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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 226 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 53)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access  
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ROMVLA     Open Access  
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [58 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Chemical analyses of Egyptian mummification balms and organic residues
           from storage jars dated from the Old Kingdom to the Copto-Byzantine period
           
    • Authors: Jeannette Łucejko; Jacques Connan; Sibilla Orsini; Erika Ribechini; Francesca Modugno
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jeannette Łucejko, Jacques Connan, Sibilla Orsini, Erika Ribechini, Francesca Modugno
      Twenty three samples of Egyptian organic materials, spanning from the Old Kingdom to the Copto-Byzantine Period, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The sample set was comprised of ten balm samples from human mummies, three balms from shrews, and ten samples of residues scraped from jars and amphora from storehouses. This research program was undertaken with two main goals: Firstly to provide complementary data on the mummification balms from both humans and animals with an emphasis on the occurrence of bitumen in mummification mixtures. Secondly to explore whether the jar residues were mixtures that were used for mummification purposes or whether they were pure ingredients stored for various uses including ritual practices. The analysis highlighted that the most abundant constituents of the mummification balms were: fats or oils, waxes, conifer resin, pitch, mastic resin, castor oil, and bitumen. Balms from animal mummies were not found to be significantly different from the balms from human mummies. Residues from potsherds appeared to belong to two categories: pure products (fats and castor oil) and mixtures containing fats, Pinaceae resin and pitch, mastic resin, and castor oil, i.e. the constituents also identified in mummification balms. The mixtures were thus residues of preparations for ritual practices and embalming. This study demonstrates that bitumen is underestimated by the chemical approach currently applied in most archaeometric studies of Egyptian organic residues, which are better suited for the identification of lipids and resinous materials. We thus applied a specific analytical design, targeted at bitumen. Bitumen from the Dead Sea was conclusively identified using as reference materials for comparison, i.e. the present day bitumen from the Dead Sea floating blocks, as well as several bitumens from mummification balms and bitumen lumps unearthed from the archaeological site of Tell Yarmouth near Jerusalem in Israel.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Micromorphological indicators for degradation processes in archaeological
           bone from temperate European wetland sites
    • Authors: Hans Huisman; Kristin Ismail-Meyer; Barbara M. Sageidet; Ineke Joosten
      Pages: 13 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hans Huisman, Kristin Ismail-Meyer, Barbara M. Sageidet, Ineke Joosten
      Micromorphological investigations of archaeological bones make it possible to study decay processes and the associated depositional environment in one go. A selection of micromorphological thin sections from soil samples from three wetland sites in Switzerland, The Netherlands and Norway that contained bone fragments were studied. The goal was to investigate the type and the timing of decay processes to better understand the taphonomy of bones in such sites. Using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), a range of biological decay processes and chemical/mineralogical transformations were observed. In two of the sites – Zug-Riedmatt in Switzerland and Hazendonk in The Netherlands – a relatively short exposure to adverse conditions must have occurred: Some of the bones from Zug-Riedmatt show localized collagen decay related to exposure to fresh ashes; others show cyanobacterial tunnelling related to submersion in shallow, clear water. In Hazendonk, bone fragments and fish scales apparently have first been exposed to bacterial decay related to putrefaction. Subsequently, alternations between wet and dry conditions resulted in the dissolution of some of the bone mineral and the formation of Ca, Fe(III) phosphates, probably mitridatite. Fungal decay caused extensive tunnelling of bone and fish scales as well as the secondary phosphates. These processes apparently ended when the bone-rich layer became permanently waterlogged and anoxic. In Stavanger, bone mineral is transformed into mitridatite and possibly other Ca Fe(III) phosphates. Indications that the redox conditions are variable at present suggest that these processes are still active.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Cautionary tales on the identification of caffeinated beverages in North
           America
    • Authors: Adam King; Terry G. Powis; Kong F. Cheong; Nilesh W. Gaikwad
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Adam King, Terry G. Powis, Kong F. Cheong, Nilesh W. Gaikwad
      In recent years several studies have attempted to understand the use of caffeinated beverages in North America before the coming of Europeans using absorbed residues. These studies have focused on the two key plant sources of caffeine in North America: Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Ilex vomitoria (yaupon holly). The authors initiated a study to explore the possibility that one or both plants were used at the Mississippian period (900–1600 CE) center of Etowah in northern Georgia. In the process, a series of problems with methodologies in use were revealed. Key among those were limitations on the methods used to identify ancient caffeinated beverage residues, distinguish them from modern contamination, and differentiate residues made by each plant. In this paper we explore what our data from the Etowah site reveal about methodologies currently in use and make suggestions for future studies of residues created by caffeinated beverages in North America.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • A landmark-based approach for assessing the reliability of mandibular
           tooth crowding as a marker of dog domestication
    • Authors: Carly Ameen; Ardern Hulme-Beaman; Allowen Evin; Mietje Germonpré; Kate Britton; Thomas Cucchi; Greger Larson; Keith Dobney
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Carly Ameen, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Allowen Evin, Mietje Germonpré, Kate Britton, Thomas Cucchi, Greger Larson, Keith Dobney
      Tooth crowding is one of several criteria used to infer the process of domestication in the zooarchaeological record. It has been primarily used to support claims of early animal domestication, perhaps most contentiously in claims for the existence of so-called “proto-domestic” dogs as early as the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic. Tooth crowding studies vary in their methodological approaches, and interpretation of the resulting data is constrained by the limited geographic and temporal scope of reference specimens used to construct an appropriate comparative framework. To address these key problems, we present a standardised landmark-based protocol for the measurement and quantification of mandibular tooth crowding that can be systematically applied in the context of dog domestication research. We then test the assumption that tooth crowding is less frequent in ancient and modern wild wolf populations by examining 750 modern dogs and 205 modern wolves from across the modern geographic range of Canis lupus as well as 66 Late Pleistocene wolves from Alaska. Our results demonstrate that landmark-based metrics provide a reliable approach for recording and analysing tooth crowding. Although it is likely that the relatively low frequency of tooth crowding found in our modern dog dataset (∼6%) in part reflects the ‘modern’ morphology of domestic breeds, the higher frequency of crowding in both modern (∼18%) and ancient (∼36%) wolves strongly suggests that current assumptions linking tooth crowding with the process of early domestication (at least in dogs) should be critically re-evaluated, and that further investigations into the drivers behind these developmental patterns should be pursued.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of organic matter and biomarkers from Diepkloof Rock
           Shelter, South Africa: Insights into Middle Stone Age site usage and
           palaeoclimate
    • Authors: James A. Collins; Andrew S. Carr; Enno Schefuß; Arnoud Boom; Judith Sealy
      Pages: 51 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): James A. Collins, Andrew S. Carr, Enno Schefuß, Arnoud Boom, Judith Sealy
      Diepkloof Rock Shelter (DRS) represents a site of major interest for reconstructing early human behaviours during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). Rock shelters such as DRS also potentially preserve information concerning the environmental context for such behaviours. In this respect the organic matter composition of rock shelter sediments has rarely been investigated in detail, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we used pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) to systematically assess the organic matter composition of bulk sediments within the MSA and Later Stone Age (LSA) sequence at DRS. From this we sought to gain insights into site usage, taphonomy and burning practices. Additionally, we analysed the chain length distribution of leaf-wax n-alkanes as well as their hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions (δDwax and δ13Cwax) to investigate their potential as hydroclimate and vegetation indicators. This constitutes the first leaf-wax isotopic data in a terrestrial context of this antiquity in South Africa. Py-GC/MS shows a dichotomy between stratigraphic units (SUs) of high organic matter content, producing a range of pyrolysis products, including homologous series of long chain n-alkene/n-alkane doublets and alkyl-nitriles, and SUs of low organic matter content, dominated by aromatic, heterocyclic N and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrolysis products; typical molecular burning products. Several SUs of the Intermediate Howiesons Poort interval exhibit the latter composition, consistent with micromorphological evidence. δ13Cwax remains stable throughout the MSA, but leaf-wax n-alkane chain length and δDwax increase during the Late Howiesons Poort interval. Comparison with such patterns in modern plants in the region suggests this represents a shift towards the input of more arid-adapted vegetation into the shelter, driven either by aridification at the site locale or a change in selection practices. Our results suggest that these techniques have further potential in southern Africa and globally at sites where organic matter preservation is high.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Advances in archaeomagnetic dating in Britain: New data, new approaches
           and a new calibration curve
    • Authors: Catherine M. Batt; Maxwell C. Brown; Sarah-Jane Clelland; Monika Korte; Paul Linford; Zoe Outram
      Pages: 66 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Catherine M. Batt, Maxwell C. Brown, Sarah-Jane Clelland, Monika Korte, Paul Linford, Zoe Outram
      Archaeomagnetic dating offers a valuable chronological tool for archaeological investigations, particularly for dating fired material. The method depends on the establishment of a dated record of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field and this paper presents new and updated archaeomagnetic directional data from the UK and geomagnetic secular variation curves arising from them. The data are taken from publications from the 1950's to the present day; 422 dated entries derived from existing archaeo and geomagnetic databases are re-evaluated and 487 new directions added, resulting in 909 entries with corresponding dates, the largest collection of dated archaeomagnetic directions from a single country. An approach to improving the largest source of uncertainty, the independent dating, is proposed and applied to the British Iron Age, resulting in 145 directions from currently available databases being updated with revised ages and/or uncertainties, and a large scale reassessment of age assignments prior to inclusion into the Magnetic Moments of the Past and GEOMAGIA50 databases. From the significantly improved dataset a new archaeomagnetic dating curve for the UK is derived through the development of a temporally continuous geomagnetic field model, and is compared with previous UK archaeomagnetic dating curves and global field models. The new model, ARCH-UK.1 allows model predictions for any location in the UK with associated uncertainties. It is shown to improve precision and accuracy in archaeomagnetic dating, and to provide new insight into past geomagnetic field changes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • A technological and morphological study of Late Paleolithic ostrich
           eggshell beads from Shuidonggou, North China
    • Authors: Yi Wei; Francesco d’Errico; Marian Vanhaeren; Fei Peng; Fuyou Chen; Xing Gao
      Pages: 83 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Yi Wei, Francesco d’Errico, Marian Vanhaeren, Fei Peng, Fuyou Chen, Xing Gao
      We report the results of a detailed analysis of ostrich eggshell (OES) beads derived mainly from Cultural Layer 2 (CL2) of Locality 2 at the Shuidonggou site (SDG2) in North China, which is dated to ca. 31 ka cal BP. The eggshells belong to the extinct ostrich Struthio anderssoni. Based on microscopic examination, morphometric analysis, and experimental replication, we identify clear differences in morphology, size, technology, and style. Results indicate that the technology of bead making is similar to that used in most Middle and Later Stone Age sites in Africa and recorded ethnographically. Both well-made and poorly-crafted OES beads were produced at SDG2. Drilling experiments conducted in the framework of this study show that hafted stone points were probably used to make the perforations. Only occasionally beads were deliberately polished on inner and outer eggshell surfaces. Beads morphology and technology suggest that distinct types of beads were made by different individual craftspeople. This supports the hypothesis that several human groups visited the Shuidonggou site and used OES beads as an information technology about 31 ka cal BP.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Identifying the accumulator: Making the most of bone surface modification
           data
    • Authors: Jessica C. Thompson; J. Tyler Faith; Naomi Cleghorn; Jamie Hodgkins
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jessica C. Thompson, J. Tyler Faith, Naomi Cleghorn, Jamie Hodgkins
      Taphonomic analysis is an essential component of zooarchaeology, but is employed in different ways within different research traditions. Within the Africanist Palaeolithic literature, there is a strong emphasis on quantitative comparison of proportions of different bone surface modifications to one another and to proportions observed on modern experimental collections. This work has been driven by debates about the taphonomic histories of Oldowan sites that document the subsistence strategies of early Homo, but this specific approach can be usefully applied to a range of contexts across many different time periods and geographic locations. One obstacle to the cross-fertilization of this taphonomic tradition with other zooarchaeological work is the restrictive manner in which data are selected from an assemblage for analysis. To ensure comparability between fossil and modern assemblages, analysts typically exclude specimens with evidence for post-depositional modification not modeled in the experimental data. Although this adds interpretive robustness, it can diminish sample size significantly, sometimes to the point of affecting statistical analyses, and results in much time invested in collecting data that ultimately are not used. Here, we describe a new method for maximizing the number of specimens that can be incorporated into analysis, thus resolving the persistent problem of poor sample sizes to make more statistically robust comparisons to actualistic datasets.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Diagnostic properties of hammerstone-broken long bone fragments, specimen
           identifiability, and Early Stone Age butchered assemblage interpretation
    • Authors: Stephen R. Merritt; Kellyn M. Davis
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Stephen R. Merritt, Kellyn M. Davis
      Zooarchaeological assemblages in a variety of geographic and temporal contexts are dominated by fragmentary long bone specimens, and precise identification of side, skeletal element, and bone portion underlie archaeological interpretations, including specimen counts for skeletal part profiles, minimum number of element (MNE), and individual (MNI) estimates. Actualistic hammerstone and anvil breakage of domestic goat limb bones was used to document how fragmentation impacts precise identification of skeletal specimens, analysis of assemblage composition, and reconstructions of butchery behavior. Specimens greater than 2-cm in size were assigned to categories that describe the precision with which side, element, upper, intermediate and lower limb segment, and long bone portion could be identified. Results suggest that specimen size is positively related to identifiability, and more identifiable specimens tend to include epiphyses and relatively complete shaft circumferences. Most elements produced a similar number of fragments, including highly identifiable ends that yield accurate skeletal part profiles, MNE, and MNI estimates. However, if density-mediated destruction removes these specimens, analysis of less-identifiable shaft fragments significantly underrepresents element and individual abundance. The number of identified limb specimens (NISP), MNE, and epiphysis-to-shaft ratios in fragmentary archaeological butchery assemblages suggest limb end underrepresentation deflates measures of assemblage abundance and reduces the behavioral resolution of butchery interpretations. However, zooarchaeological analyses can productively incorporate fragmentary, less-identifiable specimens when they define hypotheses that match the scale of archaeological data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Visualising scales of process: Multi-scalar geoarchaeological
           investigations of microstratigraphy and diagenesis at hominin bearing
           sites in South African karst
    • Authors: Tara Edwards; Elle Grono; Andy I.R. Herries; Frank J. Brink; Ulrike Troitzsch; Tim Senden; Michael Turner; Aleese Barron; Lauren Prossor; Tim Denham
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 83
      Author(s): Tara Edwards, Elle Grono, Andy I.R. Herries, Frank J. Brink, Ulrike Troitzsch, Tim Senden, Michael Turner, Aleese Barron, Lauren Prossor, Tim Denham
      Multi-scalar geoarchaeological investigations were conducted on several samples of sediment (dolomite cave sediments, ferricrete ridge, speleothem, tufa and tufa cave sediments) from four early hominin fossil-bearing sites (Taung Type Site, Haasgat, Drimolen Main Quarry, Elandsfontein) in different South African karst environments. The study was designed to test the value of geoarchaeological techniques for identifying and characterising environments of deposition and diagenetic processes involved in site formation within different mediums and different karst environments. The traditional petrographic method is weighed against two relatively new methodological contributions to site formation and diagenesis: Computed Tomography (CT) and automated Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (QEM-EDS), employing QEMSCAN® technology. An integrated micro-sampling approach is outlined for successful cross-correlation between techniques. The study demonstrates that different analyses vary in their ability to visualise different types of process – primary and secondary. Thin section petrography remains the ‘gold standard’ for analyses conducted at the micro-scale, while QEM-EDS and CT offer exciting potential to perform meso-scale analyses and are best utilised as complementary rather than alternative techniques to petrography.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T19:41:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Echoing landscapes: Echolocation and the placement of rock art in the
           Central Mediterranean
    • Authors: Tommaso Mattioli; Angelo Farina; Enrico Armelloni; Philippe Hameau; Margarita Díaz-Andreu
      Pages: 12 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 83
      Author(s): Tommaso Mattioli, Angelo Farina, Enrico Armelloni, Philippe Hameau, Margarita Díaz-Andreu
      Many societies give special importance to places where echoes are generated, and often these places receive special treatment including the production of rock paintings in them. The identification of the exact places where echoes come from, or echolocation, is an ability only shared by a few individuals in each community. Unfortunately for archaeologists, however, their activity leaves no trace in the archaeological record. In this article we propose that the Ambisonics technique, a method developed in the field of acoustical physics, can be applied to identify the likely use of echolocation among societies for which no ethnographic information remains, such as most of those who lived in prehistoric Europe. A description of how this method has been applied in two case studies, the rock art landscapes of Baume Brune (Vaucluse, France) and Valle d’Ividoro (Puglia, Italy), is provided. In these two echoing areas only a few shelters were chosen to be painted with Schematic art, leaving around them many others undecorated. In the description of the fieldwork phase of the test, issues related to the sound source, the sound recorder, and spherical camera and how the Impulse Response (IR) measurement was made are discussed. The processed results indicate that there was a positive relationship between sound-reflecting surfaces and the location of rock art. This leads us to propose that in both areas there is a strong probability of echolocation having been employed by Neolithic people to select the shelters in which to produce rock art. The results obtained in our study also have wider implications in our understanding of how prehistoric peoples perceived the landscape in which they lived in, understood not only on the basis of tangible elements but, perhaps more importantly, because of intangible aspects such as sound and, in particular, echoes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Charred honeycombs discovered in Iron Age Northern Italy. A new light on
           boat beekeeping and bee pollination in pre-modern world
    • Authors: Lorenzo Castellano; Cesare Ravazzi; Giulia Furlanetto; Roberta Pini; Francesco Saliu; Marina Lasagni; Marco Orlandi; Renata Perego; Ilaria Degano; Franco Valoti; Raffaele C. de Marinis; Stefania Casini; Tommaso Quirino; Marta Rapi
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 83
      Author(s): Lorenzo Castellano, Cesare Ravazzi, Giulia Furlanetto, Roberta Pini, Francesco Saliu, Marina Lasagni, Marco Orlandi, Renata Perego, Ilaria Degano, Franco Valoti, Raffaele C. de Marinis, Stefania Casini, Tommaso Quirino, Marta Rapi
      In the ancient world beeswax and honey were of crucial importance not only for nutrition, but also for a range of activities including various artisanal practices. A rich body of iconographic and literary evidence has proven very informative, but archaeological data are strongly underrepresented in studies on ancient beekeeping. A multidisciplinary excavation project of the Etruscan trade center of Forcello near Bagnolo San Vito (Mantua province), led to the discovery of charred honeycombs in a workshop dated to 510-495 BCE. Morphoscopical, palynological and chemical analyses (IR, LC-MS, GC-MS) were conducted on these honeycombs and their associated materials (bee-breads and a mixture of melted honeycombs) in order to reconstruct beekeeping practices and the local environment. Palynological data indicate that honeybees were feeding on plants from both aquatic and ruderal landscapes. The palynological record from the bee-breads suggests the practice of itinerant beekeeping along rivers, an activity described by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, XXI.43.73) a few centuries later in relation to the town of Ostiglia (Mantua province) ca. 20 km downstream the investigated site. Hence, confirming the historical source, beekeeping in Iron Age Northern Italy appears to be characterized by a remarkably high degree of specialization. In addition, the pollen content of the melted honeycombs provides evidence for an unprecedented Vitis vinifera (grapevine) honey. The pollination syndrome suggests that bees fed on nectar of pre-domesticated or early-domesticated varieties of Vitis vinifera, confirming the archaeobotanical record of pips from Iron Age Northern Italy.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Diet reconstructed from an analysis of plant microfossils in human dental
           calculus from the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang, southwestern China
    • Authors: Naimeng Zhang; Guanghui Dong; Xiaoyan Yang; Xinxin Zuo; Lihong Kang; Lele Ren; Honggao Liu; Hu Li; Rui Min; Xu Liu; Dongju Zhang; Fahu Chen
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 83
      Author(s): Naimeng Zhang, Guanghui Dong, Xiaoyan Yang, Xinxin Zuo, Lihong Kang, Lele Ren, Honggao Liu, Hu Li, Rui Min, Xu Liu, Dongju Zhang, Fahu Chen
      The extracted microfossils from the dental calculus of ancient teeth are a new form of archaeological evidence which can provide direct information on the plant diet of a population. Here, we present the results of analyses of starch grains and phytoliths trapped in the dental calculus of humans who occupied the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (∼2500 cal yr BP) in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The results demonstrate that the inhabitants consumed a wide range of plants, including rice, millet, and palms, together with other food plants which have not previously been detected in Yunnan. The discovery of various underground storage organs (USOs; tubers, roots, bulbs, and rhizomes) and acorns complements the application of conventional macrofossil and isotope studies to understand the diet of the Bronze Age human population of Yunnan. The wide variety of plant foods consumed suggests that the inhabitants adopted a broad-spectrum strategy of gathering food and cultivating crops in northwest Yunnan Province in the late Bronze Age at a time when agricultural societies were developed in the central plains of China.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Materials analyses of pyrotechnological objects from LBA Tiryns, Greece,
           by means of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Results and a
           critical assessment of the method
    • Authors: Ann Brysbaert; Panayiotis Siozos; Melissa Vetters; Aggelos Philippidis; Demetrios Anglos
      Pages: 49 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ann Brysbaert, Panayiotis Siozos, Melissa Vetters, Aggelos Philippidis, Demetrios Anglos
      Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in the investigation of pyrotechnological materials (metal and ceramic items, glass-based objects, plaster-based materials) from several Late Bronze Age workshop and activity area contexts at Tiryns, Greece. The use of a portable instrument, which could be brought into the study place where all objects were housed, was crucial in order to establish the elemental content or verify the material composition of almost all materials analysed. In almost all cases, the LIBS analyses led to the preliminary identification of the materials investigated. In most cases, the results sufficed to confirm earlier research carried out or was in agreement with similar analyses published in the literature. The analyses demonstrate that the micro-invasive LIBS technique provides useful preliminary elemental characterization of most of the pyrotechnological materials while for some, additional work needs to be conducted for securing conclusive results. Essentially, the portability and compactness of the instrumentation enable its use in any workspace with a solid desk, light and electricity access which makes this technique very attractive for obtaining preliminary elementary results. While the technique remains limited by spot analyses it does open up an immense array of possibilities for routine characterization or speedy screening of different types of artefacts in any storage or museum context. These important methodological and scientific findings are considered prerequisite steps leading towards and aiding in responsible sampling strategies for further analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Locating where archaeological sites occur in intertidal sequences: The use
           of archaeoentomological data as a proxy for tidal regime
    • Authors: David Smith
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): David Smith
      Intertidal archaeological deposits occur worldwide, particularly in the temperate latitudes. These deposits can contain archaeological sites that were constructed at the time these were terrestrial landscapes, but subsequently were inundated as a result of rising sea levels. Part of this process can include the development of salt marshes. There is a need, therefore, to identify where archaeological sites lie within the cline of past tidal regimes. This paper presents the results of a survey of UK archaeoentomological data recovered from intertidal deposits which was undertaken in order to identify patterns in archaeoentomological data that might indicate a deposit's position within a saltmarsh. Such an approach has potential to establish ‘indicator groups’ for saltmarsh zones, thereby facilitating archaeological interpretation of intertidal deposits. A statistical ordination of the archaeoentomological dataset has been undertaken to explore the security and strength of proposed archaeoentomological indicator groups for various ecological zones within saltmarsh/intertidal environments and the results are presented here. These indicator groups also are crossed-checked against the known modern ecology of the various beetles included within each grouping, to determine if they make good ‘ecological sense’. The dataset discussed here is specific to Northern Europe, but the approach is applicable worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:20:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Rethinking cultural hybridity and technology transfer: SEM microstructural
           analysis of lead glazed ceramics from early colonial Peru
    • Authors: Parker VanValkenburgh; Sarah J. Kelloway; Karen L. Privat; Bill Sillar; Jeffrey Quilter
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Parker VanValkenburgh, Sarah J. Kelloway, Karen L. Privat, Bill Sillar, Jeffrey Quilter
      Through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) microstructural analysis, we examine the firing technology of Early Green Glazed (EGG) Ware – a variety of “hybrid” lead-glazed ceramics produced in Peru's north coast region during the 16th century CE. Previous scholars have interpreted EGG Ware as the product of indigenous potters who fired ceramics in kilns and learned how to make glazed vessels through direct instruction from Iberian ceramicists. We argue that the production of EGG Ware entailed a more complex process of technological incorporation and innovation. SEM microstructural analysis of 44 archaeological samples suggests that these ceramics were originally fired under highly variable conditions. Parallel analysis of five samples of lead-glazed ceramics produced in open firings by Peruvian artisans in the 1980's reveals consistent firing beyond their clays' maturation temperatures. Based on these results and analysis of whole EGG Ware vessels from museum collections, we suggest that at least some of our EGG Ware samples were produced in open firings. In turn, we argue that EGG Ware reflects the creativity of native potters who adapted indigenous firing technologies and experimented with different parameters in the process of forging a new decorative tradition.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T10:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Evidence of arsenical copper smelting in Bronze Age China: A study of
           metallurgical slag from the Laoniupo site, central Shaanxi
    • Authors: Kunlong Chen; Siran Liu; Yanxiang Li; Jianjun Mei; Anding Shao; Lianjian Yue
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kunlong Chen, Siran Liu, Yanxiang Li, Jianjun Mei, Anding Shao, Lianjian Yue
      Previous archaeometallurgical studies on Bronze Age China mainly focused on finished artefacts, whereas our understanding of copper smelting technology of this period is still limited. This paper, for the first time, presents analytical results of metal production remains from the site of Laoniupo in Guanzhong Plain, central Shaanxi. It reveals that arsenical copper was produced at this site by smelting arsenic-rich polymetallic ores with raw copper or high purity copper ores. The identification of metal production in the Guanzhong Plain is significant for the investigation of regional development and inter-regional interaction of Bronze Age cultures in China. The possible exploitation of ores from deposits in the Qinling Mountain region during this period is also discussed in this article.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T10:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Preference for fish in a Neolithic hunter-gatherer community of the upper
           Tigris, elucidated by amino acid δ15N analysis
    • Authors: Yu Itahashi; Yutaka Miyake; Osamu Maeda; Osamu Kondo; Hitomi Hongo; Wim Van Neer; Yoshito Chikaraishi; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Minoru Yoneda
      Pages: 40 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Yu Itahashi, Yutaka Miyake, Osamu Maeda, Osamu Kondo, Hitomi Hongo, Wim Van Neer, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Minoru Yoneda
      We report here the stable nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) of individual amino acids and the δ15N and δ13C content of collagen from human and faunal remains collected from Hasankeyf Höyük, an early Neolithic site in the upper Tigris valley. Based on the δ15N of collagen only, the contributions of freshwater resources to the diet of the hunter-gatherers were difficult to clearly identify relative to terrestrial resources. However, analysis of the nitrogen isotope composition of individual amino acids enabled the identification of minor contributions from freshwater resources to the diet in a community primarily dependent on terrestrial resources. Individual variability suggested that some individuals at Hasankeyf Höyük used freshwater resources, whereas others probably depended primarily on terrestrial food resources. The importance of freshwater resources as food for this hunter-gatherer community was variable among groups and depended on burial location and time of burial.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T10:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • From commodity to singularity: The production of crossbow brooches and the
           rise of the Late Roman military elite
    • Authors: Vince Van Thienen; Sylvia Lycke
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Vince Van Thienen, Sylvia Lycke
      The diachronic development of the crossbow brooch was examined for northern Gaul during the Late Roman period (3rd to 5th century) in order to extrapolate changes in production organisation from variation in the copper-alloy composition and shape of the artefacts. A combined method of surface analysis by handheld XRF and dimensional analyses by focussing on variation or similarity was applied and interpreted in a typological framework to confirm and enhance the traditional production model of the crossbow brooch. This led to new insights into the processes of regionality and state-control in Roman metal production in a provincial context. From a simple military commodity to an elite symbol of power and authority, these changes in production and consumption reflect sociocultural changes in the Late Roman West.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Novel sampling techniques for trace element quantification in ancient
           copper artifacts using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass
           spectrometry
    • Authors: Marcel Burger; Reto Glaus; Vera Hubert; Samuel van Willigen; Marie Wörle-Soares; Fabien Convertini; Philippe Lefranc; Ebbe Nielsen; Detlef Günther
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Marcel Burger, Reto Glaus, Vera Hubert, Samuel van Willigen, Marie Wörle-Soares, Fabien Convertini, Philippe Lefranc, Ebbe Nielsen, Detlef Günther
      Elemental analyses using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) have great potential in archaeometric research due to the quasi-nondestructive sampling and excellent sensitivity of the method. However, the application of LA-ICPMS in cultural heritage research is often limited because samples are too large to fit within an ablation cell or cannot be moved to the laboratory. This work reports the development of analytical routines that allow trace element quantification in ancient copper artifacts regardless their mobility, size or geometry. In this study, the LA sampling step was performed in ambient air using a portable laser ablation device (pLA). The LA module was placed on the object of interest and the laser-generated aerosol was either directly transferred into the ICPMS via a large-capacity gas exchange device (GED) or collected on polycarbonate membrane filters, which were later analyzed by LA-ICPMS. The analytical performances of both approaches were assessed using various copper reference materials. The laboratory-based, ablation-cell-independent pLA-GED-ICPMS method, yielded accuracies comparable to those obtained via conventional LA-ICPMS (±10%). Good performances (±30%) were also obtained with the pLA + filter sampling approach and subsequent LA-ICPMS analysis. Limits of detection for both approaches were in the low μg/g or sub- μg/g range, making these methods interesting for trace element analysis. After validating these laser-based techniques on an ancient copper object whose elemental composition had previously been determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), five Neolithic copper artifacts found in Switzerland and France were analyzed using the pLA + filter sampling approach. A copper dagger found in Lattrigen, Switzerland was analyzed using the pLA-GED-ICPMS method. Furthermore, the laser-induced sample damage was investigated. The trace element profiles of the objects under investigation were compared to those of well-characterized copper artifacts. Thus, the chronological and cultural background of these artifacts could be determined. One group of copper artifacts showed high arsenic concentrations (up to 1% [w/w]) and could be attributed to “Mondsee copper”, which was particularly common in the eastern Alps during the Middle European Late Neolithic. Other objects under investigation showed trace element concentrations, which are typical for the Late Neolithic north of the Alps. One artifact had a composition typical for objects from the Late Neolithic of Southern France.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Wet sieving a complex tell: Implications for retrieval protocols and
           studies of animal economy in historical periods
    • Authors: Lidar Sapir-Hen; Ilan Sharon; Ayelet Gilboa; Tamar Dayan
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 82
      Author(s): Lidar Sapir-Hen, Ilan Sharon, Ayelet Gilboa, Tamar Dayan
      The understanding that fine mesh sieving is the optimal procedure for the recovery of minute finds poses two challenges for archeologists of historical periods: it is costly and time consuming, and it puts into question the value of data collected in excavations where sieving was conducted minimally or not at all. That hand picking causes loss of data pertaining to microfaunal remains is indisputable, but the extent of information loss regarding larger fauna is not as clear. In order to evaluate these challenges for macrofaunal remains, we carried out, for the first time, a comprehensive sieving experiment at Tel Dor, a multi-layered complex site, the most prominent site type in historical periods. We examine the effects of wet sieving on the macro- and microfauna frequencies, and discuss its implications in terms of the interpretations of the faunal assemblages and the choice of excavations' collection protocols. We demonstrate that while sieving has a substantial effect on microfauna frequencies, it has a limited effect on those of the macrofauna. We also suggest that faunal assemblages of livestock animals that were hand collected or partially sieved, are valid for comparison with sieved assemblages. Finally, we call for an explicit presentation of the retrieval protocol in site reports and other studies, differentiating clearly between sieved and un-sieved material, and raise some points for future discussion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T10:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Iridium to provenance ancient silver
    • Authors: Jonathan R. Wood; Michael F. Charlton; Mercedes Murillo-Barroso; Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Jonathan R. Wood, Michael F. Charlton, Mercedes Murillo-Barroso, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Trace levels of iridium in ancient silver artefacts can provide information on the sources of silver-bearing ores as well as the technologies used to extract silver. A geographically and chronologically disparate legacy dataset, comprised of Near Eastern objects from the Sasanian and Byzantine Empires (1st Millennium AD) and coins circulating around the Mediterranean in the mid-1st Millennium BC, shows that Ag-Au-Ir log-ratio plots can help identify silver derived from the same mining areas, as well as broadly differentiating between the ore types exploited. Combining trace element and lead isotope analyses through the Pb crustal age of the ore, further delimits interpretations on the compositions and locations of silver ore sources. Furthermore, it is shown that silver artefacts of Near Eastern origin have exceptionally high iridium levels, suggesting a unique silver-bearing ore source, potentially in the Taurus mountain range of southern Anatolia. The wide range of crustal ages identified for ancient Greek coins and Near Eastern objects suggest that the addition of exogenous lead as a silver collector during smelting was common practice in the Near East as early as 475BCE. The practice of mixing silver from different sources has also been identified by triangulating the log-ratio subcomposition plots, Pb crustal ages of the ore from which the silver derived and absolute values of trace levels of gold and iridium in silver artefacts.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T04:33:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • The Anoka, Minnesota iron meteorite as parent to Hopewell meteoritic metal
           beads from Havana, Illinois
    • Authors: Timothy J. McCoy; Amy E. Marquardt; John T. Wasson; Richard D. Ash; Edward P. Vicenzi
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Timothy J. McCoy, Amy E. Marquardt, John T. Wasson, Richard D. Ash, Edward P. Vicenzi
      Although rare among Hopewell horizon artifacts, meteoritic metal represents the most exotic raw material used during the Middle Woodland period in Eastern North America. We demonstrate that Hopewell meteoritic beads recovered from Havana, Illinois can be linked to the Anoka, Minnesota, iron, which fell as a shower of irons across the Mississippi River. The similarity in major, minor and trace element chemistry between Anoka and Havana, the presence of micrometer-sized inclusions of gamma iron in kamacite in both, and the obvious connection via the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers between Anoka and Havana point to the production of the Havana beads from a mass of the Anoka iron. Experiments strongly support the manufacture of the beads via fragmentation of schreibersite inclusions to liberate small pieces of metal. Repeated cycles of heating to temperatures of 600–700 °C followed by cold-working produced flattened metal sheets. These sheets were subsequently rolled to make the Havana beads. Recovery of the iron mass of Anoka that was used to make the beads likely occurred by local populations who were part of the Trempeleau Hopewell center, with exchange bringing it to the Havana Hopewell center, where the beads were manufactured.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T18:34:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Explaining the origin of fluting in North American Pleistocene weaponry
    • Authors: Kaitlyn A. Thomas; Brett A. Story; Metin I. Eren; Briggs Buchanan; Brian N. Andrews; Michael J. O'Brien; David J. Meltzer
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Kaitlyn A. Thomas, Brett A. Story, Metin I. Eren, Briggs Buchanan, Brian N. Andrews, Michael J. O'Brien, David J. Meltzer
      Clovis groups, the first widely successful colonizers of North America, had a distinctive technology, whereby manufacturers removed flakes to thin the bases of their stone projectile points, creating “flutes.” That process is challenging to learn and costly to implement, yet was used continent-wide. It has long been debated whether fluting conferred any adaptive benefit. We compared standardized models of fluted and unfluted points: analytically, by way of static, linear finite element modeling and discrete, deteriorating spring modeling; and experimentally, by way of displacement-controlled axial-compression tests. We found evidence that the fluted-point base acts as a “shock absorber,” increasing point robustness and ability to withstand physical stress via stress redistribution and damage relocation. This structural gain in point resilience would have provided a selective advantage to foragers on a largely unfamiliar landscape, who were ranging far from known stone sources and in need of longer-lasting, reliable, and maintainable weaponry.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • A Bayesian chronology for early domestic horse use in the Eastern Steppe
    • Authors: William Timothy Treal Taylor; Burentogtokh Jargalan; K. Bryce Lowry; Julia Clark; Tumurbaatar Tuvshinjargal; Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): William Timothy Treal Taylor, Burentogtokh Jargalan, K. Bryce Lowry, Julia Clark, Tumurbaatar Tuvshinjargal, Jamsranjav Bayarsaikhan
      Archaeological horse remains from Mongolia's late Bronze Age Deer Stone-Khirigsuur (DSK) culture present some of the oldest direct radiocarbon dates for horses in northeast Asia, hinting at an important link between late Bronze Age social developments and the adoption or innovation of horse transport in the region. However, wide error ranges and imprecision associated with calibrated radiocarbon dates obscure the chronology of early domestic horse use in Mongolia and make it difficult to evaluate the role of processes like environmental change, economic interactions, or technological development in the formation of mobile pastoral societies. Using a large sample of new and published radiocarbon dates, this study presents a Bayesian chronological model for the initiation of domestic horse sacrifice at DSK culture sites in Mongolia. Results reveal the rapid spread of horse ritual over a large portion of the Eastern Steppe circa 1200 BCE, concurrent with the first appearance of draught horses in China during the late Shang dynasty. These results suggest that key late Bronze Age cultural transformations – specifically the adoption of mobile pastoralism and early horseback riding – took place during a period of climate amelioration, and may be linked to the expansion of horses into other areas of East Asia.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Purple haze: Combined geochemical and Pb-Sr isotope constraints on
           colourants in Celtic glass
    • Authors: D.J. Huisman; J. van der Laan; G.R. Davies; B.J.H. van Os; N. Roymans; B. Fermin; M. Karwowski
      Pages: 59 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): D.J. Huisman, J. van der Laan, G.R. Davies, B.J.H. van Os, N. Roymans, B. Fermin, M. Karwowski
      The composition of 2977 Late Prehistoric glass objects was investigated to derive information on the nature of the colourants used. 2673 Late Iron Age Celtic (La Tène) bracelet fragments from the Netherlands and Austria and 51 Early Iron Age beads from the Netherlands were analysed. Hand-held XRF analyses demonstrated that all glass objects were of the soda-silica-lime type, which has a presumed origin in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copper was used as colourant, in the form of copper filings, in most of the Early Iron Age glass beads to give recycled glass a blue-green colour. The vast majority (98%) of the translucent Iron Age glass, was coloured using cobalt (blue), manganese (purple; colourless), antimony (colourless) and iron (green). Manganese, however, was added to all glass, contributing additional amounts of elements like copper, cobalt and iron. Opaque decorations were produced using antimony, or a combination of tin and lead. REE analyses on a selection of representative objects indicate that the manganese ores in translucent glass are of hydrogenetic-diagenetic (Early Iron Age) or hydrothermally influenced diagenetic (Late Iron Age) types. Strontium isotope ratios show mixing between a calcite-related seawater source (0.709) and manganese ores with isotope ratios of ∼0.70766. Lead isotope ratios are dominated by colourant-derived Pb. The isotope ratios of the manganese used to produce translucent glass and lead used for opaque glass decorations fall in the same range. The most likely general provenance of both lies on Lavrion or the Western Cycladic Islands, although an origin in the central Taurus or the Sinai mountains cannot be excluded. The conclusion is that manganese ore used for colourants contributes significantly to the REE concentration in the glass, including Nd, as well as to Sr and Pb. This needs to be taken into account when using concentrations or isotope ratios of these elements for provenancing other raw materials like sand and calcium carbonate. This appears to be the case for all antique soda-lime-silica glass.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Fecal biomarker imprints as indicators of past human land uses: Source
           distinction and preservation potential in archaeological and natural
           archives
    • Authors: Renata Zocatelli; Marlène Lavrieux; Typhaine Guillemot; Léo Chassiot; Claude Le Milbeau; Jérémy Jacob
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Renata Zocatelli, Marlène Lavrieux, Typhaine Guillemot, Léo Chassiot, Claude Le Milbeau, Jérémy Jacob
      This paper presents the potential of 5β-stanols and bile acids to act as fecal source biomarkers in order to identify and characterize past agropastoral activities in archaeological and natural archives. First of all, a molecular inventory of 5β-stanols and bile acids was made on fresh fecal human and domestic animal samples, using the same methodology to define the specificity of these molecular biomarkers. The selected species were cow, horse, pig and sheep as they are the major domestic species present in European archaeological sites. To our knowledge, our work constitutes the first report on fecal biomarkers in sheep feces. Bile acids can distinguish diet regime and species having the same diet with greater specificity than 5β-stanols. Fresh human fecal material and historical/archaeological fecal material were analyzed to assess their stability through time by calculating the coprostanol/epi-coprostanol (Cp/epi-Cp) and deoxycholic acid/cholic acid (DOC/C) ratios. Results show that bile acids are more resistant to diagenesis than 5β-stanols, at least on a 700-year time scale. Human and domestic animal fecal molecular imprints were then compared to the molecular content of 65 samples retrieved from archaeological sites, soils and lacustrine sediments to test their ability to trace past land-use dynamics. This study is the first to combine bile acids and 5β-stanols to identify a source of fecal material in lacustrine sediments. The combination of sterols and bile acids can be used in a variety of natural archives and archaeological contexts to define the origin of fecal material, to specify land-use, and to reconstruct past pastoral practices at various spatio-temporal scales.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Dents in our confidence: The interaction of damage and material properties
           in interpreting use-wear on copper-alloy weaponry
    • Authors: Christian Horn; Isabella C.C. von Holstein
      Pages: 90 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): Christian Horn, Isabella C.C. von Holstein
      The presence or absence of use-wear marks on copper (Cu)-alloy weaponry has been used since the late 1990s to investigate the balance between functional (combat) and symbolic (value, status, religious) use of these objects, and thus explore their social and economic context. In this paper, we suggest that this work has not taken sufficient account of the material properties of Cu-alloys. We discuss mechanisms of plastic deformation, incremental repairs and corrosion in detail to show how these can obscure use-wear traces. In a survey of Cu-alloy weaponry from the Nordic Bronze Age (1800/1700–550 BCE) from Denmark, Sweden and Germany, we show that corrosion of Cu-alloy objects is strongly linked to depositional context, being greater in burials (both inhumations and cremations) than hoards or as single objects. A relative paucity of use-wear marks on burial weapons should therefore not be used to argue that these were purely symbolic objects, e.g. in contrast to the better preserved hoard material. We propose that use-wear traces on Cu-alloy weaponry, particularly on blade edges, is significantly more elusive than previously realised, and that undamaged objects have been over-identified.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T00:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Use of space and site formation processes in a Neolithic lakeside
           settlement. Pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs spatial analysis in La
           Draga (Banyoles, NE Iberia)
    • Authors: J. Revelles; F. Burjachs; N. Morera; J.A. Barceló; A. Berrocal; O. López-Bultó; C. Maicher; M. Le Bailly; R. Piqué; A. Palomo; X. Terradas
      Pages: 101 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 81
      Author(s): J. Revelles, F. Burjachs, N. Morera, J.A. Barceló, A. Berrocal, O. López-Bultó, C. Maicher, M. Le Bailly, R. Piqué, A. Palomo, X. Terradas
      Several taphonomic factors influence the composition of the palynological record especially in archaeological deposits, where human activities alter the representation of taxa. Spatial analysis by a taphonomic approach to the distribution of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) provides useful information about intra-site spaces and environments in the Early Neolithic lakeside settlement of La Draga (Banyoles, NE Iberia). The spatial correlation of algae, lakeshore and aquatic plants and herbs with an economic value, together with eggs of intestinal parasites and spores of coprophilous fungi, evidence a humid and organic environment beneath a hut, where consumption waste is concentrated. In contrast, high values of arboreal pollen (AP) and spores of fungal indicators of soil erosion show a sub-aerial environment strongly altered by taphonomic processes in outside areas. Finally, the association of the highest values in Cerealia-t and the spatial distribution of grinding stones within Sector D identifies an area of cereal processing, proving the suitability of spatial analysis in archaeopalynology as a powerful tool for reconstructing activity areas within archaeological settlements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T00:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
       
  • Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European
           prehistory through copper isotopes
    • Authors: Wayne Powell; Ryan Mathur; H. Arthur Bankoff; Andrea Mason; Aleksandar Bulatović; Vojislav Filipović; Linda Godfrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Wayne Powell, Ryan Mathur, H. Arthur Bankoff, Andrea Mason, Aleksandar Bulatović, Vojislav Filipović, Linda Godfrey
      Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
       
  • Geospatial Big Data and archaeology: Prospects and problems too great to
           ignore
    • Authors: Mark D. McCoy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mark D. McCoy
      As spatial technology has evolved and become integrated in to archaeology, we face a new set of challenges posed by the sheer size and complexity of data we use and produce. In this paper I discuss the prospects and problems of Geospatial Big Data (GBD) – broadly defined as data sets with locational information that exceed the capacity of widely available hardware, software, and/or human resources. While the datasets we create today remain within available resources, we nonetheless face the same challenges as many other fields that use and create GBD, especially in apprehensions over data quality and privacy. After reviewing the kinds of archaeological geospatial data currently available I discuss the near future of GBD in writing culture histories, making decisions, and visualizing the past. I use a case study from New Zealand to argue for the value of taking a data quantity-in-use approach to GBD and requiring applications of GBD in archaeology be regularly accompanied by a Standalone Quality Report.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.003
       
  • Heat-induced alteration of glauconitic minerals in the Middle Stone Age
           levels of Blombos Cave, South Africa: Implications for evaluating site
           structure and burning events
    • Authors: Magnus M. Haaland; David E. Friesem; Christopher E. Miller; Christopher S. Henshilwood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Magnus M. Haaland, David E. Friesem, Christopher E. Miller, Christopher S. Henshilwood
      In this paper we conduct geochemical and colourimetric measurements of glauconite grains in micromorphological thin sections from the Middle Stone Age site of Blombos Cave, South Africa, to investigate the formation, internal structure and reworking of heat-exposed cave deposits that are related to prehistoric burning events. Controlled heating experiments were first carried out on glauconite-rich loose sediments and block samples, both of which were collected from the Blombos Cave bedrock. The control samples were then subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (micro-FTIR) and petrographic-colourimetric analyses. The control experiment shows that glauconitic minerals undergo a gradual and systematic colour change when temperatures reach higher than c. 300–400 °C, primarily due to dehydration and iron oxidation. They also undergo clear structural changes when temperatures reach higher than c. 550 °C due to dehydroxylation and mineral transformation. By assessing the nature and degree of heat-induced optical and molecular alteration in glauconitic minerals, we demonstrate how glauconite grains in thin sections can be classified by the temperature to which they were exposed (20–400 °C, >400 °C, >600 °C and >800 °C). To assess the archaeological relevance of our controlled heating experiment, we applied this glauconite classification scheme to >200 grains found in three micromorphological thin sections of a Middle Stone Age (MSA) combustion feature. These grains were individually geo-referenced within the local coordinate system of Blombos Cave, through a thin-section-based GIS mapping procedure. With improved spatial control, we were able to study both the general distribution of non-altered and heat-altered glauconite grains in their original sedimentary context, as well as to calculate heat distribution models that cover the entire sampled section. This combined geo-chemical, optical and spatio-contextual approach provides insights into more elusive aspects of MSA site structure and burning events, such as heat intensity, burning frequency, temperature distribution, internal hearth structure and post-depositional reworking. The workflow we propose may easily be implemented and adapted to other archaeological contexts and to analogous sedimentary materials that show comparable heat-induced alteration patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.008
       
  • Fields of conflict: A political ecology approach to land and social
           transformation in the colonial Andes (Cuzco, Peru)
    • Authors: Steve Kosiba; R. Alexander Hunter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Steve Kosiba, R. Alexander Hunter
      This paper presents a political ecological framework for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to examine changes in agricultural land in ancient and early historical contexts. It raises several issues pertinent to archaeological epistemology and science, with a particular focus on the limitations of using fixed data categories to examine fluid environmental processes and ecological relationships. The paper draws on political ecological theories that define land as a social process, moving beyond economic conceptions of agricultural land that rest on productive capacity and phenomenological theories that examine the physical environment in terms of cultural perception. It combines qualitative (archival) and quantitative (archaeological) data in a GIS methodology to address how linked changes in physical land attributes and labor routines can affect regional ecologies and foment social conflict. In empirical terms, the paper traces changes from maize to wheat fields during Spanish colonization (ca. 1533-1670) in Ollantaytambo, Peru, a monumental Inca town near the capital of their empire. It reveals how ecological transformations that occurred during this century–widespread deaths throughout, abandonment of Inca fields, and introduction of European biota–in part framed conflicts between Andean people and the colonial regime, and also empowered local farmers to claim land in previously undeveloped areas.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T12:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.001
       
  • Spatial thinking in archaeology: Is GIS the answer'
    • Authors: Gary Lock; John Pouncett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Gary Lock, John Pouncett
      Being human embodies understandings of space and spatial relationships which are embedded within the material world and are underpinned by complex frameworks of knowledge and experience. Just as this applied to people living in the past, so it applies to those of us concerned with trying to understand those past lives through the archaeological record. Most, if not all, archaeological material has a spatial component and it is not surprising, therefore, that spatial thinking has been central within archaeological endeavour since the beginnings of the discipline. Specific forms of spatial thinking have changed with developing theory and methods and with changing analytical and technological opportunities resulting in the rich variety of approaches available to us today. Within this development, the rapid adoption of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology since the early 1990s has had a major impact on archaeology and related disciplines and its use is now almost taken for granted. Although the use of GIS in archaeology has always been, and still is contentious at the theoretical level, the attractions of the technology are usually seen to outweigh any restrictions or disadvantages. In this paper we situate the use of GIS, including the papers in this volume, within the wider arena of spatial thinking in archaeology in an attempt to assess the impact that this technology has had on how we think spatially.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T12:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.002
       
  • A GIS of affordances: Movement and visibility at a planned colonial town
           in highland Peru
    • Authors: Steven A. Wernke; Lauren E. Kohut; Abel Traslaviña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Steven A. Wernke, Lauren E. Kohut, Abel Traslaviña
      Archaeological GIS is moving towards increasingly detailed, embodied, multidimensional simulations and analyses of human experience in the past. Most of the emerging GIS research synthesizing spatial modeling and subject-centered approaches has been concerned with practices and perceptions of landscape. This paper tightens the analytical focus to the more intimate scale of a single settlement, combining models of movement and visual experience within a planned colonial town in highland Peru. Such a rendering is important, since controlling movement and visual experience were central to the colonial project that built this and other such towns in the Viceroyalty of Peru. This study centers on an exceptionally well-preserved, relict planned colonial town in highland Peru to investigate affordances of movement and visibility within it. Several GIS-based simulations and analytical techniques are brought together, including drone-based high resolution three dimensional modeling, spatial network analysis, walking models, and cumulative viewshed analysis, to simulate aggregate visual experience as people moved through the town. The results are suggestive of how the layout of the town specifically routed transit to facilitate the visual prominence of the church and original Inka plaza of the reducción, as well as the prominence of indigenous elite households. Both continuities and discontinuities of movement and visual experience relative to Inkaic and Spanish colonial spaces are evident. By extension, this paper also provides a pathway for quantitative and reproducible modeling of site-scale movement and visual affordances as dimensions of subject and community formation in other global contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.004
       
  • Modeling Métis mobility? Evaluating least cost paths and indigenous
           landscapes in the Canadian west
    • Authors: Kisha Supernant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Kisha Supernant
      Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses in archaeology have been criticized by archaeologists for being reductive, environmentally deterministic, and reproducing a disembodied experience of the landscape. However, research over the past 20 years has demonstrated the power of GIS data and analyses to explore complex social questions about past human experiences. Indigenous knowledges of landscapes have not often explicitly informed GIS analyses in archaeology, even though archaeologists and indigenous communities around the world are forging collaborative relationships. This paper proposes an integrated approach GIS-based least cost analysis, where Indigenous traditional knowledge, historical documentation, and archaeology can be brought together for a more nuanced and locally-grounded model of past landscapes. A case study from the movement of the Métis people of Canada is used to test typical models of cost path movement used in archaeology against known historic trails information, followed by a discussion of possible future applications of movement models and variables related to local Indigenous knowledge of current and past landscapes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.006
       
  • It must be right, GIS told me so! Questioning the infallibility of GIS as
           a methodological tool
    • Authors: Marieka Brouwer Burg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Marieka Brouwer Burg
      While the benefits of GIS are widely touted among archaeologists today, less attention has been paid to the potential pitfalls and drawbacks of this undeniably important methodological tool. One of the greatest challenges of geospatial modeling is unbalanced data: due to the nature of the archaeological record, we can never assume that the remnants of past behavioral processes we are working with constitute a fully representative sample. Rather, our datasets are reflective of differential social and natural preservation conditions, as well as research biases. Most regional geospatial studies must collate diverse data collected over decades by researchers with varying backgrounds and goals, using assorted spatial scales and levels of technological sophistication. Such factors contribute substantial uncertainty to our models, uncertainty that should be recognized, quantified, and mitigated. If GIS techniques are to continue shifting the way we conduct archaeology and improve our abilities to answer questions regarding past behavior, then we must question the infallibility of GIS as a methodological tool and direct more attention toward developing robust geospatial applications that can meet the idiosyncratic needs of archaeological analysis. This paper explores one example of how such uncertainty investigation can be conducted.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.010
       
  • Mapping liminality: Critical frameworks for the GIS-based modelling of
           visibility
    • Authors: Mark Gillings
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mark Gillings
      Since the widespread adoption of GIS by archaeologists in the early 1990s, analyses of visibility have steadily gained traction, becoming commonplace in landscape and regional analysis. This is in large part due to the routine way in which such products can be generated, bolstered by a raft of landscape-based studies that have placed varying degrees of emphasis upon human perception and direct bodily engagement in seeking to understand and explore the past. Despite this seeming popularity, two worrying trends stand out. The first is the lack of any coherent theoretical framework, applications preferring instead to seek justification in the very first wave of experiential landscape approaches that emerged in the early 1990s. Needless to say, the intervening 20 or so years have seen considerable development in the conceptual tools we draw upon in order to make sense of past landscapes, not to mention considerable finessing of the first-wave developments alluded to above. Second is the tendency to relegate viewshed analysis to certain types of predictable problem or question (i.e. viewshed analysis has become typecast). These trends have been compounded by a host of other issues. For example, whilst there have been refinements, tweaks and variations to the basic viewshed (and the frequency with which they are generated and combined), not to mention establishment of robust calibration criteria for controlling them and statistical approaches for assessing the patterns tendered, these have yet to be brought together in any coherent fashion and their veracity critically assessed. Likewise, a failure to establish an agreed vocabulary has resulted in a number of proverbial wheels being reinvented time and again. The argument presented here is that viewsheds have considerably more to offer archaeology but to realise this entails confronting these issues head on. That this is possible and desirable is illustrated through discussion of a new theoretical framework for visibility-studies that draws upon developments in assemblage theory and the author's own work on affordance and relationality. To demonstrate the value of this approach in encouraging different ways of thinking about what viewsheds are and how we might begin to draw creatively upon them, a case-study is described where viewsheds are folded into a detailed exploration of landscape liminality.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.004
       
  • What can GIS + 3D mean for landscape archaeology?
    • Authors: Heather Richards-Rissetto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Heather Richards-Rissetto
      Until recently Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have held center stage in the archaeologist's geospatial toolkit, and there is no doubt that archaeologists have moved beyond the map—but into what? In the early years, criticisms voicing GIS as environmentally-deterministic were abundant. What methods and tool have archaeologists used to overcome these criticisms? New geospatial technologies such as airborne lidar and aerial photogrammetry are allowing us to acquire inordinate amounts of georeferenced 3D data— but do these 3D technologies help overcome criticisms of environmental determinism? Together—GIS + 3D— can link georeferenced 3D models to underlying data adding a ground-based humanistic perspective lacking in the bird's eye view of traditional GIS. This paper situates GIS and 3D within a semiotic framework to offer some ideas on using 3DGIS to intertwine environmental and cultural factors to work toward new approaches for landscape archaeology.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.005
       
  • Spatial History, deep mapping and digital storytelling: archaeology's
           future imagined through an engagement with the Digital Humanities
    • Authors: Tiffany Earley-Spadoni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Tiffany Earley-Spadoni
      Geospatial technologies are transforming the practice of the Digital Humanities, and these developments have direct relevance to the practice of scientifically oriented archaeology. The most recent “spatial turn” among digital humanists can be attributed to both the prevalence of tools like ArcGIS that facilitate such investigations as well as an interdisciplinary convergence upon theoretical models that conceive of socially constructed space. This article will briefly review the current state-of-the-art in the field of Spatial History as well as discuss a number of emerging trends such as deep mapping, digital storytelling and data visualization, utilizing examples from a variety of applications. Moreover, archaeologists can benefit from the substantial investments by the academy in the Digital Humanities, particularly in the United States and Canada. In sum, the article proposes that the scope of archaeological applications of geospatial technologies would be productively broadened through an increased engagement with the Digital Humanities.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.003
       
  • Geospatial analysis as experimental archaeology
    • Authors: Thomas G. Whitley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Thomas G. Whitley
      In the more than 25 years since Allen et al. (1990), GIS and other kinds of geospatial analysis have become tools used almost as ubiquitously in archaeology as the trowel and the total station. However, can we consider it a “paradigm-shifter?” One fundamental distinction between archaeology and other scientific pursuits is the lack of a formal experimental procedure for testing large-scale hypotheses. We can experiment with some material culture methods or archaeological ‘models’ on a 1:1 analogue scale, but we rarely examine ideas about larger mechanisms; particularly those that encompass wide geographic areas in a formal experimental way. Geospatial technologies give us new tools and abilities to recognize patterns in archaeological sites and landscapes. Nevertheless, have they truly changed the way we make the transition from material remains to interpreting human behavior? We tend to present geospatial research that is either descriptive or methodological in nature rather than interpretive or explanatory. What is missing is the recognition that the ‘patterns’ we can see are an incomplete and abstract product of past human agency or behavior that cannot be worked backwards from, but must be envisioned as mechanisms in action. Within a mechanistic framework, we can experiment with archaeological research questions in much greater depth and detail, in a manner more akin to psychology than the ‘harder’ sciences. Although these techniques bring with them some theoretical assumptions and methodological challenges, their outcomes can provide logical and convincing visualizations of dynamic phenomena in enlightening ways. Presented here are several brief examples.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.008
       
  • Significance and context in GIS-based spatial archaeology: A case study
           from Southeastern North America
    • Authors: Eric E. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Eric E. Jones
      Over 30 years ago, Kintigh and Ammerman (1982) outlined and applied a heuristic approach to spatial archaeology that balanced quantitative analyses and culturally and historically contextualized archaeology. The theoretical and methodological messages were that we need to do more than “eyeball” spatial patterns, we need to apply the proper analyses based on the characteristics of our datasets, and we need to ensure that our models, quantitative analyses, and resulting interpretations are based in the proper cultural and historical contexts. My goal in this paper is to examine how two of the concepts in this approach, significance and context, apply to a modern spatial archaeology that heavily utilizes geospatial computing tools. Although these tools help to solve several concerns that existed in the field 30 years ago, they can also cause others, such as mistaking autocorrelation for correlation or confusion about which of the multitude of available analytical tools is appropriate for particular questions and datasets. In this paper, I present a simplified version of the methodology I have used to address these concerns. I use archaeological, historical, and GIS-modeled data to compare the regional patterning of hierarchical and egalitarian societies in southeastern North America to examine why hierarchical sociopolitical organizations may have arose where they did. I end with a critical review of this approach and a discussion of how such research can be improved moving forward.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.009
       
  • Assessing the state of archaeological GIS research: Unbinding analyses of
           past landscapes
    • Authors: Meghan C.L. Howey; Marieka Brouwer Burg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Meghan C.L. Howey, Marieka Brouwer Burg
      The early pioneers of archaeological Geographic Information Systems (GIS) advocated for a future where this technology was more than a data-management tool. To this end, they emphasized harnessing the analytic power of GIS to advance innovative understandings of past social landscapes. This paper introduces the special issue, explaining its aims to offer a current assessment of how this vision has been realized. Three themes related to both persistent questions and emergent horizons in archaeological GIS are explored in the context of the contributions. We present our own set of ideas for how to unbind our analyses from some of the methodological and conceptual constraints inherent in the analytic GIS approaches on which we have long relied to explore past landscapes. We argue it is important to keep moving beyond analytic approaches tethered to discrete points, to push forward geospatial modeling of cultural processes across entire landscapes, and to incorporate uncertainty and iteration directly into our work. Through such efforts, we can develop robust insights into the ways past communities considered, reconfigured, and renewed patterns of social, economic, and ideological interaction, flow, and circulation through the variegated landscapes they inhabited. In doing this, we will get closer to realizing the ambitious vision early pioneers had for archaeological GIS – a technology they believed could let us ask entirely new questions about the past.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.002
       
  • Substantial biases affecting Combe-Grenal faunal record cast doubts on
           previous models of Neanderthal subsistence and environmental context
    • Authors: Emmanuel Discamps; Jean-Philippe Faivre
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Emmanuel Discamps, Jean-Philippe Faivre
      This short contribution presents faunal data from new fieldwork at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Combe-Grenal (Dordogne, France). This important sequence continues to serve as both a reference sequence to which other Western European Middle Palaeolithic sites are often compared and the basis of several models of Neanderthal subsistence and environmental context. However, several researchers have highlighted the likelihood that skeletal part profiles were biased as a consequence of the incomplete recovery methods used during previous excavations at Combe-Grenal. A comparison of faunal remains recovered during new excavations with data from the original collections allows recovery bias induced by previous excavation protocols to be quantified. The unreliability of the original skeletal part profiles is confirmed by our study, while, more importantly and unexpectedly, radical biases in species frequencies were equally identified. These results cast doubts on several interpretive models held to account for variability in Mousterian industries, the evolution of Neanderthal hunting strategies, as well as Pleistocene environmental changes. Furthermore, Combe-Grenal provides an instructive example to archaeologists working on sites with less than ideal recovery methods of faunal material. In such cases, recovery biases may be so substantial than even basic faunal data, such as species lists, prove unreliable.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:20:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.009
       
  • Reconstructing Ancestral Pueblo food webs in the southwestern United
           States
    • Authors: Stefani A. Crabtree; Lydia J.S. Vaughn; Nathan T. Crabtree
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Stefani A. Crabtree, Lydia J.S. Vaughn, Nathan T. Crabtree
      Analyzing how humans interacted with (and within) their greater ecosystems facilitates a more nuanced understanding of past lifeways. In this aim, we use food web modeling to reconstruct the biotic environment of Ancestral Pueblo people living in the central Mesa Verde region between A.D. 750 and A.D. 1300. This framework enables an investigation into the effects of species introductions and removals by linking humans to the species they consumed. We combine a diachronic examination of multiple archaeological assemblages with a database of every modern non-invasive species and their feeding links in a 4,600 square kilometer area of southwestern Colorado. Although human omnivory provided some flexibility, high population density likely curtailed the ability to prey switch. Ultimately, these factors combined to decrease the resilience of Ancestral Pueblo people to environmental changes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:24:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.005
       
 
 
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