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        1 2     

  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 190 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice : A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription  
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access  
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access  
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre | BUCEMA - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access  
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology , The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
   [124 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
  • A GIS model for predicting wetland habitat in the Great Basin at the
           Pleistocene–Holocene transition and implications for Paleoindian
           archaeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Daron Duke , Jerome King
      The Great Basin's earliest inhabitants relied heavily on wetland systems that underwent a great decline culminating in the early Holocene. In this paper, we derive expectations for regional Paleoindian archaeology by modeling the distribution and disappearance of lake-margin wetland habitats. Basin geomorphology and hydrology are used to predict change through time in the occurrence of these habitats. Fifty-two pluvial lakes are drained from their Pleistocene highstands by computer simulation using GIS, and the changing extent of associated wetlands is quantified. We find that as these lakes declined to shallow depths, many experienced corresponding increases in wetland habitat prior to complete desiccation; thus, while the total area of wetland habitat in the region could have maintained some stability through this process, the number of available basin wetlands would have dropped relatively rapidly as smaller basins completely dried up. The model therefore implies that those lakes that disappeared earliest should hold the archaeological signatures most restricted to early Paleoindian times. Assemblages associated with these lakes should also reflect higher forager mobility corresponding with the greater number of basin wetlands available. We find preliminary support for the model in several archaeological cases but emphasize the need for further basin-specific research to clarify the nature and timing of wetland habitat loss and the extent to which this was a constraint for Paleoindian populations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Water management and land-use practices from the Iron-Age to the Roman
           period in Eastern Iberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Hector A. Orengo , Ana Ejarque , Rosa Albiach
      This study investigates water and land usage in the territory of La Carència, an Ibero-Roman city located near Turís (Valencia, Spain) in Eastern Iberia. The outstanding political importance of La Carència during the Iberian Iron-Age period is attested by its large size, the monumental character of its structures and on-site finds. Multidisciplinary and micro-regional landscape work at its territory documented significant differences between the Iberian and the Roman settlement patterns, which are attributed to the distinct agricultural production and water management systems of each period. While Iberian sites are more related to the agricultural exploitation of flat, dry land for which water sources, such as natural springs, were probably used, Roman sites seem to be associated with more productive soils that take advantage of flooding areas and the drainage of water accumulation zones. Such different agricultural preferences based on large-scale water management are documented for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula and they attest to the great potential of multidisciplinary landscape archaeology to address past land-use practices.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Agroecology of pre-contact Hawaiian dryland farming: the spatial extent,
           yield and social impact of Hawaiian breadfruit groves in Kona, Hawai'i
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Noa Lincoln , Thegn Ladefoged
      Modeling Hawaiian dryland (rainfed) agriculture has been an effective means for examining interactions between ecosystems and human behavior. Dryland agriculture in these discussions has often been treated as a homogenous farming system; however, this was in fact a dynamic system with distinct agroecological zones where specific mixes of crops were grown using different farming methods. We examine this variability by using historical depictions and ground surveys to estimate the extent of an agroecological zone represented by breadfruit plantations within Kona, Hawai'i Island. We estimate that the plantations produced 21,200–58,400 mt/yr of breadfruit on 3100–5900 ha with a likely canopy cover within the plantations of 38–73%. Our models suggest that yields per area in the plantation ranged from 1.96 to 3.61 dry mt/ha. Given the yield and labor requirements, breadfruit could have produced a caloric surplus for 15 people in contrast to 3.6 people under assumed requirements of sweet potato. This high surplus would have been vital for socio-political developments centered in the region, and highlights the importance of assessing variability of dryland field systems in discussion of their role in historical trajectories.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Sample-specific sex estimation in archaeological contexts with commingled
           human remains: a case study from the Middle Neolithic cave of Bom Santo in
           Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): David Gonçalves , Raquel Granja , Francisca Alves Cardoso , António Faustino de Carvalho
      Estimating sex on large assemblages of commingled skeletal human remains is challenging because it prevents the systemic observation of the skeleton and thus reduces the reliability of sex-ratio estimation. In order to tackle this problem, the applicability of sample-specific odontometric methods was assessed on the human skeletal remains from the Middle Neolithic cave necropolis of Bom Santo in Portugal. We present an approach that confirms some of the assumptions – the normal distribution of the data and the 1:1.5 sex ratio – indicated by Albanese et al. (2005) for the application of sample-specific methods. These assumptions are often difficult to assess in archaeological samples and thus prevent the use of sample-specific methods. The mean bucco-lingual diameter of 51 lower right canine teeth was used as a cut-off point to discriminate between sexes within a sample from Bom Santo. Before that, Shapiro–Wilk statistics was used to confirm that the distribution of the data in a sample of 51 lower canine teeth was normal. In addition, the range and central tendency of the data were compared to other samples for which the sex of the individuals was known in order to confirm that those parameters were consistent with those of a sample presenting a balanced sex ratio. The canine sex estimations were then compared with the sex estimation obtained from mandibles where canine teeth were still in situ (n = 8). No clear disagreement between the two methods was found thus demonstrating good potential of this method for sex estimation and for the sex ratio estimation in commingled human skeletal remains. Results indicated that sex ratios in Room A and Room B at Bom Santo were quite different. This indicates that the two locations may have been used in a different way according to sex.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Scanning Electron and Optical Light Microscopy: two complementary
           approaches for the understanding and interpretation of usewear and
           residues on stone tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): Antony Borel , Andreu Ollé , Josep Maria Vergès , Robert Sala
      Usewear analysis is now well established as a powerful means by which to identify the function of stone tools excavated from archaeological sites. However, one of the main issues for usewear analysts is still to provide quantified analyses and interpretations. Several attempts have yielded promising results but have not, as of yet, been widely applied and usewear analyses are still mainly performed using either Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) or Optical Light Microscopy (OLM). The systematic comparison of micrographs from both types of microscope presented here enables us to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system. Furthermore, it shows beginners or experts using only one type of microscope that these techniques are complementary and should be considered as such. It also represents a significant basis for developing the implementation of quantitative methods for usewear analysis with SEM and OLM.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • A review of quantification of lithic use-wear using laser profilometry: a
           method based on metrology and fractal analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): W. James Stemp
      Over a decade of experimental lithic use-wear analysis using laser profilometry has led to the development of a method to measure surface modification due to wear in a reliable fashion. This research demonstrates that surface roughness can be documented on experimental stone tools made from a variety of raw material types, including chert, flint, and obsidian, using the laser profilometer, but that determining root mean square roughness (R q) and a fractal dimension (D r) may not always be possible. However, when coupled with scale-sensitive fractal analysis, specifically relative length (RL), and the F-test (MSR), it is possible to mathematically discriminate both used and unused surfaces on flint flakes, as well as used flake surfaces worn against different contact materials. This research has also identified some potential limitations associated with measuring stone tool surfaces using the profilometer, which affect this method's ability to quantify surface roughness on some experimental stone tools.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • The application of focus variation microscopy for lithic use-wear
           quantification
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): Danielle A. Macdonald
      As the field of use-wear analysis has developed, the number of different methodologies that address tool function has increased. Multiple new methods have been published in recent years, both in qualitative and quantitative approaches. This paper focuses on a recent development in quantitative microscopy, specifically focus variation microscopy. This microscope characterizes surface features and has the ability to generate measurements of surface roughness, particularly useful for lithic use-wear studies. This paper presents the results of some preliminary measurements taken on experimental tools, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this new method and how it can contribute to the growing field of use-wear quantification. Finally, it presents some of the new challenges facing archaeologists interested in the quantification of use-wear and future directions of research.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Intra-raw material variability and use-wear formation: an experimental
           examination of a Fossiliferous chert (SJF) and a Silicified Wood (YSW)
           from NW New Mexico using the Clemex Vision processing frame
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): Harry J. Lerner
      This study is part of an ongoing research initiative designed to further standardize the collection and evaluation of use-wear data through the use of a combination of digital image, GIS, and nanoindentation analyses. The focus of the present paper is on using digital imaging analysis to evaluate the role of intra-raw material variability in use-wear formation by experimentally making and using five flake scrapers made from San Juan Fossiliferous chert (SJF) and five made from Yellow Silicified Wood (YSW). Both raw materials were commonly used in prehistoric northwestern New Mexico. The results of Clemex digital image analysis show that there is variation in use-wear accrual rates between the five SJF flake scrapers and between the five YSW flake scrapers. They also show that the degree of this variation differs between SJF and YSW. It is argued that understanding this variability is a key element in clarifying the nature of use-wear formation and therefore in improving the reliability of its archaeological interpretation.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Publication/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48




      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Standardization, calibration and innovation: a special issue on lithic
           microwear method
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): A.A. Evans , H. Lerner , D.A. Macdonald , W.J. Stemp , P.C. Anderson
      This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science that considers the current state and future directions in lithic microwear analysis. There is considerable potential for lithic microwear analysis to reconstruct past human behaviour as it can provide direct insight into past activities. Consequently, it is a technique worthy of significant additional investment and continued development. To further the cause of methodological maturation within microwear analysis and to promote standardization, calibration, and innovation, the following collection of papers present various approaches and perspectives on how greater methodological refinement and increased reliability of results can and should be achieved. Many of these papers were part of a session held at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology Meeting (SAA) in Sacramento, California, while others were selected from the 2012 International Conference on Use-Wear Analysis in Faro, Portugal. The purpose of the SAA session and this special themed issue is essentially two-fold. The first is to promote awareness of the need for methodological standardization, calibration, and continuing innovation. The second is to open a serious dialogue about how these aims could be pursued and achieved.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • On the importance of blind testing in archaeological scien the example
           from lithic functional studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 48
      Author(s): Adrian Anthony Evans
      Blind-testing is an important tool that should be used by all analytical fields as an approach for validating method. Several fields do this well outside of archaeological science. It is unfortunate that many applied methods do not have a strong underpinning built on, what should be considered necessary, blind-testing. Historically lithic microwear analysis has been subjected to such testing, the results of which stirred considerable debate. However, putting this aside, it is argued here that the tests have not been adequately exploited. Too much attention has been focused on basic results and the implications of those rather than using the tests as a powerful tool to improve the method. Here the tests are revisited and reviewed in a new light. This approach is used to highlight specific areas of methodological weakness that can be targeted by developmental research. It illustrates the value in having a large dataset of consistently designed blind-tests in method evaluation and suggests that fields such as lithic microwear analysis would greatly benefit from such testing. Opportunity is also taken to discuss recent developments in quantitative methods within lithic functional studies and how such techniques might integrate with current practices.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • The role of raw material differences in stone tool shape variation: an
           experimental assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Metin I. Eren , Christopher I. Roos , Brett A. Story , Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel , Stephen J. Lycett
      Lithic raw material differences are widely assumed to be a major determining factor of differences in stone tool morphology seen across archaeological sites, but the security of this assumption remains largely untested. Two different sets of raw material properties are thought to influence artifact form. The first set is internal, and related to mechanical flaking properties. The second set is external, namely the form (size, shape, presence of cortex) of the initial nodule or blank from which flakes are struck. We conducted a replication experiment designed to determine whether handaxe morphology was influenced by raw materials of demonstrably different internal and external properties: flint, basalt, and obsidian. The knapper was instructed to copy a “target” model handaxe, produced by a different knapper, 35 times in each toolstone type (n = 105 handaxes). On each experimental handaxe, 29 size-adjusted (scale-free) morphometric variables were recorded to capture the overall shape of each handaxe in order to compare them statistically to the model. Both Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were used to determine if raw material properties were a primary determinate of patterns of overall shape differences across the toolstone groups. The PCA results demonstrated that variation in all three toolstones was distributed evenly around the model target form. The MANOVA of all 29 size-adjusted variables, using two different tests, showed no statistically significant differences in overall shape patterns between the three groups of raw material. In sum, our results show that assuming the primacy of raw material differences as the predominant explanatory factor in stone tool morphology, or variation between assemblages, is unwarranted.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Impacts of drift and population bottlenecks on the cultural transmission
           of a neutral continuous trait: an agent based model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Adam N. Rorabaugh
      Although there is increasing interest in the connections between copying error and the generation of variation of continuous cultural traits, the complex interplay between forces of evolutionary drift and copying error in continuous traits remains under-examined. Here, an agent based model is provided that examines the effects of drift and population bottlenecks on the production of variation in a selectively neutral metric attribute under vertical, unbiased, and prestige biased modes of transmission. The provided model has implications for inferring demographic change or restricted forms of knowledge in the production of technologies.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Computer vision, archaeological classification and China's terracotta
           warriors
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Andrew Bevan , Xiuzhen Li , Marcos Martinón-Torres , Susan Green , Yin Xia , Kun Zhao , Zhen Zhao , Shengtao Ma , Wei Cao , Thilo Rehren
      Structure-from-motion and multiview-stereo together offer a computer vision technique for reconstructing detailed 3D models from overlapping images of anything from large landscapes to microscopic features. Because such models can be generated from ordinary photographs taken with standard cameras in ordinary lighting conditions, these techniques are revolutionising digital recording and analysis in archaeology and related subjects such as palaeontology, museum studies and art history. However, most published treatments so far have focused merely on this technique's ability to produce low-cost, high quality representations, with one or two also suggesting new opportunities for citizen science. However, perhaps the major artefact scale advantage comes from significantly enhanced possibilities for 3D morphometric analysis and comparative taxonomy. We wish to stimulate further discussion of this new research domain by considering a case study using a famous and contentious set of archaeological objects: the terracotta warriors of China's first emperor.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Herding cats – Roman to Late Antique glass groups from Bubastis,
           northern Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): D. Rosenow , Th. Rehren
      Eighty-seven glass fragments from Roman and Late Antique layers at Tell Basta/Bubastis in the Eastern Nile Delta were typologically evaluated and chemically analysed to determine chronological and compositional patterns of glass use at this important Egyptian city, and how this relates to larger pattern of glass production and consumption in the first half of the first millennium AD. Bubastis is situated in geographical proximity to Alexandria, an important seaport, and at the same time close to the raw glass production areas in the Wadi Natrun and Sinai peninsula. This paper reports the first substantial set of compositional data of Roman to Late Antique glass from a settlement in northern Egypt, filling an important gap in our knowledge of glass consumption pattern in the first half of the first millennium AD. The glass from Bubastis falls into several compositional groups known already from elsewhere in the Roman and Late Antique world, including antimony- and manganese-decoloured glass and two varieties of HIMT glass. Changes in glass composition over more than 500 years are in line with earlier observations concerning changes in prevalence of these glass groups. However, compositional groups known to dominate archaeological glass assemblages elsewhere, such as Roman blue/green during the earlier part of the period under study, or Levantine I in the later period, are notably absent. For the later period, this is probably due to the proximity of Tell Basta to the suspected production region of HIMT glass in northern Sinai/Egypt. By analogy, this might indicate that the earlier Roman blue/green glass has a production origin further away from the Delta than the decolourised glasses prevailing in Bubastis. A particular vessel type, small-volume thick-walled dark green unguentaria, is made of probably Egyptian plant ash glass, indicating the existence of a specialised glassmaker during the early first millennium AD.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Nucleation of aragonite upon carbonation of calcium oxide and calcium
           hydroxide at ambient temperatures and pressures: a new indicator of
           fire-related human activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Michael B. Toffolo , Elisabetta Boaretto
      Wood ash found at archaeological sites is the most direct evidence of the presence of combustion features. The preservation of wood ash within archaeological deposits is often poor due to diagenetic processes and therefore its identification requires the use of spectroscopic methods. FTIR spectrometry is able to detect the main calcite component of wood ash, unless this is mixed with other calcitic phases of geologic origin. Using FTIR spectrometry we identified non-biogenic aragonite in archaeological heat-altered sediments and lime plasters. The presence of aragonite in such conditions is unusual, as it is unlikely to crystallize at ambient temperatures and pressures or in absence of Mg. The experimental conditions which favor the nucleation of this aragonite phase were investigated with FTIR spectrometry, XRPD and SEM imaging of modern lime plaster and quicklime samples prepared in the laboratory using different calcium carbonate starting materials. We show that aragonite forms at ambient temperatures and pressures upon carbonation of calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide together with calcite and its nucleation and growth are influenced by environmental parameters, such as carbon dioxide partial pressure, relative humidity and temperature. This pyrogenic aragonite is a reliable indicator for calcareous materials exposed to temperatures above 600 °C, and therefore it can be used to determine the presence of heat-altered sediments and ash in the absence of structured combustion features. This mineral phase could have applications in radiocarbon dating as well.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • The archaeological contribution of forensic craniofacial reconstruction to
           a portrait drawing of a Korean historical figure
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Won Joon Lee , A. Young Yoon , Mi Kyung Song , Caroline M. Wilkinson , Dong Hoon Shin
      Craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) is a technique used to rebuild the living facial appearance onto a skull in order to recognise or identify an individual. This technique is primarily employed in forensic investigation, but also utilised in archaeological research to recreate the faces of paleontological and archaeological humans. In this study, the face of a 17th century historical figure from Korea was reconstructed utilising computerized tomography from the mummified remains. A geographic surface comparison programme was employed to evaluate the accuracy of the CFR produced using a three-dimensional computerized modelling system. Analysis of the facial tissue depth discrepancies demonstrated that the CFR may have acceptable resemblance to the living face of the historical individual. Using computerised graphic technology, the CFR outcome, along with the archaeological information about the hair style, ornaments, and dress discovered in the tomb, a portrait-styled in the typical drawing trend from the era was created. The research suggests that current CFR techniques can provide an accurate portrait drawing of historical figures in Korea.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Isotopic evidence on human bone for declining maize consumption during the
           little ice age in central western Argentina
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Adolfo F. Gil , Ricardo Villalba , Andrew Ugan , Valeria Cortegoso , Gustavo Neme , Catalina Teresa Michieli , Paula Novellino , Víctor Durán
      This paper explores variation in maize consumption among human societies in arid environments of central-western Argentina over the last 2500 years. Increasingly positive human δ13C signatures suggest a high intake of C4 resources (maize) until ca. A.D. 1400. After this time, the importance of maize in the diet drops and never reaches pre-Hispanic consumption rates, despite the known importance of maize to Inka and other late-prehistoric societies in the region. This decline appears to be related to colder temperatures during the Little Ice Age from the beginning of the 15th to the mid19th centuries.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Dating beeswax pictograms from Gode Roriso in Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Pierluigi Rosina , Hugo Gomes , George H. Nash , Tadele Solomon
      In September 2013 pigment samples were taken by one of the authors from pictograms inside the Goda Roriso rock-shelter. 1 The samples originated from white beeswax, previously analysed by micro-Raman Spectroscopy. In addition to the samples, a series of chronometric dates were made from the same substance. The radiocarbon dates were produced using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Stylistically, the pictograms from Goda Roriso originate from an Ethiopian pastoral rock-art tradition that is associated with a Neolithic agro-pastoral economy, chronologically attributed by the scholars to 4000 until 1300 BP. Our initial thought was that, based on style, the pictograms, in particular the images of humped bovines, fell into a date range of between 2000 and 2500 years BP. The results revealed an unexpected range of dates: AD1021–1060 and AD1062–1155 (for sample Beta358358) and AD894–928 and AD934–1017 (for sample Beta358359). Absolute dating demonstrated that beeswax application was not a recent event, but doesn't belong to Neolithic Period. Based on secure chronometric dating, the beeswax paintings of Goda Roriso are the oldest of their type outside Australia. In this brief paper, we argue that beeswax forms an important by-product of beekeeping and that its dates from this remote corner of Africa are synchronous with beeswax paintings found elsewhere, in particular, within pre- and post-colonial Australia.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Introducing exponential random graph models for visibility networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Tom Brughmans , Simon Keay , Graeme Earl
      Archaeological network analysts often represent archaeological data as static networks and explore their structure. However, most networks changed through time and static network representations do not allow archaeologists to test assumptions about the dynamic processes driving this change. The study of visibility networks in archaeology is a good example of this. Archaeologists propose hypotheses of the role of lines of sight between settlements, which imply dynamic processes for the establishment of the observed visibility networks. However, commonly used methods do not allow us to evaluate these hypotheses. In this paper we introduce exponential random graph modelling (ERGM) as a method for bridging static and dynamic approaches to interpreting visibility networks. This method offers a number of advantages: (1) it explicitly addresses the assumptions inherent in visibility network creation about what relationships between nodes mean and the types of processes they allow for; (2) it allows one to investigate the range of network structures that these assumptions give rise to; and (3) it explores the dynamic processes that might have led to observed networks. This method is used to evaluate hypotheses of the role of lines of sight in facilitating visual control and communication during the later Iron Age in Southern Spain. This study shows that ERGMs can be used as a reflective technique to evaluate competing hypotheses, and that ERGM results subsequently require more contextualised evaluation. Future work on ERGMs should focus on incorporating geographical constraints to further enhance its potential for studying visibility networks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Understanding the taphonomic signature of Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila
           fasciata)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Lluís Lloveras , Richard Thomas , Rui Lourenço , Jesús Caro , Andreia Dias
      Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) is a large bird of prey that breeds in warm regions of the Palearctic. In Europe, it is mainly found in the Mediterranean region, in open or partially-open landscapes in mountainous areas. They normally feed on mammals, up to the size of a hare, medium-sized birds and large reptiles. The remains of Bonelli's eagles have been found at Pleistocene archaeological sites, raising the possibility that they were active bone accumulating agents in caves and shelters, a practice evidenced by contemporary studies that show their nests are usually located on rocky cliffs. Taphonomic studies on prey remains consumed by these raptors do not exist and their role in bone accumulations at archaeological sites is not understood. We analyse non-ingested bone remains and pellets recovered at well-known Bonelli's eagle nests situated in the south of Spain and Portugal with the aim of characterising their accumulations. Specifically, we detail taxonomic and anatomical representation, bone breakage, beak marks and digestion damage. Results show that European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) and pigeons (Columba spp.) are the dominant prey. The taphonomic pattern varies depending on the type of prey and the origin of skeletal materials (non-ingested versus pellets). Comparisons with other agents of bone accumulation (birds of prey and terrestrial carnivores) suggest that the taphonomic signature of Bonelli's eagle differs from most other predators.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • The death scenario of an Italian Renaissance princess can shed light on a
           zoological dilemma: did the black soldier fly reach Europe with
           Columbus'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli , Angelo Canale , Alfio Raspi , Gino Fornaciari
      Sometimes the death scenario of a princess can shed light on a zoological dilemma. This research pointed out that the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), of supposed American origin and acknowledged for Europe just from 1926, was present in Italy several centuries before. We found a larva of H. illucens in the sarcophagus of the Italian Renaissance princess Isabella d'Aragona (1470–1524), raising a question on the real geographical origin of this insect. To attempt a reply, three hypotheses were formulated. First, the black soldier fly probably came from America to Europe not in early ‘900s, but four centuries before. Indeed, the American continent was discovered about thirty years before the death of Isabella and the H. illucens larvae, concealed in decaying animals or foodstuffs, could be accidentally transferred from America to Italy through the Spanish commercial “galleons” visiting the important harbor of Naples. Second, the apparent American origin of H. illucens is not true and the species was native of the Palearctic region, even if it remained unknown until 1926. Third, the fly larva does not belong to H. illucens but to a new close-related species or to a cryptic one. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Hermetiinae insect group including Nearctic and Palearctic species could help to solve this intriguing concern.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Assessing use and suitability of scanning electron microscopy in the
           analysis of micro remains in dental calculus
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Robert C. Power , Domingo C. Salazar-García , Roman M. Wittig , Amanda G. Henry
      Dental calculus is increasingly recognized as a major reservoir of dietary information. Palaeodietary studies using plant and animal micro remains (e.g. phytoliths, pollen, sponge spicules, and starch grains) trapped in calculus have the potential to revise our knowledge of the dietary role of plants in past populations. The conventional methods used to isolate and identify these micro remains rely on removing them from their microenvironment in the calculus, thus the microenvironment that traps and preserves micro remains is not understood. By using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) on modern chimpanzee calculus from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire, and human calculus from the Chalcolithic site of Camino del Molino, Spain, we present the first reported observations on characteristics of the matrix setting that are conducive to the survival of starch in dental calculus. We also assess the potential for SEM–EDX to detect starch and differentiate it from structurally and molecularly similar substrates. We demonstrate that SEM–EDX may offer a non-destructive technique for studying micro remains in certain contexts. Finally, we compare traditional optical analytical techniques (OM) with less invasive electron microscopy. The results indicate that SEM–EDX and OM are both effective for observing micro remains in calculus, but differ in their analytical resolution to identify different micro remains, and we therefore recommend a sequential use of both techniques.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Late Bronze and Early Iron Age copper smelting technologies in the South
           Caucasus: the view from ancient Colchis c. 1500–600 BC
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Nathaniel L. Erb-Satullo , Brian J.J. Gilmour , Nana Khakhutaishvili
      Many of the arguments for how and why people began to use iron in Southwest Asia rely on assumptions about the technology and relative organization of copper and iron smelting. However, research on the technological transformations of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age suffers from a lack of investigation of primary metal production contexts, especially in regions outside the Levant. The current research examines metal production debris from a large number of smelting sites in western Georgia, and addresses questions of technology and resource utilization through detailed examination of few select sites. Through the chemical and mineralogical analysis of slag samples, we demonstrate the existence of an extensive copper-production industry and reconstruct several key aspects of the smelting technology during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. Combining a statistical analysis of slag mineralogy with other lines of evidence, we argue that copper was extracted from sulfide ores through a process of roasting and smelting in deep pit furnaces. The data also suggest that metalworkers at different sites exploited different ore sources within the same ore body. These results form a fundamental basis for further examination of spatial and chronological patterns of technological variation, with implications for models of Near Eastern copper production in this crucial period. Intriguing evidence of bloomery iron smelting, though currently undated, reinforces the region's potential to provide data on a key technological transformation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Marine or estuarine radiocarbon reservoir corrections for mollusks'
           A case study from a medieval site in the south of England
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Paula J. Reimer
      Mollusk shells are frequently radiocarbon dated and provide reliable calibrated age ranges when the regional marine reservoir correction is well-established. For mollusks from an estuarine environment the reservoir correction may be significantly different than the regional marine reservoir correction due to the input of bedrock or soil derived carbonates. Some mollusk species such as oysters are tolerant of a significant range of salinities which makes it difficult to determine which reservoir correction is appropriate. A case study is presented of an anomalous radiocarbon age for an oyster shell paint dish found in the fabric of the ruined nave walls of St Mary's Church, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) were used to establish the type of environment in which the oyster had lived. Paired marine and terrestrial samples from a nearby medieval site were radiocarbon dated to provide an appropriate reservoir correction.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Continuity and changes of manufacturing traditions of Bell Beaker and
           Bronze Age encrusted pottery in the Morava river catchment (Czech
           Republic)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): D. Všianský , J. Kolář , J. Petřík
      The white inlayed decorations represent a distinctive phenomenon of prehistoric Europe, and are known to have been produced in diverse areas since the Neolithic. This paper reveals how the raw materials were gathered and utilized, as well as the complex technological processes of the inlay decorations, from the period of their widest production and use. A large set of shards of Late Copper Age Bell Beakers and Early Bronze Age vessels from Moravia (Czech Republic) were examined, with a focus on material analyses of the white inlay decorations. Based on x-ray diffraction analyses, five technology groups were defined: kaolin, bone material, carbonates, gypsum plaster, and mixtures of some of those materials. The gypsum plaster inlay represents the oldest evidence of gypsum production and application in Central Europe. The results indicate both regional and chronological aspects in the selection of the raw materials. In contrast to the bone and gypsum, the kaolin inlay was not thermally treated. Based on the physical properties of bones and the crystallinity of bone hydroxylapatite, it can be presumed that the encrusting slurry was prepared out of fired bones. These facts prove a knowledge of the different properties of the individual raw materials; hence, the need for different production chains.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • The exploitation of manganese-rich ‘ore’ to smelt iron in
           Mwenge, western Uganda, from the mid second millennium AD
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Louise Iles
      By the later second millennium AD, iron production was a key economic industry in western Uganda, and Mwenge was a prominent centre of production, highly regarded for the quality of the iron it produced. Between 2007 and 2011, excavation and analysis of iron production remains from six smelting sites in Mwenge enabled the reconstruction of local smelting technologies in operation there from the fourteenth century AD onwards. Chemical and microstructural analysis of approximately 100 samples revealed that slag from some of these sites is typically characterised by a bulk chemistry high in manganese oxide (up to 12 wt%) and knebelitic olivines. Slag samples from the remainder of the sites contain low levels of manganese oxide (below 4 wt%) and fayalitic olivines. The majority of the slag samples also contain notable levels of phosphorous (1–2 wt%). This sample set provided an opportunity to discuss the impacts of manganese and phosphorous on the smelting systems in operation in Mwenge. Principal component analysis suggests that smelters in this region were deliberately combining an iron ore with a separate manganese-rich flux, rather than using a naturally manganiferous iron ore. This use of two ‘ores’ has parallels with ethnographic literature from the region, which link the use of a second ore to the production of a harder metal. It is believed that this is the first analytically documented example of the use of a manganese-rich flux in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of analyses of surviving iron artefacts, the data also provides an opportunity to consider the quality of the iron metal that would have been produced.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Geochemical survey and metalworking: analysis of chemical residues derived
           from experimental non-ferrous metallurgical processes in a reconstructed
           roundhouse
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Chris J. Carey , Helen J. Wickstead , Gill Juleff , Jens C. Anderson , Martyn J. Barber
      Geochemical survey is becoming a more frequently applied tool for site specific archaeological investigation. It has the potential to integrate site prospection and excavation data with post excavation artefact analysis, unifying two stages of the archaeological process. In the field of archaeometallurgy this is particularly relevant as sites of metalworking are liable to produce high geochemical loadings, related to the manufacture of metal goods and associated waste products such as slags. This paper describes the geochemical survey of an ‘experiential’ metalworking area within a reconstructed roundhouse, identifying geochemical enhancements associated with bronze and lead working. The geochemical survey of the roundhouse clearly defines areas of metalworking that can be related to recollected episodes of metalworking and quantifies the spatial distribution and absolute geochemical loadings from this activity. Consideration is given to how such geochemical enhancements should be archaeologically interpreted and whether geochemistry should be viewed as a micro-artefact and dealt within a context specific way. It is suggested that geochemical survey can play an important role in defining evidence of metallurgy in archaeological investigations, particularly where such evidence remains elusive, e.g. the British Bronze Age.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Experimental projectile impact marks on bone: implications for identifying
           the origins of projectile technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Corey A. O'Driscoll , Jessica C. Thompson
      The ability of Homo sapiens to kill prey at a distance is arguably one of the catalysts for our current ecological dominance. Despite the importance of projectile technology in human hunting strategies, there is still no consensus on when it first emerged. Most evidence has stemmed from analysis of the lithic projectiles themselves, not the trauma left on the bones of hunted prey. There is a growing body of research focused on zooarchaeological projectile impact marks in European assemblages; however, comparable investigations are rare in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA), where it has been suggested that simple hafted projectile technology first arose. There are no standardised criteria for identifying projectile impact marks on bone and no large experimental studies exist that examine marks left by MSA points specifically. This paper defines the various forms of stone-tipped projectile impact marks on bone using a large and variable experimentally-produced sample, and then applies this system to description of marks left by replica MSA Levallois and Howieson's Poort points. The differences between projectile impact marks and slicing cut marks, marks created by different projectile modes (spear and arrow), lithic typologies (Levallois and Howieson's Poort), and distances (long versus short range) are examined. It is shown that although most projectile marks do not resemble slicing cut marks, the projectile mode, point type, and distance cannot be differentiated based on mark morphology.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Experimental determinations of cutmark orientation and the reconstruction
           of prehistoric butchery behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Charles P. Egeland , Kristen R. Welch , Christopher M. Nicholson
      The frequency, anatomical location, and orientation of stone tool cutmarks have all been widely employed in reconstructions of ancient butchery practices. Cutmark orientation in particular has great potential to inform on various aspects of past behavior, and here we provide experimentally derived orientations with novice butchers in two contexts. The first models the butchery of a carcass part by a single individual, and the second the butchery of a carcass part by several individuals simultaneously. Our goal is to test the following hypothesis: do butchers working alone produce less variation in cutmark orientation than several working at once' Preliminary data indicate that, at least with the novices involved in this experiment, variation in cutmark angles does not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Although further experimental work is warranted, we suggest that while the number of individuals may play some role in determining cutmark orientations, experience and skill are also important factors.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Revisiting carbonate quantification in apatite (bio)minerals: a validated
           FTIR methodology
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): A. Grunenwald , C. Keyser , A.M. Sautereau , E. Crubézy , B. Ludes , C. Drouet
      Carbonated apatites represent an important class of compounds encountered in many fields including anthropology, archeology, geology, medicine and biomaterials engineering. They constitute, in particular, the mineral part of bones and teeth, are found in sedimentary settings, and are used as biomimetic compounds for the development of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Whether for assessing the degree of biomimetism of synthetic apatites or for better understanding diagenetic events, their thorough physico-chemical characterization is essential, and includes, in particular, the evaluation of their carbonate content. FTIR is especially well-suited for such a goal, as this spectroscopy technique requires only a low amount of specimen to analyze, and carbonate ions exhibit a clear vibrational signature. In this contribution, we critically discuss several FTIR-approaches that may be (or have been) considered in view of carbonation quantification. The best methodology appears to be based on the analysis of the ν 3(CO3) and ν 1 ν 3(PO4) modes. The area ratio r c/p between these two contributions was found to be directly correlated to the carbonate content of the samples (R 2 = 0.985), with the relation wt.% CO3 = 28.62*r c/p + 0.0843. The method was validated thanks to titrations by coulometry assays for various synthetic reference samples exhibiting carbonate contents between 3 and 7 wt.%. The FTIR carbonate quantification methodology that we propose here was also tested with success on three skeletal specimens (two bones/one tooth), after elimination of the collagen contribution. Comparative data analysis is also presented, showing that the use of other vibration bands, or only peak heights (instead of peak areas), leads to significantly lower correlation agreement. This FTIR data treatment methodology is recommended so as to limit errors on the evaluation of carbonate contents in apatite substrates.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Characterizing obsidian sources with portable XRF: accuracy,
           reproducibility, and field relationships in a case study from Armenia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Ellery Frahm
      Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) has been demonstrated as a powerful tool to assign obsidian artifacts to sources. Newer instruments can even match artifacts from some regions to their sources in a matter of just seconds, not minutes. There remains, however, a reluctance to use pXRF instruments to characterize the sources themselves. Many past studies have used pXRF in a region where the sources have been well characterized using lab-based techniques. That is, earlier analytical work established compositional types for the obsidian sources, and pXRF was later used to sort artifacts into those types. This is due, at least in part, to notions that pXRF instruments are insufficiently accurate or reliable to characterize the sources. The motivations to use pXRF for characterizing sources are similar to those for sourcing artifacts: many more specimens can be analyzed without concern for the financial, practical, and legal considerations associated with instruments in distant facilities. This paper documents tests conducted to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of pXRF data relative to five laboratory-based techniques (NAA, EDXRF, WDXRF, EMPA, and LA-ICP-MS) with a focus on Armenian obsidian sources. These tests demonstrate that there is no reason to believe pXRF is inherently inaccurate, unreproducible, or otherwise inadequate for source characterization. A case study of the Pokr Arteni source highlights the advantages of pXRF, including the capability to analyze large numbers of specimens, recognize variability, and elucidate field relationships. In these respects, pXRF can facilitate more sophisticated obsidian sourcing studies.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Documenting contamination in ancient starch laboratories
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Alison Crowther , Michael Haslam , Nikki Oakden , Dale Walde , Julio Mercader
      Ancient starch analysis is an important methodology for researching ancient ecology, plant use, diet, and tool function; particularly in the deep past when other proxies may not survive. Establishing the authenticity of ancient starch is therefore a major concern for researchers. Despite decades of archaeological application, there are currently no empirically-tested procedures for systematically assessing and reducing intra-laboratory contamination. At the Universities of Oxford and Calgary, we have tested laboratory consumables, airborne contaminants, and decontamination techniques (oxidisation, boiling, autoclaving, torching) to establish contamination sources, types and quantities, as well as the most effective methods of destroying them. In our laboratories, we found that (i) contaminant starches represent a restricted range of types, (ii) many commonly used consumables including non-powdered gloves and Calgon are starch-rich, (iii) passive slide traps often used to test for airborne contaminants generate unreliable proxies and unacceptably low statistical confidence, and (iv) decontamination procedures using weak acids and bleach are largely ineffective. This collaborative study has allowed us to identify and reduce the risk of contamination and to develop better internal authenticity criteria for future ancient starch studies conducted in our laboratories.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Intestinal parasites in a mid-14th century latrine from Riga, Latvia: fish
           tapeworm and the consumption of uncooked fish in the medieval eastern
           Baltic region
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Hui-Yuan Yeh , Aleks Pluskowski , Uldis Kalējs , Piers D. Mitchell
      The aim of this study was to investigate faecal material from a medieval latrine in the coastal town of Riga (Latvia) in order to identify the intestinal parasites present within the population. We identified very large numbers of the eggs of three species of parasitic intestinal worms that affect humans – fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). The fish tapeworm evidence demonstrates that the population were eating large amounts of uncooked fish (perhaps raw, smoked, or pickled) since cooking prevents parasite transmission. ELISA analysis identified the presence of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause dysentery in humans. We also noted two eggs of equid pinworm (Oxyuris equi) that affects horses and donkeys, demonstrating the presence of this parasite in farm animals of the region by the medieval period. We discuss the implications of these findings for our knowledge of intestinal parasites in coastal areas of the medieval Baltic region, of food consumption, of hygiene, and of the affects of the parasites upon the health of those living in medieval Riga, the most important city in the crusader state of Livonia.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • An experimental assessment of the influences on edge damage to lithic
           artifacts: a consideration of edge angle, substrate grain size, raw
           material properties, and exposed face
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Shannon P. McPherron , David R. Braun , Tamara Dogandžić , Will Archer , Dawit Desta , Sam C. Lin
      Functional analyses of stone tool assemblages face a number of methodological challenges. Aside from determining specific uses, it can be difficult to know which artifacts in an assemblage were used at all. Typically retouch is taken as a proxy for indicating past use, but ignoring unretouched flakes means excluding the overwhelming majority of most assemblages. Assessing whether an unretouched flake has been used is complicated. Edge damage on flakes can be caused by use or by taphonomic processes. One of the more important of these processes is trampling. Experiments have shown that trampling can create damage mimicking retouch, and unlike some other taphonomic processes trampling is otherwise difficult to detect. One possible solution is to look for patterning in the placement (left vs. right, ventral vs. dorsal, proximal vs. distal) of edge damage, and recent studies using GIS based approaches have shown the utility of this method at an assemblage level. Here we trampled a set of experimental flakes made from two raw materials on two substrate types and analyzed the edge damage patterns using a newly developed image analysis program that is similar to previous GIS based approaches. We found that a previously unquantified variable, edge angle, is strongly correlated with the likelihood of damage. Thus in circumstances where edge angles are non-randomly distributed across flake types, trampling damage will be patterned. These results have implications for previously published edge damage studies, and further indicate that basic flake mechanics need to be considered in studies where function is inferred from edge damage patterns. Approaches to the archaeological record that employs assemblage level assessments of edge damage, must consider a range of factors when inferring behaviors from these patterns.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Impacts of Mayan land use on Laguna Tuspán watershed (Petén,
           Guatemala) as seen through clay and ostracode analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Sophie Fleury , Bruno Malaizé , Jacques Giraudeau , Didier Galop , Viviane Bout-Roumazeilles , Philippe Martinez , Karine Charlier , Pierre Carbonel , Marie-Charlotte Arnauld
      Most of the cities built by the Mayas in the Petén area, in the Central Yucatán Peninsula, were abandoned 1200 to 1000 years ago. The phenomenon is sometimes un-appropriately called “the collapse of the Maya civilization”. Its main causes are still debated, ranging from climatic according to the occurrence of severe or modest droughts, to societal in the form of environmental mismanagement of the environment. In both processes, it is inferred that stress triggered the formation in many Petén lake sediments of erosional clay deposits, known as ‘Maya clays’. This work presents a high resolution, multi-proxy study of ‘Maya clays’ in lacustrine sediments from Laguna Tuspán, near the archaeological site of La Joyanca. Micropaleontological (ostracodes), mineralogical (clay minerals) and geochemical (bulk elemental composition and stable isotopes in organic carbon) records reveal three different phases of soil erosion throughout the last 5300 years. The oldest phase from 5281 to 2998 cal yr BP (i.e. 3331 – 1048 BC) is characterized by successive natural and moderate soil erosion deposits which follow climatic variations recorded in the American tropical belt. The time interval between 2998 and 1281 cal yr BP (i.e. 1048 BC and AD 661) contains four distinct erosional layers which, according to clay mineralogy, are indicative of both increased erosion of the regolith and strong soil loss. The most recent, also the most massive, deposit of Maya clay ends around 1281 cal yr BP (AD 661), that is some 200 years before the so-called ‘Maya collapse’ in the Petén area. Recent archeological fieldwork studies indicate that a population mobility took place into the city of La Joyanca from its hinterland by the early Late Classic Period (ca. AD 600), that is, at the end or just after this erosion episode, and well before the occurrence of the Terminal Classic-Postclassic (AD 800–1250) drastic climatic changes. Shifts in environmental management by the local society and timing of urbanization may explain environmental changes better than droughts per se.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Using non-dietary gastropods in coastal shell middens to infer kelp and
           seagrass harvesting and paleoenvironmental conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Amira F. Ainis , René L. Vellanoweth , Queeny G. Lapeña , Carol S. Thornber
      Archaeologists analyzing shell middens typically focus on larger (>2 cm) mollusks to examine subsistence practices, impacts on littoral habitats, and paleoenvironmental conditions as well as a host of other natural and cultural phenomena. Small (<2 cm), non-dietary gastropods in archaeological shell middens also provide important clues regarding human resource procurement in littoral areas and coastal paleoenvironments. We present data from two sites on the California Channel Islands to demonstrate the range of information that can be gained by analyzing small gastropod shells. Identifications revealed the remains of over 4500 non-dietary small gastropods from 75 taxa. Human harvesting of marine macrophytes is suggested by the presence of 18 species that are predominantly associated with seaweeds and seagrasses. Quantification measures revealed high diversity and equitability indices, oscillating taxonomic richness, and decreasing densities through time at both sites. Likelihood ratio tests revealed differences in assemblage composition between Early Holocene and later components at one site, and demonstrated similarities in the relative composition of non-dietary shell assemblages between both sites during the Middle Holocene. Incorporating detailed studies of less conspicuous “incidental” shellfish remains in archaeological midden studies has the potential to contribute to our understanding of past human land use practices and littoral paleoecology. Our findings are applicable to archaeologists working in coastal settings around the world, as well as marine ecologists interested in intertidal paleo-habitats and kelp forest ecosystems.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Determining the reduction sequence of Hawaiian quadrangular adzes using 3D
           approaches: a case study from Moloka'i
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Chris Clarkson , Ceri Shipton , Marshall Weisler
      Hawaiian adze manufacture requires a great deal of skill and undoubtedly required long apprenticeships to achieve the finesse seen in many finished prehistoric adzes. Despite the presence of more than two dozen adze quarries in Hawai'i, and previous attempts at replicating adze preforms and positing reduction sequences in Polynesia, there is no detailed study that clearly defines the steps and stages of quadrangular adze preform manufacture (the most common form in Hawai'i), and the resulting characteristic debitage. In this paper we examine the sequence of adze production for a population of 109 adzes from Moloka'i, documenting the transition from blanks to preforms to the finished objects that were transported away from quarries. Reduction intensity is measured using the Scar Density Index (Clarkson, 2013) calculated from 3D scans. We document the sequence of cumulative additions of characteristic features to adzes (e.g. bidirectional edges, bevel, poll and tang) as reduction intensity increases. We also note the reasons for adze rejection at each stage of reduction. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of adze reduction in Polynesia facilitated and standardised by 3D scanning technology. Hopefully, it will serve as a useful benchmark for objectively and systematically comparing adze technology in other parts of Hawai'i and across Polynesia, leading to a better understanding of regional and temporal variation in adze technology.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Morphological trend analysis of rice phytolith during the early Neolithic
           in the Lower Yangtze
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Yan Wu , Leping Jiang , Yunfei Zheng , Changsui Wang , Zhijun Zhao
      The investigation of rice domestication process is important for understanding how agriculture evolved in China. In this paper, we studied samples of rice phytoliths from the Shangshan (around c. 11,000–9000 cal. BP), Kuahuqiao (around c. 8200–7200 cal. BP) and Hemudu (around c. 7000–6500 cal. BP) periods in the lower valley of Yangtze River. Using two different techniques it was demonstrated that rice phytoliths could be separated into wild rice and domesticated varieties. Through time the percentage of wild rice phytoliths decreases while the percentage of domesticated rice phytoliths increases. The changes in morphological characteristics of double-peaked glume cells and scale-like decorations numbers of cuneiform bulliform cells indicates that human intervention likely impacted rice during the Shangshan, Kuahuqiao and Hemudu Periods. Based on morphological characteristics when classifying the rice phytoliths into wild rice and domesticated rice varieties of double-peaked glume cells, a large percentage of phytoliths could not be assigned to either a wild or domesticated variety. The large percentage of the uncertain type indicates that early domesticated rice phytolith may be neither completely wild nor fully domesticated in morphology. The result of this study indicates the evolution from wild rice to domestic rice occur between 12,000 and 7000 cal. BP.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Provenance of marbles used in the Heliocaminus Baths of Hadrian's Villa
           (Tivoli, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Stefano Columbu , Fabrizio Antonelli , Marco Lezzerini , Domenico Miriello , Benedetta Adembri , Alessandro Blanco
      This paper aims to ascertain the provenance of white and greyish marbles used for decorating the Heliocaminus Baths, one of the most ancient thermal complexes inside the Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli (Italy). Fifteen marble samples have been macroscopically described and investigated by means of mineralogical and petrographic observations of thin sections, XRF chemical analyses of major and some trace elements, and stable isotope ratio analysis of carbon and oxygen. The collected data show that the majority of the marbles analysed come mainly from the Apuan Alps basin (Carrara) and subordinately from several Greek (Mt. Penteli and Thasos Islands) and Turkish (Afyon and probably Ephesus districts) quarrying areas.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Technological behaviors in Paleolithic foragers. Testing the role of
           resharpening in the assemblage organization
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Juan I. Morales , Josep M. Vergès
      This paper describes the evaluation, based on archaeological materials, of the role that resharpening plays in the continuum of stone-tool reduction. We define a multi-evidence-based approach that combines use-wear intensity and location, traces that could be related to hafting and the distribution of mineral residue. By combining these methods, we have observed a minimum resharpening ratio of 52% in the selected end-scraper sample. If one takes into account ethnographically obtained information about end-scraper management, this result is an unexpectedly low value. Dynamics of mobility, technological organization and raw material availability causes high variability in the archaeological visibility and characteristics of lithic remains. Our results are in line with a technology organized wholly or partially on the basis of expediency, in which tools are not curated for more than the time taken to complete the activity or the length of the occupation. Tools that were not exhausted were abandoned at the site, leading to recycling behaviors in periodic site reoccupations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Short, but repeated Neanderthal visits to Teixoneres Cave (MIS 3,
           Barcelona, Spain): a combined analysis of tooth microwear patterns and
           seasonality
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Carlos Sánchez-Hernández , Florent Rivals , Ruth Blasco , Jordi Rosell
      A new approach combining two proxies is presented with the aim to provide valuable data to better understand the patterns of human occupations in Palaeolithic sites. We employed the analysis of tooth microwear patterns combined with an estimation of the seasonality through tooth eruption and wear patterns of the ungulates. Each proxy brings different types of information. The variability in tooth microwear patterns allows for the estimation of the duration of occupational events at a site while the estimation of seasonality permits to situate temporally these events through the year. The research involved four Middle Palaeolithic archaeological levels from Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Spain). The combined analysis allowed for the identification of different patterns of occupation at the site: (1) short seasonal occupations at a single season such as in level IIa at the beginning of the summer and in level IIb in autumn and early winter, (2) repeated seasonal occupations of the site at all seasons such as in the underlying level IIIa, and (3) repeated seasonal settlements at two specific seasons (summer and winter) as in level IIIb. Our results show congruence between the two methods which imply that combined approaches would allow a better knowledge about the occupations that occurred in the cave, in particular about the duration of Neanderthal occupations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Lithic microwear analysis as a means to infer production of perishable
           technology: a case from the Great Lakes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): G. Logan Miller
      Perishable technologies form a major portion of hunter–gatherer toolkits across the globe. Due to preservation issues, however, these artifacts are often not recovered in the archaeological record. Thus it is necessary to look for evidence of perishable technologies in novel ways. This is especially true for Late Pleistocene sites in North America which are typically dominated by chipped stone artifacts. While other perishable technologies—i.e. bone and wood—from these sites have received some attention, fiber technologies remain under examined due to their near complete absence in the archaeological record, especially in eastern North America. Lithic microwear analysis on a sample of artifacts from the Clovis affiliated Paleo Crossing site in the Great Lakes region of North America indicates that numerous artifacts were used for plant processing. I present the results of analysis here with particular emphasis on artifacts used to process plant material. Through comparison with experimentally produced wear patterns, I argue that much of the plant processing at Paleo Crossing was geared toward plant fiber production. These findings provide further evidence that fiber technologies were important elements of the Clovis toolkit. Additionally, it demonstrates that evidence of perishable technologies can be recovered from lithic assemblages.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Tracking archaeological and historical mines using mineral prospectivity
           mapping
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): F. Monna , E. Camizuli , R. Nedjai , F. Cattin , C. Petit , J.-P. Guillaumet , I. Jouffroy-Bapicot , B. Bohard , C. Chateau , P. Alibert
      The present study proposes a technological transfer from modern mining prospection to the field of archaeology, providing a methodology to facilitate the discovery of ancient mining sites. This method takes advantage of the thousands of geochemical analyses of streambed sediments, performed by national geological surveys to inventory mineral substances. In order to delineate geochemical anomalies, the datasets are treated following two different approaches: Exploratory Data Analysis and a fractal-based method often recognised as more powerful. Mineral prospectivity maps are then obtained by combining the results with a geographical information system. The surroundings of the Celtic oppidum of Bibracte, French Massif Central, known to have been mined at least since the Late Bronze Age until Modern Times, have been chosen to exemplify the method's potential in archaeology. First, an exhaustive record of the mining sites was undertaken over a pilot area by pedestrian prospection. If mineral prospectivity maps had been used as guidelines, ∼70% of these mines would have been discovered by prospecting only ∼15–20% of the whole area whatever the method used to treat the dataset. At least for our specific case, the multifractal approach is as powerful as EDA. Besides saving a significant amount of time and effort, the methods described here may supply clues for determining the nature of mineral substances exploited in the past, when such information cannot be straightforwardly obtained from the field or from textual archives. It should however be noticed that this approach is proposed as a first step before peer archaeological investigation following more conventional methods. Technically, there is no real obstacle to the application of the methodology proposed here, because (i) software and associated packages are freely available from the web, as well as original geochemical datasets (at least in France), and (ii) minimal mathematical skills are required.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Cinnabar in Mesoamerica: poisoning or mortuary ritual'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Alfonso Ávila , Josefina Mansilla , Pedro Bosch , Carmen Pijoan
      In Mesoamerica, dead bodies were often smeared with red pigment, either hematite or cinnabar. Most archaeological remains include bones whose surface may be red colored. Being cinnabar a mercury compound whose chemical formula is HgS, it is not clear if Hg ions diffuse into the hydroxyapatite lattice. In this work we found that cinnabar is not easily dissociated and, therefore, ions from cinnabar spread after death, if any, do not diffuse into hydroxyapatite. However, in bones from the archaeological site of Ranas, close to Querétaro, Mexico, we found Hg ions in interstitial positions of the bone hydroxyapatite lattice. Ranas was a cinnabar mining zone. Hence, the presence of Hg ions in bone hydroxyapatite lattice cannot be due to post mortem rituals and it has to be attributed to breathing or swallowing of mercury vapors or solutions during life. It is, then, a case of poisoning with mercury, probably due to exposition to vapors originated in the mine exploitation or to contaminated food.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Butrint (Albania) between eastern and western Mediterranean glass
           production: EMPA and LA-ICP-MS of late antique and early medieval finds
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): S. Conte , T. Chinni , R. Arletti , M. Vandini
      In the Late Roman period, the city of Butrint (SW Albania) was one of the most important seaports of the eastern Mediterranean due to its very favourable position and an extended presence of human settlements (from the 5th century BC to the modern age). The city seems to have particularly flourished after being declared a Roman colony under Augustus in 31 BC, but even after the Roman period, Butrint remained a central node in eastern trade routes. During the archaeological campaign of 2011 directed by David Hernandez (University of Notre Dame – US), aimed at identifying the eastern border of the Butrint Roman Forum, several glass artifacts were recovered and dated to the late antique and early medieval period. In this study 33 fragments of glass (32 transparent, 1 opaque) were analysed from different objects (drinking glasses, bowls, etc) mostly dated from the 5th to the 6th centuries AD. The aims of this work are: i) understanding the raw materials, the manufacturing techniques employed for glass production, and their evolution through the time; ii) correctly classifying items of uncertain date; iii) interpreting the economic development and trade models of the area. Chemical analyses were performed by electron microprobe (EMPA) for major and minor elements and by ICP mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) for trace elements. The chemical results indicate that the samples were produced with natron as fluxing agent. They can be divided, on the basis of the concentrations of Fe, Ti, and Mn, between the two main compositional groups widespread in the Mediterranean from the 4th century onward: HIMT (23 samples), and Levantine I (10 samples). Among the HIMT samples, both “weak” HIMT (13 samples), and “strong” HIMT (10 samples) were identified. This variety of compositions indicates that in Butrint, between the end of the 4th and the end of the 6th century, the glass materials were probably imported from different suppliers.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Investigation of cereal remains at the Xiaohe Cemetery in Xinjiang, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Ruiping Yang , Yimin Yang , Wenying Li , Yidilisi Abuduresule , Xingjun Hu , Changsui Wang , Hongen Jiang
      The Xiaohe Cemetery, a typical remnant of the famous bronze-age Xiaohe culture, is located in the Lop Nur region of Xinjiang, which is one of the driest regions in China. Several excavations were conducted and cereal remains discovered in the tombs were evaluated to better understand the living conditions of this ancient civilization. Three types of cereals were identified: viz. florets of common millet (Panicum miliaceum), caryopses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and love grass (Eragrostis sp.). The grains of Eragrostis sp. were deduced to be utilized in different ways, such as a food resource and/or as fodder for cattle feeding. All three cereal crops provided clues about the vegetable diet as well as shed light on the understanding of the Xiaohe culture.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Refining gold with glass – an early Islamic technology at Tadmekka,
           Mali
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Th. Rehren , S. Nixon
      We describe two crucible fragments from an early Islamic context at the West African site of Tadmekka, in the Republic of Mali. They are made from a very sandy fabric and contain numerous gold particles and mineral grains in a matrix of lightly-coloured glass-based crucible slag. We interpret these as remains of a process separating freshly-panned gold concentrate from residual mineral inclusions, by melting the concentrate together with crushed glass beads. The process has similarities in modern artisanal practice, and shows the versatility of craftspeople in this major urban trading centre famous for its gold wealth.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Integrating geoarchaeology and magnetic susceptibility at three shell
           mounds: a pilot study from Mornington Island, Gulf of Carpentaria,
           Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): Daniel Rosendahl , Kelsey M. Lowe , Lynley A. Wallis , Sean Ulm
      In coastal areas of the globe, open shell matrix sites are commonly used to establish regional chronologies of human occupation and identify patterns of cultural change, particularly for the Holocene, post-sea-level stabilisation period. Despite this, many basic sedimentary analyses that are routinely applied to rockshelter deposits (e.g. geophysical characterisation, particle size etc) are rarely applied to these sites. Magnetic susceptibility, occasionally used in rockshelters, has never been used to investigate shell matrix sites in Australia, despite several international studies identifying its efficacy for other types of open sites. This paper reports a pilot project applying a range of conventional sedimentary and archaeological analyses, as well as magnetic susceptibility at three anthropogenic shell mounds on Mornington Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Results are compared to, firstly, assess site integrity and, secondly, to ascertain whether magnetic signatures are related to cultural or natural site formation processes. The results establish that the mounds were repeatedly visited, despite the archaeological evidence, including radiocarbon ages, suggesting effectively ‘instantaneous’ deposition. This has important implications for studies of other shell mounds where the limitations of radiocarbon dating precision may also mask multiple deposition events.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
  • Stable isotope analysis and variation in medieval domestic pig husbandry
           practices in northwest Europe: absence of evidence for a purely
           herbivorous diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 49
      Author(s): D.J. Halley , Jørgen Rosvold
      Stable isotope ratios have been widely used to infer past diets, domestication and husbandry practices of pigs, but few studies have addressed the proper baselines for such inferences. We analysed the diet of pig Sus scrofa from stable isotope analysis of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of collagen from, urban Bergen, Norway (1300–1400AD). These were compared with values from Skipshelleren (5500BC–200AD); and from other medieval sites in NW Europe. Results indicated that the pigs from Bergen ate a very high proportion of marine protein compared to pigs and wild boar from Skipshelleren who ate a diet primarily of plant material. Results from other medieval sites in NW Europe show considerable variation in δ13C and δ15N values, indicating large variations in diet. However, none of the values are consistent with a diet wholly dominated by plant material; and therefore pig husbandry through outspan herding (pannage) without supplementary feeding. We question interpretations to the contrary, which neglect the role of known differences in dietary fractionation between species in producing δ13C and δ15N values of tissue. Data from domestic pigs of ancient breeds undoubtedly raised by outspan herding/pannage are so far unavailable and would be instructive.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T16:44:44Z
       
 
 
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