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        1 2 3     

  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 223 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 104)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 39)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeofauna     Open Access  
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access  
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Comechingonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 104)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [62 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Diet and herding strategies in a changing environment: stable isotope
           analysis of Bronze Age and Late Antique skeletal remains from
           Ya‘amūn, Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Michela Sandias, Gundula Müldner
      Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 45 human and 23 faunal bone collagen samples were measured to study human diet and the management of domestic herbivores in past Jordan, contrasting skeletal remains from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and the Late Roman and Byzantine periods from the site of Ya‘amūn near Irbid. The isotope data demonstrate that the management of the sheep and goats changed over time, with the earlier animals consuming more plants from semi-arid habitats, possibly because of transhumant herding strategies. The isotope data for fish presented here are the first from archaeological contexts from the Southern Levant. Although fish of diverse provenance was available at the site, human diet was predominately based on terrestrial resources and there was little dietary variability within each time-period. Isotopic variation between humans from different time-periods can mostly be explained by ‘baseline shifts’ in the available food sources; however, it is suggested that legumes may have played a more significant role in Middle and Late Bronze Age diet than later on.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:57:11Z
       
  • 6500-Year-old Nassarius shell appliqués in Timor-Leste: technological
           and use wear analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Michelle C. Langley, Sue O'Connor
      With recognition of the early Holocene antiquity of marine shell beads in Island Southeast Asia only recently occurring, we become aware of how little is really known regarding this enigmatic class of material culture. Here we report on worked Nassarius spp. shells recovered from the Timorese sites of Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2, and which date back to around 6500 years ago. Analysis of manufacturing traces, use wear, and residues apparent on these 91 shell artefacts indicate that they were most likely used as appliqués attached to a textile or other woven item (such as baskets). These are the first mid-Holocene shell appliqués to be identified in this region, and only the second example of this technology at this antiquity identified in the world. Consistency in manufacturing methods and use over several thousand years at the studied sites indicates a >4500 year long tradition of Nassarius spp. shell appliqué use in Timor-Leste.


      PubDate: 2015-07-27T15:27:41Z
       
  • Communities of Identity, Communities of Practice: Understanding Santa Fe
           Black-on-white Pottery in the Española Basin of New Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Suzanne L. Eckert, Kari L. Schleher, William D. James
      The research presented here focuses on Santa Fe Black-on-white pottery produced during the Late Coalition/Early Classic Transition (AD 1250-1350) in the northern Rio Grande region, New Mexico. We combine design data with compositional analyses to gain a greater understanding of ceramic production and circulation in this region and to evaluate the communities of practice and communities of identity reflected in pottery. We combine mineralogical and INAA chemical compositional datasets to argue for at least three production provenances; we further argue that nine potential petrofacies represent different resource procurement zones within the production provenances. We argue that these data, combined, represent a minimum of three different communities of practice. Despite multiple communities of practice, similar designs were being used as decoration that reflects a single community of identity. We argue that during this transitional time period examined here, producers of Santa Fe Black-on-white were intentionally practicing a form of identity maintenance across all of the villages in which it was produced.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:35:19Z
       
  • Experimental study of bone modification by captive caracal (Caracal
           caracal); a model for fossil assemblage analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Brigette F. Cohen, Job M. Kibii
      Medium-size animals such as rabbits and hares are common occurrences in fossil assemblages, and make up a large part of the diet of many carnivores. However their mode of accumulation, especially in African localities is poorly understood. This investigation undertook experimental feeding of domestic rabbit carcasses to captive caracal (Caracal caracal), in order to create a taphonomic model of bone modifications that can be applied to fossil assemblages. We investigated the modification patterns of both the feeding refuse (non-ingested) and the scatological remains. The anatomical composition, breakage patterns, digestive modifications and tooth marks are described. The caracals preferentially fed on high yield parts of the rabbit carcass and discarded low yield parts like the cranium and feet, a pattern that has been observed in wild and captive coyotes when food resources are abundant. Rabbit remains from the caracal displayed poor survival, relative to other small carnivores. Fragmentation in the scat assemblage was high. Bones were extensively but lightly digested and carnivore tooth marks were frequent. This investigation provides a model of bone modification in a carnivore that while common in fossil localities has received little taphonomic attention. The study also exhibits how detailed actualistic investigations can provide information that may aid palaeoecological interpretations.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:35:19Z
       
  • Constructing chronologies in Viking Age Iceland: increasing dating
           resolution using Bayesian approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Catherine M. Batt, Magdalena M.E. Schmid, Orri Vésteinsson
      Precise chronologies underpin all aspects of archaeological interpretation and, in addition to improvements in scientific dating methods themselves, one of the most exciting recent developments has been the use of Bayesian statistical analysis to reinterpret existing information. Such approaches allow the integration of scientific dates, stratigraphy and typological data to provide chronologies with improved precision. Settlement period sites in Iceland offer excellent opportunities to explore this approach, as many benefit from dated tephra layers and AMS radiocarbon dates. Whilst tephrochronology is widely used and can provide excellent chronological control, this method has limitations; the time span between tephra layers can be large and they are not always present. In order to investigate the improved precision available by integrating the scientific dates with the associated archaeological stratigraphy within a Bayesian framework, this research reanalyses the dating evidence from three recent large scale excavations of key Viking Age and medieval sites in Iceland; Aðalstræti, Hofstaðir and Sveigakot. The approach provides improved chronological precision for the dating of significant events within these sites, allowing a more nuanced understanding of occupation and abandonment. It also demonstrates the potential of incorporating dated typologies into chronological models and the use of models to propose sequences of activities where stratigraphic relationships are missing. Such outcomes have considerable potential in interpreting the archaeology of Iceland and can be applied more widely to sites with similar chronological constraints.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • Glass Production at an Early Islamic Workshop in Tel Aviv
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ian C. Freestone, Ruth E. Jackson-Tal, Itamar Taxel, Oren Tal
      A refuse deposit at HaGolan Street, Khirbet al-Ḥadra, northeastern Tel Aviv, is rich in debris deriving from an Islamic period glass workshop, dating to the 7th–8th centuries. Twenty-four samples of glass vessels, chunks and moils were analysed by electron microprobe. Glass used in the workshop derives from three primary sources: Egypt II, somewhere in inland Egypt, Beth Eli‘ezer, near Hadera, Israel and a third group which appears to represent a previously unknown Levantine primary production centre. Glass corresponding to at least twelve production events has been identified. While vessels made of Beth Eli‘ezer and Egypt II glass have previously been reported from the same context, this is the first time that they have been related to the products of a single workshop. It appears that glass from both primary production centres was available in the later 8th century, and that the glass workers at HaGolan St were obliged to balance the high working and fuel costs of the stiff low-soda Levantine glass against the better working properties but higher raw material costs of the high-soda glass from Egypt.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • Roman and late-Roman glass from north-eastern Italy: The isotopic
           perspective to provenance its raw materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Filomena Gallo, Alberta Silvestri, Patrick Degryse, Monica Ganio, Antonio Longinelli, Gianmario Molin
      In this study, the strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotopic composition of Roman (1st-3rd century AD) and late-Roman glass (4th-6th century AD) from Adria and Aquileia, two of the most important archaeological sites of north-eastern Italy, is discussed. The majority of glass analysed, independent from age, shows values of strontium isotope ratios close to that of modern ocean water, indicating that the source of lime in the glass was marine shell, and likely coastal sands were used in its production. The Nd signature of all late-Roman glasses from Aquileia and of the majority of the Roman ones from Adria, independent from their chemical composition, is homogeneous and higher than -6 εNd, supporting the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin, probably located on Syro-Palestinian coast. However, the composition of late-Roman samples with HIMT signature, with lower 87Sr/86Sr values correlated to higher contents in Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO and lower contents in CaO, suggest an area of origin for this glass on the Egyptian coast. In addition, the different Nd signatures of two Adria Roman glasses (εNd < -7) suggests their primary production in western Mediterranean. Oxygen isotopes proved to be a further diagnostic method to discriminate natron and soda plant ash glass, and different silica sources, in the case of the soda plant ash glass. The combination of isotopic and chemical data supports the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin for late-Roman glass, which may be produced in few primary workshops on the Syro-Palestinian and Egyptian coast, although not necessarily in the same ateliers as have been identified so far. In the case of the Roman glass investigated, although the majority of data suggests an eastern Mediterranean origin, on the basis of Nd isotopes and chemical compositions, the existence of other primary glass producers located in the western Mediterranean can be suggested.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • Eiland crucibles and the earliest relative dating for tin and bronze
           working in southern Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Foreman Bandama, Simon Hall, Shadreck Chirikure
      Over a century of research has demonstrated the historical importance of Rooiberg as a point source for tin production in preindustrial southern Africa. Current chronology suggests that the exploitation of the Rooiberg tin deposits began around AD1450 and continued into the 19th century. However, recent lead isotope and trace element studies of tin and bronze objects from AD1000 to 1300 sites, such as Great Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe, show that they were made with Rooiberg tin. Here we present technical analyses of two crucible sherds from Rhenosterkloof 3 near Rooiberg that were used in bronze production during the Eiland phase (AD1000-1300). The presence of tin bronzes during the Eiland phase indicates that Rooiberg tin was exploited from the early second millennium AD, almost three centuries earlier than previously believed, and affirms Rooiberg as an important source for bronze production in the southern African Iron Age.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • Roman coloured glass in the Western provinces: the glass cakes and
           tesserae from West Clacton in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Sarah Paynter, Thérèse Kearns, Hilary Cool, Simon Chenery
      A collection of tesserae and two fragments from rounded cakes of coloured glass, probably dating to the 2nd century AD, were found at West Clacton Reservoir, Essex, in the UK, by Colchester Archaeological Trust. A selection of the finds were analysed using SEM-EDS and ICP-MS. This paper provides data on the composition of the different glass colours and discusses how each colour was made. Colourants and opacifiers were added to a base glass, most often one of the transparent, naturally coloured (blue-green) natron glass types widely available at the time, but there appear to be preferences in the type of base glass used for certain colours, which affects the type of antimonate opacifier precipitated. Possible reasons for using different types of base glass to make strongly coloured Roman glass are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • An Empirical Test of Shell Tempering as an Alkaline Agent in the
           Nixtamalization Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Andrew J. Upton, William A. Lovis, Gerald R. Urquhart
      It has been argued that the transition to maize based diets across much of the Eastern Woodlands of North America ca. A.D. 1000 was the primary catalyst for the population increases, technological innovations, and fundamental shifts in social and cultural organization characteristic of Late Woodland, Mississippian, Upper Mississippian, and Iroquoian societies. However, raw or uncooked maize kernels alone are known to be a nutritionally inadequate subsistence staple. Nixtamalization, or the alkaline processing of dried raw maize to produce hominy, yields a more readily digestible and therefore healthier food resource. Such processing is ubiquitous amongst maize-based societies in the Americas. The timing of the transition to maize agriculture was also closely associated with the adoption of shell-tempered ceramics. As a result, an hypothesis has been offered by multiple authors that burned and crushed mollusc shell aplastic may act as an alkaline agent in the nixtamalization process. The research reported here provides a formal empirical test of this hypothesis. Findings indicate that no substantial structural or chemical changes to maize kernels result from the leaching of shell tempering alkaline products from the fabric of a ceramic vessel. Two constraints are noted in this process: the reduction in adherence of wet paste due to the addition of mussel shell derived calcium oxide (lime) or calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a tempering agent, and the necessity to avoid the decomposition of calcium carbonate to lime or slaked lime in order for the successful firing of shell-tempered vessels.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
       
  • Preliminary surface analyses by ESEM–EDS of calcite bowls from
           Shahr-i Sokhta (Sistan, Iran, ca. 3200–1800 BCE): Results and
           possible interpretations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): S. Boccuti , A. Squitieri , G. Angelini , A. Lazzari , E. Di Luzio , M. Albano
      Shahr-i Sokhta (eastern Iran) developed a flourishing stone industry in the 3rd millennium BCE, which was the object of previous studies by scholars with regard to the tools and techniques involved in the manufacturing processes. Some issues, however, have been left open concerning the technology implemented for the manufacture of calcite bowls at Shahr-i Sokhta. For this study, we have carried out non-destructive analyses by using ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) equipped with an EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer) to target the inner surfaces of 5 samples of calcite bowls coming from this site and kept in the collection of the National Museum of Oriental Arts in Rome. This technique has been applied to these bowls for the first time. The aim was to test some of the existing hypothesises about calcite bowl manufacture at Shahr-i Sokhta, with particular regard to the drilling process, and produce new evidence that can help understand the technology involved in their production. The results consist in morphological and compositional characterisations of the inner surfaces of the samples. The possibility that these characterizations are tool marks and manufacturing residues has been evaluated, though other interpretations have also been taken into account following surface analyses on archaeological materials. In particular, results of the ESEM morphological characterizations have documented circular marks that may be interpreted as drilling marks left by irregular rotary movements. Moreover, the elemental analyses by EDS have given clues to the debate about the possible use of sandy materials as abrasives and copper tools for their manufacture. It is hoped that these preliminary results will stimulate new research in the field of study on calcite bowl manufacture, thus contributing to the broader issues concerning the relationship between stoneworking techniques, craft production organization and the emergence of the Shahr-i Sokhta proto-urban society.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T12:15:50Z
       
  • Crucible technologies in the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age South
           Caucasus: copper processing, tin bronze production, and the possibility of
           local tin ores
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Nathaniel L. Erb-Satullo , Brian J.J. Gilmour , Nana Khakhutaishvili
      The South Caucasus was a major center of metal production in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. Nowhere is this more clear than in the hills and mountains in the southeastern Black Sea region (ancient Colchis), where exceptionally large numbers of metal production sites have been found. Chemical and microscopic analysis of slagged technical ceramics at these sites illuminates several aspects of both raw copper and tin bronze alloy production. Copper ores were smelted in a complex multi-stage process designed to extract metal from sulfide ores. Technical ceramics served as containers for a range of different reactions, from the first phase of smelting, in which the copper sulfides were likely consolidated into a matte, though later stages of matte processing and metal copper production in smaller crucibles. In addition, a single crucible fragment, recovered from a late 2nd millennium BC slag heap, demonstrates that tin bronze was created by the direct addition of cassiterite tin ore, probably of alluvial origin, to metallic copper. The crucible's context, the use of cassiterite ore rather than tin metal, and a review of local geology suggests that the tin used in this crucible came from nearby, with the most likely source being the Vakijvari and Bzhuzhi gorges roughly 10–15 km away. While a single fragment does not speak to the regularity of this practice, at the very least it raises the possibility that the Colchian bronze industry was based on local rather than imported tin.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-09T12:15:50Z
       
  • The Production and Exchange of Moulded-carved Ceramics and the ‘Maya
           Collapse’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Carmen Ting , Marcos Martinón-Torres , Elizabeth Graham , Christophe Helmke
      This paper examines the production and exchange of a particular type of ceramic vase designated ‘Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved’ by using thin-section petrography, INAA, and SEM-EDS. These vases were produced and circulated in the eastern Maya lowlands during a transitional period known as ‘Terminal Classic’, ca. A.D. 800-950. Significant changes, generally referred to as the Classic Maya Collapse, occurred in the socio-political order in the Maya lowlands at this time, although the pace and events leading to such changes remain poorly understood. By studying a selection of 62 Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved vases from various sites across Belize, we sought to offer a new perspective on the nature of this important transitional period. Our findings reveal that two main ceramic traditions – one employing calcite and the other volcanic ash temper – are represented by the vases. These traditions guided the selection of raw materials, surface finish, and firing methods. Vases of the calcite tradition were mostly used at or around the sites where they were produced, whereas those of the volcanic ash tradition appear to have been circulated over a wider region. The co-existence of multiple production groups and distribution spheres of the Ahk’utu’ vases, along with their style and decoration, is interpreted as indicating a proliferation of an ascending social segment and greater flexibility and fluidity in how the social hierarchy and political structure were maintained in the eastern Maya lowlands from the 9th century and onwards.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Molecular sex identification of juvenile skeletal remains from an Irish
           medieval population using ancient DNA analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): S.N. Tierney , J. Bird
      The archaeological excavation of a medieval cemetery in North West Ireland led to the recovery of the largest collection of human remains from a burial ground in Ireland to date. This collection included a substantial number of juvenile remains. In order to enhance the interpretation of the assemblage and give a more complete picture of the population, a sample of the juvenile population from Ballyhanna were sexed using DNA based techniques so that the mortality ratio of the male and female non-adult individuals could be assessed. Sex identification of human remains is generally assigned using the morphology of the skeleton or on some occasions using associated grave goods. However in instances when an assemblage contains immature or fragmentary material, an alternative and reliable means of sexing these individuals is required. Ancient DNA research in recent years has proven itself to be such a reliable alternative. In this study the reliability and reproducibility of two PCR based sexing methods were evaluated first on 38 adults of known sex to determine the accuracy of these methods for sexing individuals from the Ballyhanna assemblage. Using real time PCR and STR profiling systems, a dependable and consistent sexing system was developed. The reproducibility of the amplified samples meant that the methods were valid and subsequently could be used to sex juveniles. The molecular sexing results from the juveniles sampled determined that four of these juvenile individuals were males, 10 were probable males, one was a probable female and four were inconclusive. The results from this study, although not fully representative of the juvenile population excavated, indicate an excess of male mortality.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Why are they still there? A model of accumulation and decay of organic
           prehistoric cultural deposits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Niels Bleicher , Carsten Schubert
      The circumalpine lake side settlements are a unique source of detailed information on the past. Nevertheless, little has been published by now on why the organic matter (fumier lacustre) in these settlements has been preserved and how exactly this happened. It is, therefore, necessary to closely explore the decomposition of organic matter under different conditions. We present data from the literature and a decomposition model simulating the outcome of different archaeological hypotheses and comparing the result with the actual archaeological record. We conclude that different scenarios of deposition should result in clearly discernible and measurable features in the archaeological record, whose presence or absence allows deducing the mode of deposition. The best conditions of organic preservation are to be expected under such conditions where a large organic input happens in shallow still water. Seasonal flooding and a later rise in lake level can also result in good preservation but imply a greater loss through mechanical erosion and in many cases clear preservation gradients within the deposits. The theoretical outcomes presented here find clear analogs in the archaeological record.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Late antique glass distribution and consumption in Cyprus: a chemical
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Andrea Ceglia , Peter Cosyns , Karin Nys , Herman Terryn , Hugo Thienpont , Wendy Meulebroeck
      This paper discusses the composition of the vessel and window glass from three Late Antique Cypriot sites: Yeroskipou, Maroni-Petrera and Kalavasos-Kopetra. Over 170 glass fragments were sampled for quantitative chemical analysis through EPMA measurements. The aim of this work is to establish new insights on the chemical compositions of the glass from Late Antique Cypriot sites to observe the distribution of glass on the island. Furthermore, we compare our dataset with published data of contemporary materials from other regions. Four compositional groups were recognized and correlated to known chemical compositions: Levantine 1, Egypt 1, two types of HIMT glass, HIMTa and HIMTb, while a new group, High Lime Iron Manganese Titanium (HLIMT) has been defined. Glass was supplied to Cypriot glassmakers by both Egyptian and Syro-Palestinian primary producers. Nevertheless, we have observed a specific distribution pattern on the island. In the west, there is about 50:50 ratio between Levantine and Egyptian suppliers. On the contrary, in the central south coast the amount of Egyptian glass drops consistently, in particular in Kalavasos, leaving space to Levantine glass.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Mapping invisibility: GIS approaches to the analysis of hiding and
           seclusion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mark Gillings
      Analyses of visibility have become a commonplace within landscape-based archaeological research, whether through rich description, simple mapping or formal modelling and statistical analysis, the latter increasingly carried out using the viewshed functionality of GIS. The research presented here challenges current obsessions with what is visible to focus instead upon the interpretative benefits of considering the invisible and the complex interplay of visibility and concealment that frequently accompany landscape movement and experience. Having highlighted the difficulties in analysing relational properties such as invisibility and hiding using traditional archaeological techniques, a series of new GIS methodologies are presented and evaluated in the context of an original study of a series of remarkably small, visually non-intrusive prehistoric megalithic monuments. The results serve to challenge dominant interpretations of these enigmatic sites as well as demonstrating the utility, value and potential of the GIS-based approaches developed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Residue radiocarbon AMS dating review and preliminary sampling protocol
           suggestions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): A.B. Yates , A.M. Smith , F. Bertuch
      Radiocarbon dating of microgram residues is a relatively new field in archaeological research and is currently limited by a lack of analytical protocols and instrumentation. Successful applications of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) have demonstrated the potential of the technique on small samples but also revealed challenges and problems, especially with contamination. This paper reviews the literature on AMS radiocarbon dated residues using microgram sized carbon samples. Samples from archaeological studies are targeted, including residues from lithics, ceramics and rock art. We examine data helpful to avoiding contamination and to facilitating residue radiocarbon dating. As a result we present a preliminary sampling protocol to assist archaeologists in preventing contaminant transfer from fieldwork onwards.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • A modified Picro-Sirius Red (PSR) staining procedure with polarization
           microscopy for identifying collagen in archaeological residues
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Birgitta Stephenson
      Use-wear and residue analyses of stone artefacts are widely used to better understand the behaviour and resource utilization of past peoples. There are numerous ethnographic reports describing the processing of animal parts, but identification of collagen, the principle component of animal protein, can be difficult because of the similarity in appearance to other non-collagenous residues (e.g. Lombard and Wadley, 2007). Additionally, damage to collagen structure caused by processing and taphonomic factors can alter collagen's microscopic morphological features and further prevent microscopic identification. This paper describes the trialling, blind testing and application of a modified Picro-Sirius Red (PSR) staining protocol not reliant on intact morphology which can be used to identify archaeological collagenous residues. The protocol allows for differentiation of Types I, II and III collagen and can detect the minuscule amounts in archaeological samples. The application of this staining protocol to ten grindstones from arid and semi-arid regions in south and central Australia supports the view that lack of collagen heretofore reported in residue studies is more likely the result of under-detection than its absence (see Monnier et al., 2012). The staining protocol represents an inexpensive, efficient and reliable process which can be added to contemporary use-wear and residue analyses. This addition allows more inclusive assessments of past function and promotes wider understandings of the behaviour of past peoples.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
       
  • Assessing bone and antler exploitation at Riparo Mochi (Balzi Rossi,
           Italy): implications for the characterization of the Aurignacian in
           South-western Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): José-Miguel Tejero , Stefano Grimaldi
      The Aurignacian typo-technological tradition has long been considered linked with the dispersal of anatomically Modern Humans over western Eurasia at the onset of the Upper Palaeolithic. In Europe it is commonly divided into two main phases, the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian whose definitions is based on the typo-technological features of lithics and some osseous “markers” like the split-based points. The osseous industry has recurrently been cited as a major innovation signaling the transition from Middle to Early Upper Palaeolithic. Nevertheless, recent studies strongly suggest that the real innovation is antler working, as bone working has been found to be similar in the Mousterian and the Early Upper Palaeolithic. Riparo Mochi is among the key Western European sites for assessing the nature of shifts and continuities between the Proto- and Early Aurignacian phases of the technocomplex. These data are significant for the study of the distribution of the first anatomically Modern Humans in Eurasia owing to several factors: (1) preservation of the Proto- and Early Aurignacian levels; (2) their location along the likely southern dispersal route of the Aurignacian; (3) the richness of archaeological evidence; and (4) recent re-evaluation of their chrono-stratigraphy. The study of worked osseous remains allows us to establish the comparative characteristics of animal raw material exploitation within the Riparo Mochi Aurignacian. Results demonstrate that animal raw material exploitation increases from the bottom to the top of the archaeological sequence at this site. Hunting weapons, as well as personal ornaments other than those made on shells, are only present in Early Aurignacian layers. Antler working is not documented in the Proto-Aurignacian, which is consistent with the hypothesis of the appearance of antler hunting weapons only after the Heinrich Stadial 4 and Campanian Ignimbrite climatic events.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Testing archaeofaunal collections for differential fragmentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Carol E. Colaninno , Carla S. Hadden , Alexandra L. Emmons
      Body dimensions of animal remains provide evidence for subsistence technologies, seasonality of hunting and fishing, and generalized resource stress. Studies that rely on reconstructed body dimensions of fishes rarely address the possibility of differential preservation or recovery, which may result in inaccurate representations of size classes. We devise a method to test for differential fragmentation of archaeofauna1 specimens based on specimen size and location within the stratigraphic column. We also compare two methods for reconstructing animal size classes: one includes only complete specimens that can be measured accurately, and the other includes both fragmented and complete specimens. We use a collection of mullet (Mugil spp.) atlases from the McQueen Shell Ring, St. Catherines Island, Georgia (USA), many of which were included in a previous study of fish body size as evidence for fishing technologies. All atlases are sorted by size class and categorized as having complete or fragmented osteometric landmarks. There is a positive correlation (ρ = 0.45, P = 0.07) between atlas size class and proportion of specimens that are fragmented: smaller atlases are more likely to be recovered, identified, and measured without fragmentation compared to larger atlases. Size-based differential fragmentation may bias against the representation of larger-bodied individuals in this context. Frequency of fragmentation is not monotonically correlated with burial depth (ρ = −0.19, P = 0.39), and is higher in the upper-most and bottom-most levels of the stratigraphic column compared to intermediate depths. Depth-based differential fragmentation may bias results when stratigraphic sequences are used to evaluate change through time in animal body sizes.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The contribution of geometric morphometric analysis to prehistoric
           ichnology: the example of large canid tracks and their implication for the
           debate concerning wolf domestication
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Lysianna Ledoux , Myriam Boudadi-Maligne
      Apart from exceptional cases, such as Laetoli, Koobi Fora or Happisburgh hominin trackways (Behrensmeyer and Laporte, 1981; Bennett et al., 2009; Raichlen et al., 2010; Ashton et al., 2014; Bennett and Morse, 2014), tracks are often underestimated in prehistoric research, particularly in cave contexts, despite their representing rich sources of behavioural and taphonomic information. The analysis of human and animal tracks in archaeological contexts can help to both untangle the chronology of cave occupations and identify the animal species who frequented different sites. Here we focus on differentiating large dog and wolf tracks that are very similar in both appearance and size. We use a large sample of 36 modern prints from two wolf subspecies (Canis lupus lupus and Canis lupus albus) and 106 dog tracks belonging to seven breeds (Beauceron, German Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, Great Dane, Siberian Husky and Rottweiler). This study uses an approach combining statistical analyses and geometric morphometrics (Berge et al., 2006; Bennett et al., 2009). Our results shed new light on the still unidentified canid tracks accompanying human footprints documented at Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche region of southern France (Clottes, 2001) and have important implications for current debates surrounding the timing of wolf domestication in Western Europe and prehistoric ichnology in general.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Radiocarbon-dating adhesive and wooden residues from stone tools by
           Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS): challenges and insights encountered
           in a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): A.B. Yates , A.M. Smith , F. Bertuch , B. Gehlen , B. Gramsch , M. Heinen , R. Joannes-Boyau , A. Scheffers , J. Parr , A. Pawlik
      In this study we present and assess a process to enhance archaeological residue AMS dating by focusing on contaminant confinement. The sequence of methods applied consists of: 1) optical residue and use-wear analyses, 2) experimental designs addressing cleaning treatments to mitigate impact of contaminants, 3) preparation and extraction of residues from (mostly) previously dated stone artefacts, and 4) establishing the elemental characteristics of residues by using SEM/EDX as a final step to avoid sample contamination during analyses. We found the alkaline surfactant Decon 90 is a useful solution for removal of skin scales and fabric fibre but has limited effect on graphite contamination introduced by pencil lead. Adhesive residues were not affected by Decon immersion, however, wooden residues from bog sites were partly dislodged. While the methodological sequence was in general successful and some artefact residues were dated within the anticipated age range, difficulties were encountered with other lithic residues. Some artefact residues attained AMS dates which appear to be affected by modern contaminants and other residue radiocarbon dates were seemingly affected by fossil shell derived from flint stone, plasticizers or from a fixative substance older than the fabrication and use of the artefact. One outcome from this study is that performing chemical residue identification earlier in the method sequence using non-destructive and non-contaminating methods would guide the choice of residue treatment and improve reliability of age determination.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • What is a litre of sediment? Testing volume measurement techniques for
           wet sediment and their implications in archaeobotanical analyses at the
           Late Neolithic lake-dwelling site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich,
           Switzerland)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ferran Antolín , Bigna L. Steiner , Werner Vach , Stefanie Jacomet
      Volume measurements in archaeobotany are not performed uniformly. The goal of this paper therefore is to test the different known methods and to define the obtained differences, in order to make the density values (remains per litre of sediment) for plant macroremains in the samples comparable between sites. Three methods of volume measurement were tested for a large number of samples of different sizes coming from two late Neolithic layers of the lakeshore site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich, Switzerland). The sampled layers were preserved in waterlogged conditions and there were samples rich in sand, loam, lake marl but mostly consisting of organic remains, including uncharred subfossil plant macroremains. In general, the classical volume (that is the upper limit of the sediment in water) measured before and after freezing as pre-treatment gave similar results. But a systematic difference was found between the classical volume measured after freezing and the displacement volume. This difference could be described by a proportionality factor of 1.5. This proportionality factor could be used to make data obtained with different methods of volume measurement comparable, although more evaluations are needed from other sites in order to test the generality of the factor proposed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Cultural landscape development on a west–east gradient in western
           Norway – potential of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ingvild Kristine Mehl , Anette Overland , Jan Berge , Kari Loe Hjelle
      Pollen analysis is the main method to obtain information on human impact on the vegetation through time. In this study, pollen records from one large lake, Kalandsvatn (inner coast), and three small lakes, Herøyvatn (outer coast), Fitjar (inner coast) and Herandsvatn (inner fjord) in Hordaland County, western Norway are investigated. The three small sites reflect different vegetation, climate and landscape types, resulting in different cultural landscapes. A recently developed approach, the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), is used to reconstruct regional and local vegetation cover in five hundred year time intervals, on a gradient from the coast to the inner fjord of western Norway. The regional estimates of vegetation cover as well as local differences between the sites are clearly demonstrated. The coast has been more open than the inner region in all time periods, with less than c. 70% tree cover prior to 5700 cal. BP. On a regional scale the tree cover was c. 90% in the same time period. Gradual opening of the regional forest started between 5700 and 5200 cal. BP. Forest disturbances, probably related to agriculture, are found both at the inner coast and in the inner fjord prior to 4200 cal. BP. Marked openings of the forests took place c. 4200 cal. BP at the outer coast, and c. 3700 cal. BP at the inner coast and inner fjord. From this time, heathlands dominated the open landscape at the coast. In the inner fjord region, grasslands in combination with cereal cultivation characterized the landscape. The inner coast area shows mixed vegetation cover with heathlands, grasslands and cultivated fields. Implementation of LRA suggests a stronger west–east vegetation gradient than indicated in the pollen percentage diagrams. The results show the potential of the LRA-approach in archaeological research.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Temple-complex post-dates tsunami deposits found in the ancient harbour
           basin of Ostia (Rome, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Hanna Hadler , Andreas Vött , Peter Fischer , Stefanie Ludwig , Michael Heinzelmann , Corinna Rohn
      Detailed geophysical and geoarchaeological investigations carried out in Ostia, ancient harbour of Rome, revealed two different generations of harbour basins and also proved the repeated impact of high-energy wave events on the study area. West of Ostia, at the southern bank of the Tiber, a lagoonal harbour existed from the 4th and 2nd cent. BC but was affected by strong siltation. At the same site, a river harbour was subsequently established from the 1st cent. AD onwards. Fluvial deposits of medieval age finally document Tiber river bank erosion affecting the abandoned site. Within the sedimentary record, distinct high-energy event deposits were found and seem to be related to tsunami impact that hit the ancient harbour site. Event I occurred prior to the harbour foundation between the 8th and 5th cent. BC and induced significant environmental changes. Event II hit the lagoonal harbour most probably in the 4th cent. BC. Event III caused a widespread burial of the lagoonal harbour basin which, at that time, was already silted up. Built directly on top of the youngest event deposit found at Ostia, the foundation of the (navalia-) temple-complex post-dates tsunami event III to the time before the early 1st cent. AD. Subsequently, the site was used as a river harbour.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The hard knock life. Archaeobotanical data on farming practices during the
           Neolithic (5400–2300 cal BC) in the NE of the Iberian
           Peninsula
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ferran Antolín , Stefanie Jacomet , Ramon Buxó
      The archaeobotanical (seeds and fruits) dataset of the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula for the Neolithic period is presented and discussed in this paper in order to approach how early farmers produced their crops and how farming spread in the region. Ten crop plants were identified, including cereals (Triticum aestivum/durum/turgidum L., Triticum dicoccum Schübl., Triticum monococcum L., Hordeum vulgare L./distichon L. and Hordeum vulgare var. nudum), legumes (Vicia faba L., Lens culinaris Medik. and Pisum sativum L.) as well as oil plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Papaver somniferum L.). Two different traditions were observed by looking at the crop assemblages of the early Neolithic (5400–4500 cal BC). It is proposed that one group of farmers settled in the northeastern area of the region and chose to grow free-threshing cereals, especially naked wheat, while a second group settled in the central Catalan coast and along the Llobregat river and included glume wheats as important crops. These different patterns seem to survive during the middle Neolithic period, when naked barley becomes the main crop at some sites, maybe due to contacts with northern groups. The late Neolithic seems to translate into further changes but more investigations are needed. The weed assemblages available are meagre but the lack of indicators for shifting agriculture allowed confirming that crops were sown in permanent fields. It is concluded that early Neolithic settlements must have been more sedentary and farming practices more effort-demanding than previously thought.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Duck fleas as evidence for eiderdown production on archaeological sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Véronique Forbes
      Eiderdown has long been an important resource for northern cultures in the past but is overlooked in archaeology. Down, presumed to be from Eider ducks, has only been identified from a handful of high-status burials in Scandinavia. In order to test whether an archaeoentomological indicator for eiderdown production could be established, a survey of insects from two eiderdown productions sites in Iceland was conducted. The results identified over 500 duck fleas Ceratophyllus garei Rothschild and several beetle species from raw eiderdown and processing residue, as well as from pitfall traps placed in the floor of buildings where the down was stored and processed. It is argued that despite the fact that bird fleas parasitic on Eider ducks are not host-specific, their life history and microhabitat requirements, as well as the method employed to collect eiderdown, makes duck fleas a reliable indicator for eiderdown harvesting in archaeology.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Maize, mounds, and the movement of people: isotope analysis of a
           Mississippian/Fort Ancient region
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Robert A. Cook , T. Douglas Price
      The development of farming traditions has long interested archaeologists worldwide. The relationship between this process and human movement has become increasingly well defined in recent years. Here we examine this issue in a case study concerning the longstanding question of the spread of maize agriculture and Mississippian cultural traditions throughout much of the Eastern U.S. Although it has long been common to interpret the spread of Mississippian maize agriculture partially as a result of human migration, there have been very few direct studies of the question. We do so here by analyzing human tooth enamel from burials for 87Sr/86Sr and δ13C. Our results suggest that Fort Ancient societies adopted maize agriculture quickly with high levels of consumption at early sites. The intensity of maize consumption declined over time, however, in contrast to the current model. There is evidence for the presence of non-local individuals at early Fort Ancient sites, particularly Turpin, with the majority likely attributable to neighboring Mississippian regions. These developments occurred at some of the larger Fort Ancient sites by the mouths of the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio where the most abundant evidence for Mississippian house styles and objects is concentrated.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Lipid biomarkers and compound specific δ13C analysis indicate early
           development of a dual-economic system for the Arctic Small Tool tradition
           in northern Alaska
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Tammy Y. Buonasera , Andrew H. Tremayne , Christyann M. Darwent , Jelmer W. Eerkens , Owen K. Mason
      Analysis of preserved lipids from archaeological sites in northwest Alaska indicates hunters exploited marine animal resources as early as 4500 years ago. Bone preservation at early prehistoric sites in northern Alaska is generally poor, contributing to uncertainty about the economic orientation of the earliest Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) hunters. We used lipid analysis and compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of burned, cemented sand and organic residue features to detect the use of marine versus terrestrial animals at several coastal sites in northwest Alaska. Though the sample size for this initial study was small (n = 5), comparisons among samples from early ASTt, and later Norton and Thule sites indicate all three groups made use of marine animals for food and/or fuel. Recently obtained radiocarbon dates suggest ASTt hunters settled coastal regions of Alaska prior to moving inland to exploit terrestrial habitats. Our results provide empirical evidence that suggests the economy of the early ASTt population included a maritime component. In Arctic settings where bone preservation is poor, lipid analysis of cemented sand and organic residue features can provide an effective alternative for detecting the use and processing of marine versus terrestrial animals.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Mobility of early islanders in the Philippines during the Terminal
           Pleistocene/Early Holocene boundary: pXRF-analysis of obsidian artefacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Leee Anthony M. Neri , Alfred F. Pawlik , Christian Reepmeyer , Armand Salvador B. Mijares , Victor J. Paz
      The Philippine archipelago spans over two distinct biogeographic zones, Sundaland and Wallacea. We report in this paper on finds from Ilin Island just off the coast of SW-Mindoro, and El Nido in Northern Palawan. While the island of Palawan is linked to Sundaland, Mindoro and Ilin Island belong to Wallacea, east of Huxley's Line. Ongoing archaeological investigations at Bubog 1 Rockshelter on Ilin Island and Ille Cave & Rockshelter in northern Palawan, delivered obsidian artefacts, found in Terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene layers. PXRF analysis of the obsidian samples from Mindoro and Palawan shows that they were coming from the same, yet unknown source. They clearly indicate that the two distinct paleogeographical regions were linked to each other, suggesting human interaction and maritime networks as early as ca. 12ka BP. The results of this study contribute substantially to our understanding of the mobility of early islanders during the Terminal Pleistocene and the processes of human island adaptation and enhance our current knowledge of subsistence strategies across the region.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Mesolithic hearth-pits: fact or fantasy? A reassessment based on the
           evidence from the sites of Doel and Verrebroek (Belgium)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Philippe Crombé , Roger Langohr , Geertrui Louwagie
      In this paper we contest the anthropogenic character of small and shallow charcoal-filled pits which occur in large numbers on Mesolithic sites in the coversand area of the northwest European plain. Despite uncertainties about their exact function, they have so far been generally interpreted as hearth-pits. Following this assumption, these features have been systematically used for dating Mesolithic sites and reconstructing Mesolithic settlement systems. However, chronological inconsistencies as well as the absence of in situ burning evidence call into question this anthropogenic interpretation. Based on anthracological, chronological and pedological evidence from two sites in NW Belgium (Verrebroek and Doel), it is argued that most of these features may be of natural origin. In particular there is good resemblance in morphology, distribution and content with remains of abandoned and burnt ant mounds. The paper ends with highlighting the consequences of this new interpretation, while suggesting new lines of investigation for future Mesolithic research.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The production and circulation of indigenous lead-glazed ceramics in
           northern Peru during Spanish colonial times
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Parker VanValkenburgh , Sarah J. Kelloway , Laure Dussubieux , Jeffrey Quilter , Michael D. Glascock
      In this paper, we characterize the production and circulation of Early Green Glazed (EGG) Ware, an innovative variety of lead-glazed ceramics produced in Peru's North Coast region in the wake of the Spanish colonization of the Andes. INAA of pastes and LA-ICP-MS of glazes of EGG Ware samples collected from sites in Peru's Zaña, and Chicama river valleys reveal contrasting patterns of composition. While paste characterization via INAA identified a great deal of compositional diversity, LA-ICP-MS data from glazes falls into two discrete groups. We interpret these results as evidence of 1) disperse production of pastes, employing either a wide variety of source materials and/or recipes, mirroring the production of Late Prehispanic paddle-stamped wares, and 2) more nucleated collection of materials for glaze production, perhaps from distinct sources of lead ore. We interpret the presence of small numbers of samples with glaze compositions characteristic of the Zaña valley in Chicama Valley assemblages as evidence of possible trade between indigenous communities in artisanal goods and/or raw materials during the late 16th century CE.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • History and influence of the Danube delta lobes on the evolution of the
           ancient harbour of Orgame (Dobrogea, Romania)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Guénaëlle Bony , Christophe Morhange , Nick Marriner , Alexandre Baralis , David Kaniewski , Ingrid Rossignol , Vasilica Lungu
      On the coast of Northern Dobrogea, south of the Danube delta, the Greek settlement of Orgame was founded in the mid 7th c. BC, probably by Milesian colonists. The ancient city was located on the Cape Dolojman which today overlooks a large lagoon complex. We undertook a chronostratigraphic study to: (i) understand coastal changes around Cape Dolojman since ca. 5000 years BP in connection with the construction of the Danube delta lobes, and (ii) identify potential sediment impacts related to human occupation of the site. Three cores were extracted from the lagoon area. Sedimentological and biological analyses were undertaken to reconstruct the evolution of the coastal palaeoenvironments. The results show a closure of the marine bay around 3500 cal. BP and its transformation into a lagoon environment. The first major environmental change was due to the construction of the lobe St. George I and the formation of the barrier Lupilor. Around 2000 cal. BP, the formation of an intra-lagoonal lobe, the Dunavatz, led to the gradual transformation of the lagoon into a fluvial-dominated system. Paradoxically, lagoon waters today still wash the ancient Greek harbour environment, which has not been totally infilled by alluvial sediments. To understand this paradox, in a context of coastal progradation, we compared and contrasted the geomorphological data with the nearby city of Istros/Histria, which was already landlocked at this time. The location of these two Greek colonies relative to the coastal sediment cell and barriers partly explains their contrasting palaeoenvironmental evolution. Until 2650 cal. BP, the increase in charcoal and organic matter in sedimentary archives is interpreted as an anthropogenic signal for a more extensive use of the vegetation cover following the foundation of the city of Orgame (e.g. for domestic use and funeral rites).


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Isotope and faunal evidence for high levels of freshwater fish consumption
           by Late Glacial humans at the Late Upper Palaeolithic site of
           Šandalja II, Istria, Croatia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): M.P. Richards , I. Karavanić , P. Pettitt , P. Miracle
      Here we report on isotope and faunal evidence for intensive use of freshwater resources by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans from the Šandalja II site in Croatia. Carbon and nitrogen bone collagen isotopic analysis of humans and fauna from the site indicate that the main protein source in human diets at this time was freshwater fish, which is in contrast to the vertebrate remains that show a high abundance of large terrestrial herbivores from the Late Upper Palaeolithic levels at the site. These data add to the growing body of research that shows an increasing intensification in the use of aquatic resources in Europe towards the end of the Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60




      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The Magdalenian human burial of El Mirón Cave (Ramales de la
           Victoria, Cantabria, Spain): introduction, background, discovery and
           context
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Lawrence Guy Straus , Manuel R. González Morales , David Cuenca-Solana
      During the course of long-term excavations of El Mirón Cave in Cantabrian Spain, remains of an adult human woman were found in deposits dating to the Lower Magdalenian (18.9–18.7 cal. kya). Interred with abundant red ochre (including specular hematite crystals) in culturally rich sediments characterized by abundant lithic and osseous artifact assemblages, faunal remains dominated by red deer and ibex, with some marine shells from an Oldest Dryas shore ca. 25 km distant, the “Red Lady of El Mirón” was buried between the rear cave vestibule wall and a large block, both of which (but especially the latter-also stained with red ochre in proximity to the corpse) bear engravings, possibly symbolically related to the burial. The papers of this special issue of Journal of Archaeological Science present the stratigraphic and archeological contexts, environmental background, dating, taphonomy, spatial distribution, human osteology, dietary information of the skeleton, and the rock art, ochre, artifacts and faunas associated with this burial, the first major human interment of Magdalenian age to be discovered on the Iberian Peninsula.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The Magdalenian human remains from El Mirón Cave, Cantabria (Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): José Miguel Carretero , Rolf M. Quam , Asier Gómez-Olivencia , María Castilla , Laura Rodríguez , Rebeca García-González
      In 2001 and between 2010 and 2013 El Mirón cave in northern Spain yielded a partial human skeleton in a Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian deposit. The skeleton has been directly radiocarbon dated to 15,460 ± 40 BP. The archaeological context suggests that the human remains were deposited at the site as a result of a deliberate burial. Here we present a complete inventory and anthropological study of this individual. The remains belong to a single, middle-aged, robust female individual of ca. 160 cm in height and weighing ca. 60 kg, with good health status. The individual is represented by the mandible, numerous teeth and many postcranial bones, including significant portions of the vertebral column, costal skeleton, hands and feet. The Magdalenian context of El Mirón cave provides additional data on the otherwise poorly known Upper Paleolithic populations of Southwestern Europe.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Dietary inferences through dental microwear and isotope analyses of the
           Lower Magdalenian individual from El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Rebeca García-González , José Miguel Carretero , Michael P. Richards , Laura Rodríguez , Rolf Quam
      Dietary habits are inferred from dental microwear and isotope analyses of the Magdalenian human individual from the site of El Mirón, dated to 15,460 ± 40 BP. The pattern of dental microwear was established on the buccal surface of the lower fourth premolar and on the bottom of facet 9 on the occlusal surface of the lower third molar. The results obtained through analysis of different surfaces are consistent and indicate a mixed diet for this Lower Magdalenian individual, including meat, aquatic resources and vegetables. These results are in agreement with those obtained through isotope analysis. This implies a generalized exploitation of the environment as has been previously established in other Late Upper Palaeolithic specimens.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Microremains from El Mirón Cave human dental calculus suggest a mixed
           plant–animal subsistence economy during the Magdalenian in Northern
           Iberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Robert C. Power , Domingo C. Salazar-García , Lawrence G. Straus , Manuel R. González Morales , Amanda G. Henry
      Despite more than a century of detailed investigation of the Magdalenian period in Northern Iberia, our understanding of the diets during this period is limited. Methodologies for the reconstruction of Late Glacial subsistence strategies have overwhelmingly targeted animal exploitation, thus revealing only a portion of the dietary spectrum. Retrieving food debris from calculus offers a means to provide missing information on other components of diet. We undertook analysis of human dental calculus samples from Magdalenian individuals (including the “Red Lady”) at El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain), as well as several control samples, to better understand the less visible dietary components. Dental calculus yielded a diverse assemblage of microremains from plant, fungal, animal and mineral sources that may provide data on diet and environment. The types of microremains show that the individuals at El Mirón consumed a variety of plants, including seeds and underground storage organs, as well as other foods, including possibly bolete mushrooms. These findings suggest that plant and plant-like foods were parts of her diet, supplementing staples derived from animal foods. As faunal evidence suggests that the Magdalenian Cantabrian diet included a large proportion of animal foods, we argue here for a mixed subsistence pattern.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Spatial distribution analysis of the Lower Magdalenian human burial in El
           Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Jeanne Marie Geiling , Ana B. Marín-Arroyo
      By using Geographical Information System software this study presents the spatial distribution of the human remains and features within the burial found in a Lower Magdalenian level of El Mirón cave (Cantabria, Spain). The aim is to identify how the interment was created and discern its primary or secondary origin. Three-dimensional analyses have been applied to recognize the physical location of the burial and its structural elements in relation with the grave assemblage and the significance of the red ochre and specular hematite in the burial context. In addition, a comparison of the vertical and horizontal dispersal of human skeletal elements was carried out according to their representation and evidence of taphonomic modifications. The association of human bones with other archaeological finds was also taken into account. The results show that the human body was placed at the edge of the living area of the site, at the rear of the cave vestibule, but in a separate place behind an engraved block and covered with limestone rocks. The position of the anatomical elements and the spatial distribution of the taphonomic bone modifications prove that it was a primary burial, minimally disturbed by carnivores, after body decomposition. The absence of the cranium and most of the long bones seems to be the result of a deliberate anthropogenic extraction from the burial pit, possibly for redeposition at another, unknown location perhaps a secondary burial. This fact disturbed the initial primary body deposition. Therefore, the results show that the El Mirón Lower Magdalenian burial was a disturbed primary interment, rather than a secondary deposit.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Taphonomic study of the human remains from the Magdalenian burial in El
           Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ana B. Marín-Arroyo
      This article presents the taphonomic history of the human remains recovered in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain) and an interpretation of their burial. At the back of the vestibule and within the occupation area of the cave, an interment was made during the Lower Magdalenian, nearly 19 cal. kyr BP. Biostratinomic and diagenetic modifications found on the bones of an individual woman have provided essential information with which to understand the origin of the burial and related formation processes. The skeletal representation, bone modifications, spatial distribution and signs of disturbance within the burial area jointly suggest that the skeletal remains recovered in El Mirón are possibly the result of a primary burial deposition which, after soft tissue decomposition, was disturbed to extract the cranium and most of the long bones. Those bones may have been deposited elsewhere, either inside or outside the cave, perhaps in a partial secondary burial that remains undiscovered. The rest of the skeleton was ritually covered over again with red ochre, sediment and stones. Other than the ochre, no unequivocal grave goods were associated with the human remains.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • The vegetational and climatic contexts of the Lower Magdalenian human
           burial in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain): implications related to
           human behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): María-José Iriarte-Chiapusso , Alvaro Arrizabalaga , Gloria Cuenca-Bescós
      This paper presents and discusses the results of the studies of pollen and micro-mammal remains associated with the human burial in El Mirón Cave, dated in the Lower Magdalenian. The sedimentological integrity of the deposit has been confirmed through its comparison with the penecontemporaneous level in other parts of the cave. From the environmental point of view, this unit, like others of the same age in northern Spain, attests a very cold and arid climate. However, the pollen study reveals that it can be differentiated by the large quantity of Chenopodiaceae pollen (occasionally in the form of aggregates of grains), exclusively in the funerary context. In the discussion, various hypotheses are considered (funerary offering, food, to hygienize the grave or medicinal use) to interpret this over-representation. Although all the possibilities remain open, the most likely is thought to be the direct deposit of flowers at the time of the burial, either as a ritual element or for a more practical and hygienic purpose.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Archeozoological study of the macromammal remains stratigraphically
           associated with the Magdalenian human burial in El Mirón Cave
           (Cantabria, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ana B. Marín-Arroyo , Jeanne Marie Geiling
      The presence of abundant macromammal remains in the level in which the first Magdalenian human burial ever found in the Iberian Peninsula affords an outstanding opportunity to reconstruct aspects of the subsistence strategy of the hunter–gatherer group to which the deceased woman may have belonged. The analyses reported here, in addition to rejecting the hypothesis of deliberate faunal grave goods or funerary offerings, give us a better understanding of how Lower Magdalenian societies exploited available food resources, providing a first glimpse of how the El Mirón site fitted within the overall paleoeconomic framework of the Oldest Dryas phase of the Late Glacial in Cantabrian Spain. Furthermore, the particular location of the site at the ecotone between the Cantabrian Mountains and the valley of the Asón River, not far from the coastal lowlands, provides evidence of a highly efficient, productive system for exploiting the available ungulate game of the region.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Analysis of the red ochre of the El Mirón burial (Ramales de la
           Victoria, Cantabria, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Romualdo Seva Román , Cristina Biete Bañón , Mª Dolores Landete Ruiz
      This article analyzes the ochre associated with the human burial of Magdalenian age in El Mirón Cave that, with its unique features (deep red color, brightness and particle size distribution), is clearly differentiated from ochres in other strata of the site. The most common techniques in archaeological pigment characterization studies were used: binocular microscope inspection, thin sections, granulometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Raman spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained permit the characterization of special ochre in burial layer (hematite with idiomorphic crystallinity). Its origin is completely different from the samples from outcrops inside El Mirón Cave or obtained by prospecting in Carranza Valley. This type of hematite has been identified on the coast, in Santoña, about 26 km from the burial. Given its uniqueness, can be associated with some kind of ritual of the time whose roots lay in the Middle Palaeolithic and continued throughout the rest of Prehistory.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Lithic and osseous artifacts from the Lower Magdalenian human burial
           deposit in El Mirón cave, Cantabria, Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Lisa M. Fontes , Lawrence Guy Straus , Manuel R. González Morales
      This paper presents a preliminary summary of lithic and osseous artifacts recovered from El Mirón Level 504, whose ochre-stained sediments were associated with a Lower Magdalenian human burial. The lithic artifacts were concentrated to the south of the human remains. Debris indicate that manufacture was focused on late-stage bladelet reduction, which followed preparatory flake or blade removals. The lithic industry is rich in bladelet tools and other Lower Magdalenian diagnostic artifacts that were made on very high-quality flints. Osseous artifacts—principally antler sagaies—are highly fragmented, but their attributes are consistent with others known from El Mirón. Lithic and osseous artifacts are typical of the Lower Magdalenian of Cantabria. These artifacts were recovered from a level with significant microstratigraphic variation associated with cultural and natural formation processes, leaving unknown how extensively these materials were spatially and/or temporally displaced from their primary discard locations as part of Level 504 deposition. Interpreted as a single unit and compared with those from the underlying Level 505, these burial area materials testify to spatial continuity with the similarly rich Lower Magdalenian occupations identified in the El Mirón mid- and outer-vestibule into the vestibule rear. The artifacts found in Level 504 provide additional evidence that confirm the site's importance as a major Lower Magdalenian residential site in the montane zone of the Cantabrian region.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Ornaments from the Magdalenian burial area in El Mirón Cave
           (Cantabria, northern Spain). Were they grave goods?
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti , David Cuenca-Solana
      El Mirón Cave, located in northern Atlantic Iberia, has produced important evidence of human occupation during the Lower Magdalenian (19–17.5 cal kya). Among the finds dating to this period is that of a disturbed primary burial of an adult woman. The excavation of the small area around the burial yielded a considerable number of ornamental items (mainly shell beads), but the actual association of any of them with the interment is problematic. The results of our study of the perforated marine shells and mammal teeth suggest that the ornamental objects were not grave goods, but rather were simply artifacts present in the occupation layers in this part of the cave. The materials used to make ornaments were gathered by collecting shells along the Late Glacial shore and by hunting ungulates. The perforation techniques used were similar to those found at contemporary sites in the Franco-Cantabrian region and the appearance of various elements from the manufacturing operatory chain indicates that some of the ornaments were made at the site. It was also possible to determine that some of the shells were used—probably suspended or attached to other objects. From a functional standpoint, the ornaments probably played not only an aesthetic role, but also a symbolic one, facilitating communication and exchanges among human groups.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • Magdalenian-age graphic activity associated with the El Mirón Cave
           human burial
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Manuel R. González Morales , Lawrence G. Straus
      The human burial of Lower Magdalenian age in El Mirón Cave was found in the narrow space between the outward (westward) sloping bedrock wall of the vestibule rear and a very large limestone block. The corpse had been deposited in contact with both engraved lines on the cave wall and red ochre staining on the eastern face of the block. In addition, the burial was made at approximately the same time (ca. 18,700 calendar years ago, per multiple radiocarbon dates) that the western (daylight-facing) face was engraved with numerous lines, some of which (although not provable) could be seen as suggestive of a schematic, partial representation of a human female, which in turn could speculatively be interpreted, on chronological and physical associational grounds, as marking the presence of the human female interment behind the block. Furthermore, masses of engravings on the rear vestibule wall (including images of a horse and a possible bison) can potentially be attributed to the Lower Magdalenian, and thus roughly contemporaneous with the burial.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • “The Red Lady of El Mirón”. Lower Magdalenian life and
           death in Oldest Dryas Cantabrian Spain: an overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 60
      Author(s): Lawrence G. Straus , Manuel R. González Morales , Jose Miguel Carretero , Ana Belen Marín-Arroyo
      This synthesis article summarizes the multidisciplinary evidence and interpretations of the first substantial human burial of Magdalenian age to be discovered on the Iberian Peninsula. A robust, relatively tall, apparently healthy, probably female adult was buried at the rear of the living area in El Mirón Cave in the Cantabrian Cordillera of Spain about 18,700 calendar years ago. She had lived in the cold, open environment of Oldest Dryas, with a subsistence based on hunting mainly ibex and red deer, fishing salmon and some gathering of plants, including some starchy seeds and mushrooms. The technology of her group included the manufacture and use of stone tools and weapon elements made on both excellent-quality non-local flint and local non-flints, as well as antler projectile tips and bone needles. Her burial may have been marked by rock engravings suggestive of a female personage, by red ochre staining of a large block adjacent to her skeleton, and by engravings on the adjacent cave wall, and the burial layer itself was intensely stained with red ochre rich in specular hematite specially obtained from an apparently non-local source. The ochre may constitute the only demonstrable “grave offering”. The grave was partially disturbed by a carnivore of wolf size after the corpse had decomposed. Then, it is hypothesized that the skeleton was covered over again and (re-) stained by humans after they (or the carnivore) had removed the cranium and most of the large long bones.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
       
  • ‘A green thought in a green shade’; Compositional and
           typological observations concerning the production of emerald green glass
           vessels in the 1st century A.D.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Caroline M. Jackson , Sally Cottam
      The results of a programme of compositional analysis on a series of emerald green glass vessels of known form and date suggest that emerald green vessels have distinct characteristics that set them apart from most contemporary glasses. These specific compositional peculiarities presented here will be evaluated in the context of the varieties of vessel forms produced in the colour. In the light of our findings we will suggest a number of ways forward in the understanding of the structure of the early Roman glass industry.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T13:20:19Z
       
 
 
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