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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 229 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access  
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 41)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeofauna     Open Access  
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access  
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Comechingonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [61 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Iron Age Nomads and their relation to copper smelting in Faynan (Jordan):
           Trace metal and Pb and Sr isotopic measurements from the Wadi Fidan 40
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Marc A. Beherec, Thomas E. Levy, Ofir Tirosh, Mohammad Najjar, Kyle A. Knabb, Yigal Erel
      The Faynan region in southern Jordan is the largest copper ore resource zone in the southern Levant and was exploited for these ores beginning ca. 8000 years BP. We discuss the relationship between nomadic populations and major copper smelting sites during the Iron Age (ca. 1200-500 BCE) based on mortuary excavations and toxic metal analyses at the Wadi Fidan 40 cemetery, the largest Iron Age mortuary complex in southern Jordan. The Iron Age represents the first industrial revolution in this part of the Middle East. The study presented here is the first to employ chemical and isotopic measurements from a systematically excavated Iron Age mortuary population to determine exposure to Cu and Pb pollution and mobility patterns (based on Sr isotopes). We describe a methodology to control for post-depositional diagenetic uptake of chemical elements in human teeth recovered from the cemetery that has not previously been applied in Faynan in ancient pollution studies. The results suggest that most of the excess of Pb and Cu measured in tooth enamel samples were a product of post-depositional diagenetic addition. Our findings suggest that the majority of people buried at the Wadi Fidan 40 cemetery were not exposed to metal pollution during their lives. The few individuals who were exposed to metal pollution exhibited a spectrum of traits indicative of lifestyle and social status. The results bring into question how severe the ancient pollution impacted the lives of the Iron Age population living in Faynan.

      PubDate: 2015-11-28T16:52:10Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64

      PubDate: 2015-11-28T16:52:10Z
  • LA-ICP-MS chemical analysis of archaeological otoliths as a tool for
           seasonality and site catchment studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Evan Peacock, Rinat Gabitov, Jonathan R. Frisch, Carla S. Hadden, Bradley Carlock, Kate L. Henderson
      Analysis of the trace element chemistry of otoliths via Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become common in fisheries-related work, allowing biologists to trace connectivity between habitats over the life cycles of fish. For archaeological specimens, elements from the outer edges of archaeological otoliths have the potential to provide information on site seasonality complementary to oxygen isotope data; they also may inform on place of capture of fish, thus elucidating exploited ranges and/or social and economic links between settlements. Adopting this method will require careful consideration of a number of complicating factors related to metabolic processes affecting otolith production, analytical procedures peculiar to LA-ICP-MS, and diagenesis, in addition to the usual complications of species identification and assessment of sample adequacy. Here, we review such factors as they affect the utility of the method for sourcing and seasonality research with archaeological otoliths, using the results of a pilot study of specimens from two Woodland-period sites in coastal Alabama, southeastern USA, to illustrate the potential and the current limitations of the method for archaeological research.

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • Diagenetic effects on pyrolysis fingerprints of extracted collagen in
           archaeological human bones from NW Spain, as determined by pyrolysis-GC-MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Joeri Kaal, Olalla López-Costas, Antonio Martínez Cortizas
      Ancient collagen is used as archive for multiple pre-mortem traits. Testing the quality of the collagen extract is a common concern of those who engage in the reconstruction of ancient diets. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the pyrolysis fingerprints of human bone collagen especially in relation with diagenetic alteration. Pyrolysis-GC-MS was applied to 28 collagen samples extracted from archaeological human bone, corresponding to different chronological periods (Bronze Age to post-Medieval period; 1900 BC–1800 AD) and different types of burial environment (acidic and alkaline) from NW Spain. Collagen was extracted following the common methodology used in paleodiet analysis, and a commercial gelatin sample was included for comparison. Data evaluation was based on 58 pyrolysis products using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Principal component 1 (PC1, 45% of total variance) was related to the relative abundances of pyrolysis products of specific amino acids, with relatively degraded samples having larger proportions of the pyrolysis products of Pro/Hyp, Phe and Ala, while more intact samples showed larger proportions of Tyr, Trp and pyrolysis products of unspecific amino acid origin. PC1 scores were related to the period to which the samples corresponded, which reflects differences in diagenetic impact, probably controlled by a combination of age and burial deposit characteristics. PC2 (15%) probably reflects the well-known effects of disruption of the amino acid sequence (depolymerization), causing a decline in dimerization products (diketopiperazines) upon pyrolysis. This process was more intense in the collagen samples from acidic deposits than in the samples from alkaline deposits (a calcareous cave and coastal sand deposits with biogenic carbonates). The relationships between the PCA and individual pyrolysis products with known parameters of collagen quality (% C, % N, C/N ratio, % extractable collagen) were generally insignificant or weak. This might be explained by the rather narrow C/N range (3.19–3.36) of the samples, which had to meet the criteria for suitability for paleodiet analysis. Moreover, there was no significant relation between the isotopic composition of the extracted collagen (δ13C, δ15N) and pyrolyzate composition, suggesting that diagenesis has little effect on the isotopic fingerprints used in palaeodietary studies. Finally, no substantial contamination of microbial or exogenous tissue from the deposition environment to the osteological collagen extracts was identified. It is concluded that the δ13C and δ15N as proxies of palaeodiet from these diverse necropoleis in NW Spain is sustained.

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • Impact of heating conditions on the carbon and oxygen isotope composition
           of calcined bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Christophe Snoeck, Rick J. Schulting, Julia A. Lee-Thorp, Matthieu Lebon, Antoine Zazzo
      Only the inorganic fraction of bone survives the high temperatures reached during cremation, so that it remains the sole material available for isotopic analyses. In order to assess the amount of information that can be extracted from such material, we measured carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the remaining carbonate fraction of experimentally heated modern bone, and cremated bone from several archaeological sites. The results show that the isotope composition of cremated bone is strongly altered, but some information can nevertheless be extracted. First, we find very little evidence of post-burial alterations on the isotope composition of calcined bone. More importantly, it appears possible to obtain information about the way bodies were burned (with or without fuel, oxygen availability) giving the opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding funerary practices in places and times where cremation was practiced.

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • The pueblo decomposition model: A method for quantifying architectural
           rubble to estimate population size
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Samuel Duwe, B.Sunday Eiselt, J.Andrew Darling, Mark D. Willis, Chester Walker
      While most archaeological measures of population rely on material proxies uncovered through excavation (rooms, hearths, etc.), we identify a technique to estimate population at unexcavated sites (the majority of the archaeological record). Our case study focuses on ancestral Tewa Pueblo villages in northern New Mexico. Uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) and instrument mapping enables us to quantify the volume of adobe architectural rubble and to construct a decomposition model that estimates numbers of rooms and roofed over space. The resulting metric is applied at ten Pueblo villages in the region to ‘rebuild’ architecture, and calculate maximum architectural capacity and the maximum extent of population size. While our focus is on population histories for large Classic period (A.D. 1350–1598) pueblos in the American Southwest, the model and method may be applied to a variety of archaeological contexts worldwide and is not limited to building material, site size, or construction technique.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • An experimental approach to distinguishing different stone artefact
           transport patterns from debitage assemblages
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Kane Ditchfield
      This paper experimentally demonstrates the ability of a set of indices to distinguish between different stone artefact transport patterns represented in debitage assemblages. Stone artefacts were transported extensively in the past and this is an important component of technological organisation. However, most stone artefacts occur as part of debitage assemblages. From these assemblages, where mostly non-transported artefacts remain, it can be challenging to identify what artefacts, if any, were transported in anticipation of future use. A series of indices; the cortex ratio, volume ratio, flake to core ratio, non-cortical to cortical flake ratio and flake/core diminution tests are presented to meet this challenge. These are tested on an experimental assemblage where three different transport scenarios are simulated. Results suggest that the indices are sensitive to artefact transport and are capable of empirically distinguishing between the three transport scenarios, even when raw material form varies. The results also indicate that artefact transport is capable of exerting a significant influence on stone artefact assemblage formation.

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • Ma'anshan cave and the origin of bone tool technology in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Shuangquan Zhang, Francesco d'Errico, Lucinda R. Backwell, Yue Zhang, Fuyou Chen, Xing Gao
      Here we present the results of a techno-functional analysis of 17 bone tools recovered from strata 6, 5 and 3 of the Palaeolithic site of Ma'anshan Cave, Guizhou Province, southern China. Stratum 6, dated to c. 35 cal kyr BP, has yielded three sharp awls. From Stratum 5, dated to c. 34 cal kyr BP, come six probable spear points, awls and a cutting tool. Separated from these layers by a sterile horizon, Stratum 3, dated 23 cal kyr BP to 18 cal kyr BP, has yielded barbed points of two types. Bone tools were shaped by scraping, grinding, and in strata 5 and 3, finished by polishing. Ma'anshan Cave records the oldest formal bone tools from China, and amongst the oldest known evidence of indisputable barbed point manufacture outside Africa. Change in the hunting toolkit between strata 5 and 3 may indicate a shift in prey preference from medium to small size mammals and fish, which needs to be verified by supplementary analyses. The significance of this evidence is discussed in the context of what is known about the origin of bone tool technology in Africa and Eurasia.

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
  • Layers of assumptions: A reply to Timpson, Manning, and Shennan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Tobias Torfing
      In a response to my paper “Neolithic population and summed probability distribution of 14C-dates”, Timpson, Shennan, and Manning accuse me of making a series of inferential mistakes. Their argument is based on the opinion that if advanced statistical treatment of data is performed and an explicit null hypothesis is tested, then the argument is well founded. I argue that they ignore a series of underlying assumptions that connect the object of interest - prehistoric population - to the data they utilize - radiocarbon dates. In my article, I explored some of the issues regarding these assumptions and demonstrated that it is difficult to argue that these assumptions are true. If the underlying assumptions are not true, or it cannot be established whether they are true or not, further statistical analysis of the data will not provide a reliable result.

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • Neolithic population and summed probability distribution of 14C-dates
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Tobias Torfing
      This paper assesses the use of radiocarbon dates as a population proxy during the north European Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. By addressing data from the Jutland peninsula, it is shown that the sum probability distributions are influenced by three human-inflicted biases. Two of these – changed ritual behaviour and changes of subsistence strategies – refer to past human activity, while the third consists of modern research strategies. The analysis questions the validity of sum probability distributions as a population proxy in a period where a society experiences a transformation process.

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • Inferential mistakes in population proxies: A response to Torfing's
           “Neolithic population and summed probability distribution of
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Adrian Timpson, Katie Manning, Stephen Shennan
      In his paper “Neolithic population and summed probability distribution of 14C-dates” Torfing opposes the widely held principle originally proposed by Rick (1987) that variation through time in the amount of archaeological material discovered in a region will reflect variation in the size of that local human population. His argument illustrates a persistent divide in archaeology between analytical and descriptive approaches when using proxies for past population size. We critically evaluate the numerous inferential mistakes he makes, showing that his conclusion is unjustified.

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • “We want to go, where everyone knows, mussels are all the
           same…”: a comment on some recent zooarchaeological research on
           Mytilus californianus size prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Greg Campbell
      Two new but similar approaches to California mussel (Mytilus californianus) size prediction using archaeological fragments, are compared with known mussel biology. Some assumptions, traditional in zooarchaeology but unfounded zoologically, have made prediction formulae that are likely to be generally inaccurate. A standard statistical exploratory technique shows archaeologically informative underlying structure in the data.

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • Editorial Board and Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • An improved single grain OSL chronology for the sedimentary deposits from
           Diepkloof Rockshelter, Western Cape, South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Zenobia Jacobs, Richard G. Roberts
      The single grain optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology for the sedimentary deposit at Diepkloof Rockshelter, reported by Jacobs et al. (2008c), has recently been critiqued and several reasons proposed for why the OSL ages for the Intermediate and Early Howieson's Poort (HP) and Still Bay (SB) techno-complexes might be inaccurate. Tribolo et al. (2013) presented a series of OSL and thermoluminescence (TL) ages that were in agreement with each other, but, for some part of the sequence at least, were much older than the OSL chronology of Jacobs et al. (2008c). In this paper, we have tested the criticisms of Tribolo et al. (2013) and colleagues related to both the equivalent dose (De) estimates and the beta dose rates by performing a series of targeted experiments, combined with updates and re-assessments of our error calculations. We show that the De estimates are stable over a range of alternative measurement conditions and also over time. We also demonstrate the reproducibility of our measurement procedures for the beta dose rates, and their accuracy tested against a range of independently obtained estimates. We show that, for the stratigraphic units (SUs) where there are major discrepancies in age between Jacobs et al. (2008c) and Tribolo et al. (2013)—notably the Intermediate HP and Early HP—and for which both studies had single grain OSL ages, the estimation of potassium (K) in the sediment surrounding the dated grains is critical. We provide new and updated De and dose rate estimates, and final ages which we compare with our previous age estimates and those of Tribolo et al. (2013). The differences in the size of the errors associated with the ages reported in the two independent studies are also addressed. We can show that our ages are robust and consistent with the original chronology, but we cannot satisfactorily explain why the TL and OSL ages provided by Tribolo et al. (2013) might be wrong. So, the dating conundrum at Diepkloof Rockshelter remains. As a result, we caution against the development of HP and SB age models based on only one of the chronologies for this site. At this stage, extrapolation of the Tribolo et al. (2013) chronology to a re-interpretation of the southern African MSA would appear to be premature, especially as the ages do not differ systematically between the two studies and as differences between TL and OSL ages are not an issue at other sites in southern Africa where both dating methods have been applied. Further work is needed to resolve the question of the Diepkloof chronology.

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • Luminescence dating at Diepkloof Rock Shelter – new dates from
           single-grain quartz
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): James Feathers
      Diepkloof Rock Shelter, in South Africa's Western Cape, has been the subject of two different luminescence dating projects in recent years (Jacobs et al., 2008; Tribolo et al., 2013) with somewhat divergent results. This paper presents dating analysis of three additional samples from Diepkloof, as well as one sample each from Kathu Pan 6 and Hollow Rock Shelter, also in South Africa. These samples were collected in 1995, prior to the other two projects. Analysis of single-grain quartz shows that the samples are near saturation. Conventional rejection criteria, when applied to dose recovery data, result in an underestimation of dose for high administered doses. Applying the fast ratio (Durcan and Duller, 2011; Duller, 2012) as a rejection criterion removes this underestimation and preferentially rejects grains from the samples with low equivalent dose values. This makes the ages older than they would have been without this criterion. Age results are older than those presented by Jacobs et al. (2008), and slightly older or equivalent to those provided by Tribolo et al. (2013).

      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
  • Metalcraft within the Nordic Bronze Age: Combined metallographic and
           superficial imaging reveals the technical repertoire in crafting bronze
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Heide Wrobel Nørgaard
      The study presents two major approaches in the analysis of metal working techniques in the Nordic Bronze Age; a comparison of experimentally-crafted ornaments as a means of defining characteristic traces of known crafting techniques, and a scientific analysis (metallographic imaging) used to explain recognisable superficial crafting traces. This analysis results in a definitive explanation of superficial crafting traces through their specific microstructure and will thus be of significant interest for further research concerning prehistoric crafting. The metallographic investigation of 24 artefacts, which date to the early period of the Middle Bronze Age (around 1470–1290 BC) and originate in the central Lower Saxony region, revealed a much more varied technical repertoire in metalcraft than has previously been presumed. Superficial traces related to the crafting process and tested on experimentally-crafted bronzes indicated a mixture of cast technology and cold working. Thus, several samples indicated that the lost-wax technique was favoured within the Lüneburg group but, in addition, that intensive post-casting reworking was common. The high skill of Bronze Age metalworkers can be highlighted through the assessment of localized techniques applied to the artefacts, such as annealing or intensive cold working, without causing damage to the object. This knowledge of the technical possibilities of metalcraft in the Nordic Bronze Age allows for further research to concentrate on regional peculiarities using the traces of the crafting process presented here as a facilitating tool.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-11-07T15:42:36Z
  • Photogrammetric re-discovery of the hidden long-term landscapes of western
           Thessaly, central Greece
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): H.A. Orengo, A. Krahtopoulou, A. Garcia-Molsosa, K. Palaiochoritis, A. Stamati
      This paper introduces a novel workflow for the reconstruction of nowadays disappeared cultural landscapes based on the extraction of morphological information from historic aerial photographs. This methodology has been applied for the first time for the detection, classification and characterisation of upstanding, flattened and buried archaeological sites and various off-site ancient landscape features in the plain of Karditsa, western Thessaly. Although Thessaly has been the focus of prehistoric, and especially Neolithic, research in Greece, since the beginning of the 20th century, western Thessaly has not received as much archaeological attention and its archaeological record remains rather scanty. Moreover, an extensive land reclamation project implemented in the western Thessalian plain during the early 1970s resulted in the flattening of habitation tells and funerary sites of all periods. Thus, recognition of archaeological sites and relict landscape features becomes extremely difficult, whereas standard landscape analysis and application of mainstream Remote Sensing (RS) techniques based on multispectral satellite images are problematic. Digital photogrammetric reconstruction techniques and the subsequent GIS-based treatment of the results allowed overcoming these challenging limitations: the combined use of pre-1970s aerial photographs with later imagery provided a powerful means to reconstruct the landscape before the land reclamation process, using a workflow designed to highlight photogrammetry-derived topographic differences and multi-temporal imagery analysis. Hundreds of previously unknown mounded archaeological sites, as well as other ancient landscape traits such as roads, city grids and field systems were detected. More importantly, invaluable insights into the type and character of these archaeological features were gained, which would have been impossible to obtain by conventional RS techniques.

      PubDate: 2015-11-03T11:06:37Z
  • Geospatial landscape permeability modeling for archaeology: A case study
           of food storage in northern Michigan
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Meghan C.L. Howey
      As archaeologists continue to be interested in understanding how people encountered and engaged with past landscapes, layering them with social knowledge, it is important to harness geospatial techniques that are not tethered analytically to discrete points and can represent the flow of processes across a whole landscape. This paper explores landscape permeability modeling as one such geospatial approach. Applied archaeologically, permeability modeling examines the degree to which a given landscape, with a specific mix of physical and social variables, was conducive to the movement of people and the flow of social, economic, political, and/or ideological processes. An archaeological case study is presented that uses a resistant-kernel permeability model to examine food storage suitability in an inland lake landscape in northern Michigan during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1100/1200 – 1600) and how people in their intimate, day-to-day, encounters with this landscape understood the storage potential(s) of this matrix. While a specific case is detailed in this paper, the procedures employed are adaptable to other archaeological landscapes.

      PubDate: 2015-10-30T12:30:43Z
  • Identifying sheep (Ovis aries) fetal remains in archaeological contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Patricia Martín, Ricardo García-González
      Studies on the identification of fetal sheep remains in archaeological sites are scarce in comparison to the abundant literature addressing methods for postnatal age determination. However, perinatal studies can provide important information about sheep flock management in the Neolithic period. Motivated by the extensive fetal and neonatal assemblages recovered in the Neolithic and Bronze Age levels of El Mirador cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), we have identified and distinguished the remains using morphological criteria complemented by osteometric criteria. Skeletal development during the fetal period is less affected by the agents that can influence postnatal skeletal development (genetic, environmental, etc.). A priori, this makes age determination using actualistic data in fetal remains more reliable than in postnatal remains. Starting from these premises, the perinatal remains from El Mirador cave were analyzed using the osteological collection of fetal and neonatal individuals of the Rasa Aragonesa breed from the IPE (Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Jaca, Spain). Veterinary studies based on bone center ontogenesis and fetal age identification methods using metric criteria were also employed. The identification of age and the distinction of fetal and neonatal remains in the El Mirador cave assemblages based on qualitative anatomical criteria were consistent with the results obtained from osteometric data, specifically from the diaphyseal length measurement. In addition, the large number of specimen in the El Mirador assemblages made it possible to distinguish different fetal phases in accordance with skeletal developmental phenomena.

      PubDate: 2015-10-30T12:30:43Z
  • Postclassic petén maya bow-and-arrow use as revealed by immunological
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Nathan J. Meissner, Prudence M. Rice
      The bow-and-arrow was a widely used weapon in the Postclassic and Contact periods in the Maya lowlands. A sample of 108 arrow points from varied archaeological contexts in the lakes region of central Petén, northern Guatemala, was submitted for cross-over immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) analysis. Analysis resulted in 25 positive matches to available antisera for a wide range of local and introduced fauna, from small and large land mammals to avians. These findings indicate possible uses in subsistence and ritual, as well as the first immunological identification of human proteins from projectile weaponry in Mesoamerica. This study did not reveal strong correlations between targeted fauna and point morphology, although larger points were likely used for larger game.

      PubDate: 2015-10-21T05:10:23Z
  • Tracing Pottery Use and the Emergence of Secondary Product Exploitation
           through Lipid Residue Analysis at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad (Syria)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Richard P. Evershed, Peter M.M.G. Akkermans, Anna Russell
      Late Neolithic settlements dating to around 7000 cal. BC are widespread in Upper Mesopotamia, however, the site of Tell Sabi Abyad is unique in the scale and quality of excavation, revealing an extensive architecture, huge numbers of domesticated animal bones, stone tools and potsherds. A previous study reported lipid residues in nearly 300 potsherds as part of a wider investigation of the origins of dairying in the Near East and Southeastern Europe. The aim of this paper is to interpret the organic residue findings in more detail, addressing such factors as the association of lipids in pottery with particular phases, ware types, and the faunal record. Overall, the recovery rate of lipids in sherds is low (14 % of the sherds investigated in this study yielded detectable lipids) and the mean lipid concentration for sherds containing lipids is ca. 82 μg g-1. These results are typical of sites from this period and general region (southern Mediterranean and Near East). Our interpretations indicate: (i) the use of specific ceramic categories of vessel for “cooking”, (ii) clear evidence of the extensive heating of vessels is deduced from the presence of ketones, formed from the condensation of fatty acids, in some vessels, (iii) strong differences in recovery rates possibly reflecting differences in use between different pottery types, (iv) in particular the Dark Faced Burnished Ware (DFBW) contained the highest frequency of residues (46 % yielded detectable lipids), (v) degraded animal fats were detectable, as evidenced by fatty acids with C18:0 in high abundance and in few cases tri-, di- and monoacylglycerols, (vi) the presence of abundant carcass fats is consistent with interpretations based on faunal assemblage of extensive meat exploitation, and (vii) four vessels dated to 6,400 to 5,900 cal BC yielded milk fat residues.

      PubDate: 2015-10-11T02:24:29Z
  • Oxygen isotope composition of Sparidae (sea bream) tooth enamel from
           well-dated archaeological site as an environmental proxy in the East
           Mediterranean: A case study from Tel Dor, Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): G. Sisma-Ventura, I. Zohar, A. Sarkar, K. Bhattacharyya, A. Zidane, A. Gilboa, G. Bar-Oz, D. Sivan
      This paper examines the potential of oxygen stable isotope composition of Sparidae (sea-bream) tooth enamel phosphate (δ18OP) as an indicator of the habitat in which the fish were captured. The isotopic compositions of Sparidae molariform teeth recovered from the coastal site of Tel Dor (northern coast of Israel), from a sequence dated to the 12th–7th centuries BCE and from modern samples were studied. The δ18OP values of the archaeological specimens exhibited a wide range of values, varying between 21.3 and 25.2±0.2‰. While δ18OP values from the teeth dated to the 12th–9th centuries BCE resembled typical East Mediterranean coastal water, some of the later teeth, dated to the 9th–7th centuries BCE, exhibited higher values. The later values indicate tooth enamel deposition in a hyper-saline environment similar to δ18OP values of Sparidae observed at Bardawil Lagoon (Southeastern Mediterranean coast, east of the Suez Canal, Egypt). Prior to this study all Sparidae fish recovered at Tel Dor were regarded as evidence of local fishing activity. The current results exhibit, for the first time, that some of the Sparids may have been exported from the Bardawil Lagoon. We discuss, however, an alternative scenario, namely, the possible existence of saline lagoons near Tel Dor in antiquity.

      PubDate: 2015-10-11T02:24:29Z
  • Experimental dissolution of lead from bronze vessels and the lead content
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ying Qin, Haomiao Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Huang Huang, Ya Qin, Yaoting Xie
      Human skeletal lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental factors. However, there is minimal research into the lead content found in ancient Chinese human remains. A series of dissolving lead experiments on ancient bronze vessels containing lead revealed that lead contamination occurred when ancient people used lead-rich alloy vessels for cooking, heating and storing food and wine. 65 ancient bone and teeth samples (from occupants of tombs and sacrificed people and dogs of different tombs) excavated from a Western Zhou Period (B.C.1046∼B.C.771) burial area in Hengbei, Jiangxian of Shanxi Provinces were analysed using ICP-MS to determine their lead content. The lead content of teeth and bones from the remains of high-status individuals differs from those of the slaves and servants within the same tombs. In addition, it is observable that differences of bone lead contents are clearly related to social ranks.

      PubDate: 2015-10-03T21:00:36Z
  • Iron Age Migration on the island of Öland: Apportionment of Strontium
           by Means of Bayesian Mixing Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Helene Wilhelmson, Torbjörn Ahlström
      Migration is a complex subject to approach in archeology and the new materials and methods available, such as isotope analysis and DNA, make it possible, and necessary, to ask new questions. The objective of this paper is to highlight the possibilities with using a new approach to migration on a population level by applying Bayesian mixing analysis of strontium isotopes. The selected case, the island of Öland in the Baltic, was based on 109 human samples dated to the Early (500 BC-AD 400,n=71) and Late (AD 400-1050, n=38) periods. The results from both periods demonstrate that the distribution of Strontium (Sr) is multimodal with several peaks not associated with the local variation. Our results show a large immigration to Öland from other geological areas, with 32% of the population in the Early period and 47% in the Late period being nonlocal. In order to unravel these distributions, we use a Bayesian mixing analysis. The Bayesian mixing analysis provides us with a mean to disentangle the distribution of Sr that is not uninformed. The gravity model, however simplistic, is relevant for explaining the strontium variation in the population in Öland both in the Early and Late period. Our results indicate a significant internal migration in Scandinavia that is increasing in the Late Iron Age at the same time as the Viking expansions (the more well studied external migration), which is usually the only migration discussed. We argue that the method proposed and tested on the case of Öland adds new perspectives for approaching migration patterns in general on a population level, a perspective that is hitherto lacking in archaeology.

      PubDate: 2015-09-28T21:41:26Z
  • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and spatial analysis of
           geometric lines in the Northern Arabian Desert
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): C.D. Athanassas, G.O. Rollefson, A. Kadereit, D. Kennedy, K. Theodorakopoulou, Y.M. Rowan, A. Wasse
      In this paper we generate chronological constraints through optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on extensive prehistoric stone structures that stretch out in the Arabian Desert and appear as geometric lines, known as the "Works of the Old Men". Two major types of the "Works" that are common throughout the Arabian Desert are the "wheels" and the more intensively investigated "desert kites". Here, OSL dating was applied to "wheels" in the Wadi Wisad area, in the eastern badia of Jordan. OSL dating generated ages that fall into the Late Neolithic to Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. This chronological spectrum is consistent with the well-documented prehistoric activities at the archaeological site of Wisad Pools, also located in the Wadi Wisad area. Spatial analyses of the "Works" in Wadi Wisad and in the Azraq Oasis revealed that: 1) the wheels are organized in clusters, 2) the spatial distribution of the wheels is predetermined by the kites, 3) the kites were most probably created earlier than the wheels in the study areas and 4) a cluster of wheels nearby the Azraq Oasis tentatively demonstrates ranking and, perhaps, tendency for alignment, although this is not the case for the other wheel-clusters studied. Despite the progress toward understanding the chronological and spatial aspects of the wheels, a great deal of research remains to resolve the actual nature of these enigmatic stone structures.

      PubDate: 2015-09-24T20:01:11Z
  • New Approaches to Modeling the Volume of Earthen Archaeological Features:
           A Case-Study from the Hopewell Culture Mounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Matthew Magnani, Whittaker Schroder
      Raised archaeological features form an abundant part of the prehistoric record, and come in many forms, from earthen mounds to shell mounds. To calculate the volume of these features, archaeologists have relied on multiple strategies from simple geometric formulae to the use of aerial photogrammetry, typically to create energetic estimates of construction. No matter the technique, an undeveloped application of such volume estimates has the potential to inform our understanding of erosional processes and feature degradation. The largest of these earthen structures are typically best mapped and studied, leaving a paucity of data on the smaller, ubiquitous and often peripheral earthworks presently understudied at major archaeological sites. These smaller mounds are significantly threatened to disappear completely from the record simply because of their lesser volume. Using case studies from the Hopewell and Newark mounds of the United States, we compare traditional methods of calculating mound volume for the purposes of ascertaining erosional processes with new photogrammetric protocols. Prior to this, the methodology is checked using artificially constructed earthworks of known volume, which are modified in controlled ways. The results presented here have implications not only for understanding prehistoric energetics more accurately in commonly overlooked portions of archaeological sites, but can also be used in the protection and potential reconstruction of archaeological mound features. While these sites are often afforded better protection than they have been in the past, they are still exposed to natural and man-made erosional processes which warrants their detailed recording.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T07:18:20Z
  • The prehistoric individual, connoisseurship and archaeological science:
           The Muisca goldwork of Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Marcos Martinón-Torres, María Alicia Uribe-Villegas
      Unlike art historians, archaeologists rarely make systematic attempts at attributing artefacts to individual artisans – they stop at the broader category of ‘provenance regions’ or ‘technical styles’. The identification of archaeological individuals, however, allows detailed insight into the organisation of workshops, knowledge transmission, skill, and the tension between individual and social agency. This paper reviews the potential of archaeological science methods to identify individual artisans through the study of material culture. Focusing on the Muisca votive goldwork of Colombia, it combines stylistic, chemical and microscopic analyses to identify idiosyncratic motor habits, material selections and artistic preferences that allow the identification of individual makers and manufacturing events. The results are informative of the internal dynamics between the Muisca technological tradition, religious behaviour and craft specialists. We conclude by outlining the potentials and challenges of science-based archaeological connoisseurship in other contexts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T07:18:20Z
  • Striking a difference? The effect of knapping techniques on blade
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Hege Damlien
      Studies of lithic blade technology offer an important step towards explanations of technological diversification among Stone Age hunter-gatherers, and for tracking continuity and change in cultural traits through time and space. One prominent example is the many efforts to map the spatiotemporal diffusion of pressure blade technology. In this context, a key concern is to distinguish the various knapping techniques, applied by prehistoric knappers. Specific observable blade attributes, found by experimental work is proposed to provide essential information, to determine the technique used. To date, however, the causal relationship between blade knapping techniques and postulated technique-related attributes remains largely untested in quantitative terms. With the purpose of contributing to a better understanding of how various knapping techniques, and in this case the indentor type used for blade removal, effect particular aspects of blade morphology, statistical analysis of experimental data is used, and subsequently applied as a basis for predicting knapping techniques in blade assemblages from Early and Middle Mesolithic (ca. 9500–6300 cal. BC) Southern Norway. The results clearly indicate a considerable overlap in the distributions of the majority of the attributes with regards to technique, and that their causal relationship should be viewed with considerable caution. The discriminate capability increases, however, when specific composite attributes are considered. Importantly, what is also shown is that at the blade population level, results from statistical analysis of experimental data contribute to predict general tendencies in knapping technique variability in archaeological blade assemblages, while simultaneously formalising the discriminating characteristics that differentiate those assemblages. Taken together, these results have implications when investigating variation and change in blade technology in time and space.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • Multi-emission luminescence dating of heated chert from the Middle Stone
           Age sequence at Sodmein Cave (Red Sea Mountains, Egypt)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Christoph Schmidt, Karin Kindermann, Philip van Peer, Olaf Bubenzer
      Sodmein Cave in Egypt is one of the rare archaeological sites in north-eastern Africa conserving human occupation remains of a period most relevant for the ‘Out of Africa II’ hypothesis. This underlines the need for establishing a chronological framework for the more than 4 m of stratified sediments ranging from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Neolithic. The lowest layer J hosts huge fireplaces, from which we report luminescence ages of heated chert fragments unearthed from different depths. The ‘multi-emission’ dating approach – using both the blue and red TL of each specimen as well as the OSL emission of one sample – allowed identifying the most reliable ages. Samples yield ages between <121 ± 15 ka (maximum age) and 87 ± 9 ka. These data evidence human presence at the site during MIS 5. For integrating Sodmein Cave into the actual discussion of the dispersal patterns of modern humans and to identify potential connections with other sites in the Nile Valley and in the Middle East, a sound and reliable chronology is indispensable.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • A revised chronology for the archaeology of the lower Yangtze, China,
           based on Bayesian statistical modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Tengwen Long, David Taylor
      Bayesian statistical modelling, based on 128 existing radiometric (radiocarbon and thermoluminescence) dates and associated information from a database totalling 252 dates, was used to generate a revised chronological framework for the lower Yangtze, eastern China. The framework covers the period from the terminal Pleistocene through to the mid to late Holocene, and thus the appearance of and subsequent developments in food production in the region, which is marked in the archaeological record by seven cultural phases. Results indicate that the age span of the Shangshan, Kuahuqiao, Hemudu, Majiabang, Songze, Liangzhu, and Maqiao cultural phase were, respectively, ca. 10,800–8600 cal BP, ca. 7900–7200 cal BP, ca. 7100–5200 cal BP, ca. 7200–5200 cal BP, ca. 5700–5200 cal BP, ca. 5500–4000 cal BP, and ca. 3700–3200 cal BP. In addition to providing a basis for a more robust absolute dating of archaeological remains in the lower Yangtze in the future, the results raise important questions deserving of further research. These questions relate to a priori assumptions concerning the degree of temporal separation of Neolithic cultural phases on the Yangtze Delta. A coexistence of cultures on the Yangtze Delta evident in the results does not accord with the existing model for the region, which generally assumes a replacement of one cultural phase by the next. Coexistence of cultures could have been supported by a high degree of environmental variability on the Yangtze Delta, or by social factors, such as different levels of preference towards innovations or traditions, or some combination of factors.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • Compound-specific amino acid isotopic proxies for detecting freshwater
           resource consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Emily C. Webb, Noah V. Honch, Philip J.H. Dunn, Gunilla Eriksson, Kerstin Lidén, Richard P. Evershed
      Of central importance to palaeodietary reconstruction is a clear understanding of relative contributions of different terrestrial (i.e., C3 vs. C4 plants) and aquatic (i.e., freshwater vs. marine) resources to human diet. There are, however, significant limitations associated with the ability to reconstruct palaeodiet using bulk collagen stable isotope compositions in regions where diverse dietary resources are available. Recent research has determined that carbon-isotope analysis of individual amino acids has considerable potential to elucidate dietary protein source where bulk isotopic compositions cannot. Using δ 13CAA values for human and faunal remains from Zvejnieki, Latvia (8th – 3rd millennia BCE), we test several isotopic proxies focused on distinguishing freshwater protein consumption from both plant-derived and marine protein consumption. We determined that the Δ 13CGly-Phe and Δ 13CVal-Phe proxies can effectively discriminate between terrestrial and aquatic resource consumption, and the relationship between essential δ 13CAA values and the Δ 13CGly-Phe and Δ 13CVal-Phe proxies can differentiate among the four protein consumption groups tested here. Compound-specific amino acid carbon-isotope dietary proxies thus enable an enhanced understanding of diet and resource exploitation in the past, and can elucidate complex dietary behaviour.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • “All Models are Wrong But Some Are Useful”: A Response to
           Campbell’s Comment on Estimating Mytilus californianus Shell Size
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Gerald G. Singh, Iain McKechnie, Todd J. Braje, Breana Campbell
      Developing useful methods for estimating animal body size from fragmentary remains is a key focus of zooarchaeological research. Here, we respond to Greg Campbell’s critique regarding methods we recently developed to predict Mytilus californianus shell size from archaeological contexts using linear regression. We show that Campbell’s assertion that our regressions are “inaccurate” is incorrect and mischaracterizes the premise and results of our study. We appreciate that Campbell draws attention to the importance of allometry but do not agree that archaeologists must first describe ontogenetic size relationships before developing a practical method for size prediction in zooarchaeology. We further argue that pooling data from broad geographic scales incorporates diverse growing conditions into a predictive model to account for the uncertainties across archaeological time scales. We conclude by highlighting the difference between zoological and zooarchaeological research goals and emphasize that the precision required for a particular analysis can create a mismatch between analytical expectations and archaeologically applicable research questions.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T08:06:42Z
  • Archaeological sequence diagrams and Bayesian chronological models
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Thomas S. Dye, Caitlin E. Buck
      This paper develops directed graph representations for a class of archaeological sequence diagrams, such as the Harris Matrix, that do not include information on duration. These “stratigraphic directed graphs” differ from previous software implementations of the Harris Matrix, which employ a mix of directed graph and other data structures and algorithms. A “chronological directed graph” to represent the relationships in a Bayesian chronological model that correspond to the possibilities inherent in a sequence diagram, and an algorithm to map a stratigraphic directed graph to a chronological directed graph are proposed and illustrated with an example. These results are intended to be a proof of concept for the design of a front-end for Bayesian calibration software that is based directly on the archaeological stratigrapher's identification of contexts, observations of stratigraphic relationships, inferences concerning parts of once-whole contexts, and selection of materials for radiocarbon dating.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T08:06:42Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Molecular evidence of use of hide glue in 4th millennium BC Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Niels Bleicher, Christian Kelstrup, Jesper V. Olsen, Enrico Cappellini
      A well-preserved bow, dated by dendrochronology to 3176–3153 BC, was found at the waterlogged Neolithic site “Parkhaus Opéra” in Zurich (Switzerland). The surface of the bow, made of yew (Taxus baccata), was decorated with bark strips from a different, broad-leaved, tree species. In order to investigate whether the bark decoration was fixed to the bow with hide or fish glue, mass spectrometry (MS)-based ancient protein sequencing was attempted to detect possible traces of collagen residues. The sequences retrieved, in particular collagen type 3 (COL3A1), indicate that most probably skin, and possibly other slaughtering by-products, were used as the initial materials to produce hide glue. Amongst the candidate animal species that the glue could have originated from, cattle and domestic ovicaprids were confidently identified. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the oldest evidence of the use of animal-based glue in Europe. It demonstrates that in the late 4th millennium BC human communities, aside from benefitting from more commonplace primary and secondary products, also exploited domestic animals to extract a high value-added biochemical.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Fatal force-feeding or Gluttonous Gagging? The death of Kestrel SACHM
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Salima Ikram, Ruhan Slabbert, Izak Cornelius, Anton du Plessis, Liani Colette Swanepoel, Henry Weber
      The use of digital CT imaging on a bird mummy from Iziko Museums of South Africa in Cape Town has allowed us to carry out a virtual autopsy on the animal. We have been able to establish its species, cause and probable time of death, as well as, for the first time, to find evidence for the maintenance of a captive raptor population in ancient Egypt. This may represent early evidence of keeping raptors in captivity anywhere in the world.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Diet and herding strategies in a changing environment: Stable isotope
           analysis of Bronze Age and Late Antique skeletal remains from
           Ya'amūn, Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Michela Sandias, Gundula Müldner
      Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 45 human and 23 faunal bone collagen samples were measured to study human diet and the management of domestic herbivores in past Jordan, contrasting skeletal remains from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and the Late Roman and Byzantine periods from the site of Ya'amūn near Irbid. The isotope data demonstrate that the management of the sheep and goats changed over time, with the earlier animals consuming more plants from semi-arid habitats, possibly because of transhumant herding strategies. The isotope data for fish presented here are the first from archaeological contexts from the Southern Levant. Although fish of diverse provenance was available at the site, human diet was predominately based on terrestrial resources and there was little dietary variability within each time-period. Isotopic variation between humans from different time-periods can mostly be explained by ‘baseline shifts’ in the available food sources; however, it is suggested that legumes may have played a more significant role in Middle and Late Bronze Age diet than later on.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Communities of identity, communities of practice: Understanding Santa Fe
           black-on-white pottery in the Española Basin of new Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Suzanne L. Eckert, Kari L. Schleher, William D. James
      The research presented here focuses on Santa Fe Black-on-white pottery produced during the Late Coalition/Early Classic Transition (AD 1250–1350) in the northern Rio Grande region, New Mexico. We combine design data with compositional analyses to gain a greater understanding of ceramic production and circulation in this region and to evaluate the communities of practice and communities of identity reflected in pottery. We combine mineralogical and INAA chemical compositional datasets to argue for at least three production provenances; we further argue that nine potential petrofacies represent different resource procurement zones within the production provenances. We argue that these data, combined, represent a minimum of three different communities of practice. Despite multiple communities of practice, similar designs were being used as decoration that reflects a single community of identity. We argue that during this transitional time period examined here, producers of Santa Fe Black-on-white were intentionally practicing a form of identity maintenance across all of the villages in which it was produced.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Backed point experiments for identifying mechanically-delivered armatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Katsuhiro Sano, Masayoshi Oba
      The emergence of mechanically-delivered armatures was a crucial event in human evolution, indicating technological and cognitive advances. Morphometric analysis has been the most commonly employed method to explore this subject. While a morphometric analysis can demonstrate a potential capability as a projectile, it is inevitable that the analyzed sample includes artifacts that were not used as hunting weapons. Furthermore, proxies derived from ethnographic references might be dependent on spatio-temporal contexts. Thus, a reliable identification of spearthrower darts and arrowheads in archaeological assemblages requires new indicators. Here we present results of controlled experiments, using backed point replicas, designed to test a correlation between impact velocities and impact trace patterns. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of experimental replicas indicated that complex fracture formation, including large numbers and dimensions of spin-offs as well as distinctive microscopic linear impact traces (MLITs), provide useful markers for determining mechanically-delivered backed points.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Cooking fish and drinking milk? Patterns in pottery use in the
           southeastern Baltic, 3300–2400 cal BC
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Carl Heron, Oliver E. Craig, Alexandre Luquin, Valerie J. Steele, Anu Thompson, Gytis Piličiauskas
      A study of pottery vessel contents and use was undertaken in order to obtain information on food processed in Subneolithic and Neolithic vessels from Nida and Šventoji (3300–2400 cal BC). The aim is to assess pottery use during major changes in the coastal environment and in material culture. Bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope, lipid biomarker and compound specific carbon isotope analysis was undertaken on ‘foodcrusts’, charred deposits adhering to vessel surfaces, and absorbed residues from different vessel types. In addition, three archaeological seal bones were analysed for bulk collagen and compound specific carbon isotope analysis to establish collagen-lipid offsets to inform interpretation of the data. The results show that the majority of the vessels were used for processing aquatic products. At Nida the data suggest exploitation of freshwater resources and, in the later stages of occupation, dairying. Analysis of a small number of Subneolithic vessels from Šventoji produced results that are also consistent with processing of aquatic products. Other substances identified include Pinaceae sp. resin or tar and beeswax. These data demonstrate that identifying patterns in pottery use contributes to understanding Neolithisation processes.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • The implication of varying 14C concentrations in carbon samples extracted
           from Mongolian iron objects of the Mongol period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jang-Sik Park
      Accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) radiocarbon measurements were performed with carbon samples extracted from cast iron and steel artifacts excavated in the 13th to 14th century Karakorum site of the Mongol period. The 14 C levels in most specimens were too low to represent the real age of the given artifacts, particularly in cast iron objects, whose 14 C concentrations were negligible. This discrepancy was much less pronounced in steel objects, but still quite significant. One notable exception was found, however, in a steel artifact whose radiocarbon date was consistent with its known age. These AMS data suggest that mineral coal was employed primarily for the smelting of cast iron while charcoal served as the major source of fuel for other iron and steelmaking processes. This can explain the significant variation in 14 C concentrations for steel products that were fabricated by treating cast iron in a charcoal-fired environment, as confirmed in some of the artifacts examined. This variation may have important archaeological applications in characterizing technological transitions associated with the use of fossil fuels in preindustrial iron industry.

      PubDate: 2015-08-21T01:51:39Z
  • Eneolithic copper smelting slags in the Eastern Alps: local patterns of
           metallurgical exploitation in the Copper Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): G. Artioli, I. Angelini, U. Tecchiati, A. Pedrotti
      A number of slags of all known sites in the Italian Eastern Alps showing occurrences of copper smelting activities in the Copper Age have been characterized by lead isotope analysis. All the investigated smelting slags from Trentino (Romagnano Loc, La Vela, Gaban, Acquaviva di Besenello, Montesei di Serso) and Alto Adige/Sud Tyrol (Millan, Gudon, Bressanone Circonvallazione Ovest) have been recently characterized by thorough mineralogical, petrographical and chemical analysis and demonstrated to be the product of copper smelting activities of chalcopyrite-based mineral charges, with an immature technological extraction process referred as the “Chalcolithic” smelting process. Revision of the available radiocarbon dates show that the metallurgical activities pertaining to the analysed slags can be attributed to the third millennium BC. The lead isotope analysis indicates clearly that the mineral charge use for the smelting process was extracted from nearby mineral deposits. The detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ores and slags allows for the first time to define the local organization of the metallurgical operations.

      PubDate: 2015-08-21T01:51:39Z
  • 3D Numerical Simulation on the Flow Field of Single Tuyere Blast Furnaces:
           A Case Study of the Shuiquangou Iron Smelting Site Dated from the 9th to
           13th Century in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Xing Huang, Wei Qian, Wei Wei, Jingning Guo, Naitao Liu
      Two round and two square blast furnaces used for cast iron smelting were excavated at the Shuiquangou smelting site near Beijing that was dated from the 9th to 13th century. On the basis of the data from 3D laser scanning and a comparison with other smelting sites, both the round and square furnaces were reconstructed. Based on two limit data groups and one median data group, the flow fields in the furnaces were simulated by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A special flow field with vortex was qualitatively indicted to be caused by the construction of a single slant tuyere. This single slant tuyere was beneficial to the flow transportation, reactions and gas distribution in the furnaces. This construction was common in furnaces in the Central Plains during the same period. Compared with the square furnace, the round furnace was more complicated and advanced. The square furnace followed the furnace profile and blast design from North-eastern China. The CFD method was found to be helpful in the research on the history of iron smelting.

      PubDate: 2015-08-16T18:19:36Z
  • Glass Production at an Early Islamic Workshop in Tel Aviv
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ian C. Freestone, Ruth E. Jackson-Tal, Itamar Taxel, Oren Tal
      A refuse deposit at HaGolan Street, Khirbet al-Ḥadra, northeastern Tel Aviv, is rich in debris deriving from an Islamic period glass workshop, dating to the 7th–8th centuries. Twenty-four samples of glass vessels, chunks and moils were analysed by electron microprobe. Glass used in the workshop derives from three primary sources: Egypt II, somewhere in inland Egypt, Beth Eli‘ezer, near Hadera, Israel and a third group which appears to represent a previously unknown Levantine primary production centre. Glass corresponding to at least twelve production events has been identified. While vessels made of Beth Eli‘ezer and Egypt II glass have previously been reported from the same context, this is the first time that they have been related to the products of a single workshop. It appears that glass from both primary production centres was available in the later 8th century, and that the glass workers at HaGolan St were obliged to balance the high working and fuel costs of the stiff low-soda Levantine glass against the better working properties but higher raw material costs of the high-soda glass from Egypt.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • Roman and late-Roman glass from north-eastern Italy: The isotopic
           perspective to provenance its raw materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Filomena Gallo, Alberta Silvestri, Patrick Degryse, Monica Ganio, Antonio Longinelli, Gianmario Molin
      In this study, the strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotopic composition of Roman (1st-3rd century AD) and late-Roman glass (4th-6th century AD) from Adria and Aquileia, two of the most important archaeological sites of north-eastern Italy, is discussed. The majority of glass analysed, independent from age, shows values of strontium isotope ratios close to that of modern ocean water, indicating that the source of lime in the glass was marine shell, and likely coastal sands were used in its production. The Nd signature of all late-Roman glasses from Aquileia and of the majority of the Roman ones from Adria, independent from their chemical composition, is homogeneous and higher than -6 εNd, supporting the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin, probably located on Syro-Palestinian coast. However, the composition of late-Roman samples with HIMT signature, with lower 87Sr/86Sr values correlated to higher contents in Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO and lower contents in CaO, suggest an area of origin for this glass on the Egyptian coast. In addition, the different Nd signatures of two Adria Roman glasses (εNd < -7) suggests their primary production in western Mediterranean. Oxygen isotopes proved to be a further diagnostic method to discriminate natron and soda plant ash glass, and different silica sources, in the case of the soda plant ash glass. The combination of isotopic and chemical data supports the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin for late-Roman glass, which may be produced in few primary workshops on the Syro-Palestinian and Egyptian coast, although not necessarily in the same ateliers as have been identified so far. In the case of the Roman glass investigated, although the majority of data suggests an eastern Mediterranean origin, on the basis of Nd isotopes and chemical compositions, the existence of other primary glass producers located in the western Mediterranean can be suggested.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • Roman coloured glass in the Western provinces: the glass cakes and
           tesserae from West Clacton in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Sarah Paynter, Thérèse Kearns, Hilary Cool, Simon Chenery
      A collection of tesserae and two fragments from rounded cakes of coloured glass, probably dating to the 2nd century AD, were found at West Clacton Reservoir, Essex, in the UK, by Colchester Archaeological Trust. A selection of the finds were analysed using SEM-EDS and ICP-MS. This paper provides data on the composition of the different glass colours and discusses how each colour was made. Colourants and opacifiers were added to a base glass, most often one of the transparent, naturally coloured (blue-green) natron glass types widely available at the time, but there appear to be preferences in the type of base glass used for certain colours, which affects the type of antimonate opacifier precipitated. Possible reasons for using different types of base glass to make strongly coloured Roman glass are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • An Empirical Test of Shell Tempering as an Alkaline Agent in the
           Nixtamalization Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Andrew J. Upton, William A. Lovis, Gerald R. Urquhart
      It has been argued that the transition to maize based diets across much of the Eastern Woodlands of North America ca. A.D. 1000 was the primary catalyst for the population increases, technological innovations, and fundamental shifts in social and cultural organization characteristic of Late Woodland, Mississippian, Upper Mississippian, and Iroquoian societies. However, raw or uncooked maize kernels alone are known to be a nutritionally inadequate subsistence staple. Nixtamalization, or the alkaline processing of dried raw maize to produce hominy, yields a more readily digestible and therefore healthier food resource. Such processing is ubiquitous amongst maize-based societies in the Americas. The timing of the transition to maize agriculture was also closely associated with the adoption of shell-tempered ceramics. As a result, an hypothesis has been offered by multiple authors that burned and crushed mollusc shell aplastic may act as an alkaline agent in the nixtamalization process. The research reported here provides a formal empirical test of this hypothesis. Findings indicate that no substantial structural or chemical changes to maize kernels result from the leaching of shell tempering alkaline products from the fabric of a ceramic vessel. Two constraints are noted in this process: the reduction in adherence of wet paste due to the addition of mussel shell derived calcium oxide (lime) or calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a tempering agent, and the necessity to avoid the decomposition of calcium carbonate to lime or slaked lime in order for the successful firing of shell-tempered vessels.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • The Production and Exchange of Moulded-carved Ceramics and the ‘Maya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Carmen Ting , Marcos Martinón-Torres , Elizabeth Graham , Christophe Helmke
      This paper examines the production and exchange of a particular type of ceramic vase designated ‘Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved’ by using thin-section petrography, INAA, and SEM-EDS. These vases were produced and circulated in the eastern Maya lowlands during a transitional period known as ‘Terminal Classic’, ca. A.D. 800-950. Significant changes, generally referred to as the Classic Maya Collapse, occurred in the socio-political order in the Maya lowlands at this time, although the pace and events leading to such changes remain poorly understood. By studying a selection of 62 Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved vases from various sites across Belize, we sought to offer a new perspective on the nature of this important transitional period. Our findings reveal that two main ceramic traditions – one employing calcite and the other volcanic ash temper – are represented by the vases. These traditions guided the selection of raw materials, surface finish, and firing methods. Vases of the calcite tradition were mostly used at or around the sites where they were produced, whereas those of the volcanic ash tradition appear to have been circulated over a wider region. The co-existence of multiple production groups and distribution spheres of the Ahk’utu’ vases, along with their style and decoration, is interpreted as indicating a proliferation of an ascending social segment and greater flexibility and fluidity in how the social hierarchy and political structure were maintained in the eastern Maya lowlands from the 9th century and onwards.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
  • Molecular sex identification of juvenile skeletal remains from an Irish
           medieval population using ancient DNA analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): S.N. Tierney , J. Bird
      The archaeological excavation of a medieval cemetery in North West Ireland led to the recovery of the largest collection of human remains from a burial ground in Ireland to date. This collection included a substantial number of juvenile remains. In order to enhance the interpretation of the assemblage and give a more complete picture of the population, a sample of the juvenile population from Ballyhanna were sexed using DNA based techniques so that the mortality ratio of the male and female non-adult individuals could be assessed. Sex identification of human remains is generally assigned using the morphology of the skeleton or on some occasions using associated grave goods. However in instances when an assemblage contains immature or fragmentary material, an alternative and reliable means of sexing these individuals is required. Ancient DNA research in recent years has proven itself to be such a reliable alternative. In this study the reliability and reproducibility of two PCR based sexing methods were evaluated first on 38 adults of known sex to determine the accuracy of these methods for sexing individuals from the Ballyhanna assemblage. Using real time PCR and STR profiling systems, a dependable and consistent sexing system was developed. The reproducibility of the amplified samples meant that the methods were valid and subsequently could be used to sex juveniles. The molecular sexing results from the juveniles sampled determined that four of these juvenile individuals were males, 10 were probable males, one was a probable female and four were inconclusive. The results from this study, although not fully representative of the juvenile population excavated, indicate an excess of male mortality.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
  • Mapping invisibility: GIS approaches to the analysis of hiding and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mark Gillings
      Analyses of visibility have become a commonplace within landscape-based archaeological research, whether through rich description, simple mapping or formal modelling and statistical analysis, the latter increasingly carried out using the viewshed functionality of GIS. The research presented here challenges current obsessions with what is visible to focus instead upon the interpretative benefits of considering the invisible and the complex interplay of visibility and concealment that frequently accompany landscape movement and experience. Having highlighted the difficulties in analysing relational properties such as invisibility and hiding using traditional archaeological techniques, a series of new GIS methodologies are presented and evaluated in the context of an original study of a series of remarkably small, visually non-intrusive prehistoric megalithic monuments. The results serve to challenge dominant interpretations of these enigmatic sites as well as demonstrating the utility, value and potential of the GIS-based approaches developed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
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