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        1 2 3     

  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 221 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 37)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Comechingonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 105)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [64 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • A multi-method luminescence dating of the Palaeolithic sequence of La
           Ferrassie based on new excavations adjacent to the La Ferrassie 1 and 2
           skeletons
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Guillaume Guérin , Marine Frouin , Sahra Talamo , Vera Aldeias , Laurent Bruxelles , Laurent Chiotti , Harold L. Dibble , Paul Goldberg , Jean-Jacques Hublin , Mayank Jain , Christelle Lahaye , Stéphane Madelaine , Bruno Maureille , Shannon J.P. McPherron , Norbert Mercier , Andrew S. Murray , Dennis Sandgathe , Teresa E. Steele , Kristina J. Thomsen , Alain Turq
      A new interdisciplinary project was initiated to excavate a portion of the Palaeolithic site of La Ferrassie left intact by earlier excavations. One of the aims of this project was to provide chronological information on the succession of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic layers, as well as on the skeletons unearthed by Capitan and Peyrony in the early 1900's. We report here preliminary results on the lithics, faunal remains, site formation processes, and on the stratigraphic context of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons that were found adjacent to our excavations. Finally, results from luminescence dating of the sediments and a preliminary set of radiocarbon ages are presented. Quartz OSL, both at the multi-grain and single-grain levels of analysis, and post-IR IRSL of feldspar at various stimulation temperatures are compared. The quartz/feldspar comparison revealed a bleaching problem for the quartz OSL (and the feldspar pIRIR signals) from Layer 2; as a consequence, the age of this Layer was determined using a minimum age model. A Mousterian industry with bifaces, at the base of the sequence, has been dated between 91 ± 9 and 44 ± 3 ka. The Ferrassie Mousterian layers are attributed to MIS 3, between 54 ± 3 and 40 ± 2 ka, and thus appear very late in the final Middle Palaeolithic of the region; furthermore, these ages constrain the chronology of the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, which have been attributed to one of these Ferrassie Mousterian layers. The Châtelperronian layer is dated to 42 ± 3 ka and the Aurignacian to 37 ± 2 ka. Implications of the ages for the La Ferrassie 1 and 2 skeletons, and for the variability of late Mousterian, are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Starch analysis and isotopic evidence of consumption of cultigens among
           fisher–gatherers in Cuba: the archaeological site of Canímar
           Abajo, Matanzas
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Y. Chinique de Armas , W.M. Buhay , R. Rodríguez Suárez , S. Bestel , D. Smith , S.D. Mowat , M. Roksandic
      The use of cultigens and wild plants by pre-contact populations is well established in all regions of the circum-Caribbean and Greater Antilles except for Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean. We examine a population traditionally understood by Cuban archaeologists as “fisher–gatherers” from the shell-matrix site of Canímar Abajo, Cuba to examine subsistence practices using a combination of starch evidence from dental calculus, aided by human bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope based probability analyses (Stable Isotope Analysis in R; SIAR). This dual analysis suggests that two chronologically distinct “fisher–gatherer” Cuban populations (11 adult skeletons from the older cemetery component, 1380–800 BCE; 23 adult skeletons from the younger cemetery component, 360–950 CE) from Canímar Abajo used at least two species of cultigens (beans and maize and/or sweet potatoes) along with wild plant species and various readily available estuarine, marine and terrestrial animal resources.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • The geopolitics of obsidian supply in Postclassic Tlaxcallan: A portable
           X-ray fluorescence study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): John K. Millhauser , Lane F. Fargher , Verenice Y. Heredia Espinoza , Richard E. Blanton
      The geopolitical relations of ancient states were often materialized through the flows of highly valued objects, but such relations also involved territorial strategies to secure access to natural resources and ensure the supply of bulk goods. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) of obsidian provides an excellent tool for investigating how the territoriality of ancient states shaped the circulation of such bulk commodities at a macro-regional scale. Here, we present the results of a pXRF study of obsidian artifacts from the Late Postclassic (AD 1350–1520) urban center of Tlaxcallan, Mexico. A recent survey and mapping project of Tlaxcallan provides the data to examine its obsidian supply. To assign sources to artifacts we applied pXRF to a sample of 45 artifacts from Tlaxcallan and 35 geological samples from sources of obsidian that we considered likely to have supplied Tlaxcallan. Contrary to expected patterns, our findings challenge the view that the Tlaxcalteca were embedded in economic networks centered in the Basin of Mexico and the Aztec Empire. Our results suggest that the population of Tlaxcallan procured obsidian from sources that fell outside of the major obsidian supply networks already documented in Mesoamerica. Thus, our findings support the idea that the territories of Mesoamerican polities influenced the supply of obsidian and that further studies of the geopolitics of bulk goods supply in ancient states are warranted.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • New estimations of habitable land area and human population size at the
           Last Glacial Maximum
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Joanna R. Gautney , Trenton W. Holliday
      The estimation of human population size during the Pleistocene is complex, and one which has been dealt with extensively in the literature. However, because many of these previous estimations are based in part on archaeological site distributions, they are more a reflection of present-day geography than of what the Earth looked like in the past. We address this issue by calculating an estimation of habitable land area during the Last Glacial Maximum (between 22 and 19 kya) when sea level was 120 m lower than today using the polygon creation function in Google Earth. We then subtract areas of land that were likely uninhabitable during the LGM – either due to glacier cover, extreme aridity, elevation, or areas at high latitudes. From this, the combined habitable land areas of Eurasia, Africa and the Australian landmass are estimated as 76,959,712.4 km2. This estimation is then coupled with population density data for medium-to large-bodied carnivores, and ethnographic population density data for hunter–gatherers culled from the literature. Total human census population size in the Old World during the Last Glacial Maximum is estimated at 2,117,000–2,955,000 based on carnivore densities and 3,046,000–8,307,000 for hunter–gatherer densities.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Hand-held Raman spectroscopy as a pre-screening tool for archaeological
           bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): William J. Pestle , Victoria Brennan , Roger L. Sierra , Erin K. Smith , Benjamin J. Vesper , Geoffrey A. Cordell , Michael D. Colvard
      Bone collagen is the required substrate for a variety of archaeometric analyses, including radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis, proteomics, and ancient DNA. Sampling of bone for such analyses is, however, a destructive process, and biomolecular extraction is a time-, labor-, and capital-intensive process. As such, the ability to pre-screen bone for potential collagen level in the field (or in remote museums, storage repositories, or other deployed and austere environments) for archaeological and forensic purposes is highly desirable. Building on previous assessments of hand-held spectroscopic tools and several recent bench top Raman studies, and using a robust selection of well-characterized ancient bone samples, it is demonstrated here that rapid (30 s), non-destructive assessment by means of 1064 nm Raman spectroscopy can provide a field-deployable means by which to quantify bone collagen content. Specifically, it was found that the 1450 cm−1 to 960 cm−1 peak height ratio can provide quantitative estimates of bone collagen content with an error of ±2.8 wt%, and those samples with ratios of greater than 0.1 are uniformly suitable for analysis. Hand-held Raman spectroscopic technology has therefore evolved to the point where field deployment by archaeologists and forensic scientists would be both justified and worthwhile.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Lapidary technology revealed by functional analysis of carnelian beads
           from the early Neolithic site of Nahal Hemar Cave, southern Levant
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Iris Groman-Yaroslavski , Daniella E. Bar-Yosef Mayer
      Use-wear analysis applied to two carnelian beads from Nahal Hemar Cave, southern Israel, and dated to the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, revealed a manufacturing procedure that corresponds to genuine lapidary technologies of contemporary traditional societies. Based on ethnographic observations combined with experiments in working carnelian, wear patterns were interpreted to be produced by a multi-stage manufacturing sequence that includes abrasion against varying abrasion surfaces, drilling probably with a splinter drill equipped into a rod and finally, tumbling. These beads are one of the earliest examples of carnelian beads and thus represent a lapidary technology with roots from over 9000 years ago.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • What were the recycled potsherds used for? Use-wear analysis of Early
           Neolithic ceramic tools from Bulgaria (6100–5600 cal. BC)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Julien Vieugué
      Many potsherds recycled as tools have been discovered in the Early Neolithic ceramic assemblages of south-western Bulgaria (6100–5600 cal. BC). Their large quantity has raised the issue of the role of this industry in the economy of the first farming societies in the Balkans. The scarcity of use-wear analyses on the ceramic tools has required the development of an observation protocol adjusted to archaeological recycled potsherds coupled with the construction of a wide experimental reference. The study method has allowed the determination of the macro- and microscopic characteristics of use-wear that are diagnostic of worked materials, kinematics and use-time of ceramic tools. It has highlighted their technical functions which prove to be extremely diversified in the Early Neolithic of south-western Bulgaria: spindle whorls, tokens, hide scrapers or potter's ribs and smoothers. The broad use-range of ceramic tools, as well as their large quantity, shows the recycled potsherds were not occasional substitutes of bone and lithic objects. On the contrary, they were fully integrated in the Neolithic toolkits for carrying out certain technical productions.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Revisiting the economy and mobility of southern proto-Jê
           (Taquara-Itararé) groups in the southern Brazilian highlands: starch
           grain and phytoliths analyses from the Bonin site, Urubici, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Rafael Corteletti , Ruth Dickau , Paulo DeBlasis , Jose Iriarte
      This article presents the results of starch grain and phytolith residue analyses from 14 ceramic fragments recovered in two domestic cooking structures from a southern proto-Jê pit house at the Bonin site (Urubici, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil) dating to 1300–1439 and 1297–1414 cal yr. A.D. The novel application of plant microfossil techniques in this region revealed, for the first time, the consumption of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), beans (Phaseolus sp.), and possibly yams (cf. Dioscorea sp.) in addition to maize (Zea mays L.) and squash (Cucurbita sp.). These findings show that southern proto-Jê people had a subsistence economy based on a variety of plant foods and practiced food production more than one century before European Conquest. Contrary to traditional models of southern proto-Jê mobility, our data suggest that food production may have allowed populations to settle in the southern Brazilian highland plateau year-round without the need for seasonal movements to the Atlantic forest escarpment and the Atlantic coast environments to procure food. Our data complement archaeological evidence for increased sedentism and social complexity among southern proto-Jê groups from A.D. 300–1700, including the construction of large, well-planned pit-house villages, and the creation of a highly structured landscape revolving around funerary/ceremonial structures.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging evidence of biogenic mercury
           identified in a burial in colonial Antigua
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Treena Swanston , Tamara Varney , Ian Coulthard , Graham N. George , Ingrid J. Pickering , Reg Murphy , David M.L. Cooper
      A mass spectroscopic analysis of bone samples from 17 individuals once buried in a Royal Naval Hospital cemetery (1793–1822) in Antigua revealed a high level of mercury (Hg) in one individual. While the toxic properties of Hg are now recognized, this metal was used for centuries to treat ailments such as syphilis and yellow fever. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) was employed to determine whether the Hg was present in the bone as a result of environmental contamination or due to biogenic uptake. The XFI study revealed that only a localized subset of the osteons within a 2.5 mm by 1.5 mm scan contained Hg – a finding consistent with biogenic uptake. The near-edge portion of the X-ray absorption spectrum was used to determine that the Hg was present in the bone tissue as an inorganic mercuric sulfide.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Skeletal arsenic of the pre-Columbian population of Caleta Vitor, northern
           Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Jaime Swift , Matthew L. Cupper , Alan Greig , Michael C. Westaway , Chris Carter , Calogero M. Santoro , Rachel Wood , Geraldine E. Jacobsen , Fiona Bertuch
      Exposure to toxic arsenic has severe health consequences for past and present societies. This research resolves changes in a pre-Industrial population's exposure to the toxin within an arsenic-endemic area of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile over long timescales. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) trace element analysis of human bone and tooth samples from 21 burials at Caleta Vitor on the Pacific coast of northern Chile has established that the pre-Columbian inhabitants were exposed to elevated levels of arsenic where one third of the sample population had accumulated levels in their skeletal system indicative of chronic poisoning. Coupled with new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages for the skeletal samples, spanning c. 3867 to 474 cal BP and encompassing all major cultural periods of the region, these results demonstrate the continual risk of arsenic poisoning over several millennia of occupation at one site. Numerous factors may have partially contributed to the population's inferred poisoning, due to the complex interaction of various environmental sources of arsenic and human behaviours. Increased exposure to arsenic could relate to climatic variability influencing sources of drinking water or anthropogenic activities such as mining and metallurgy or dietary changes associated with agriculture. Assessment of these potential sources of arsenic toxication, including evaluation of modern environmental data from the region, suggests contaminated drinking water was the most likely cause of arseniasis.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Direct radiocarbon dating of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) from
           early fiber-tempered pottery in the southeastern U.S.
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Zackary I. Gilmore
      Growing archaeological interest in illuminating human-scale events and experiences in the ancient past has led to increased scrutiny of chronological assumptions based on old and (by today's standards) imprecise radiocarbon databases. One result has been a greater awareness of the need for more numerous and higher quality assays that can be directly linked to the specific events in question. In this paper, a method is described and tested for extracting and directly dating the organic fiber temper characteristic of North America's oldest pottery technology. Multiple extraction techniques are considered, as are a number of chemical pretreatment options. Six pairs of assays on Orange and Stallings vessels from Florida and Georgia are used to demonstrate the veracity of radiocarbon age estimates from fiber temper. In each of these cases, the fiber assay meets or exceeds recently proposed chronometric hygiene standards.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • What starch grain is that? – A geometric morphometric approach
           to determining plant species origin
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Adelle C.F. Coster , Judith H. Field
      Many economically important plants produce starch grains that, if distinctive in form, can be used as identifiers for particular taxa. The identification of starch to species or genera has become increasingly important in studies exploring plant use in ancient societies and also in the verification of plant origin for some plant-based medicines. However, identification of starch can be problematic, because of the considerable variability in the morphology of starch grains. As a result there has always been an element of subjective judgement when it comes to identifying a sample of grains. Here we present a novel system for identifying the plant species origin of unknown starch grains using image analysis of light micrographs. After manually obtaining a mask of the two-dimensional maximum-projection-area grain shape, features for each starch grain were determined automatically including the size metrics, circularity and Fourier transform signature. The starch grain features analysed were used to create classifiers for the grains. The relative performance of the different classifiers was evaluated, based on different combinations of the predictor variables (e.g. area, perimeter etc.), and the optimal classifier determined. The method was applied to a database of 1032 grains representing 8 geographically co-located known economic plant species. A classification tree using shape metrics and the Fourier signature produced the best separations. The morphological features were sufficient to obtain a high level of accuracy in attributing individual starch grains to plant species. The method enables the creation of effective classifiers to undertake a quantitative evaluation of starch grain morphologies, thereby reducing the need for subjective qualitative determinations. The system provides a robust framework in which plant microfossils of unknown species origin can be compared with reference grains for effecting identifications. The method is potentially useful not just for starch, but other microfossils of morphometric interest.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Identifying American native and European smelted coppers with pXRF: a case
           study of artifacts from the Upper Great Lakes region
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Laure Dussubieux , Heather Walder
      In North America, it is critical for archaeologists to differentiate between American native copper and European smelted copper. Indeed, native copper, a rather pure metal, was not smelted in this region, unlike European copper objects that later became available to Native Americans during trading encounters. Until now, archaeologists with a low budget wishing to use a totally non-invasive approach have relied on visual inspection and archaeological contextualization of the objects to distinguish American native copper from European smelted copper. This paper assesses the reliability of portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) as a fast, effective, and completely non-destructive method of differentiating the two types of copper present at Northern American sites through a case study of two sites from the Upper Great Lakes region. To establish group attribution with pXRF, results obtained on a subset of objects with LA-ICP-MS are used. Results indicate that for the specific purpose of differentiation between native and European copper types, pXRF can be used reliably, without sample preparation and despite surface corrosion. Therefore, pXRF provides a non-destructive way to clarify European trade item distribution and continuity of native copper object use among Indigenous peoples of North America during the colonial period.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58




      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Understanding foraging radius and mobility in a high desert
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Elizabeth Pintar , María Fernanda Rodríguez
      We examine botanical and lithic assemblages from two rock-shelters in a high elevation desert in NW Argentina in order to understand the relationship between the size of foraging radii, territorial ranges and habitat quality during the Early and Middle Holocene (ca. 8300–6200 BP). We find an increase in foraging radii associated with declining habitat quality and propose a shift from complete radius leapfrog to a point-to-point mobility pattern. The use of nonlocal plants and obsidian suggest large territorial ranges, as well as wide interaction networks between the Puna and neighboring lowlands to the east.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Apatite for destruction: investigating bone degradation due to high
           acidity at Star Carr
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): K. High , N. Milner , I. Panter , K.E.H. Penkman
      In order to more fully understand the effects of high acidity on bone at the Mesolithic site of Star Carr, a suite of analytical techniques has been used to assess the effects on the inorganic and organic fractions of treating a range of bone types in different strength sulfuric acid solutions. These include mass loss analysis, scanning electron microscopy, chiral amino acid analysis, and powder X-ray diffraction. Loss of bone mineral is shown to be severely accelerated at low pH and this ultimately leads to increased breakdown of the bone collagen. Archaeological samples are significantly more at risk than modern samples. Reaching an understanding of the effects of increased acidity on organic artefacts through studies such as this has important applications in determining the future management not only of Star Carr, but other sites with similar chemical environments.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Detection and characterisation of Black Death burials by multi-proxy
           geophysical methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Henry C. Dick , Jamie K. Pringle , Barney Sloane , Jay Carver , Kristopher D. Wisniewski , Austin Haffenden , Stephen Porter , Daniel Roberts , Nigel J. Cassidy
      The construction of the new Crossrail railway discovered 25 well preserved skeletons shallowly buried in Central London in 2013. Subsequent carbon dating and aDNA analysis confirmed the archaeological age and presence of the Yersinia pestis “Black Death” plague epidemic strain. Here we present the non-invasive multi-proxy geophysical survey of the adjacent Charterhouse Square, rapidly undertaken to detect any further burials and characterise the site. Historical records suggested the area was a burial ground for Black Death plague victims, before subsequent cemetery and urban land use. Following initial trial surveys, surveys imaged ∼200 isolated and similar-sized burials in the south-west of the site. There were also two contrasting burial orientations present at various depths which suggested a series of controlled phased burials. A well-defined eastern burial boundary, taking the form of a ditch and bank, was also discovered. Geophysical surveys also identified a subsequent complex site history with multiple-aged features. This study revises knowledge of Black Death aged-burials and provides important implications for successful geophysical burial detection with significant time- and space-limited site constraints.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Detecting the T1 cattle haplogroup in the Iberian Peninsula from Neolithic
           to medieval times: new clues to continuous cattle migration through time
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Lídia Colominas , Ceiridwen J. Edwards , Albano Beja-Pereira , Jean-Denis Vigne , Raquel M. Silva , Pere Castanyer , Joaquim Tremoleda , Maria Saña Seguí , Manuel Pérez-Ripoll , Felix Goyache , Christopher J. Howe , Graeme Barker , Mim A. Bower
      The spread of domestic animals through time is one of the topics studied by archaeologists to assess human trade and migration. Here we present mitochondrial analysis of 42 archaeological cattle (Bos taurus) bone samples, from 16 different sites in the Iberian Peninsula and covering a broad timeframe (from the early Neolithic to the Middle Ages), to provide evidence about the origin and dispersion of the T1 cattle haplogroup in relation to human contacts and movements. The presence of the T1 haplotype in one sample from an early Neolithic site close to the Mediterranean coast of Iberia, and its continuing presence in the Peninsula during Roman and Medieval times, clearly demonstrates that T1 was not solely a Muslim or later introduction. Rather, our molecular data show evidence for a pioneer coastal colonisation of the Iberian Peninsula from the Mediterranean basin, followed by possible further colonisation, leading to a continuity of diversity through time.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Briquetage and salt cakes: an experimental approach of a prehistoric
           technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Felix-Adrian Tencariu , Marius Alexianu , Vasile Cotiugă , Viorica Vasilache , Ion Sandu
      The paper describes the background, objectives, progress and results of a series of field experiments concerning the production of salt cakes using ceramic vessels known as briquetage, conducted within the framework of a larger research project concerning the ethnoarchaeology of the salt springs from the extra-Carpathian areas of Romania. The approach was based on the existing archaeological data – description of briquetage sherds and their discovery contexts, as well as on ethnoarchaeological accounts and previous experimentations. The experiments allowed some valuable observations on the distinct aspects of this chaîne opératoire: modelling and firing the briquetage vessels; exposure to fire of the recipients filled with brine or a salt slurry of varied concentrations; the amount of time needed for crystallization and hardening of the salt, dependent on the fuels used and temperatures reached; ways of extracting the salt cakes from the ceramic coat; assessment of the effort (i.e. labour and raw materials) involved by the whole process. All the failures, challenges and eventual successes encountered during the experiments granted an insight into an ancient technique, described mainly a priori in the archaeological literature. Also, it gives a hint in understanding the appreciable importance and value of salt in times when this essential mineral was not available as it is today.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Establishing statistical confidence in Cortex Ratios within and among
           lithic assemblages: a case study of the Middle Paleolithic of southwestern
           France
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Sam C. Lin , Shannon P. McPherron , Harold L. Dibble
      Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the Cortex Ratio for quantifying the cortex composition in lithic assemblages and as a viable index of prehistoric artifact transport. Yet, the lack of means for assigning statistical confidence to archaeologically observed Cortex Ratios inhibits the approach's utility for objective comparisons and interpretation. Here, we derive statistical confidence for archaeological Cortex Ratios through Monte Carlo and resampling techniques. Experimental data with known geometric properties and measured cortex values were employed as a reference for attaching a probability to an archaeological assemblage's Cortex Ratio. The method is demonstrated on assemblages from the Middle Paleolithic sites of Roc de Marsal, Pech de l'Azé IV, and Combe-Capelle Bas in southwestern France.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Cultural macroevolution among high latitude hunter–gatherers:
           a phylogenetic study of the Arctic Small Tool tradition
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Anna Marie Prentiss , Matthew J. Walsh , Thomas A. Foor , Kristen D. Barnett
      This study tests alternative hypotheses regarding the underlying conditions favoring variation in degree of differentiation between cultures in an evolving lineage. To accomplish this we develop a phylogenetic analysis of the early Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) of eastern Siberia and northern North America. The use of early ASTt data permits us to monitor change while largely eliminating the possibility of influence by other cultural traditions. It also allows us to explore lingering questions regarding ASTt migrations. We examine correlations between tree branch length as a measure of cultural differentiation and geographic distance (from the oldest site), mean radiocarbon date, and three measures of terrestrial ecological variation. Outcomes suggest that only geographic distance and radiocarbon dates correlate with tree branch length. We offer conclusions regarding ASTt evolution and migrations along with ideas for future research.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • A supervised machine-learning approach towards geochemical predictive
           modelling in archaeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Stijn Oonk , Job Spijker
      In this work, data fusion of multi-element XRF results from archaeological feature soils and regional background soils was applied to assess the complementary value of geochemistry and machine-learning on predictive modelling in archaeology. Our principal aim was to integrate multiple data sources, train learning models for classification of archaeological soils and background soils, and compare model predictions for three validation areas with current archaeological interpretation and established predictive models. This was done using three supervised machine-learning algorithms (k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines and artificial neural networks) which were trained, cross-validated and tested. The validation areas included a high archaeological potential area (n = 247 samples), the Dutch province of Zeeland (n = 261 samples) and an excavated imprint of an ancient farmhouse (n = 38 samples). The predictive models showed good overall performance and correctly classified about 95% of all test instances. According to the learning models, the first validation site has a top soil horizon that shows limited parallels with archaeological horizons used in model training, whereas features of high archaeological probability become more apparent below this horizon. This is in good correspondence with geochemical depth profiles and current archaeological interpretation. As for the second validation site, the models highlighted several archaeological hotspots that to some extend spatially coincide with areas of high archaeological potential as indicated by established predictive modelling. Reversely, the classifiers attributed high archaeological potential status to the most southern region of Zeeland, thereby complementing established modelling results. For the third validation site none of the instances were correctly classified and these results clearly show the limitations of geochemical predictive modelling of significantly different soil types (fine-to-coarse sands) compared to the training set (clayey sands). Present proof-of-concept study shows that modelling of multiple-source geochemical soil data using machine-learning algorithms can be successfully accomplished and that model predictions nicely complement current interpretation and/or established archeological predictive modelling of areas of archaeological interest. Limitations of our approach were found to reside in lithological differences between sites used for model training and prediction sites.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • A new methodological approach to the taphonomic study of paleontological
           and archaeological faunal assemblages: a preliminary case study from
           Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo , José Yravedra , Elia Organista , Agness Gidna , Jean-Baptiste Fourvel , Enrique Baquedano
      Here we present a new analytical method that classifies bone damage patterns objectively and mathematically via a morphotypic definition (taphotype) of each long limb element and a bootstrapped correspondence analysis. This enables statistically-based classification and interpretations. The accuracy of these interpretations depends on the accuracy of the analogical frameworks applied. The new method shows that bone damage patterns differ according to carcass type and size. They also differ depending on environmental conditions (captive and wild carnivores). The method is also useful to detect the type of carnivores involved in the modification of epiphyseal portions. This opens the door to interpretations of hominin–carnivore interactions and the resulting strategies of carcass acquisition strategies by hominins. The application of the method to a sample of epiphyseal portions from two archaeological sites from Olduvai Gorge (BK and FLK N) shows its potential resolution. BK has been previously interpreted as a hominin–carnivore assemblage, whereas FLK N has been interpreted as a felid-accumulated assemblage. The new method confirms these interpretations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • OSL dating of the Miam Qanat (KĀRIZ) system in NE Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): M. Fattahi
      This article presents the first direct absolute dating method of a Qanat system obtained through optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of grains in spoil heaps, using feldspar single-grain, feldspar multi-grain and quartz multi-grain samples. This novel and highly promising approach to improving our understanding of the chronology of Qanats is more important than the final age results. Hitherto, dating of Qanats has been based on indirect evidence from historical reports or archaeological investigations of nearby settlements. This study demonstrate the ability of OSL to date this type of subterranean irrigation feature, which is important in the study of both the archaeology of human settlement and palaeoenvironmental change in arid regions. This method can also be used for dating wells and handmade ditches and canals. Our results show that advanced irrigation technologies existed at Miam in what is now north-east Iran much earlier than previously thought. Dating the now disused Qanat at 3.6–4.3 ka makes it the oldest known. Single-grain dating of sand-sized feldspar that overlie construction spoil show that the Miam Qanat was maintained until at least 1.6 ka. The early development of Qanat irrigation indicates that the causes of widespread societal collapse in eastern Iran in the Bronze Age might not have been driven purely by climatic pressures.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • The extent of cereal cultivation among the Bronze Age to Turkic period
           societies of Kazakhstan determined using stable isotope analysis
           of bone collagen
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): G. Motuzaite Matuzeviciute , E. Lightfoot , T.C. O'Connell , D. Voyakin , X. Liu , V. Loman , S. Svyatko , E. Usmanova , M.K. Jones
      This paper explores the contribution of plant foods to the diet of presumed pastoral societies in Kazakhstan. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis, together with radiocarbon dating, was carried out on human and animal bones from 25 Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Hunic and Turkic sites across Kazakhstan. We use these data to examine dietary differences across time and space within and between populations. Our results show that at the Bronze Age sites of mountainous southern Kazakhstan people consumed C4 plants, likely domesticated millets (Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica) as supported by previously published archaeobotanical direct evidence. By dating individuals with high δ13C values we find the earliest evidence to date of the consumption of large quantities of millet in Central Asia. By contrast, there is little input of C4 plants to diets of individuals dating to the Bronze Age from northern Kazakhstan. Stable isotope data from later periods show that from the Early Iron Age and continuing through to the Turkic period, C4 plants were a major component of the human food web across the region. The wide variety of stable isotope results, both within and between contemporary sites from the southern regions of Kazakhstan, indicates a diversity of food choice.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Grass inflorescence phytoliths of useful species and wild cereals from
           sub-Saharan Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Alice Novello , Doris Barboni
      Dendritic phytoliths that precipitate in grass inflorescences are often used in archaeology to trace the use of cereals (i.e. grasses harvested for their edible grain) and their domestication by early human societies. High amounts of these morphotypes are sometimes interpreted in terms of cereal accumulation in archaeological contexts. In sub-Saharan Africa, few cereals were domesticated during the mid-Holocene, but many wild grasses are still largely harvested by modern societies for food. The harvesting of wild cereals is also considered as one of the first stages toward early grass domestication. To evaluate how well dendritic phytoliths and/or other phytoliths produced in the grass inflorescences could help trace the use of wild cereal grains in sub-Saharan Africa, we analyzed the phytolith content of 67 African species (including 20 wild cereals), and 56 modern soils. We used test-value analysis and ANOVA to evaluate how well grass inflorescences could be distinguished from leaf/culm parts based on their phytolith content. We also measured the abundances of these phytoliths in natural soils from sub-Saharan Africa to provide a benchmark percentage abundance above which anthropogenic accumulation may be suspected in archaeological deposits. Our results confirm that, although rondel type phytoliths are abundant, only the dendritic phytolith morphotype is exclusive to the grass inflorescences. Yet, dendritic phytoliths do not occur in all species. They happen to be most frequent and found in greatest abundance (>34% relative to total phytolith count) in Panicoideae grasses (Sehima ischaemoides, Sorghastrum stipoides, and Sorghum purpureo-sericeum), and in one Eragrostideae species (Eragrostis squamata), which are not considered cereals. Inflorescences of the wild African cereals studied here do not happen to be particularly rich in dendritics (<7% in average). Finally, dendritics are rare in modern natural soils (<1% relative to total phytolith count, <3% relative to sum of grass silica short cells plus dendritics), even under stands of rich dendritic producers. We conclude that dendritic phytoliths may be used for tracing remarkable deposits of grass inflorescences at archaeological sites in sub-Saharan Africa, but are not exclusive to domesticated or wild cereals. Abundances of dendritics >>3% relative to sum of grass silica short cell phytoliths plus dendritics are likely to indicate anthropogenic accumulation of grass inflorescences. Yet, the absence or low abundance of dendritic phytoliths in archaeological deposits may not always indicate the absence of anthropogenic accumulation of grass inflorescence material.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Use of phosphorus mapping in assessing coastal activity zones of an
           Icelandic multi-period site of Vatnsfjörður
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 59
      Author(s): Łukasz Mikołajczyk , Kristin Ilves , Johnny May , Óskar Gísli Sveinbjarnarson , Karen Milek
      This paper presents the results of phosphorus mapping conducted on a number of coastal activity zones on the multi-period, archaeological farm site of Vatnsfjörður, northwest Iceland. The aim of the study was to detect the exact levels and extents of shorelines contemporary with the archaeological site's activities and to use sea-level change to establish a relative chronology of coastal activity zones. Absolute dating of the coastal zones and sea-level changes was achieved by integrating an existing sea-level curve with a novel tephrochronology-based curve, created for the purpose of this research. Results were projected onto a detailed digital terrain model of the area in order to reconstruct the extent of the coastline contemporary with human activity in the respective zones. A significant component of the research was an attempt to develop the existing approach to phosphorus mapping results interpretation. This has resulted in an improved methodology that can be applied to the dynamic and challenging environments of coastal sites worldwide.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Estimating California mussel (Mytilus californianus) size from hinge
           fragments: a methodological application in historical ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Breana Campbell , Todd J. Braje
      Whole shell measurements from archaeological sites increasingly have become an important component of historical ecological research in coastal zones around the world. Size variation in California mussels (Mytilus californianus), one of the dominant taxa in North American Pacific Coast shell midden assemblages, have been used to assess human impacts and natural climate change on intertidal resources over millennia. Archaeological samples are typically limited due to taphonomic processes, however, which can cause fractionation and leave precious few whole shells for measurement. Various methods have been proposed to estimate the total shell length of fragmented California mussels, but these have proved largely unreliable. Using modern samples from southern California, we developed a series of regression formulae to estimate whole California mussel sizes from hinge fragments. This allometric approach proved statistically reliable and can be applied during field or laboratory work. Here, we present our methodology to build regression formulae and our validating tests using modern samples from San Diego, California, and an archaeological sample from San Miguel Island, California.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Making the most of fragments: a method for estimating shell length from
           fragmentary mussels (Mytilus californianus and Mytilus trossulus) on the
           Pacific Coast of North America
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Gerald G. Singh , Iain McKechnie
      California mussel (Mytilus californianus) are ubiquitous shellfish species in coastal archaeological sites throughout western North America but are often highly fragmentary when recovered in small-volume ‘column’ or ‘bulk’ samples typically used to quantify shellfish assemblages. Archaeological research has predominantly focused on evaluating the dietary contribution of Mytilus but most studies assume an average meat weight or use categorical size classifications to determine subsistence strategies and harvest profiles. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a regression-based method for estimating shell length and meat weight for fragmentary Mytilus remains. Our regressions are based on live-collected M. californianus specimens from multiple locations in California and British Columbia and provide considerable statistical confidence for predicting length and meat weight. We also apply the same regressions to a collection of Mytilus trossulus and show similar predictive equations, indicating this method can be used in cases where it is not possible to distinguish morphologically between M. californianus and M. trossulus. We demonstrate how these results improve upon previous size-classification methods and discuss the potential for applying these measurements to enhance the relevance of these zooarchaeological data for modern marine conservation and management efforts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Measuring Mytilus californianus: an Addendum to Campbell and Braje (2015)
           and Singh and McKechnie (2015) including commentary and an integration of
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 58
      Author(s): Iain McKechnie , Gerald G. Singh , Todd J. Braje , Breana Campbell



      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Temple-complex post-dates tsunami deposits found in the ancient harbour
           basin of Ostia (Rome, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Hanna Hadler , Andreas Vött , Peter Fischer , Stefanie Ludwig , Michael Heinzelmann , Corinna Rohn
      Detailed geophysical and geoarchaeological investigations carried out in Ostia, ancient harbour of Rome, revealed two different generations of harbour basins and also proved the repeated impact of high-energy wave events on the study area. West of Ostia, at the southern bank of the Tiber, a lagoonal harbour existed from the 4th and 2nd cent. BC but was affected by strong siltation. At the same site, a river harbour was subsequently established from the 1st cent. AD onwards. Fluvial deposits of medieval age finally document Tiber river bank erosion affecting the abandoned site. Within the sedimentary record, distinct high-energy event deposits were found and seem to be related to tsunami impact that hit the ancient harbour site. Event I occurred prior to the harbour foundation between the 8th and 5th cent. BC and induced significant environmental changes. Event II hit the lagoonal harbour most probably in the 4th cent. BC. Event III caused a widespread burial of the lagoonal harbour basin which, at that time, was already silted up. Built directly on top of the youngest event deposit found at Ostia, the foundation of the (navalia-) temple-complex post-dates tsunami event III to the time before the early 1st cent. AD. Subsequently, the site was used as a river harbour.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • The contribution of geometric morphometric analysis to prehistoric
           ichnology: The example of large canid tracks and their implication for the
           debate concerning wolf domestication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Lysianna Ledoux , Myriam Boudadi-Maligne
      Apart from exceptional cases, such as Laetoli, Koobi Fora or Happisburgh hominin trackways (Behrensmeyer and Laporte, 1981; Bennett et al., 2009; Raichlen et al., 2010; Ashton et al., 2014; Bennett and Morse, 2014), tracks are often underestimated in prehistoric research, particularly in cave contexts, despite their representing rich sources of behavioural and taphonomic information. The analysis of human and animal tracks in archaeological contexts can help to both untangle the chronology of cave occupations and identify the animal species who frequented different sites. Here we focus on differentiating large dog and wolf tracks that are very similar in both appearance and size. We use a large sample of 36 modern prints from two wolf subspecies (Canis lupus lupus and Canis lupus albus) and 106 dog tracks belonging to seven breeds (Beauceron, German Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, Great Dane, Siberian Husky and Rottweiler). This study uses an approach combining statistical analyses and geometric morphometrics (Berge et al., 2006; Bennett et al., 2009). Our results shed new light on the still unidentified canid tracks accompanying human footprints documented at Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche region of southern France (Clottes, 2001) and have important implications for current debates surrounding the timing of wolf domestication in Western Europe and prehistoric ichnology in general.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Testing archaeofaunal collections for differential fragmentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Carol E. Colaninno , Carla S. Hadden , Alexandra L. Emmons
      Body dimensions of animal remains provide evidence for subsistence technologies, seasonality of hunting and fishing, and generalized resource stress. Studies that rely on reconstructed body dimensions of fishes rarely address the possibility of differential preservation or recovery, which may result in inaccurate representations of size classes. We devise a method to test for differential fragmentation of archaeofauna specimens based on specimen size and location within the stratigraphic column. We also compare two methods for reconstructing animal size classes: one includes only complete specimens that can be measured accurately, and the other includes both fragmented and complete specimens. We use a collection of mullet (Mugil spp.) atlases from the McQueen Shell Ring, St. Catherines Island, Georgia (USA), many of which were included in a previous study of fish body size as evidence for fishing technologies. All atlases are sorted by size class and categorized as having complete or fragmented osteometric landmarks. There is a positive correlation (ρ = 0.45, P = 0.07) between atlas size class and proportion of specimens that are fragmented: smaller atlases are more likely to be recovered, identified, and measured without fragmentation compared to larger atlases. Size-based differential fragmentation may bias against the representation of larger-bodied individuals in this context. Frequency of fragmentation is not monotonically correlated with burial depth (ρ = -0.19, P = 0.39), and is higher in the upper-most and bottom-most levels of the stratigraphic column compared to intermediate depths. Depth-based differential fragmentation may bias results when stratigraphic sequences are used to evaluate change through time in animal body sizes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Radiocarbon-dating adhesive and wooden residues from stone tools by
           Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS): challenges and insights encountered
           in a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): A.B. Yates , A.M. Smith , F. Bertuch , B. Gehlen , B. Gramsch , M. Heinen , R. Joannes-Boyau , A. Scheffers , J. Parr , A. Pawlik
      In this study we present and assess a process to enhance archaeological residue AMS dating by focusing on contaminant confinement. The sequence of methods applied consists of: 1) optical residue observation, 2) experimental designs addressing cleaning treatments to mitigate impact of contaminants, 3) preparation and extraction of residues from (mostly) previously dated stone artefacts, and 4) establishing the elemental characteristics of residues by using SEM/EDX as a final step to avoid sample contamination during analyses. We found the alkaline surfactant Decon 90 is a useful solution for removal of skin scales and fabric fibre but has limited effect on graphite contamination introduced by pencil lead. Adhesive residues were not affected by Decon immersion, however, wooden residues from bog sites were partly dislodged. While the methodological sequence was in general successful and some artefact residues were dated within the anticipated age range, difficulties were encountered with other lithic residues. Some artefact residues attained AMS dates which appear to be affected by modern contaminants and other residue radiocarbon dates were seemingly affected by fossil shell derived from flint stone, plasticizers or from a fixative substance older than the fabrication and use of the artefact. One outcome from this study is that performing chemical residue identification earlier in the method sequence using non-destructive and non-contaminating methods would guide the choice of residue treatment and improve reliability of age determination.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • The Identification of Binding Agent Used in Late Shang Dynasty
           Turquoise-inlayed Bronze Objects Excavated in Anyang
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Shuya Wei , Guoding Song , Yuling He
      The paper presents the results of the analysis of the binding media used in Turquoise-inlay bronze artifacts in late Shang Dynasty, which were excavated in Anyang, Henan Province of China. Techniques applied include pyrolysis gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with thermal assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-Py-GC/MS), as well as GC/MS with derivatization reagent of MethPrep II. Marker compounds of urushi including methylated pentadecyl catechol and the oxidation products: 6-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl) hexanoic acid; 7-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl) heptanoic acid and 8-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl) octanoic acid as their methylated forms were found, indicating Urushi (lacquer) was used as binding agents for the inlay. In addition, a series of fatty acids was detected with relative higher concentration of azelaic acid, which represents the presence of plant oil in the sample. Furthermore, a group of glue marker compounds and a series of long-chain fatty acids as well as a group of long-chain alcohols were detected in the sample.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • What is a litre of sediment? Testing volume measurement techniques for
           wet sediment and their implications in archaeobotanical analyses at the
           Late Neolithic lake-dwelling site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich,
           Switzerland)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ferran Antolín , Bigna L. Steiner , Werner Vach , Stefanie Jacomet
      Volume measurements in archaeobotany are not performed uniformly. The goal of this paper therefore is to test the different known methods and to define the obtained differences, in order to make the density values (remains per litre of sediment) for plant macroremains in the samples comparable between sites. Three methods of volume measurement were tested for a large number of samples of different sizes coming from two late Neolithic layers of the lakeshore site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich, Switzerland). The sampled layers were preserved in waterlogged conditions and there were samples rich in sand, loam, lake marl but mostly consisting of organic remains, including uncharred subfossil plant macroremains. In general, the classical volume (that is the upper limit of the sediment in water) measured before and after freezing as pre-treatment gave similar results. But a systematic difference was found between the classical volume measured after freezing and the displacement volume. This difference could be described by a proportionality factor of 1.5. This proportionality factor could be used to make data obtained with different methods of volume measurement comparable, although more evaluations are needed from other sites in order to test the generality of the factor proposed.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Applying SEM to the study of use-wear on unmodified shell tools: an
           experimental approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Laxmi Tumung , Behrouz Bazgir , Andreu Ollé
      Although in prehistoric archaeology the evidence provided by molluscs has often been studied, few works have focused on the functional analysis of shells as tools. A number of prehistoric sites around the world are producing evidence from retouched shells that indicates that they were used for certain operations. In recent years, several experimental studies have been conducted for the purpose of gaining insight into the processes involved in shell tool production and use. This paper focuses on the procedures and the preliminary results of a program of use-wear experiments based on SEM analysis, and corroborates that non-retouched shells can also yield interesting results and can be used as a reference against which archaeological materials can be compared.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Cultural landscape development on a west-east gradient in western Norway
           – potential of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ingvild Kristine Mehl , Anette Overland , Jan Berge , Kari Loe Hjelle
      Pollen analysis is the main method to obtain information on human impact on the vegetation through time. In this study, pollen records from one large lake, Kalandsvatn (inner coast), and three small lakes, Herøyvatn (outer coast), Fitjar (inner coast) and Herandsvatn (inner fjord) in Hordaland County are investigated. The three small sites reflect different vegetation, climate and landscape types, resulting in different cultural landscapes. A recently developed approach, the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), is used to reconstruct regional and local vegetation cover in five hundred year time intervals, on a gradient from the coast to the inner fjord of western Norway. The regional estimates of vegetation cover as well as local differences between the sites are clearly demonstrated. The coast has been more open than the inner region in all time periods, with less than c. 70% tree cover prior to 5700 cal. BP. On a regional scale the tree cover was c. 90% in the same time period. Gradual opening of the regional forest started between 5700 and 5200 cal. BP. Forest disturbances, probably related to agriculture, are found both at the inner coast and in the inner fjord prior to 4200 cal. BP. Marked openings of the forests took place c. 4200 cal. BP at the outer coast, and c. 3700 cal. BP at the inner coast and inner fjord. From this time, heathlands dominated the open landscape at the coast. In the inner fjord region, grasslands in combination with cereal cultivation characterized the landscape. The inner coast area shows mixed vegetation cover with heathlands, grasslands and cultivated fields. Implementation of LRA suggests a stronger west – east vegetation gradient than indicated in the pollen percentage diagrams. The results show the potential of the LRA-approach in archaeological research.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Ornaments from the Magdalenian burial area in El Mirón Cave
           (Cantabria, northern Spain). Were they grave goods?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti , David Cuenca-Solana
      El Mirón Cave, located in northern Atlantic Iberia, has produced important evidence of human occupation during the Lower Magdalenian (19–17.5 cal kya). Among the finds dating to this period is that of a disturbed primary burial of an adult woman. The excavation of the small area around the burial yielded a considerable number of ornamental items (mainly shell beads), but the actual association of any of them with the interment is problematic. The results of our study of the perforated marine shells and mammal teeth suggest that the ornamental objects were not grave goods, but rather were simply artifacts present in the occupation layers in this part of the cave. The materials used to make ornaments were gathered by collecting shells along the Late Glacial shore and by hunting ungulates. The perforation techniques used were similar to those found at contemporary sites in the Franco-Cantabrian region and the appearance of various elements from the manufacturing operatory chain indicates that some of the ornaments were made at the site. It was also possible to determine that some of the shells were used—probably suspended or attached to other objects. From a functional standpoint, the ornaments probably played not only an aesthetic role, but also a symbolic one, facilitating communication and exchanges among human groups.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57




      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Evaluating airborne LiDAR for detecting settlements and modified
           landscapes in disturbed tropical environments at Uxbenká, Belize
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Keith M. Prufer , Amy E. Thompson , Douglas J. Kennett
      In the tropics of Central America one important use of airborne LiDAR has been the detection of architecture and landscape modifications in ancient city–states, including dispersed residential compounds. For Maya archaeologists, this endeavor has been traditionally referred to as settlement survey. We examine a 99 km2 area surrounding the ancient (ca. 100 BCE–CE 850) Maya city of Uxbenká using both LiDAR and WorldView-2 satellite FCIR imagery. We compare those data sets with test results from pedestrian survey to assess the applicability of LiDAR for detecting small settlement structures and compounds in areas of highly disturbed vegetation. We conclude that the simple use of hill-shaded relief maps does not facilitate visual detection of more than 90% of small (1–3 m high) residential structures. We attribute this to the effect of low, dense vegetation on the number of LiDAR ground returns. We did find, however, that analysis of modified slope raster maps derived from the DEM did allow for identification of hill and ridge top modification that are associated with settlements, suggesting that these proxies have predictive value for identifying residential compounds.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Dyes used in pre-Hispanic textiles from the Middle and Late Intermediate
           periods of San Pedro de Atacama (northern Chile): new insights into
           patterns of exchange and mobility
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Hermann M. Niemeyer , Carolina Agüero
      Pre-Hispanic Andean textiles constitute the longest continuous textile record in the world, their structure and design being one of the most significant markers of group identity in Andean populations. Since the Late Formative Period (ca. 100–400 AD), the region around San Pedro de Atacama (SPA) in the Atacama desert of northern Chile has been part of a complex and extensive network of interacting polities through which raw materials, agricultural products, goods, people and ideas circulated in the South-Central Andes. The archaeological record in SPA abounds with textiles from various cultures that participated in such network. A study of these textiles would allow intercultural as well as diachronical comparisons. Numerous studies on textiles found in SPA have focused on their technological and iconographic features. This work addresses the identification of the organic dyes employed in the manufacture of 38 textiles found in funerary contexts in SPA from the Middle (ca. 400–1000 A.D.) and the Late Intermediate periods (ca. 1000–1450 A.D.), using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Purpurin and not alizarin was found in all red dyed fibers and indigotin (IND) and indirubin (INR) in all blue dyed fibers. Natural sources of these dyes are exogenous to SPA; their importation into SPA lasted for nearly a millennium. A positive correlation was found between [IND]/[INR] concentration ratio and the altitude of the place where the fiber was presumably dyed. Overall, the results indicate that finished garments and also raw dyes and ready-to-use dyed fibers were imported into SPA from neighboring regions and that foreign weavers were possibly active at SPA.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Urease activity in cultural layers at archaeological sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Elena V. Chernysheva , Dmitry S. Korobov , Tatiana E. Khomutova , Alexander V. Borisov
      Urease activity in soils and cultural layers at medieval settlements located within the Kislovodsk basin (Northern Caucasus, Russia) was studied to reveal the sites of cattle keeping and the areas of ancient manured lands. Input of various organic materials increases a microbial biomass and enzymatic activity in soils. In particular, urease activity increases in soils with long-term amendment of manure, compost, and other organic residues due to the improvement of soil fertility and income of ureolytic bacteria together with organic fertilizers. Soil urease activity was estimated in two different zones within Alanic settlement (AD 200–400). In cultural layers of the zone with ruined walls remains urease activity was almost twice higher than in those of the second zone without walls remains. The results demonstrated that buildings of the settlements were used as cattle pens. In the vicinity of other Alanic settlements (AD 500–800), urease activity decreased with distance from settlements. Comparison of urease activity, pottery scattering, and soil phosphorus content made it possible to mark the boundaries of ancient manured lands. The parameter of soil urease activity may be useful in revealing the infrastructure of settlements, sites of cattle keeping, and areas of ancient arable lands.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Stone pipe-making tools in ancient North America
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): P.B. MacLaren Law de Lauriston , George H. Odell , Timothy Lambert-Law de Lauriston
      Several types of smoking pipes have been manufactured and used throughout later prehistoric and historic times around the world. Although substantial information exists on the styles of these pipes, little is known about their methods of manufacture or the types of sites on which they were made. This study focuses on testing a postulated model of pipe manufacture through the experimental replication of an artifact type known as the Florence/Windom pipe, made of soft red argillite (pipestone), and the use-wear analysis of chipped stone artifacts, representative of stone tools found in association with these pipes. Results of analyses showed that certain tool types, such as reamers, drills, tabular tools, scrapers, and gouges, were integral parts of the manufacture process. Other types, such as punches and awls, proved not to have been employed in this activity. While our model was applied to a regionally specific pipe style and raw material, we suggest that our methods and approach can easily be used generally and more broadly in the analyses of similar archaeological assemblages worldwide.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Archaeological stratigraphy as a formal language for virtual
           reconstruction. Theory and practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Emanuel Demetrescu
      In recent years there has been a growing interest in 3D acquisition techniques in the field of cultural heritage, yet, at the same time, only a small percentage of case studies have been conducted on the virtual reconstruction of archaeological sites that are no longer in existence. Such reconstructions are, at times, considered “artistic” or “aesthetic” endeavors, as the complete list of sources used is not necessarily provided as a reference along with the 3D representation. One of the reasons for this is likely the lack of a shared language in which to store and communicate the steps in the reconstruction process. This paper proposes the use of a formal language with which to keep track of the entire virtual reconstruction process. The proposal is based on the stratigraphic reading approach and aims to create a common framework connecting archaeological documentation and virtual reconstruction in the earliest stages of the survey. To this end, some of the tools and standards used in archaeological research have been “extended” to taxonomically annotate both the validation of the hypothesis and the sources involved.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Bismuth behaviour during ancient processes of silver–lead production
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Maxime L'Héritier , Sandrine Baron , Laurent Cassayre , Florian Téreygeol
      Bismuth is one of the main trace elements found in archaeological lead and silver material in very variable contents. As silver refining by cupellation involves the redistribution of some trace elements contained in the initial lead bullion into the litharge and silver phases, an interdisciplinary approach has been carried out to understand the behaviour of bismuth during this process. Twenty-eight fire-assays were processed with seven different Pb–Bi–Ag alloys of various Bi content. A chemical characterization of all products was carried out. Parallel to the experiments, a thermodynamic approach was undertaken. The combination of experiments and modelling shows that the Bi/Pb ratio can be used as a tracer in silver material throughout the whole cupellation process. Bi and Ag contents in metallic lead might as well highlight the metallurgical process used to obtain lead. High Bi contents in silver–lead bullions are shown to notably reduce the silver extraction yield.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis at Neolithic
           Çatalhöyük: evidence for human and animal diet and their
           relationship to households
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Jessica A. Pearson , Amy Bogaard , Mike Charles , Simon W. Hillson , Clark Spencer Larsen , Nerissa Russell , Katheryn Twiss
      The long-term excavations at Çatalhöyük, a Neolithic site in central Turkey, have uncovered over 100 houses, which have been associated with at least 400 human skeletons and one million recorded animal bones. This large assemblage has enabled an extensive programme of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, which was designed to explore animal hunting and herding practices and how human diet varied according to age, sex, burial practice, location and over time. The isotope values for sheep and cattle show how both were herded in a range of locations which consisted of pure C3 and also mixed C3/C4 plant locations. We sampled animals from middens adjacent to the buildings where people were buried to provide house-by-house diet reconstruction. However, very few of the people buried in the houses demonstrate a clear dietary relationship to these associated middens. Similarly, people buried in the same house seem to have had different diets to one another. We argue that these data suggest diet at Neolithic Çatalhöyük was a carefully structured, long-lived and repetitious process and that houses may not have functioned as the simple domestic units that they are often assumed to be.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Revisiting the beginnings of tin-opacified Islamic glazes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): Michael Tite , Oliver Watson , Trinitat Pradell , Moujan Matin , Gloria Molina , Kelly Domoney , Anne Bouquillon
      The generally accepted theory is that the demand for Islamic glazed pottery started in Abbasid Iraq in the 9th century AD with the production of a range of glazed wares in response to the import of Chinese stonewares and porcelains. However, Oliver Watson has recently proposed that the demand for Islamic glazed pottery first occurred in Egypt and Syria in the 8th century AD resulting in the production of opaque yellow decorated wares. Using a combination of SEM analysis of polished cross-sections, and surface analysis using hand-held XRF or PIXE, Coptic Glazed Ware from Egypt, Yellow Glazed Ware from Syria, and comparable wares from Samarra, Kish and Susa have been analysed. The analyses show that the opaque yellow decoration was the result of lead stannate particles in a high lead glaze, which it is suggested was produced using a lead-silica-tin mixture. The use of lead stannate in the production of yellow opaque glazes is explained in terms of technological transfer from contemporary Islamic glassmakers who continued the Byzantine tradition of glassmaking. It is further argued that the introduction of opaque yellow glazed pottery into Mesopotamia could have provided the social context for the sudden emergence of tin-opacified white glazed pottery in Abbasid Iraq in the 9th century AD. However, in view of the very different glaze compositions employed for the yellow and white opaque glazes, it seems probable that the white tin-opacified glazes used for Abbasid cobalt blue and lustre decorated wares represent a separate but parallel technological tradition with its origins in the production of Islamic opaque white glass.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • On the effect of organic carbon on rehydroxylation (RHX) dating
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 57
      Author(s): M. Numrich , W. Kutschera , P. Steier , J.H. Sterba , R. Golser
      Scientific dating is an invaluable tool to understand the development of human civilizations from prehistoric to historic times. Ceramics is the most abundant material recovered from archaeological excavations, but a satisfactory scientific dating method is still lacking. So called rehydroxylation (RHX) dating promises precise age information, but the validity of the method still has to be proven. We have investigated one possible obstacle imposed by the presence of organic carbon in the samples. Such a contamination can lead to significant deviations of the dating result. The amount of CO2 released from the following samples was determined: A medieval clay brick from Alkoven, Austria; two authentic archaeological samples from the Iron Age from Megiddo, Israel; a 1600 AD earthenware sherd from Enkhuizen, Netherlands, which had been successfully dated with RHX at another laboratory. We investigated several possibilities to remove such contamination.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T07:33:51Z
       
  • Improving mortality profile analysis in zooarchaeology: a revised zoning
           for ternary diagrams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Emmanuel Discamps , Sandrine Costamagno
      Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner’s approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of “zones” in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams. Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-04T19:09:51Z
       
 
 
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