panels made by different persons who shared neither the same technical know-how nor, very possibly, the same symbolic system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Testing the endurance of prehistoric adornments: Raw materials from the
           aquatic environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Monica Mărgărit
      Raw materials deriving from the aquatic environment were systematically used for personal ornamentation by modern humans throughout their entire history. In this study we analyse three types of raw materials: Lithoglyphus sp. shells, Unio sp. valves and Cyprinus carpio opercular bones. The central purpose of this paper is to initiate a database of the way in which wear develops according to the system of attachment and the longevity of use. In order to identify the costs invested in the manufacturing of these types of items, both from the point of view of time and effort, an experimental programme has been developed, which permits the recording of all the variables (means of gathering the raw material, technological stages, time recorded for each operation, and tools used). Furthermore, it was set the task of wearing the beads experimentally processed, as adornments, for two years, and of periodically evaluating the perforation and the surface of the pieces under a microscope. Moreover, observations made on archaeological specimens were compared to experimental replicas. The archaeological assemblages from the Romanian Neolithic were used as a case study to illustrate the relevance of the results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Copying error, evolution, and phylogenetic signal in artifactual
           traditions: An experimental approach using “model artifacts”
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kerstin Schillinger, Alex Mesoudi, Stephen J. Lycett
      Spatio-temporal patterns of artifactual variation are increasingly being studied via the explicit application of cultural evolutionary theory and methods. Such broad-scale (macroevolutionary) patterns are mediated, however, by a series of small-scale (microevolutionary) processes that occur at the level of individual artifacts, and individual artifact users and producers. Within experimental biology, “model organisms” have played a crucial role in understanding the role of fundamental microevolutionary processes, such as mutation and the inheritance of variation, in respect to macroevolutionary patterns. There has, however, been little equivalent laboratory work to better understand how microevolutionary processes influence macroevolutionary patterns in artifacts and their analysis. Here, we adopt a “model artifact” approach to experimentally study the issues of copy error (mutation) and resultant phylogenetic signal in artifact traditions. We used morphometric procedures to examine shape copying error rates in our “model artifacts.” We first established experimentally that statistically different rates of copying error (mutation) could be induced when participants used two different types of shaping tool to produce copies of foam “artifacts.” Using this as a baseline, we then tested whether these differing mutation rates led to differing phylogenetic signal and accuracy in two separate experimental transmission chains (lineages), involving participants copying the previous participant's artifact. The analysis demonstrated that phylogenetic reconstruction is more accurate in artifactual lineages where copying error is demonstrably lower. Such results demonstrate how fidelity of transmission impacts directly on the evolution of technological traditions and their empirical analysis. In particular, these results highlight that differing contexts of cultural transmission relating to fidelity might lead to differing patterns of resolution within reconstructed evolutionary sequences. Overall, these analyses demonstrate the importance of a “model artifact” approach in discussions of cultural evolution, equivalent in importance to the use of model organisms in evolutionary biology in order to better understand fundamental microevolutionary processes of direct relevance to macroevolutionary archaeological patterns.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Distinguishing offshore bird hunting from beach scavenging in
           archaeological contexts: The value of modern beach surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kristine M. Bovy, Jessica E. Watson, Jane Dolliver, Julia K. Parrish
      Determining whether seabirds recovered from coastal shell middens were obtained via active hunting or scavenging of beached carcasses is a challenge for archaeologists. Traditional methods have included analyzing skeletal part frequencies, abundance, age profiles, and contextual evidence. The assumption has been made, based on limited biological data, that an assemblage of carcasses scavenged from the beach will have more wing elements, and fewer legs and heads. Few studies, however, have embraced modern beaching data to verify this assumption and assess the potential faunal resources available for scavenging. We analyze the skeletal part representation of modern beached birds observed by the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST), comparing the COASST dataset to two idealized hypotheses used by archaeologists: the human scavenging hypothesis (wings only are recovered, while heads and legs are absent) and the human hunting hypothesis (all body parts are found in equal proportions). Finally, we apply these results to analysis of the bird remains from the Minard site (45-GH-15), a late Holocene coastal site in Grays Harbor, Washington. We find that contemporary beached bird data are closer to replicating the human hunting hypothesis as compared to the human scavenging hypothesis, as >75% of the 19,599 carcasses in the COASST dataset had a combination of head, wings and legs. This result, and the similarity in taxonomic distribution between our contemporary beached bird data and Minard assemblage, suggests that indigenous peoples may have used scavenging as a viable means of resource acquisition in the past. Use of contemporaneous beached bird data may provide zooarchaeology with a statistically defensible baseline of information on the phenology, abundance and condition of bird carcasses.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Standard evaluations of bomb curves and age calibrations along with
           consideration of environmental and biological variability show the rigor
           of phytolith dates on modern neotropical plants: Review of comment by
           Santos, Alexandre, and Prior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno
      Santos et al. claim that a recent phytolith 14C study by Piperno of Neotropical plants that grew during the post-bomb era provided anomalously old ages due to 14C depletion. They argue the depletion source is likely old carbon in soils transported into plants via root uptake. Here I show: 1) their claims for anomalous 14C depletions in phytoliths are unfounded because they fail to consider uncertainties created in the bomb curve from local and regional environmental variability and other factors shown to lead to bomb curve offsets in post-bomb 14C study, 2) they error by not calibrating the phytolith dates, a standard procedure with post-bomb 14C determinations, 3) they inexplicably consider an ancient (1640 14Cyr B.P) age for one of the dated samples to be accurate when (a) it is known the sample was treated with substances made from fossil fuels that were not removed with the extraction process, and (b) the amount of radiocarbon dead carbon required to generate the ancient age from SOM is unreasonable, and 4) their theory that old soil carbon from root uptake is sequestered in phytoliths causing significant skews to phytolith ages is not supported by accumulated evidence from ancient, and now modern Neotropical contexts.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Experimental smelting of iron ores from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy):
           Results and implications for the reconstruction of ancient metallurgical
           processes and iron provenance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): M. Benvenuti, A. Orlando, D. Borrini, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, C. Mazzotta, V. Rimondi
      Iron deposits from Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago) were extensively exploited since the 1st millennium BC: both raw iron ore and smelted blooms were extensively traded through the Mediterranean region. Within the frame of the multidisciplinary research Project “AITHALE” (from the Greek name for Elba Island), we have performed a series of archaeometallurgical experiments primarily to investigate the traceability of Elban iron ores during the various steps of the chaîne opératoire of bloomery iron production. Results of experiments performed both in the field (reconstruction of a bloomery furnace) and in the laboratory (smelting experiments carried out in a gas mixing furnace) are discussed in the text. Slags produced by smelting of W-Sn-rich iron (hematite) ores, like those from Elba island, show the presence of these elements in phases of their own, either relic (scheelite, ferberite, cassiterite) and/or newly formed (iron-tin alloys). Iron bloom obtained from this kind of iron ore could also bear evidence of the peculiar geochemistry of smelted ore, with tungsten preferentially associated with slag inclusions and tin eventually enriched in the metallic phase.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Xiongnu burial complex: A study of ancient textiles from the 22nd Noin-Ula
           barrow (Mongolia, first century AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Elena Karpova, Vladimir Vasiliev, Victor Mamatyuk, Natalia Polosmak, Lyudmila Kundo
      The collection of textiles from Xiongnu burial was obtained in the recent years as a result of research of the Russian-Mongolian expedition led by N. Polosmak. This collection is a unique source of the different types of information. Xiongnu throughout their long history controlled the Central Asia regions of the Silk Road, by which many and varied products, including textiles and wool, were brought to China from the west. The woolen fabrics and textiles of high quality were found in the Xiongnu noble burials located in the mountains of Mongolia. An analysis of their dyes composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the woolen fabrics were dyed with plant and insect dyestuffs. Each sample analyzed was dyed with a set of dyestuffs that indicates that dyers had not only the necessary and various dyes, but possessed highly developed craftsmanship of dyeing. Based on the results of this research it can be proposed that the dyeing of the woolen textiles found in the graves of the Xiongnu nobility was carried out in the manufactories of the Mediterranean, known for their fabrics dyeing culture. Numerous Chinese-made silk fabrics were dyed with traditional Han epoch plant dyes - indigo and Indian madder. Dyes composition of the silk textile fundamentally differs from dyes of the woolen fabrics by the absence of dyestuffs of insect origin.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
 
 
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