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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 220 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 46)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 104)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal  
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access  
Science and Technology of Archaeological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scottish Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [54 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Palaeolithic and prehistoric dogs and Pleistocene wolves from Yakutia:
           Identification of isolated skulls
    • Authors: Mietje Germonpré; Sergey Fedorov; Petr Danilov; Patrik Galeta; Elodie-Laure Jimenez; Mikhail Sablin; Robert J. Losey
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Mietje Germonpré, Sergey Fedorov, Petr Danilov, Patrik Galeta, Elodie-Laure Jimenez, Mikhail Sablin, Robert J. Losey
      Four isolated canid skulls from four sites (Badyarikha River, Tirekhtyakh River, Ulakhan Sular, Malyi Lyakhovsky Island) in the Sakha Republic of northern Siberia are here described. Three specimens date from the Pleistocene and range in age from more than 50,000 years to about 17,200 years old, the fourth specimen is about 950 years old. The Yakutian canid skulls are compared with Palaeolithic dogs, recent Northern dogs, Pleistocene wolves and recent Northern wolves by multivariate analyses of standardised cranial measurements in order to determine with which reference group they have the closest affinity. These analyses permitted to identify the Tirekhtyakh River specimen as a Pleistocene wolf. The Ulakhan Sular specimen resembles the Palaeolithic dogs and the Malyi Lyakhvosky specimen the recent Northern dogs. The Badyarikha River skull falls in between groups. The archaeological implications of the presence of ancient canid specimens resembling Palaeolithic and early dogs in arctic northeast Asia are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave
           (El Hierro, Canary Islands)
    • Authors: Alejandra C. Ordóñez; R. Fregel; A. Trujillo-Mederos; Montserrat Hervella; Concepción de-la-Rúa; Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Alejandra C. Ordóñez, R. Fregel, A. Trujillo-Mederos, Montserrat Hervella, Concepción de-la-Rúa, Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      The aim of this study was to establish the genetic studies of the population from one of the most important known aboriginal funerary spaces of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands), the Punta Azul cave, which harbors remains of 127 individuals. Sixty-one adult tibiae were examined, 32 left and 29 right. Radiocarbon dating yields an antiquity of 1015–1210 AD. We have obtained an overall success rate of 88.5% for the molecular sexing, and of 90.16% for the uniparental markers. Short tandem repeats (STR) profiles were also possible for 45.9% of the samples. This performance is a consequence of the good conservation of the bones in their archaeological context. The mtDNA composition of the sample is characterized by the complete fixation of the H1-16260 lineage. These results can be explained by a mixture of consecutive founding events, a bottleneck episode at the beginning of the colonization and/or as a consequence of genetic drift. Paternal lineages were also affected by these processes but in a less acute way. These differences lead us to propose social behaviors as an explanation for this difference. The maternal transmission of the lineages, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources of the Archipelago, could be an explanation. These results could be in agreement with endogamous practices, but the autosomal STR results indicate a relative high diversity. These results have allowed us to characterize the Punta Azul cave population and see the way in which geographical isolation, the process of adaptation and specific social behaviors affected the aboriginal population of the Island.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • An investigation into the effects of X-ray on the recovery of ancient DNA
           from skeletal remains
    • Authors: Lars Fehren-Schmitz; Joshua Kapp; Kim Laura Ziegler; Kelly M. Harkins; Gary P. Aronsen; Gerald Conlogue
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Joshua Kapp, Kim Laura Ziegler, Kelly M. Harkins, Gary P. Aronsen, Gerald Conlogue
      The application of radiographic imaging methods like conventional X-Ray and computed tomography (CT) in bioarchaeological research is normally considered to be non-invasive. While this holds true on the macro- and microscopic level, little is known about potentially induced damage on the molecular level that could inhibit the successful recovery of ancient DNA (aDNA) from such specimens. Although there has been speculation concerning possible damage to DNA recovered from ancient remains following exposure to radiation, little research has been published. Past studies attempted to determine the specific effect of X-ray and computed tomography on the amplification of DNA from bone of recently butchered animals. Although the results suggested exposure to clinical level of radiation decreased the recovery of aDNA, the un-dehydrated state of the samples might have biased the results. In this study we utilized dry human archaeological bones from nine prehistoric and historic individuals and exposed them to different levels of radiation using conventional X-ray to more accurately examine the issue. Employing Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of shotgun sequencing libraries, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and multiplex PCR of autosomal genetic markers we show that neither the exposure to conventional X-ray dosages (moderate irradiation) used in archaeological imaging studies nor 20-fold increased dosages (strong irradiation) have a significant effect on the quantity and quality of DNA that can be recovered from these ancient specimens. We conclude that the application of radiographic imaging methods in bioarchaeology does not impair the success of subsequent aDNA studies if simple precautions are followed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T16:55:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Iron isotopes as a potential tool for ancient iron metals tracing
    • Authors: Jean Milot; Franck Poitrasson; Sandrine Baron; Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jean Milot, Franck Poitrasson, Sandrine Baron, Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Provenance studies of iron artefacts have become an important topic in archaeology to better understand the socio-economic organization of ancient societies. Elemental and isotopic tracing methods used so far for iron metal provenance studies showed some limitations, and the development of new additional tracers are needed. Since the last decade, the rise of cutting edge analytical techniques allows for the development of new isotopic tools for this purpose. The present study explores for the first time the use of iron isotopes analyses as a potential method for ancient iron metal tracing. Ore, slag and metal samples from two experimental reconstitutions of iron ore reduction by bloomery process were collected. Their Fe isotope compositions were measured by Multi Collector – Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to assess the possible impact of smelting on the Fe isotope composition of the metal produced. Our results show that the iron isotope compositions of the slag and metal are for 8 out of 9 samples analyzed undistinguishable from that of the starting ores. This suggests that overall, no significant Fe isotope fractionation occurs along the chaîne opératoire of iron bars production, even if slight isotopic differences might be found in blooms before refinement. This fact, combined with the natural isotopic variability of iron ores, as reported in the literature, may allow the use of Fe isotopes as a relevant tracer for archaeological iron metals. This new tracing approach offers many perspectives for provenance studies. The combination of elemental and Fe isotope analyses should thus be useful to validate origin hypotheses of ancient iron artefacts.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Late Pleistocene/early Holocene maritime interaction in Southeastern
           Indonesia – Timor Leste
    • Authors: Christian Reepmeyer; Sue O'Connor; Mahirta; Tim Maloney; Shimona Kealy
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Christian Reepmeyer, Sue O'Connor, Mahirta, Tim Maloney, Shimona Kealy
      This study analysed over 1000 obsidian stone artefacts excavated from two adjoining shelters at Tron Bon Lei on Alor Island Indonesia using portable XRF. The study showed an unambiguous separation of three different source locations (Groups 1, 2 and 3). Two sources (Group 2 and 3a, b, c) dominate the assemblage numerically. Group 1 and 2 indicate use of a single volcanic formation with a strong match between Group 1 artefacts and artefacts from sites in Timor Leste. Obsidian occurs in the earliest occupation layer in the Alor sites but does not include Group 1 artefacts which occur only after approx. 12,000 cal BP. Currently the geographical location of the Group 1 outcrop is unknown, however, based on the late appearance of the Group 1 artefacts in the Alor sequence it is likely that the location is not on Alor, but rather on another island of the Sunda chain. The dating of Group 1 artefacts in widely spaced sites on the never geographically connected islands of Timor and Alor indicates that maritime interaction between islands began by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The distribution of the obsidian in Tron Bon Lei shelter Pit B shows that there were periods of more intense interaction punctuated by periods when interaction declined or ceased.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • The analytical nexus of ceramic paste composition studies: A comparison of
           NAA, LA-ICP-MS, and petrography in the prehispanic Basin of Mexico
    • Authors: Wesley D. Stoner
      Pages: 31 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Wesley D. Stoner
      Ceramic compositional analyses have become a common part of archaeological inference. With a multitude of techniques available, which provide the best opportunity to answer specific research questions? I define an analytical nexus of techniques to help archaeologists determine which techniques provide the most appropriate methodology for their study regions. The relation among bulk chemical (NAA), spot chemical (LA-ICP-MS), and in situ mineral (petrography) analyses are explored through ceramics sampled from different time periods across the Basin of Mexico. Spatial and temporal patterns of compositional variability are identified with respect to the cultural systems living there. While different questions require different techniques, a stable bulk signature, like that provided by NAA, acts as a closed system that sums to 100 percent of all cultural and natural variables affecting paste composition. By comparison to the bulk baseline, any other technique that focuses on a fraction of the whole will also provide information on the unknown fractions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Remote sensing landscapes of water management on the Victorian goldfields,
           Australia
    • Authors: Peter Davies; Jodi Turnbull; Susan Lawrence
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Peter Davies, Jodi Turnbull, Susan Lawrence
      The integration of remote sensing technologies, GIS and mobile mapping platforms is producing new insights into the archaeology of historic water management systems. Our case study of the gold rush in 19th-century Victoria, Australia, has identified ditches, dams, mining claims and sediment sinks at site and landscape scales that are normally obscured by dense vegetation. New technologies including LiDAR provide solutions to these challenges and make possible the analysis and interpretation of these spatially diffuse but historically linked sites. For the first time it is possible to record and analyse a complex archaeological landscape in north-east Victoria that is the result of alluvial mining activity in the later 19th and early 20th century. This approach offers a significant advance in Australasian archaeological science and provides an important model for other researchers examining industrial landscapes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Characterization of an archaeological decorated bark cloth from Agakauitai
           Island, Gambier archipelago, French Polynesia
    • Authors: Andrea Seelenfreund; Marcela Sepúlveda; Fiona Petchey; Barbara Peña-Ahumada; Claudia Payacán; Sebastián Gutiérrez; José Cárcamo; Olga Kardailsky; Ximena Moncada; Ana María Rojas; Mauricio Moraga; Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith; Daniela Seelenfreund
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Andrea Seelenfreund, Marcela Sepúlveda, Fiona Petchey, Barbara Peña-Ahumada, Claudia Payacán, Sebastián Gutiérrez, José Cárcamo, Olga Kardailsky, Ximena Moncada, Ana María Rojas, Mauricio Moraga, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Daniela Seelenfreund
      Bark cloth (‘tapa/kapa’) is a fabric made from beaten plant fibres. In the Pacific tapa made of paper mulberry has been of great cultural importance and its use is associated with both utilitarian and ceremonial contexts. In the 19th century, traditional bark cloth was largely replaced by Western cloth. On some islands, tapa making was banished with the arrival of missionaries and Christianization. This is the case for the Gambier Islands in French Polynesia. Only a few tapa pieces from this island group survive and are held in Museum collections. In this work, we present results of the analysis of a bark cloth bundle discovered at the Te Ana o te Tetea cave on Agakauitai in the Gambier Archipelago. The bundle was made up of large and small strips of thin tapa, with some watermarks left by the beaters. Associated with the tapa, were a piece of wood and cordage. A few of the bark cloth samples showed symmetrical black lines along some of the folds. This paper presents the results of a number of analyses performed on the bark cloth bundle from this island with the aim of determining its age, if the decorations were man-made and the plant species used for its manufacture. Samples were dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the designs were analyzed by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for elemental characterization. Raman spectroscopy was also performed in order to assess the chemical nature of pigments. These analyses allow us to conclude that the finds date to the pre-European contact period for this island group and that these lines can be attributed to man-made designs. In addition, genetic analysis of the ribosomal region were performed to identify the species used in its manufacture, which indicate that the plant used to make the tapa cloth was Broussonetia papyrifera or paper mulberry. The availability of new genetic sequencing techniques allow for new and very sensitive analyses of archaeological material that require careful handling from the beginning in order to avoid sample contamination.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Isotopic evidence of breastfeeding and weaning practices in a
           hunter–gatherer population during the Late/Final Jomon period in eastern
           Japan
    • Authors: Takumi Tsutaya; Akina Shimomi; Shiori Fujisawa; Kazumichi Katayama; Minoru Yoneda
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Takumi Tsutaya, Akina Shimomi, Shiori Fujisawa, Kazumichi Katayama, Minoru Yoneda
      Jomon hunter–gatherers in Japan commonly show Neolithic characteristics, such as intensive utilization of potteries, grinding stones, and many plant food sources. In this study, breastfeeding and weaning practices in a Jomon hunter–gatherer population are investigated to evaluate two hypotheses concerning the relations between utilization of potteries/plant foods and early weaning and children's diet around and after the weaning process. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were investigated for 46 subadult and 47 adult human skeletons excavated from the Yoshigo site of the Late/Final Jomon period (approximately 4000–2300 years BP) in eastern Japan. A new analytical procedure was developed and residuals of nitrogen isotope ratios were calculated to cancel out the effect of positive correlation in the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Age changes in the residuals showed that the age at the end of weaning in the Yoshigo population was 3.5 years (2.3–5.5 years in 95% credible interval), which is not younger than that in typical non-industrialized populations and the other skeletal hunter–gatherer populations. Furthermore, most infants were probably weaned using a combination of the same food sources as those eaten by adults. These results suggest that the utilization of pottery and plant food per se is not a sole determinant of the age at the end of weaning in past human populations, and a special diet was not always applied during and just after the weaning process.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Tracing edges: A consideration of the applications of 3D modelling for
           metalwork wear analysis on Bronze Age bladed artefacts
    • Authors: Barry Molloy; Mariusz Wiśniewski; Frank Lynam; Brendan O'Neill; Aidan O'Sullivan; Alan Peatfield
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Barry Molloy, Mariusz Wiśniewski, Frank Lynam, Brendan O'Neill, Aidan O'Sullivan, Alan Peatfield
      In many regions of Europe, bronze metalwork survives in excellent states of preservation that enable us to examine traces of use on objects that are indicative of the ways in which they were used. This is a relatively young field of archaeometric research and the methodologies employed are as yet to be consolidated. A systematic relationship typically exists between experimental archaeology and the analyses of ancient objects to understand the character and causation of traces of use on objects. Mediation between these approaches has typically been undertaken using physical casts of damage on ancient objects or primary documentation and illustration by hand. We propose in this paper that advances in digital 3D modelling provide a new and dynamic interlocutor between artefact analyses and experimental archaeology. To this end, we evaluate the pros and cons of two of the affordable and commonly used modes of 3D data capture – laser scanning and structure from motion/photogrammetry – for studying the wear on bladed metal objects. We conclude that 3D modelling has considerable potential for enhancing metalwork wear analysis and object biography research. This is due to the dynamics of storing and displaying wear data for particular objects and by linking the study of traces of use on ancient objects more generally with those developed through experimental research.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • The spatial pattern of climate change during the spread of farming into
           the Aegean
    • Authors: Nicolas Gauthier
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Nicolas Gauthier
      I examine the relationship between the spatial pattern of aridification in the northeastern Mediterranean ca 8600 years ago and the spread of Neolithic farmers into the region surrounding the Aegean Sea. I use a generalized additive model to downscale winter rainfall from a state-of-the-art paleoclimate simulation. The model performs well at reproducing the present-day pattern of rainfall in the northeastern Mediterranean, and it generates physically-interpretable estimates of past rainfall consistent with global and regional proxy records of early Holocene climate. Comparing modeled rainfall with Neolithic settlement patterns reveals spatially-heterogeneous regional impacts of this period of global aridification. Only the humid regions of the Aegean coast experienced major drought, while more inland zones temporarily experienced more rainfall. The result of this spatially heterogeneous climate event was, conversely, more homogeneous regional rainfall. Neolithic colonists from southwest Asia would have encountered new landscapes with a more familiar, and predictable, precipitation regime.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T18:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Copper mining and smelting technology in the northern Lowveld, South
           Africa, ca. 1000 CE to ca. 1880 CE
    • Authors: David Killick; Duncan Miller; Thomas Panganayi Thondhlana; Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Pages: 10 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): David Killick, Duncan Miller, Thomas Panganayi Thondhlana, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      We report chemical, petrographic and metallographic studies of copper ores and slags recovered during sporadic surface surveys and excavations over the past fifty years in the Phalaborwa and Murchison Range areas of the northern Lowveld of South Africa. The copper slags around Phalaborwa have unusual mineral assemblages, attributable to the unique geochemistry of the main ore body, the Phalaborwa Complex, where copper minerals were mined from a carbonatite composed of magnetite, calcite and apatite. Strongly reducing conditions had to be avoided to minimise contamination of the copper with iron and phosphorus. As the copper ores contain almost no silicates, silica/alumina flux was added to produce slag. The Precambrian zinc-copper ores of the Murchison Range were also smelted, but during smelting any zinc that was not volatilised was taken up by minerals in the slag, so brass was not produced.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T18:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • A lead-isotope database of copper ores from the Southeastern Alps: A tool
           for the investigation of prehistoric copper metallurgy
    • Authors: G. Artioli; I. Angelini; P. Nimis; I.M. Villa
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Artioli, I. Angelini, P. Nimis, I.M. Villa
      The Southeastern Alps were an important source of copper metal in prehistory, at least from the Eneolithic and through the Bronze Age, as documented by the abundant and substantial presence of smelting slags. Evidence of mining activity is scarce, because of limited ad hoc investigation and because of the subsequent systematic erasing by post-Medieval exploitation. Moreover, until recently the profusion of archaeometallurgical and archaeological investigations focusing on the prehistoric exploitation of Northern Alpine, Central European, and Balkan ore sources has somehow obscured the early role of the Italian Southern Alps as a major copper producing area. The recent advances in the systematic characterization of the copper ores in the Southeastern Alps (including Alto Adige, Trentino, Veneto, and nearby regions) by lead isotope analysis, supported by mineralogical and geochemical interpretation, offer now the appropriate tools to re-evaluate the extent of prehistoric mining and the local patterns of ore exploitation. The developed database is a powerful tool to identify the metal derived from local production. It is suggested that (1) based on the abundance and chronological distribution of smelting slags evidence, two major periods of mining exploitation took place, the first in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC and the second during the Late Bronze Age; and (2) based on the discrimination of copper sources and the available analyses, most of the metal circulating in Northern Italy and in the greater Po Valley region was actually produced from Southern Alpine ores.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Imaging and photogrammetry models of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) by Unmanned
           Aerial Vehicles: A high-resolution digital database for research and
           conservation of Early Stone Age sites
    • Authors: Gaygysyz Jorayev; Karol Wehr; Alfonso Benito-Calvo; Jackson Njau; Ignacio de la Torre
      Pages: 40 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Gaygysyz Jorayev, Karol Wehr, Alfonso Benito-Calvo, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
      This paper presents the first aerial mapping of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetric techniques, to provide a detailed digital cartographic basis for this world-renowned paleoanthropological site. The survey covered an area of 32 km2 of Olduvai Gorge, and through the use of aerial photos and ground control points from Global Navigation Satellite Systems, an orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model, with a higher than 5 cm/pixel ground resolution, were produced. The Digital Surface Model was then denoised to calculate a Digital Elevation Model, and a high-resolution imaging model of Olduvai Gorge was generated. A preliminary morphometric characterization using Geographic Information Systems shows the potential of this approach when analysing multiple topographic variables in large areas of paleoanthropological relevance, including production of a new map template for Olduvai Gorge and new data for the investigation of sedimentary and tectonic processes. These results constitute one of the first attempts to obtain high quality imagery from large geographic areas amenable to Early Stone Age research, and introduce new workflows for the creation of Digital Elevation Models. Overall, the digital dataset produced is intended to support archaeological and geological investigation in this area, and provide new monitoring tools for the conservation of cultural heritage.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Natron glass production and supply in the late antique and early medieval
           Near East: The effect of the Byzantine-Islamic transition
    • Authors: Matt Phelps; Ian C. Freestone; Yael Gorin-Rosen; Bernard Gratuze
      Pages: 57 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Matt Phelps, Ian C. Freestone, Yael Gorin-Rosen, Bernard Gratuze
      Palestine and Egypt supplied the Mediterranean and Europe with virtually all of its glass for most of the first millennium CE. While the Muslim conquest in the 7th century saw major political and economic adjustment, immediate changes to material culture appear to have been minimal. This paper examines the impact of the Byzantine-Islamic transition on the natron glass industry of Palestine from the 7th to 12th century. A series of 133 well-contextualised glass vessels from selected excavations in modern day Israel have been analysed for major, minor and trace elements using LA-ICP-MS. These glasses are assigned to previously established primary production groups, allowing the elucidation of the chronology of key changes in glass production in the region. Results indicate a relatively abrupt compositional change in the late 7th - early 8th centuries, covering the reforming reigns of al-Malik and al-Walid, which marks the end of “Byzantine” glass production and the establishment of the furnaces at Bet Eli'ezer. At about this time there was an influx of glass of an Egyptian composition. Production of Bet Eli'ezer type glass appears to have been limited to a short time span, less than 50 years, after which natron glass production in Palestine ceased. Plant ash glass is first encountered in the late 8th-early 9th century, probably as a result of reduced local natron glass production creating the conditions in which plant ash glass technology was adopted. Egypt continued to produce natron glass for up to a century after its demise in Palestine. It is reasoned that the change and then collapse in natron glass production in Palestine may well have been as a consequence of a reduction in the quantities of available natron. This affected Palestine first, and Egypt up to 100 years later, which suggests that the factors causing the reduction in natron supply originated at the source and were long term and gradual, not short term events.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T14:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Reflectance - Current state of research and future directions for
           archaeological charcoal; Results from a pilot study on Irish Bronze Age
           cremation charcoals
    • Authors: Robyn Veal; Lorna O'Donnell; Laura McParland
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Robyn Veal, Lorna O'Donnell, Laura McParland
      ‘Reflectance’ is a method that estimates the absolute burn temperature of charcoal from the ‘shininess’ of resin mounted samples. The method's usefulness for archaeological charcoal is yet to be comprehensively studied. This article details first results from reflectance testing of archaeological charcoals excavated from Irish Bronze Age cremations, which included calcined bone. As calcination of bone commences at 650 °C, it was expected that the charcoals would reflect at least this temperature. This was not the case for taxonomically identified charcoals >2 mm, nor for micro-charcoals of c. 250 μm, although measured temperatures rose slightly with decreasing fraction size of charcoal remains. Depositional practice, combustion completeness and taphonomic influences may have all played a part in this result, and these will need careful consideration in different archaeological circumstances. However, the greatest challenge for reflectance of archaeological materials lies in obtaining full agreement on the production and use of reflectance calibration curves. Current calibration curves differ substantially, by 100–150 °C ( ±50–75 °C) and in one instance up to as much as 180 °C ( ±90 °C). Without better agreement on calibration, the method's ultimate usefulness in archaeological research will be limited. At the level of refinement currently possible, it will still be useful for determining very high or very low temperature processes, and possibly the difference between charcoal fuel and raw wood fuel fires. The latter has distinct implications for estimating ancient forest wood consumption, since more wood is consumed in processes employing charcoal fuel. Proving the utility of reflectance for archaeological purposes may also require modification of normal practice for archaeological field collection of charcoal, to include collection and laboratory processing of un-sieved soil samples.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Tropical ancient DNA from bulk archaeological fish bone reveals the
           subsistence practices of a historic coastal community in southwest
           Madagascar
    • Authors: Alicia Grealy; Kristina Douglass; James Haile; Chriselle Bruwer; Charlotte Gough; Michael Bunce
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Alicia Grealy, Kristina Douglass, James Haile, Chriselle Bruwer, Charlotte Gough, Michael Bunce
      Taxonomic identification of archaeological fish bones provides important insights into the subsistence practices of ancient coastal peoples. However, it can be difficult to execute robust morphological identification of fish bones from species-rich fossil assemblages, especially from post-cranial material with few distinguishing features. Fragmentation, weathering and burning further impede taxonomic identification, resulting in large numbers of unidentifiable bones from archaeological sites. This limitation can be somewhat mitigated by taking an ancient DNA (aDNA) bulk-bone metabarcoding (BBM) approach to faunal identification, where DNA from non-diagnostic bone fragments is extracted and sequenced in parallel. However, a large proportion of fishing communities (both past and present) live in tropical regions that have sub-optimal conditions for long-term aDNA preservation. To date, the BBM method has never been applied to fish bones before, or to fossils excavated from an exposed context within a tropical climate. Here, we demonstrate that morphologically indistinct bulk fish bone from the tropics can be identified by sequencing aDNA extracted from 100 to 300 ya archaeological midden material in southwest Madagascar. Despite the biases of the approach, we rapidly obtained family, genus, and species-level assemblage information, and used this to describe a subset of the ichthyofauna exploited by an 18th century fishing community. We identified 23 families of fish, including benthic, pelagic, and coral-dwelling fishes, suggesting a reliance on a variety of marine and brackish habitats. When possible, BBM should be used alongside osteological approaches to address the limitations of both; however, this study highlights how genetic methods can nevertheless be a valuable tool for helping resolve faunal assemblages when morphological identification is hindered by taphonomic processes, lack of adequate comparative collections, and time constraints, and can provide a temporal perspective on fish biodiversity in the context of accelerated exploitation of the marine environment.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Master and apprentice: Evidence for learning in palaeolithic portable art
    • Authors: Olivia Rivero
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Olivia Rivero
      This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of 280 pieces of Cantabrian and Pyrenean Middle Magdalenian portable art. Particular technical traces left on the medium by the act of engraving were identified through microscopic analysis and used to build a quantitative estimation of the overall technical aptitude of the engraver. Some traces considered as accidents or errors in the tracing were counted negatively, whereas others reflecting control of the tool and mastership in the use of various techniques were counted positively. A multivariate analysis based on this quantitative index, along with criteria including the type of medium was carried out using Correspondence Factor Analysis and completed with relevant statistical tests. The analysis clearly distinguishes three groups of pieces: those with a negative index, those that present a low positive index resulting from a balance between positive and negative traces, and those with a highly positive index. These different categories of pieces may be tentatively assigned to different levels of experience in tool control and engraving techniques. The mean value of the technical index seems to be correlated with the type of medium and differs significantly in the various sites studied in the corpus. These data allow us to pose some hypotheses concerning the transmission of knowledge in Magdalenian societies, such as differential access to raw materials according to the engraver's experience, and different functionality of sites based on their production of decorated objects.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Architectural energetics for tumuli construction: The case of the medieval
           Chungul Kurgan on the Eurasian steppe
    • Authors: Jordan Pickett; John S. Schreck; Renata Holod; Yuriy Rassamakin; Oleksandr Halenko; Warren Woodfin
      Pages: 101 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Jordan Pickett, John S. Schreck, Renata Holod, Yuriy Rassamakin, Oleksandr Halenko, Warren Woodfin
      The present work introduces the first architectural energetics analysis of a medieval tumulus from the Eurasian/Pontic steppe. In contrast to New World earthworks, tumuli on the steppe were constructed 1) with sod taken from the environment immediately surrounding the construction site, 2) with the use of draft animals and metal tools, and 3) in identifiable phases as part of funerary rituals over a period of weeks or months. These variables introduce problems which are confronted through 1) the application of novel historically attested rates for construction and 2) the creation of new, replicable mathematical methods for modeling materials transport.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Chemical soil surveys at the Bremer Site (Dakota county, Minnesota, USA):
           Measuring phosphorous content of sediment by portable XRF and ICP-OES
    • Authors: Ellery Frahm; Gilliane F. Monnier; Nicolas A. Jelinski; Edward P. Fleming; Brian L. Barber; Justice B. Lambon
      Pages: 115 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Ellery Frahm, Gilliane F. Monnier, Nicolas A. Jelinski, Edward P. Fleming, Brian L. Barber, Justice B. Lambon
      The Bremer Site lies along the shores of Spring Lake in southeastern Minnesota, and excavations in the 1950s uncovered evidence of Woodland and Mississippian occupation phases. In 2011, a new program of systematic survey and excavation began to better understand cultural patterning and diachronic changes at the Bremer Site. The investigations came to include microarcheaological methods, including sediment micromorphology and soil chemistry. No element has received more archaeological attention than P, which can reflect human and animal waste, organic refuse, burials, and ash. There has been interest in integrating soil chemistry into the workflow of fieldwork and in the potential of portable analytical instruments to yield data within the timeframe of an excavation season. The last few years have seen the rise and proliferation of portable XRF (pXRF) instruments in archaeological studies. The newest generation of pXRF instruments is able to quantify P at low concentrations, and our focus here is developing effective methods to do so in archaeological soils and sediments. Using sediments from the Bremer Site, we evaluate two preparation techniques in order to find which one best balances analytical quality and preparation time. To analyze as many specimens as possible during an excavation season, it is desirable to identify adequate preparation methods as well as the smallest number of analyses needed to attain reasonable confidence levels. Regarding repeatability, we show that, to attain P values with a standard error better than 10% or 20% of the mean, one or two analyses per specimen are sufficient in a majority of cases. Regarding reproducibility, we compare the pXRF data to two independent ICP-OES datasets. Ultimately, these tests aid in establishing methods that enable archaeologically significant pXRF analyses of soil P concentrations, even when working far from an analytical laboratory.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • New perspectives on the ecology of early domestic fowl: An
           interdisciplinary approach
    • Authors: Jacqueline Pitt; Phillipa K. Gillingham; Mark Maltby; John R. Stewart
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Jacqueline Pitt, Phillipa K. Gillingham, Mark Maltby, John R. Stewart
      Introduced into Europe during the Bronze- and Iron Ages as an exotic, non-native species, very little is currently understood about the origins and spread of early domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus. Ecological niche modelling of extant Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus, presents a unique opportunity to examine historical ecological implications associated with its descendant, the chicken, in early stages of domestication. We model the environmental conditions associated with Red Junglefowl populations both in south-east Asia, where the bird originates, and populations transported further afield as a consequence of human interaction. This allows us to establish the full extent of the ecological tolerance of the ancestor bird. We show that potential for suitable sets of environmental conditions for Red Junglefowl in Europe ranges from poor to limited, based on both current climate and when projecting to mid-Holocene (ca. 4000BCE) climate simulations. This suggests that human intervention played a vital contribution during early domestication to ensure the future widespread success of the chicken. These conclusions offer new insights into the archaeological evidence. We identify areas in the native range as the probable location of first domestication, and not China as has been suggested. We suggest that a dispersal route into Europe via the Mediterranean offers the best ecological potential to aid survival for a recently domesticated version of this species. Identifying the environmental tolerances of Red Junglefowl may also aid future conservation of this species, now highly endangered in its true wild form.

      PubDate: 2016-08-29T19:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Going south of the river: A multidisciplinary analysis of ancestry,
           mobility and diet in a population from Roman Southwark, London
    • Authors: Rebecca C. Redfern; Darren R. Gröcke; Andrew R. Millard; Victoria Ridgeway; Lucie Johnson; Joseph T. Hefner
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Rebecca C. Redfern, Darren R. Gröcke, Andrew R. Millard, Victoria Ridgeway, Lucie Johnson, Joseph T. Hefner
      This study investigated the ancestry, childhood residency and diet of 22 individuals buried at an A.D. 2nd and 4th century cemetery at Lant Street, in the southern burial area of Roman London. The possible presence of migrants was investigated using macromorphoscopics to assess ancestry, carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study diet, and oxygen isotopes to examine migration. Diets were found to be primarily C3-based with limited input of aquatic resources, in contrast to some other populations in Roman Britain and proximity to the River Thames. The skeletal morphology showed the likely African ancestry of four individuals, and Asian ancestry of two individuals, with oxygen isotopes indicating a circum-Mediterranean origin for five individuals. Our data suggests that the population of the southern suburb had an ongoing connection with immigrants, especially those from the southern Mediterranean.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T22:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Assessing the function of pounding tools in the Early Stone Age: A
           microscopic approach to the analysis of percussive artefacts from Beds I
           and II, Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
    • Authors: Adrián Arroyo; Ignacio de la Torre
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Adrián Arroyo, Ignacio de la Torre
      This study explores the function of quartzite pounding tools from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) using microscopic and use wear spatial distribution analysis. A selection of pounding tools from several Bed I and II assemblages excavated by Mary Leakey (1971) were studied under low magnification (<100×), and the microscopic traces developed on their surfaces are described. Experimental data and results obtained from analysis of the archaeological material are compared in order to assess activities in which pounding tools could have been involved. Results show that experimental anvils used for meat processing, nut cracking and/or bone breaking have similar wear patterns as those observed on archaeological percussive artefacts. This is the first time that a microscopic analysis is applied to Early Stone Age pounding artefacts from Olduvai Beds I and II, and this paper highlights the importance that percussive activities played during the Early Pleistocene, suggesting a wider range of activities in addition to knapping and butchering.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T22:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • New insights into the origins of oracle bone divination: Ancient DNA from
           Late Neolithic Chinese bovines
    • Authors: Katherine Brunson; Xin Zhao; Nu He; Xiangming Dai; Antonia Rodrigues; Dongya Yang
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Katherine Brunson, Xin Zhao, Nu He, Xiangming Dai, Antonia Rodrigues, Dongya Yang
      Domestic taurine cattle (Bos taurus) were introduced to China from Central Asia between 3600 and 2000 cal BCE. Most of the earliest domestic cattle remains in China come from sacrificial or ritual contexts, especially in the form of oracle bones used in divination rituals. These oracle bones became closely tied to royal authority and are the source of the earliest written inscriptions in ancient China. In this article, we use ancient DNA to identify uninscribed bovine oracle bones from the Longshan period archaeological sites of Taosi and Zhoujiazhuang (late third millennium BCE). We found that in addition to making oracle bones out of domestic cattle scapulae, people also used aurochs (wild cattle: Bos primigenius) scapulae for oracle bone divination. Wild water buffalo (Bubalus mephistopheles) were also exploited at Zhoujiazhuang, but we did not identify water buffalo oracle bones in our analysis. We propose some morphological criteria that may be useful for distinguishing between these animals, but conclude that it is not always possible to identify bovine scapulae based on morphology alone. Our results indicate that wild and domestic bovines were sometimes present at the same sites and their bones were used in similar ways to make oracle bones. This raises the possibility that these species interbred and that people in ancient China may have experimented with managing indigenous Chinese wild bovines.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T22:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Do fish remains provide reliable palaeoenvironmental records? An
           examination of the effects of cooking on the morphology and chemistry of
           fish otoliths, vertebrae and scales
    • Authors: Morgan C.F. Disspain; Sean Ulm; Christopher Izzo; Bronwyn M. Gillanders
      Pages: 45 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Morgan C.F. Disspain, Sean Ulm, Christopher Izzo, Bronwyn M. Gillanders
      The morphological and chemical properties of fish calcified structures provide excellent environmental and anthropogenic proxies; however, pre-depositional handling may alter these properties, confounding interpretations. This study examines the effects of some traditional processing and cooking methods on the morphological and chemical properties of modern fish otoliths (ear bones), vertebrae, and scales using an experimental approach. Whole mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) were treated using a range of techniques, including boiled in freshwater and saltwater; roasted directly on a fire and wrapped in clay; salted; and completely burnt. Samples were also obtained from untreated fish as controls for comparison. Otoliths, vertebrae and scales from the samples were subjected to morphological, trace element (7Li, 23Na, 24Mg, 55Mn, 86Sr, 138Ba, 208Pb, and 65Zn all ratioed to 43Ca) and stable isotope analyses (otoliths and vertebrae – inorganic δ13C and δ18O; scales – organic δ13C and δ15N). Results reveal disparities in the chemistry and morphology of otoliths and vertebrae processed in different ways. The otolith and vertebrae carbonate δ18O values were lower in samples that experienced heating; burnt samples differed significantly from the control samples. Otolith and vertebrae trace elements were largely unaffected by the treatments relative to the controls; however, some individual elements within the burning and salting groups varied significantly. The impacts observed in the fish scales were less substantial. Results provide a basis for evaluating the suitability of archaeological samples for analysis. We recommend avoiding the use of heated samples. Findings highlight the need to conduct palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on chemistry and stable isotope data of archaeological remains with caution.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T11:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • A Re-evaluation of inverse segregation in prehistoric As-Cu objects
    • Authors: Marianne Mödlinger; Benjamin Sabatini
      Pages: 60 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Marianne Mödlinger, Benjamin Sabatini
      This study revaluates reported cases of prehistoric As-Cu objects with ‘silvery surfaces’, which are usually interpreted as the result of inverse segregation. Further possible explanations for such surfaces, such as an arsenic-rich α-solid solution, cementation, or post-depositional precipitation, are discussed. The segregation of arsenic was studied in As-Cu ingots produced in chill cast moulds at several compositions, which underwent surface treatment with an NaCl solution. The microstructure and surfaces of the As-Cu alloys were analysed using optical microscopy and SEM-EDXS. Special note of out-of-equilibrium As-Cu phases are discussed, as well as a comparison of inverse segregation to all other means of achieving surface silvering.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T11:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Population density, mobility, and cultural transmission
    • Authors: Matt Grove
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Matt Grove
      Prompted by the results of a series of recently published simulation models, there is an increasing tendency for archaeologists to invoke demographic variables as explanations for changes in the sophistication or complexity of material culture. Whilst these models are undoubtedly valuable, this paper draws attention to persistent failings in the interpretation and application of these models by archaeologists. Despite having quite different effects, variables such as population size and population density are often used interchangeably; and whilst increasing mobility has an effect broadly equivalent to that of increasing population density, it is rarely given sufficient weight in archaeological explanations of cultural change. The analyses reported here develop a series of new simulations based on the ideal gas model, allowing for an explicit prediction of the encounter rate – the variable for which population density and mobility are proxies, and which ultimately governs the rate of cultural transmission. This model supports the predictions of earlier studies on the effects of population density and mobility, but suggests that population size will have no effect on rates of cultural transmission. These simulations are coupled with analyses that demonstrate a reciprocal correlation between population density and mobility in a large hunter-gatherer dataset. Given this correlation, it is argued that archaeological inferences about cultural transmission based on just one of these variables are unlikely to be valid. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research, and it is suggested that future studies would gain greater explanatory power by focusing explicitly on the social network structures likely to have characterised a particular archaeological population.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T11:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Environmental impacts of ancient copper mining and metallurgy: Multi-proxy
           investigation of human-landscape dynamics in the Faynan valley, southern
           Jordan
    • Authors: Kyle A. Knabb; Yigal Erel; Ofir Tirosh; Tammy Rittenour; Sofia Laparidou; Mohammad Najjar; Thomas E. Levy
      Pages: 85 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Kyle A. Knabb, Yigal Erel, Ofir Tirosh, Tammy Rittenour, Sofia Laparidou, Mohammad Najjar, Thomas E. Levy
      The environmental impact of mining and metallurgy is an issue that has affected societies in the ancient Near East over the past 8000 years. We present the results of a multidisciplinary project using agricultural sediments from ancient terraces as a cultural archive of environmental pollution and land use in the copper ore-rich Faynan valley of southern Jordan. Due to the simultaneous production of agricultural goods and copper metallurgy throughout the last 6000 years in the valley, environmental pollution and its consequences for human health have been considered as a factor in settlement abatement. Sediments from two farming terrace systems adjacent to the major mining and smelting locales were analyzed. The sediment analyses included metal concentrations, lead-isotopes and phytolith analysis, and OSL dating. Although measurable concentrations of lead and other heavy metals persist in ancient metallurgical waste piles, our investigations found minimal evidence for contamination in the adjacent terrace systems. Based on these results, we argue that the occurrence of environmental pollution in the Faynan valley is highly variable, and that the distribution of heavy metals resulted from a combination of natural and cultural factors, including persistent landscape features that helped contain the most polluted metallurgical deposits. These findings are significant for understanding the processes of landscape change and human impacts on desert environments, including the ways in which past human actions have negatively affected the environment, as well as preserved and protected the environment from further degradation.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T11:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Lithic raw material units based on magnetic properties: A blind test with
           Armenian obsidian and application to the Middle Palaeolithic site of
           Lusakert Cave 1
    • Authors: Ellery Frahm; Joshua M. Feinberg; Gilliane F. Monnier; Gilbert B. Tostevin; Boris Gasparyan; Daniel S. Adler
      Pages: 102 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Ellery Frahm, Joshua M. Feinberg, Gilliane F. Monnier, Gilbert B. Tostevin, Boris Gasparyan, Daniel S. Adler
      Classification of lithic artifacts’ raw materials based on macroscopic attributes (e.g., color, luster, texture) has been used to pull apart knapping episodes in palimpsest assemblages by attempting to identify artifacts produced through the reduction of an individual nodule. These classes are termed “raw material units” (RMUs) in the Old World and “minimum analytical nodules” in the New World. RMUs are most readily defined for lithic artifacts in areas with distinctive cherts and other siliceous raw materials, allowing pieces from different nodules to be recognized visually. Opportunities to apply RMUs, however, are strongly limited at sites where lithic material visual diversity is low. The magnetic properties of obsidian, which result from the presence of microscopic iron oxide mineral grains, vary spatially throughout a flow. Consequently, obsidian from different portions of a source (i.e., different outcrops or quarries) can vary in magnetic properties. This raises the possibility that magnetic-based RMUs (mRMUs) for obsidian artifacts could be effective to distinguish individual scatters from multiple production episodes and offer insights into spatial patterning within a site or specific occupation periods. First, we assess the potential of mRMUs using obsidian pebbles from Gutansar volcano in Armenia. Second, we evaluate the validity of this approach based on a double-blind test involving an experimental assemblage of Gutansar obsidian flakes. Cluster analysis can successfully discern flakes from obsidian specimens containing high concentrations of iron oxides. Obsidian with more magnetic material has more opportunities for that material to vary in unique ways (e.g., grain size, morphology, physical arrangement). Finally, we apply the mRMU approach to obsidian artifacts from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Lusakert Cave 1 in Armenia and compare the results to traditional RMU studies at contemporaneous sites in Europe. In particular, we seek – but do not find – differences between retouch flakes (which reflect rejuvenation of tools) and the other small debris (which reflect other reduction activities). This result likely reflects the local landscape, specifically the abundance of obsidian and, thus, little pressure to curate and retouch tools. As this approach is applied to additional sites, such findings will play a central role in regional assessments about the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic “transition” and the relationship, or lack thereof, between technological behaviors and presumed population dynamics.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Immaculate conceptions: Micro-CT analysis of diagenesis in Romano-British
           infant skeletons
    • Authors: Thomas J. Booth; Rebecca C. Redfern; Rebecca L. Gowland
      Pages: 124 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Thomas J. Booth, Rebecca C. Redfern, Rebecca L. Gowland
      Most histological analyses of bone diagenesis are destructive and limited to the inspection of a cross-section that may not be representative of the whole. X-ray microtomography (Micro-CT) may provide a non-destructive means of investigating taphonomically-significant diagenetic alterations throughout whole bone samples, but this method has not been tested systematically (Dal Sasso et al., 2014). Bacterial bioerosion is the most common form of diagenesis found in archaeological bones, yet a recent large-scale study of European archaeological human bones found that an unusually high proportion of young infant (<1 month old) samples were free from bacterial attack (Booth, 2016). This result is best explained by the remains of stillborn or short-lived infants who had died before their osteolytic gut bacteria had developed. The ability to differentiate between stillborn and short-lived infants would profoundly impact on the study of past human life courses and the study of infanticide in both archaeological and forensic contexts. In this study we investigate the efficacy of micro-CT in studying bone diagenesis by scanning three archaeological human femoral samples where levels of diagenesis are known and varied, before scanning a novel sample set of ten Romano-British young infant/perinatal femora to test the dichotomous appearance of bioerosion. We find that micro-CT is a viable non-destructive method of investigating bone bioerosion, but is less useful for characterising diagenetic staining and inclusions. Half of the infant samples studied here were free from bacterial bioerosion, further suggesting that histological analysis can be used to identify archaeological remains of stillborn and short-lived infants.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T09:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Painting Altamira Cave? Shell tools for ochre-processing in the Upper
           Palaeolithic in northern Iberia
    • Authors: D. Cuenca-Solana; I. Gutiérrez-Zugasti; A. Ruiz-Redondo; M.R. González-Morales; J. Setién; E. Ruiz-Martínez; E. Palacio-Pérez; C. de las Heras-Martín; A. Prada-Freixedo; J.A. Lasheras-Corruchaga
      Pages: 135 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): D. Cuenca-Solana, I. Gutiérrez-Zugasti, A. Ruiz-Redondo, M.R. González-Morales, J. Setién, E. Ruiz-Martínez, E. Palacio-Pérez, C. de las Heras-Martín, A. Prada-Freixedo, J.A. Lasheras-Corruchaga
      Much of our knowledge of the symbolic world of Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers is based on the study of the graphic representations found in Western European caves. However, to date, few studies have been conducted on rock art apart from chronological and stylistic characterisation. Altamira Cave (northern Iberia) is characterised by an outstanding rock art ensemble, whose representations cover practically the whole Upper Palaeolithic. The site is equally important for the rich Upper Palaeolithic deposits in the cave entrance, which contain large shell assemblages. Traditionally, the presence of shells in hunter-fisher-gatherer settlements has been interpreted as part of the diet and/or the symbolic world (through the creation of ornaments) of these groups, regardless of their possible use as an instrument. In this paper we utilise use-wear methodology, chemical analysis and analytical experimentation to verify the initial hypothesis that shells in the archaeological deposits of Altamira were used to obtain the ochre powder utilised to produce the magnificent and diverse rock art ensemble in the cave. The results provide new information on the process of obtaining pigments for the realisation of paintings and confirm that the use of shells to obtain ochre was a systematic activity throughout the whole study period. Finally, our conclusions support the explanatory model that highlights the role played by marine resources for Upper Palaeolithic human populations.

      PubDate: 2016-08-19T06:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • The rachitic tooth: A histological examination
    • Authors: Lori D’Ortenzio; Isabelle Ribot; Emeline Raguin; Annabelle Schattmann; Benoit Bertrand; Bonnie Kahlon; Megan Brickley
      Pages: 152 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Lori D’Ortenzio, Isabelle Ribot, Emeline Raguin, Annabelle Schattmann, Benoit Bertrand, Bonnie Kahlon, Megan Brickley
      Diagnosing previous episodes of vitamin D deficiency is particularly challenging due to the subtle changes retained in the skeleton. This study investigates whether abnormal mineralisation in tooth dentin can be observed in archaeological individuals with past vitamin D deficiency. Methods taken from the clinical literature were used, where defects in tooth dentin of those with deficiency have been identified. SEM and histological analysis of tooth dentin were utilized to diagnose vitamin D deficiency in adult and juvenile skeletal remains in individuals who recovered from a period of deficiency. Archaeological skeletons were from St. Matthew and St. Marie, Quebec (1771–1860), and St. Jacques, France (1225–1798). The objective was to determine if interglobular dentin could be observed in individuals with skeletal evidence of vitamin D deficiency. A differential diagnosis revealed that the only conditions that cause mineralisation defects are those that disrupt vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous pathways, with nutritional rickets being the most common cause. Results found that all of the archaeological individuals (6/6) who showed skeletal evidence of past deficiency displayed the formation of interglobular dentin (spaces) due to unfused calcospherites, whereas interglobular dentin was absent in modern healthy controls (n = 3). We propose that a temporary inhibition of dentin growth leads to modification of calcospherite shape and size, resulting in characteristic interglobular spaces in individuals with deficiency. Although further research is needed, we conclude that systemic mineralisation problems of individuals with deficiency may cause dentin mineralisation to stop or falter, preventing further dentin growth and fusion. Dentin has the potential to enable past episodes of vitamin D deficiency to be recognized in cases where skeletal indicators are not clear.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Airborne laser scanning as a method for exploring long-term
           socio-ecological dynamics in Cambodia
    • Authors: Damian Evans
      Pages: 164 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Damian Evans
      Early Khmer societies developed extensive settlement complexes that were largely made of non-durable materials. These fragile urban areas perished many centuries ago, and thus a century and a half of scholarly research has focussed on the more durable components of Khmer culture, in particular the famous temples and the texts and works of art that are normally found within them. In recent years however there has been a considerable effort to broaden the perspective beyond conventional approaches to Khmer history and archaeology. Remarkable advances have been made in the domain of remote sensing and archaeological mapping, including the application of advanced geospatial techniques such as airborne laser scanning within studies of heritage landscapes at Angkor and beyond. This article describes the most recent applications of the technology in Cambodia, including the results of a newly-completed campaign of airborne laser scanning in 2015—the most extensive acquisition ever undertaken by an archaeological project—and underscores the importance of using these methods as part of a problem-oriented research program that speaks to broader issues within history and archaeology.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Evidence of Eurasian metal alloys on the Alaskan coast in prehistory
    • Authors: H. Kory Cooper; Owen K. Mason; Victor Mair; John F. Hoffecker; Robert J. Speakman
      Pages: 176 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): H. Kory Cooper, Owen K. Mason, Victor Mair, John F. Hoffecker, Robert J. Speakman
      Six metal and composite metal artifacts were excavated from a late prehistoric archaeological context at Cape Espenberg on the northern coast of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. X-ray fluorescence identified two of these artifacts as smelted industrial alloys with large proportions of tin and lead. The presence of smelted alloys in a prehistoric Inuit context in northwest Alaska is demonstrated here for the first time and indicates the movement of Eurasian metal across the Bering Strait into North America before sustained contact with Europeans.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Mesopotamian glass from Late Bronze Age Egypt, Romania, Germany, and
           Denmark
    • Authors: Jeanette Varberg; Bernard Gratuze; Flemming Kaul; Anne Haslund Hansen; Mihai Rotea; Mihai Wittenberger
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Jeanette Varberg, Bernard Gratuze, Flemming Kaul, Anne Haslund Hansen, Mihai Rotea, Mihai Wittenberger
      This article presents new evidence of the wide dispersion of Mesopotamian glass, 1400–1100 BCE. The chemical analyses of glass material from Amarna, Egypt, demonstrate that glass of Mesopotamian origin reached Egypt. The recently obtained physical evidence substantiates the words of the Amarna letters, referring to glass trade between Syria and Egypt. Furthermore, the chemical analyses of glass beads from Romania, Northern Germany and Denmark demonstrate that they were made of Mesopotamian glass. The current results presented here contribute to our understanding of the long distance exchange networks between the Mediterranean and the Nordic Bronze Age cultures. Finally, on the background of the analysis results it is proposed that the chemical composition of some of the beads in question indicates a mixture of glass of Mesopotamian and Egyptian origin. Probably, the mixture of the glass material took place at secondary workshops in the Mycenaean world.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • Prehistoric wine-making at Dikili Tash (Northern Greece): Integrating
           residue analysis and archaeobotany
    • Authors: Nicolas Garnier; Soultana Maria Valamoti
      Pages: 195 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 74
      Author(s): Nicolas Garnier, Soultana Maria Valamoti
      A new two-step analytical protocol has permitted the reliable structural identification of red wine thanks to the presence of dark grape (tartaric, malic, syringic acids) and fermentation markers (succinic and pyruvic acids) in a smashed, large, coarse jar and a jug excavated inside a Neolithic house destroyed by fire around 4300 BCE at the site of Dikili Tash in northern Greece. This new method, which has also been tested successfully on other vessels, exploits the chemical break-down of the clay and the simultaneous liberation and derivatization of biomarkers. Since aldaric acids are not extracted by a simple solvent extraction, but only when submitted to the second acido-catalyzed extraction, their detection in the second extract indicates organic residues are more deeply impregnated and bound to the clay structure than previously thought. Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry leads to the very sensitive detection (<10 ng/g sherd for tartaric acid, i.e. < 10−6 mL of wine/g sherd) and reliable identification of fermented grape biomarkers. Their identification in a Neolithic jar from Dikili Tash corroborates the finding of pressed grapes consisting of loose pips, skins, and pips still enclosed by skin in association with this jar. Our results demonstrate Neolithic wine-making in the northern Aegean, and provide the earliest solid evidence for the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe. This new method could be more widely used for detecting wine traces in all sorts of archaeological artefacts or structures. It constitutes an essential tool for a better understanding of wine-making and of contexts of consumption in ancient civilizations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2016)
       
  • The transition from Roman to Late Antique glass: new insights from the
           Domus of Tito Macro in Aquileia (Italy)
    • Authors: Sarah Maltoni; Alberta Silvestri; Alessandra Marcante; Gianmario Molin
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Sarah Maltoni, Alberta Silvestri, Alessandra Marcante, Gianmario Molin
      The present paper focuses on the archaeological, chemical and isotopic characterisation of glass finds from the Domus of Tito Macro (former Domus dei Fondi Cossar) in Aquileia (Italy), dated between the 1st and the 7th century AD. The assemblage comprises both vessels and glassworking residues, including a few chunks. Aims of the study are the identification of the main glass compositions and their contextualisation in Roman and Late Antique reference groups, and of provenance of primary glass. Chemical analyses were conducted by XRF and EPMA. All the analysed fragments are silica-soda-lime glasses, produced with natron as a flux, and are compositionally similar to the Roman coloured (intentionally and unintentionally) and colourless (antimony-, manganese-, and antimony + manganese-decoloured) groups and to the Late Antique groups HIMT, Série 3.2 and Levantine 1. Specific compositional traits of HIMT glass circulating in the north-Adriatic area and a scarcity of Levantine 1 glass are evidenced. The presence of rare HIT blue glasses including a chunk suggests that colouring took place also at primary stage of production. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses, performed on a selection of samples, confirmed the eastern Mediterranean origin of the glasses, although with minor internal differences depending on the compositional group. Chemical and isotopic data suggest a continuity between the Roman and Late Antique glassmaking in terms of sand deposits and sand/flux ratio, although with a major change in the decolouring technique after the 4th century AD. The prompt reception of the Late Antique glass compositions took place in Aquileia alongside the persistence of earlier compositions, probably with the aim of satisfying different segments of the glass market.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Of lakes and fields: A framework for reconciling palaeoclimatic drought
           inferences with archaeological impacts
    • Authors: Eelco J. Rohling
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Eelco J. Rohling
      Quantitative estimates of climate variability are increasingly important in interpretations of archaeological turnovers in arid regions. Variations in lake levels or lake-water oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) are often used to infer droughts or humid periods, along with speleothem δ18O, pollen, and windblown dust records. Key examples are the centennial-scale Holocene events associated with the end of the Bronze Age (∼1200 BCE), the end of the Copper Age (∼4000 BCE), and the onset of Neolithic expansion (∼6200 BCE). Whether explicitly stated or only implied, causality between archaeological turnovers and inferred droughts is often ascribed to a disturbance to food resources, which means a disturbance to the agricultural potential of the study region. In the present study, a simple framework of equations is presented for evaluation of this causality. It quantitatively reveals significant complications. In one example, substantially improved crop-growing potential is found to coincide with dropping lake levels, which reflect significant net drought. The complications mainly arise from: (1) control of annually averaged climate conditions on lake changes versus control of seasonal conditions on the yield potential of fields; and (2) changes in the ratios between the overall catchment area of a lake or field, and the surface area of the lake or field itself. The results demonstrate that lake records per se do not satisfactorily reflect agricultural potential, but also that this gap may be bridged with targeted information collection about the regional setting. In particular, improved results may be obtained from detailed assessments of change in the catchment ratios of the lake(s) and field(s) that are being studied (e.g., using digital elevation models), along with expert opinions on field irrigation potential. The scenarios presented here then allow initial field-based assessments and hypothesis formulation to prompt more sophisticated modelling.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T17:32:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Immunological detection of denatured proteins as a method for rapid
           identification of food residues on archaeological pottery
    • Authors: Jaroslav Pavelka; Ladislav Smejda; Radovan Hynek; Stepanka Hrdlickova Kuckova
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Jaroslav Pavelka, Ladislav Smejda, Radovan Hynek, Stepanka Hrdlickova Kuckova
      Our understanding of human diet in different periods of history can be enhanced by investigating direct evidence represented by accidentally preserved food remains found on pottery. So far, this task has been accomplished by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, often in combination with stable isotope analysis. These methods require specialised laboratories and their cost prevents wider penetration into the daily practice of archaeology and related disciplines. We have tested commercially available immunochromatographic kits for this task, which are designed to detect contaminants and allergens in the modern food industry. Unlike the previously published studies on archaeological material, we focus specifically on the identification of damaged and denatured proteins, which correspond better to the state of preservation of proteins in desiccated and carbonised organic residues that have survived from antiquity. We report the first successful qualitative detection of bird eggs, animal meat, milk (and species of origin), and to some extent also the presence of plant food, especially cereals and hazelnuts. The immunoassay is a methodology that is well suited for use in the field and resource-poor environments, so it is ideal for most archaeological excavations and museums. With necessary caution, the results can be used as a proxy for human diet in the past and reconstructions of anthropogenically modified environments.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Middle Pleistocene subsistence in the Azraq Oasis, Jordan: Protein residue
           and other proxies
    • Authors: A. Nowell; C. Walker; C.E. Cordova; C.J.H. Ames; J.T. Pokines; D. Stueber; R. DeWitt; A.S.A. al-Souliman
      Pages: 36 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): A. Nowell, C. Walker, C.E. Cordova, C.J.H. Ames, J.T. Pokines, D. Stueber, R. DeWitt, A.S.A. al-Souliman
      Excavations at Shishan Marsh, a former desert oasis in Azraq, northeast Jordan, reveal a unique ecosystem and provide direct family-specific protein residue evidence of hominin adaptations in an increasingly arid environment approximately 250,000 years ago. Based on lithic, faunal, paleoenvironmental and protein residue data, we conclude that Late Pleistocene hominins were able to subsist in extreme arid environments through a reliance on surprisingly human-like adaptations including a broadened subsistence base, modified tool kit and strategies for predator avoidance and carcass protection.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Distinct ancestries for similar funerary practices? A GIS analysis
           comparing funerary, osteological and aDNA data from the Middle Neolithic
           necropolis Gurgy “Les Noisats” (Yonne, France)
    • Authors: Mélie Le Roy; Maïté Rivollat; Fanny Mendisco; Marie-Hélène Pemonge; Clément Coutelier; Christine Couture; Anne-marie Tillier; Stéphane Rottier; Marie-France Deguilloux
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Mélie Le Roy, Maïté Rivollat, Fanny Mendisco, Marie-Hélène Pemonge, Clément Coutelier, Christine Couture, Anne-marie Tillier, Stéphane Rottier, Marie-France Deguilloux
      The French Paris Basin is well known as a complex cultural area of the Early/Middle Neolithic, particularly with respect to funerary practices. Gurgy “Les Noisats”, which is an important necropolis in the southern Paris basin, is a burial site (N = 128) associated with the first Neolithic groups established in that area. The understanding of the necropolis composition and organization is complicated given the substantial homogeneity of the site's spatial organization in relation to a great diversity of characterized funerary traits. The unprecedented quantity of genetic (mitochondrial DNA), osteological (sex, age), and archaeological (funerary) data obtained for the Gurgy necropolis facilitates the search for potential correlations between cultural and biological (i.e. genetic and osteological) diversity at the site level. Despite the application of the powerful geographic information system, no correlation could be detected (i) between individual maternal lineages and specific bioarchaeological profiles (ii) or between maternal lineages and spatially identified bio-archaeological clusters. Therefore, analyses were performed to test for a correlation between the maternal ancestries of the individuals (i.e., hunter-gatherer/Central European farmer and Southern European farmer ancestries) and specific funerary traits. Again, the homogeneity of the funerary treatment of all of the individuals regardless of their potential maternal ancestries is striking. Taken together, our results regarding the way in which the Gurgy necropolis functioned provide strong evidence for the acculturation of all maternal ancestries groups, at least in terms of funerary practice. In addition, the demonstration of a recurrent association of adult men and immature individuals suggests a patrilocal system, which could be consistent with the detected acculturation of women who present a hunter-gatherer ancestry.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T23:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Finding Britain's last hunter-gatherers: A new biomolecular approach to
           ‘unidentifiable’ bone fragments utilising bone collagen
    • Authors: Sophy Charlton; Michelle Alexander; Matthew Collins; Nicky Milner; Paul Mellars; Tamsin C. O'Connell; Rhiannon E. Stevens; Oliver E. Craig
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Sophy Charlton, Michelle Alexander, Matthew Collins, Nicky Milner, Paul Mellars, Tamsin C. O'Connell, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Oliver E. Craig
      In the last decade, our knowledge of the transition from foraging, fishing, and hunting to agricultural food production has been transformed through the molecular analysis of human remains. In Britain, however, the lack of Late Mesolithic human remains has limited our understanding of this dietary transition. Here, we report the use of a novel strategy to analyse otherwise overlooked material to identify additional human remains from this period. ZooMS, a method which uses bone collagen sequences to determine species, was applied to unidentifiable bone fragments from 5th millennium deposits from the Late Mesolithic site of Cnoc Coig (Oronsay, Inner Hebrides) using an innovative new methodology. All samples bar one produced ZooMS results, with 14/20 bone fragments identified as human, and the remainder a mixture of pig and seal. 70% of bone fragments had sufficient collagen for stable isotope analyses, however none of three human bone fragments analysed had sufficient endogenous DNA. By conducting AMS dating and stable isotope analysis on this identified collagen, we provide new data that supports the view that the exploitation of marine resources partially overlapped with the earliest agricultural communities in Britain, and thus argues against the idea that forager lifeways in Britain were immediately replaced by agriculture c.4000 cal. BC. Unfortunately, we were unable to explore the genetic relationship between contemporaneous farmers and foragers. However, the more persistent bone protein could be used to identify species, determine date, and assess diet. This novel approach is widely applicable to other early prehistoric sites with fragmentary skeletal material.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Cereal cultivation and domestication as shown by microtexture analysis of
           sickle gloss through confocal microscopy
    • Authors: Juan José Ibáñez; Patricia C. Anderson; Jesús González-Urquijo; Juan Gibaja
      Pages: 62 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 73
      Author(s): Juan José Ibáñez, Patricia C. Anderson, Jesús González-Urquijo, Juan Gibaja
      When and where cereal cultivation and domestication took place in the Near East are still matters of debate. This quantitative analysis, using confocal microscopy to study “sickle gloss” texture on flint tools used for cereal harvesting, shows that wild cereals were most probably cultivated during the 13th millennium BP in the Middle Euphrates. At that moment, a local and continuous process of cereal domestication began to unfold in this region of the Northern Levant, lasting for over 3 millennia and culminating at the end of the 10th millennium BP. Thus, our research provides a new method for investigating the origins of agriculture, while the data gathered allow us to support the hypothesis of early cereal cultivation during the Younger Dryas and the protracted model of plant domestication, pointing to the Middle Euphrates as one region where this process occurred.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T23:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2016)
       
  • Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus
           settlements in northern India
    • Authors: Bates C.A.; Petrie R.N. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): J. Bates, C.A. Petrie, R.N. Singh
      The nature and timing of rice domestication and the development of rice cultivation in South Asia is much debated. In northern South Asia there is presently a significant gap (c.4200 years) between earliest evidence for the exploitation of wild rice (Lahuradewa c.6000 BCE) and earliest dated evidence for the utilisation of fully domesticated rice (Mahagara c.1800 BCE). The Indus Civilisation (c.3000–1500 BCE) developed and declined during the intervening period, and there has been debate about whether rice was adopted and exploited by Indus populations during this ‘gap’. This paper presents new analysis of spikelet bases and weeds collected from three Indus Civilisation settlements in north-west India, which provide insight into the way that rice was exploited. This analysis suggests that starting in the period before the Indus urban phase (Early Harappan) and continuing through the urban (Mature Harappan/Harappan), post-urban (Late Harappan) and on into the post-Indus Painted Grey Ware (PGW) period, there was a progressive increase in the proportion of domesticated-type spikelet bases and a decrease in wild-types. This pattern fits with a model of the slow development of rice exploitation from wild foraging to agriculture involving full cultivation. Importantly, the accompanying weeds show no increased proportions of wetland species during this period. Instead a mix of wetland and dryland species was identified, and although these data are preliminary, they suggest that the development of an independent rice tradition may have been intertwined with the practices of the eastern most Indus peoples. These data also suggest that when fully domesticated Oryza sativa ssp. japonica was introduced around 2000 BCE, it arrived in an area that was already familiar with domesticated rice cultivation and a range of cultivation techniques.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
       
  • Geoarchaeological research in the humid tropics: A global perspective
    • Authors: Mike W. Morley; Paul Goldberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg
      Geoarchaeological research is now commonly undertaken as an integral component of archaeological investigations across much of the world. However, in humid tropical regions there is a relative shortfall of this Earth-Science approach to understanding archaeological records. In these regions, where hot and humid conditions prevail for significant parts of the year, sedimentological records are prone to high levels of diagenesis, bioturbation and weathering. This means that understanding and quantifying archaeological site formation processes can be very challenging because we may have not have sufficient existing data with which to decipher the stratigraphic (and microstratigraphic) features recorded in these sequences. In this paper we introduce a special issue of Journal of Archaeological Science in which we showcase a selection of geoarchaeological research from across the equatorial regions of five continents, highlighting the types of stratigraphic sequences and sedimentological features that are likely to be encountered, and evaluating the tools that can be employed to maximise the geoarchaeological potential of these unique records. Additionally, we use this opportunity to review geoarchaeology in the humid tropics from a global perspective, outlining the main problems that geoarchaeologists face working in these environments and the techniques available to mitigate them.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.002
       
  • Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh
           Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
    • Authors: Ben Marwick; Hannah G. Van Vlack; Cyler Conrad; Rasmi Shoocongdej; Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit; Seungki Kwak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ben Marwick, Hannah G. Van Vlack, Cyler Conrad, Rasmi Shoocongdej, Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit, Seungki Kwak
      This study reports on an analysis of human adaptations to sea level changes in the tropical monsoonal environment of Peninsula Thailand. We excavated Khao Toh Chong rockshelter in Krabi and recorded archaeological deposits spanning the last 13,000 years. A suite of geoarchaeological methods suggest largely uninterrupted deposition, against a backdrop of geological data that show major changes in sea levels. Although there is a small assemblage of mostly undiagnostic ceramics and stone artefacts, there are some distinct changes in stone artefact technology and ceramic fabric. There is a substantial faunal assemblage, with changes in both the mammalian and shellfish taxa during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition that correlate with local sea level fluctuation. This assemblage provides an opportunity to explore subsistence behaviours leading up to the transition to the Neolithic. We explore the implications for current debates on the prehistoric origins of agricultural subsistence in mainland Southeast Asia. The data highlight the importance of local contingencies in understanding the mechanisms of change from foragers to agriculturalists.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.010
       
  • The missing mushrooms: Searching for fungi in ancient human dietary
           analysis
    • Authors: Hannah J. O'Regan; Angela L. Lamb; David M. Wilkinson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Hannah J. O'Regan, Angela L. Lamb, David M. Wilkinson
      Fungi are a common part of modern human diets, but are rarely discussed in an archaeological context. Power et al. (2015) published data on bolete spores in human tooth calculus, suggesting that Upper Palaeolithic peoples ate mushrooms. Here we briefly consider the likelihood of mushroom consumption in the past, and examine whether or not stable isotopes may provide a way of seeing this in archaeological populations. We also consider the complexities of fungal stable isotopes using our own data and that from the literature. We conclude that fungi are highly variable isotopically, and are an additional dietary factor that should be considered when trying to interpret ‘terrestrial’ carbon isotope signatures combined with relatively high nitrogen isotope values in humans and other animals. Substantial mushroom ingestion could, in some cases, result in isotope values that may be interpreted as considerable meat consumption.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.009
       
 
 
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