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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 226 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 51)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access  
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access  
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [57 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Origins of inhabitants from the 16th century Sala (Sweden) silver mine
           cemetery – A lead isotope perspective
    • Authors: T. Douglas Price; Robert Frei; Ylva Bäckström; Karin Margarita Frei; Anne Ingvarsson-Sundstrom
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): T. Douglas Price, Robert Frei, Ylva Bäckström, Karin Margarita Frei, Anne Ingvarsson-Sundstrom
      Historical documents record the operation of a silver mine from the 16th century AD located near the former village of Salberget in central Sweden. The historical record describes several categories of inhabitants, including local families, workers and miners, foreign engineers and mining specialists, as well as war captives and criminals used as forced labor in the mines. A church yard in the vicinity of the village served as a burial ground. Archaeological evidence indicates two distinct grave types (coffin and earthen) and physical anthropology documents differences in age and sex between these grave types, as well as harsh conditions of life. Strontium and oxygen isotopes have been used previously to investigate the place of origin of the cemetery inhabitants and clear differences among the types of graves were seen in the isotope results. Place of origin was more difficult to ascertain however. Here we utilize lead isotopes as an additional isotopic tracer to identify origins. The lead isotope investigations pinpoint several areas outside of the Sala region where some of the inhabitants originated. In addition, the study documents the benefits of using lead isotopes in human proveniencing studies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T09:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Export Chinese blue-and-white porcelain: compositional analysis and
           sourcing using non-invasive portable XRF and reflectance spectroscopy
    • Authors: Christian Fischer; Ellen Hsieh
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Christian Fischer, Ellen Hsieh
      The chemical composition of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain, from the body to the pigment and the glaze, has been widely investigated over the last decades. However, most studies focused on ware from official kilns and much less attention has been given to folk kilns whose production was primarily aimed at supplying overseas markets. Moreover, scientific analysis has often relied on sophisticated laboratory-based instrumentation, a methodology that can be used neither for large sets of archaeological sherds nor in the field. The research presented here evaluates the applicability of non-invasive portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) for the study of overseas Chinese blue-and-white porcelain manufactured in Jingdezhen and Zhangzhou, the main production centers during the late 16th to early 17th centuries. Results obtained on a limited number of sherds found in Indonesia and the Philippines show that concentration levels of some minor and trace elements, in particular zirconium and associated thorium, are sufficient to clearly distinguish Jingdezhen and Zhangzhou productions. The composition of the cobalt-based blue pigment was also easily identified with pXRF, highlighting the Fe-poor and Mn-rich compositional pattern in accordance with the local asbolite ores used during this time period. Furthermore, FORS provided additional information on tint and shade variations of the blue pigment. Consequently, pXRF combined with FORS represents an innovative and cost effective analytical approach to study the chemistry and provenance of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain, particularly in the field and/or for large archaeological sherd collections.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T09:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • European cobalt sources identified in the production of Chinese famille
           rose porcelain
    • Authors: Rita Giannini; Ian C. Freestone; Andrew J. Shortland
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 80
      Author(s): Rita Giannini, Ian C. Freestone, Andrew J. Shortland
      The blue pigments on 112 fragments or small objects of Qing Dynasty Chinese, 95 of underglaze blue and white and 17 overglaze enamelled porcelains were analysed by LA-ICPMS. The underglaze blues on both blue and white and polychrome objects were created with a cobalt pigment that was rich in manganese with lesser nickel and zinc. This suite of accessory elements is generally considered to be characteristic of local, Chinese, sources of pigments. However, the blue enamels were very different. The cobalt pigment here has low levels of manganese and instead is rich in nickel, zinc, arsenic and bismuth. No Chinese source of cobalt with these characteristics is known, but they closely match the elements found in the contemporary cobalt source at Erzgebirge in Germany. Textual evidence has been interpreted to suggest that some enamel pigment technologies were transferred from Europe to China, but this is the first analytical evidence to be found that an enamel pigment itself was imported. It is possible that this pigment was imported in the form of cobalt coloured glass, or smalt, which might account for its use in enamels, but not in an underglaze, where the colour might be susceptible to running. Furthermore, the European cobalt would have given a purer shade of blue than the manganese-rich Chinese cobalt.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T09:33:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
       
  • Ancient DNA analysis of cyprinid remains from the Mesolithic-Neolithic
           Danube Gorges reveals an extirpated fish species Rutilus frisii (Nordmann,
           1840)
    • Authors: Ivana Živaljević; Danijela Popović; Aleš Snoj; Saša Marić
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ivana Živaljević, Danijela Popović, Aleš Snoj, Saša Marić
      The paper presents and discusses the results of the first ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of cyprinid remains recovered from the Mesolithic-Neolithic sites of Vlasac, Lepenski Vir and Padina in the Danube Gorges (North-Central Balkans). Cyprinids constitute a significant portion of the identified fish remains recovered from these sites, which is indicative of their dietary role, and their large pharyngeal teeth have been worn as garment appliqués and associated with a great number of buried individuals. aDNA analysis (involving mitochondrial and nuclear markers) of pharyngeal bones with teeth corresponding to those used as appliqués has determined that they originate from anadromous Rutilus frisii (vyrezub), previously unrecorded in the Middle and Lower Danube. At present, the species inhabits the Black, Azov and Caspian Sea basins, but the only known populations in the Danube inhabit solely its upper reaches in Austria. The results of our study and the occurrence of R. frisii in the Danube Gorges further corroborate that its Upper Danube and Black Sea habitat had been connected in the past, i.e. that the species was entering the whole stretch of the river during its spawning migrations. Furthermore, precise taxonomic identification has important implications for a better understanding of fishing practices and their seasonal schedule in the Danube Gorges, and the distribution of cyprinid pharyngeal teeth ornaments in Europe during the Mesolithic.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Ritual complexity in a past community revealed by ancient DNA analysis of
           pre-colonial terracotta items from Northern Ghana
    • Authors: Heather A. Robinson; Timothy Insoll; Benjamin W. Kankpeyeng; Keri A. Brown; Terence A. Brown
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Heather A. Robinson, Timothy Insoll, Benjamin W. Kankpeyeng, Keri A. Brown, Terence A. Brown
      The pre-colonial 6th–14th century terracotta forms of Koma Land, Northern Ghana, contain cavities which may have been intended to hold liquids. These have been linked to traditional African libation, but the specific nature of their contents is unclear. We used generic polymerase chain reactions that would amplify DNA from a range of plant and fungal species in order to identify remains of libations applied to fourteen terracotta items. We anticipated difficulties in distinguishing genuine ancient DNA sequences from those resulting from contaminating material, and therefore also carried out a series of control experiments to assess the extent to which the samples had become contaminated with exogenous DNA during burial, excavation and downstream analysis. Taking account of the results of the control experiments, as well as the difficulties in assigning matches between ancient DNA sequences and database entries, we provide evidence for the use of three different types of plant – plantain/banana, pine and grasses – in libations associated with the terracotta items. We also identified DNA from Coniochaeta yeast within the mouth cavity of one figurine, suggesting that this structure was burnt prior to deposition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T16:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Environmental reconstruction and dating of Shizitan 29, Shanxi Province:
           An early microblade site in north China
    • Authors: Yanhua Song; David J. Cohen; Jinming Shi; Xiaohong Wu; Eliso Kvavadze; Paul Goldberg; Shuangquan Zhang; Yue Zhang; Ofer Bar-Yosef
      Pages: 19 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Yanhua Song, David J. Cohen, Jinming Shi, Xiaohong Wu, Eliso Kvavadze, Paul Goldberg, Shuangquan Zhang, Yue Zhang, Ofer Bar-Yosef
      Global cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) posed significant challenges to peoples living in northern Eurasia. Using micromorphology, pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP), and faunal analyses, this study reconstructs the local paleoenvironmental contexts of repeated ephemeral occupations at Shizitan 29 in Shanxi Province, North China, across the LGM, from ca. 28 to 18 Ka cal BP, followed by a gap until a final occupation ca.13.5 Ka cal BP. Among the significant finds at Shizitan 29 are remains of 285 hearths and a rich lithic assemblage that contains the earliest radiocarbon-dated evidence for microblades in China, appearing first in Layer 7. The environmental data show that the low mountains and tributary river valleys of the Yellow River in the Loess Plateau provided abundant sources of water and food in spite of environmental fluctuations. Microblade-producing groups repeatedly visiting this locality survived severe climate change by making use of fire, selective herbivore hunting, processing plant foods with grinding stones, and symbolic ornamentation such as ostrich shell beads. NPP data also indicate the potential presence of flax and other fiber processing. The Shizitan 29 data demonstrate how humans adapted to challenging local conditions throughout the LGM, allowing them to stay within this northerly region without migrating to warmer southern latitudes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Archaeological formation theory and geoarchaeology: State-of-the-art in
           2016
    • Authors: Ruth Shahack-Gross
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ruth Shahack-Gross
      Since the influential work of Michael B. Schiffer on formation processes has been published in 1987, much has advanced on the part of environmental formation processes also known as N-transforms. Most new knowledge is the result of research conducted by geoarchaeologists. On the theoretical level, a huge leap forward was made with the realization that occupation deposits are artifacts of human activity. The focus of formation theory thus shifted from the artifact to the deposit. Methodological innovations and a geoarchaeological tool-kit, notably including the contextual technique of micromorphology, followed. Empirical studies of archaeological occupation deposits contributed new spatial and stratigraphic knowledge and understanding. A holistic middle-range methodology termed geo-ethnoarchaeology was developed, whereby macroscopic and microscopic artifacts are studied together with their associated sediments in ethnographic contexts, providing contextual (social) information about the relationship between artifacts and the surrounding sediments as archaeological assemblages form. This method is especially powerful when sequentially dated abandoned settlements or features are studied to provide mechanistic understanding of assemblage and/or site formation through degradation. Because geo-ethnoarchaeology is based on general chemical, biological and physical laws, the resultant mechanistic models are applicable globally, for any time period, culture, and environment. The new tools and mechanistic understanding by which N-transforms are currently studied, provide means to more reliably interpret the archaeological record, which is crucial for the credibility of archaeology. Therefore, when studying archaeological assemblages one should utilize the tool-kit developed by geoarchaeologists to first assess the states of preservation of the various material assemblages (macroscopic and microscopic), as it should be borne in mind that assemblages identified to be well-preserved will produce the most reliable archaeological interpretation. The theory and method of geoarchaeology have matured enough to allow responsible archaeological research into the meaning of spatial and temporal (stratigraphic) patterns at any given site.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Are the intensities and durations of small-scale pottery firings
           sufficient to completely dehydroxylate clays? Testing a key assumption
           underlying ceramic rehydroxylation dating
    • Authors: Jonathan Paige; Kostalena Michelaki; Christopher Campisano; Michael Barton; Arjun Heimsath
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Jonathan Paige, Kostalena Michelaki, Christopher Campisano, Michael Barton, Arjun Heimsath
      Rehydroxylation (RHX) dating was recently suggested as a simple, cheap, and accurate method for dating ceramics. It depends on the constant rate of rehydroxylation (the slow reintroduction of OH) of clays after they are fired and dehydroxylated (purged of OH) during the production of pots, bricks, or other ceramics. The original firing of the ceramic artifact should set the dating clock to zero by driving all hydroxyls out of the clay chemical structure. To examine whether this assumption holds, especially for pot firings of short duration and low intensity, as those in small-scale traditional settings, we performed thermogravimetric analysis of clay samples of known mineralogy at temperatures and for durations reported from traditional sub-Saharan, American, and South Asian pottery firings. Results demonstrate that in the majority of samples, complete dehydroxylation (DHX) did not occur within, or even beyond, the conditions common in traditional firings. Consequently, between 0.01 and 1.5% of a sample's mass in residual OH may remain after firings analogous to those observed in the ethnographic record. Lack of complete DHX at the scales we have observed can result in the over-estimation of ceramic ages by decades to tens of thousands of years, depending largely on the age of the sample, and the amount of residual OH present. Thus, in many cases, a key assumption underlying current RHX dating methods is unlikely to have been met, introducing considerable error in dates.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • TaqMan qPCR pushes boundaries for the analysis of millennial wood
    • Authors: Javier Gómez-Zeledón; Wolfgang Grasse; Fabian Runge; Alexander Land; Otmar Spring
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Javier Gómez-Zeledón, Wolfgang Grasse, Fabian Runge, Alexander Land, Otmar Spring
      Millennial-old trees excavated from alluvial deposits or sampled from historical buildings are of high scientific value, e.g. for dating archeological wood as well as to reconstruct past climate variability. While chronologies are supported by isotopic measurements, climate reconstructions from year rings depend on reliable species identification and in some cases even specific populations should be differentiated. Such information could easily be provided by suitable DNA markers, given that DNA is available in appropriate amount and quality. Information from ancient DNA of wood remains is very scarce due to the difficulties in the extraction process, degradation of nucleic acids and the physical and chemical complexity of wood samples. We developed a new method to trace highly fragmented DNA by using a TaqMan qPCR assay, combined with a DNA extraction protocol specifically designed for wood. This approach resulted in a high rate of positive samples and provided sequence DNA information from subfossil oak wood up to 9000 years of age.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Heat impact and soil colors beneath hearths in northern Sweden
    • Authors: Lars Liedgren; Greger Hörnberg; Tord Magnusson; Lars Östlund
      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Lars Liedgren, Greger Hörnberg, Tord Magnusson, Lars Östlund
      The archaeological remains of Sami hearths in boreal and subarctic areas of northern Sweden are common finds. Greater understanding of the effects of heat on soil coloration will facilitate interpretation of the main purpose of these hearths, for example as heat sources or for cooking or other processing, and whether they were used seasonally for long or short periods of time. We therefore studied effects of heat on the coloration of natural B-horizons beneath traditional Sami hearths using three approaches: firing with dry pine wood in experimental hearths and measuring the temperature at various levels beneath the hearths; laboratory heating of B-horizon soils at different temperatures (200–900 °C) in a muffle oven and; measuring soil color changes in terms of RGB-values, and comparing the experimental results with soil profiles beneath real hearths used by nomadic Sami reindeer herders in northern Sweden. The study shows that the temperature reached beneath hearths strongly depends on the type of fuel used and the length of firing. The temperature can rise rapidly in upper layers of the soil but it takes considerable time for heat to penetrate 20 cm below the hearth surface. Our experimental firings, for 10 h on three consecutive days and for 72 consecutive hours, resulted in bowl-shaped areas of discoloration, with strong red coloration (rubification) towards the edges and dark grey/brown discoloration in the middle of the hearths in both tests. After laboratory heating, soil samples darkened during temperatures of 200–300 °C, and rubification at 250–350 °C depending on the amount of humus in the soil. The RGB analysis showed a steady increase in rubification from 300 °C, peaking at 750–800 °C. We believe that the rubification is caused mainly by transformation of iron compounds to maghemite and hematite and that the quantity of hematite is determined by temperature and not by time. Excavations of ancient hearths also revealed examples of bowl-shaped discoloration in B-horizons deeper than 20 cm. These discolorations had a rather uniform red tone with no dark areas. This suggests that the darker areas, probably colored by reduced iron and not by charred particles, could have been altered over time. The main conclusion is that rubification in B-horizons beneath hearths can arise after a relatively short period of firing but-bowl shaped areas of deep coloration can only arise, in boreal and subarctic areas, when hearths have been fired heavily and continuously for long periods of time, indicating winter use.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T16:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Movement of lithics by trampling: An experiment in the Madjedbebe
           sediments, northern Australia
    • Authors: Ben Marwick; Elspeth Hayes; Chris Clarkson; Richard Fullagar
      Pages: 73 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ben Marwick, Elspeth Hayes, Chris Clarkson, Richard Fullagar
      Understanding post-depositional movement of artefacts is vital to making reliable claims about the formation of archaeological deposits. Human trampling has long been recognised as a contributor to post-depositional artefact displacement. We investigate the degree to which artefact form (shape-and-size) attributes can predict how an artefact is moved by trampling. We use the Zingg classification system to describe artefact form. Our trampling substrate is the recently excavated archaeological deposits from Madjedbebe, northern Australia. Madjedbebe is an important site because it contains early evidence of human activity in Australia. The age of artefacts at Madjedbebe is contentious because of the possibility of artefacts moving due to trampling. We trampled artefacts in Madjedbebe sediments and measured their displacement, as well as modelling the movement of artefacts by computer simulation. Artefact elongation is a significant predictor of horizontal distance moved by trampling, and length, width, thickness and volume are significant predictors of the vertical distance. The explanatory power of these artefact variables is small, indicating that many other factors are also important in determining how an artefact moves during trampling. Our experiment indicates that trampling has not contributed to extensive downward displacement of artefacts at Madjedbebe.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T14:12:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • The digital radiography of archaeological pottery: Program and protocols
           for the analysis of production
    • Authors: A.F. Greene; C.W. Hartley; P.N. Doumani Dupuy; M. Chinander
      Pages: 120 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A.F. Greene, C.W. Hartley, P.N. Doumani Dupuy, M. Chinander
      Archaeologists collaborating with material scientists at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of the Making of Ancient Eurasia (MAE) Project have developed formal methodological standards for the assemblage-based digital radiographic (DR) analysis of archaeological pottery. While analog radiography of pottery (X-radiography, Xeroradiography, etc.) has functioned as a common disciplinary tool for some time, inaccessibility, obsolescence, and significantly enhanced functionality have made DR instrumentation increasingly attractive and vital. This article presents the theoretical underpinnings, technique development, and resultant protocols that allow digital radiography to analyze very large assemblages and provide quantitative data sets that act as true counterparts to geochemical and mineralogical ones. As a technique of structural pottery evaluation, DR is particularly suited to the analysis of ceramic paste preparation and vessel formation, providing lines of evidence that can flesh out neglected portions of the chaîne opératoire, augment existing geochemical or typological classifications, and help more deeply characterize various potting traditions. Such datasets are most useful to scholars interested in harnessing the ability of the pottery “life cycle” to shed light on economic life, learning frameworks, and human social differences and group identities. The technical capacities and analytical potential of DR are demonstrated through several test analyses of ancient Chinese pottery, to be followed by more extensive case studies in draft. Prospects for closely related, three-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic approaches are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Provenance of polychrome and colourless 8th–4th century BC glass from
           Pieria, Greece: A chemical and isotopic approach
    • Authors: A. Blomme; P. Degryse; E. Dotsika; D. Ignatiadou; A. Longinelli; A. Silvestri
      Pages: 134 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A. Blomme, P. Degryse, E. Dotsika, D. Ignatiadou, A. Longinelli, A. Silvestri
      Glass objects from Pydna and Methoni in modern-day Greece, dated to the eighth to fourth century BC, were chemically investigated. The combined use of multiple analytical techniques allowed the elemental and isotopic characterization of these polychrome and colourless glass artefacts in order to examine their provenance. All fragments were found to be soda-lime-silica natron-based glass produced from a rather pure silica-rich sand containing sea shells, and mixed with natron possibly coming from more than one source. Based on the strontium and neodymium isotopic signatures, most glass artefacts likely derive from a Syro-Palestinian production site although the exact location is unknown. Also the oxygen isotopic signature of most of the samples suggests the manufacturing of the artefacts from raw materials with a primary origin along the Syro-Palestinian coast. Nevertheless, the use of particular raw materials cannot be excluded for some artefacts, as some samples show enriched δ18O values pointing to a different glassmaking tradition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Zonkey: A simple, accurate and sensitive pipeline to genetically identify
           equine F1-hybrids in archaeological assemblages
    • Authors: Mikkel Schubert; Marjan Mashkour; Charleen Gaunitz; Antoine Fages; Andaine Seguin-Orlando; Shiva Sheikhi; Ahmed H. Alfarhan; Saleh A. Alquraishi; Khaled A.S. Al-Rasheid; Richard Chuang; Luca Ermini; Cristina Gamba; Jaco Weinstock; Onar Vedat; Ludovic Orlando
      Pages: 147 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Mikkel Schubert, Marjan Mashkour, Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Shiva Sheikhi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Saleh A. Alquraishi, Khaled A.S. Al-Rasheid, Richard Chuang, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Jaco Weinstock, Onar Vedat, Ludovic Orlando
      Horses, asses and zebras, can produce first-generation F1-hybrids, despite their striking karyotypic and phenotypic differences. Such F1-hybrids are mostly infertile, but often present characters of considerable interest to breeders. They were extremely valued in antiquity, and commonly represented in art and on coinage. However, hybrids appear relatively rarely in archaeological faunal assemblages, mostly because identification based on morphometric data alone is extremely difficult. Here, we developed a methodological framework that exploits high-throughput sequencing data retrieved from archaeological material to identify F1-equine hybrids. Our computational methodology is distributed in the open-source Zonkey pipeline, now part of PALEOMIX (https://github.com/MikkelSchubert/paleomix), together with full documentation and examples. Using both synthetic and real sequence datasets, from living and ancient F1-hybrids, we find that Zonkey shows high sensitivity and specificity, even with limited sequencing efforts. Zonkey is thus well suited to the identification of equine F1-hybrids in the archaeological record, even in cases where DNA preservation is limited. Zonkey can also help determine the sex of ancient animals, and allows species identification, which advantageously complements morphological data in cases where material is fragmentary and/or multiple candidate equine species coexisted in sympatry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Developing FTIR microspectroscopy for analysis of plant residues on stone
           tools
    • Authors: Gilliane Monnier; Ellery Frahm; Bing Luo; Kele Missal
      Pages: 158 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Gilliane Monnier, Ellery Frahm, Bing Luo, Kele Missal
      The analysis of residues on stone tools can yield important insights into the tool-using behaviors of Paleolithic hominins. The ambiguity of residue identifications using visible-light microscopy (VLM) has led to the development of additional techniques for their characterization. Reflectance-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) is a technique with great potential to aid in non-destructive residue identifications. Recent applications of the technique, however, have been hampered by methodological challenges, causing the infrared signals to be dominated by the stone rather than the residues. We address this problem by systematically testing the limits of FTIRM on five categories of experimental plant residues (wood bark, wood pith, grass leaves, starch, and resin). We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain FTIRM spectra of in situ plant residues wherein the effect of the stone is virtually eliminated. We also generate reflectance FTIRM spectral standards for each plant residue investigated and provide peak assignments for the major peaks in all spectra. The sensitivity of the technique means that slight differences in sample preparation can result in spectral differences as well. This means that archaeological application of the technique will require (1) careful, peak-by-peak analyses of the results, (2) extensive spectral libraries, and (3) research into the effects of decomposition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • The identification of poultry processing in archaeological ceramic vessels
           using in-situ isotope references for organic residue analysis
    • Authors: A.C. Colonese; A. Lucquin; E.P. Guedes; R. Thomas; J. Best; B.T. Fothergill; N. Sykes; A. Foster; H. Miller; K. Poole; M. Maltby; M. Von Tersch; O.E. Craig
      Pages: 179 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A.C. Colonese, A. Lucquin, E.P. Guedes, R. Thomas, J. Best, B.T. Fothergill, N. Sykes, A. Foster, H. Miller, K. Poole, M. Maltby, M. Von Tersch, O.E. Craig
      Poultry products are rarely considered when reconstructing pottery use through organic residue analysis, impinging upon our understanding of the changing role of these animals in the past. Here we evaluate an isotopic approach for distinguishing chicken fats from other animal products. We compare the carbon isotopes of fatty acids extracted from modern tissues and archaeological bones and demonstrate that archaeological bones from contexts associated with pottery provide suitable reference ranges for distinguishing omnivorous animal products (e.g. pigs vs. chickens) in pots. When applied to pottery from the Anglo-Saxon site of Flixborough, England, we succeeded in identifying residues derived from chicken fats that otherwise could not be distinguished from other monogastric and ruminant animals using modern reference values only. This provides the first direct evidence for the processing of poultry or their products in pottery. The results highlight the utility of ‘in-situ’ archaeological bone lipids to identify omnivorous animal-derived lipids in archaeological ceramic vessels.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Buried in ashes: Site formation processes at Lapa do Santo rockshelter,
           east-central Brazil
    • Authors: Ximena S. Villagran; André Strauss; Christopher Miller; Bertrand Ligouis; Rodrigo Oliveira
      Pages: 10 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Ximena S. Villagran, André Strauss, Christopher Miller, Bertrand Ligouis, Rodrigo Oliveira
      Few archaeological sites in the Americas contain high concentrations of human burials dating back to the early Holocene. The tropical karstic region of Lagoa Santa, in central Brazil (state of Minas Gerais) is one of the richest bioanthropological records available to study the behaviors and funerary practices of early Holocene South Americans, with more than 200 skeletons found so far. One of the key locations to examine the history of human settlement in Lagoa Santa is the site of Lapa do Santo, a rockshelter known to contain the oldest rock art and the earliest evidence of funerary complexity in the continent. In this geoarchaeological investigation we focus on the early Holocene settlement at Lapa do Santo (7.9–12.7 cal kyBP) applying high-resolution geoarchaeological techniques, such as micromorphology, organic petrology and μFTIR, on both archaeological, modern reference and experimental samples. This is the first time that a micro-contextual approach integrated with experimental geoarchaeology has been applied to study the formation of rockshelter deposits in a tropical setting. Our results show that the stratigraphic sequence formed under the dual influence of anthropogenic sedimentation—through continuous combustion activities—and geogenic sedimentation in the form of oxisol aggregates which fell from above the limestone cliff into the rockshelter. Intact hearths and remobilized combustion debris, possibly hearth rake-out, are close to the graves suggesting repeated burning activities as part of the ritual behavior of early Holocene South Americans. Large amounts of ash are intermixed with heated and unheated oxisol aggregates. Heated termite mound fragments were also found mixed within the sediments. Post-depositional alteration of the site includes limited bioturbation and localized, low energy surface water and sub-surface concentrations of moisture, leading to precipitation of dense, secondary carbonates. The age inversions can be attributed to the human action of reworking the ashy sediments and not to post-abandonment processes. Despite this, the overall preservation of the sediments is good and most human burials can be considered to be in primary context.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Marco Gonzalez, Ambergris Caye, Belize: A geoarchaeological record of
           ground raising associated with surface soil formation and the presence of
           a Dark Earth
    • Authors: Richard I. Macphail; Elizabeth Graham; John Crowther; Simon Turner
      Pages: 35 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Richard I. Macphail, Elizabeth Graham, John Crowther, Simon Turner
      Marco Gonzalez, on the south-west end of the island of Ambergris Caye, Belize, has well-preserved Maya archaeological stratigraphy dating from Preclassic times (ca. 300 B.C.) to the Late Classic period (ca. A.D. 550/600 to 700/760). Although later occupations are recorded by house platforms and inhumations (Terminal Classic to Early Postclassic), and use of the site continued until the 16th century A.D., intact stratigraphy is rare in these cases owing to a greater degree of disturbance. Nonetheless, understanding site formation entails accounting for all processes, including disturbance. The site’s depositional sequence—as revealed through soil micromorphology and chemistry and detailed here—has yielded critical information in two spheres of research. As regards archaeology and the elucidation of Maya activities on the caye over time, soil micromorphology has contributed beyond measure to what we have been able to distinguish as material remains of cultural activity. Detailed descriptions of the nature of the material remains has in turn helped us to clarify or alter interpretations based on artefacts that have been identified or sediments characterised according to traditional recovery techniques. The other major sphere in which soil micromorphology and chemistry play a critical role is in assessment of the environmental impact of human activity, which enables us to construct and test hypotheses concerning how the site formed over time; what materials and elements contributed to the character of the sediments, especially in the formation of a specific Maya Dark Earth type that is developed from carbonate rich deposits; and how the modern surface soils acquired the appearance of a Dark Earth, but essentially differ from them. In terms of agricultural soil sustainability, the Marco Gonzalez surface soil is neo-formed by a woodland vegetation drawing upon the nutrients and constituents present in both the Dark Earth and underlying better preserved stratified deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Geoarchaeology of urban space in tropical island environments: Songo
           Mnara, Tanzania
    • Authors: Federica Sulas; Jeffrey Fleisher; Stephanie Wynne-Jones
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Federica Sulas, Jeffrey Fleisher, Stephanie Wynne-Jones
      Past urban settlements in tropical island environments offer particularly challenging sites for mainstream archaeology. Often associated with shallow stratigraphic sequences, archaeological sediments and soils in these sites are strongly influenced by local geology and seawater. This study discusses the advantages and challenges of developing an integrated geoarchaeological programme to examine the use of space at the Swahili stonetown of Songo Mnara Island, Tanzania. This exceptionally well preserved site, occupied for less than two centuries (C14th–16th AD), comprises a complex urban layout with stone-built houses, wattle-and-daub structures, funerary complexes, activity areas such as wells, and open areas. The programme has combined geoarchaeological (soil macro- and micromorphology, ICP-AES, pH, EC), geophysical (magnetic susceptibility) and archaeological (large excavations, test trenches, artefact distribution mapping) techniques to investigate the use of space across different contexts. Initial geoarchaeological prospection and opportunistic soil sampling have allowed framing of the island’s environmental settings and archaeological deposits as well as outlining open spaces in between buildings. Subsequent research applied a systematic sampling strategy to map geochemical and artefact distributions in conjunction with context-specific soil micromorphology. The results provide a means to map out the impact of occupation across the site as well as to differentiate between open, roofed and unroofed spaces. ICP-AES results, for example, demonstrate that measurements of Ca, Mg, P, S and Sr levels can help discriminate occupation/activity areas in tropical island environments. They also indicate that the depletion of certain elements (e.g. Na, K, and Ni) should be considered as a means of differentiating between roofed and unroofed spaces. The combination of different methodologies demonstrates the importance of addressing discrepancies as well as correlations between multiple datasets for deciphering features within urban spaces in tropical environments and interpreting ancient activities that occurred within them.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Approaches to Middle Stone Age landscape archaeology in tropical Africa
    • Authors: David K. Wright; Jessica C. Thompson; Flora Schilt; Andrew S. Cohen; Jeong-Heon Choi; Julio Mercader; Sheila Nightingale; Christopher E. Miller; Susan M. Mentzer; Dale Walde; Menno Welling; Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): David K. Wright, Jessica C. Thompson, Flora Schilt, Andrew S. Cohen, Jeong-Heon Choi, Julio Mercader, Sheila Nightingale, Christopher E. Miller, Susan M. Mentzer, Dale Walde, Menno Welling, Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu
      The Southern Montane Forest-Grassland mosaic ecosystem in the humid subtropics southern Rift Valley of Africa comprised the environmental context for a large area in which modern human evolution and dispersal occurred. Variable climatic conditions during the Late Pleistocene have ranged between humid and hyperarid, changing the character of the ecosystem and transforming it at different points in time into a barrier, a refuge, and a corridor between southern and eastern African populations. Alluvial fans presently blanket the areas adjacent to major river systems, which were key areas of prehistoric human habitation. These sets of variables have created conditions that are both challenging and advantageous to conduct archaeological research. Lateritic soil development has resulted in poor organic preservation and facilitated insect bioturbation, which has demanded an integrated micro-macro scale approach to building a reliable geochronology. An integrated field and analytical methodology has also been employed to identify the nature and degree of post-depositional movement in alluvial deposits, which preserve a wide range of spatial integrity levels in buried stone artifact assemblages between 47 and 30 ka in Karonga, northern Malawi. This paper describes the methodological advances taken toward understanding open-air Middle Stone Age archaeology in sub-tropical Africa, and explores the inferential potential for understanding Pleistocene human ecology in the important southern Rift Valley region.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • The geoarchaeology of hominin dispersals to and from tropical Southeast
           Asia: A review and prognosis
    • Authors: Mike W. Morley
      Pages: 78 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley
      Tropical Southeast Asia is a critically important region for addressing the major questions and grand challenges that concern us today regarding Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals across the Old World. Geoarchaeological science is widely employed in many regions of the world to contextualise archaeological material and provide an environmental backdrop against which to explore archaeological narratives. However, in Southeast Asia there is an apparent lag in the routine use of this Earth-Science approach despite the abundance of archaeological sites important in explicating past hominin dispersals to and from the region. In this review of the state-of-the-art of geoarchaeological research in Southeast Asia, I examine the role of the discipline in addressing the important issues in archaeology today. I identify where geoarchaeology is being used and to what effect, highlighting gaps in the geoarchaeological dataset. From a methodological point of view it is imperative that archaeologists and geoarchaeologists working in Southeast Asia (and other humid tropical regions of the world) fully appreciate how to interpret the geoarchaeological signatures associated with this climate regime so that methods and practice can be refined. A series of steps that will serve to drive forward geoarchaeological research in the region are also proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Post-depositional alteration of humid tropical cave sediments:
           Micromorphological research in the Great Cave of Niah, Sarawak, Borneo
    • Authors: M. Stephens; J. Rose; D.D. Gilbertson
      Pages: 109 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): M. Stephens, J. Rose, D.D. Gilbertson
      The post-depositional alteration of cave sediments is of critical importance for the recognition, identification and investigation of geoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence. There have been relatively few studies of tropical cave sediments using micromorphology and this work represents one of the most detailed with 26 samples taken from deposits in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of Niah that cover the last >∼55,000 BP, and contain the earliest known evidence for the remains of modern humans in Southeast Asia. Cave sediments situated in the humid tropics are subject to relatively high temperatures and moisture conditions that promote high rates of chemical alteration and geomorphic change. This paper outlines those post-depositional features that occurred in situ in the West Mouth and include: translocation and concentration; bioturbation; excrement; bone alteration; plant alteration; clast alteration and guano decomposition. It examines their implications for recognising past human activities (e.g. fire-altered materials), the preservation of archaeological remains, the nature of palaeoenvironments and of localised physical and bio-geochemical processes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Initial micromorphological results from Liang Bua, Flores (Indonesia):
           Site formation processes and hominin activities at the type locality of
           Homo floresiensis
    • Authors: Mike W. Morley; Paul Goldberg; Thomas Sutikna; Matthew W. Tocheri; Linda C. Prinsloo; Jatmiko; E. Wahyu Saptomo; Sri Wasisto; Richard G. Roberts
      Pages: 125 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg, Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, Linda C. Prinsloo, Jatmiko, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Sri Wasisto, Richard G. Roberts
      Liang Bua, a karstic cave located on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, is best known for yielding the holotype of the diminutive hominin Homo floresiensis from Late Pleistocene sediments. Modern human remains have also been recovered from the Holocene deposits, and abundant archaeological and faunal remains occur throughout the sequence. The cave, the catchment in which it is located and the gross aggradational phases of the sediment sequence have all been subject to a great deal of scientific scrutiny since the discovery of the holotype of H. floresiensis in 2003. A recent program of geoarchaeological research has extended analyses of the site’s deposits to the microstratigraphic (micromorphological) level. The stratigraphic sequence in the cave is well defined but complex, comprising interstratified sediments of diverse lithologies and polygenetic origins, including volcanic tephras, fine-grained colluvium, coarse autogenic limestone gravels, speleothems and anthropogenic sediments, such as combustion features. The sedimentological and chemical heterogeneity suggest that processes of site formation and diagenesis varied markedly through time, both laterally and vertically. We present initial results from samples collected in 2014 from an excavation area near the rear of the cave, which yielded radiocarbon ages from charcoal that fill an important temporal gap in the chrono-stratigraphic sequence of previously excavated areas of the site. The results indicate marked changes in site environment and hominin activity during the Late Pleistocene, relating primarily to the degree to which the cave was connected to the hydrogeological system and to the varying intensities of use of the cave by hominins. Importantly, we identify anthropogenic signs of fire-use at the site between 41 and 24 thousand years ago, most likely related to the presence of modern humans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Cave stratigraphies and cave breccias: Implications for sediment
           accumulation and removal models and interpreting the record of human
           occupation
    • Authors: Sue O’Connor; Anthony Barham; Ken Aplin; Tim Maloney
      Pages: 143 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Sue O’Connor, Anthony Barham, Ken Aplin, Tim Maloney
      Many of the key debates in archaeology hinge on the chronology and interpretation of data gathered from cave and rockshelter stratigraphies, especially those in karstic limestone environments which are selectively targeted by archaeologists because of their superior preservation characteristics. It has long been recognized that such sites often contain a variety of cemented deposits including cave breccias and that some breccias contain anthropogenic inclusions such as stone artefacts, shell and burnt animal bones. Cementation enhances the survival through time of such brecciated deposits. This can result in chrono-stratigraphic intervals surviving on cave walls and speleothems that are no longer represented in the stratigraphy of cave floors. This has important implications for understanding apparent presence/absence of human occupation and cultural continuity as seen in archaeo-stratigraphy in caves and rockshelters, especially in relation to human migration in the humid tropics in SE Asia and the Pacific, and over Pleistocene to Holocene timescales. Here we discuss localized breccia formation, the erosional processes that leave remnant deposits adhering to walls and speleothems at heights well above current cave floors, and the possible significance of local and regional processes, especially changing base levels, in triggering gutting out phases impacting cave floor sediment architectures. Equally significant in terms of chronological completeness, representativeness and bias is the contribution made by cultural materials encased in older breccias as they erode and are (re-)incorporated into younger accumulating cultural deposits. Case studies from cave sites in Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste are used to illustrate these issues.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Sediments or soils? Multi-scale geoarchaeological investigations of
           stratigraphy and early cultivation practices at Kuk Swamp, highlands of
           Papua New Guinea
    • Authors: Tim Denham; Elle Grono
      Pages: 160 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Tim Denham, Elle Grono
      Kuk Swamp is a globally significant archaeological site of early agriculture in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mixed-method and multi-scalar investigations of the stratigraphy and selected feature fills at Kuk were instrumental in determining the character of plant exploitation and agricultural practices there during the early and mid Holocene. In this paper, macro-scale (field recording), meso-scale (X-radiography) and micro-scale (thin section micromorphology) analyses are presented in summary form for a stratigraphic column, as well as for a palaeochannel and palaeosurfaces associated with plant exploitation at c.10,000 cal BP and cultivation at 7000–6400 cal BP. Major and minor stratigraphic units have been characterised, primary and secondary formation processes differentiated, and the anthropic associations of specific stratigraphic units determined, especially in regards to cultivation. The Kuk research highlights several methodological problems with the investigation of early cultivation on allophane-rich soils in tropical environments.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Settling in Sahul: Investigating environmental and human history
           interactions through micromorphological analyses in tropical semi-arid
           north-west Australia
    • Authors: Dorcas Vannieuwenhuyse; Sue O'Connor; Jane Balme
      Pages: 172 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Dorcas Vannieuwenhuyse, Sue O'Connor, Jane Balme
      The Pleistocene continent of Sahul was first settled by people who arrived by watercraft from Island South East Asia about 50,000 years ago. Some of the oldest archaeological sites in Sahul are located in the southern Kimberley, in northwest Australia. This area lies within the southern zone of influence of the tropical monsoon and thus has always been highly sensitive to changes in monsoon dynamics over time. How these climatic changes have affected the colonisation and occupation of Australia is an important research theme in Australian archaeology. This paper illustrates the contribution and challenges of micromorphology in deciphering palaeoenvironmental and anthropogenic markers in a still largely unexplored Australian context. Micromorphological analysis of two archaeological sequences in the Napier Range (Carpenters Gap 1 and 3) provides a complementary and comprehensive reconstruction of the human-climate history in this area spanning nearly 50,000 years of Australian human presence. The results demonstrate an opportunistic use of sites by people through time, surprisingly independent of local climatic variation, suggesting highly flexible subsistence strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
       
  • Preparing the foundation for stable gilding: Baroque craftsmen's empirical
           understanding of gesso gilding grounds
    • Authors: Isabel Pombo Cardoso; Elizabeth Pye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Isabel Pombo Cardoso, Elizabeth Pye
      This paper is the fourth in a series covering Portuguese gesso gilding grounds from the late 13th to the 18th century, but with a special focus on the Baroque period when gilded surfaces played an important religious, political and social role in Portugal. This fourth paper concentrates on unravelling the motives of the craftsmen who chose to produce grounds for gilded surfaces using very specific materials and techniques: gypsum, as the raw material, and a double-structured layered system. It seems plausible that the properties of this type of ground, the religious and social importance and the function of the gilded objects, cultural influences from southern European, and the particular Portuguese historical context all contributed to this choice. This paper aims to contribute to enrich understanding of gilding technology and to inform conservation decision-making for the preservation of these gilded objects.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T14:12:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.015
       
  • Preparing the foundation for stable gilding: Scientific evaluation of the
           durability of Baroque gesso gilding grounds
    • Authors: Isabel Pombo Cardoso; Elizabeth Pye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Isabel Pombo Cardoso, Elizabeth Pye
      This paper follows two earlier papers about Portuguese gesso gilding grounds, a typical decoration from the 13th to the 18th century but with a special focus on the Baroque period. It concentrates on understanding the reasons why these gilded surfaces are so durable. The main concerns of the people involved in the production of the gilded surfaces, as revealed in contemporary historical documents, are the quality and durability of the decorations. The investigation of ‘durability’ involved the study of factors not explored before regarding materials and practices commonly used to produce gilded wooden surfaces in South Europe. The paper discusses the probable effects on durability of loading a binder with a filler, of the shape and size of the filler particles, of the interaction of filler and binder, and of using a multi-layered system; it discusses the science underlying the use and behaviour of particular gilding materials and practices. This paper is followed by a second paper focused on technological choices. Together they aim to contribute to understanding why Portuguese gilders clearly chose double-structured gesso grounds in preference to other possibilities, and to aid on conservation decision-making and the design of new strategies for the treatment and preservation of these historical gilded surfaces.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T16:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.014
       
  • Niche construction and optimal foraging theory in Neotropical agricultural
           origins: A re-evaluation in consideration of the empirical evidence
    • Authors: Dolores R. Piperno; Anthony J. Ranere; Ruth Dickau; Francisco Aceituno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno, Anthony J. Ranere, Ruth Dickau, Francisco Aceituno
      The various theoretical approaches advanced over the past 50 years to explain the origins of agriculture have prompted much discussion and debate. Most recently, controversy has arisen concerning the utility of two Darwinian approaches; namely, cultural niche construction (CNC) and human behavioral ecology-derived optimal foraging theory (OFT). Recent papers advocate for the primacy of cultural niche construction, calling for optimal foraging approaches to be all but disregarded in the quest to explain how and why foragers became farmers (Smith, 2015, 2016; Zeder, 2015, 2016). In particular, it is claimed that archaeological, paleo-environmental, and paleontological evidence from the Neotropics of northern South America fail to meet predictions derived from OFT theory, while predictions said to be derived from CNC-based approaches are supported (Smith, 2015, 2016; Zeder, 2015). However, a number of misreadings of the northern South America evidence are made in those discussions, while some pertinent literature is not considered. In this paper we discuss these misreadings and provide a clear re-articulation of the original data and interpretations, finding support for OFT predictions. Our re-evaluations of OFT and CNC further suggest they can, in fact, be complimentary explanatory approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.001
       
  • Palaeolithic and prehistoric dogs and Pleistocene wolves from Yakutia:
           Identification of isolated skulls
    • Authors: Mietje Germonpré; Sergey Fedorov; Petr Danilov; Patrik Galeta; Elodie-Laure Jimenez; Mikhail Sablin; Robert J. Losey
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Mietje Germonpré, Sergey Fedorov, Petr Danilov, Patrik Galeta, Elodie-Laure Jimenez, Mikhail Sablin, Robert J. Losey
      Four isolated canid skulls from four sites (Badyarikha River, Tirekhtyakh River, Ulakhan Sular, Malyi Lyakhovsky Island) in the Sakha Republic of northern Siberia are here described. Three specimens date from the Pleistocene and range in age from more than 50,000 years to about 17,200 years old, the fourth specimen is about 950 years old. The Yakutian canid skulls are compared with Palaeolithic dogs, recent Northern dogs, Pleistocene wolves and recent Northern wolves by multivariate analyses of standardised cranial measurements in order to determine with which reference group they have the closest affinity. These analyses permitted to identify the Tirekhtyakh River specimen as a Pleistocene wolf. The Ulakhan Sular specimen resembles the Palaeolithic dogs and the Malyi Lyakhvosky specimen the recent Northern dogs. The Badyarikha River skull falls in between groups. The archaeological implications of the presence of ancient canid specimens resembling Palaeolithic and early dogs in arctic northeast Asia are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave
           (El Hierro, Canary Islands)
    • Authors: Alejandra C. Ordóñez; R. Fregel; A. Trujillo-Mederos; Montserrat Hervella; Concepción de-la-Rúa; Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Alejandra C. Ordóñez, R. Fregel, A. Trujillo-Mederos, Montserrat Hervella, Concepción de-la-Rúa, Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      The aim of this study was to establish the genetic studies of the population from one of the most important known aboriginal funerary spaces of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands), the Punta Azul cave, which harbors remains of 127 individuals. Sixty-one adult tibiae were examined, 32 left and 29 right. Radiocarbon dating yields an antiquity of 1015–1210 AD. We have obtained an overall success rate of 88.5% for the molecular sexing, and of 90.16% for the uniparental markers. Short tandem repeats (STR) profiles were also possible for 45.9% of the samples. This performance is a consequence of the good conservation of the bones in their archaeological context. The mtDNA composition of the sample is characterized by the complete fixation of the H1-16260 lineage. These results can be explained by a mixture of consecutive founding events, a bottleneck episode at the beginning of the colonization and/or as a consequence of genetic drift. Paternal lineages were also affected by these processes but in a less acute way. These differences lead us to propose social behaviors as an explanation for this difference. The maternal transmission of the lineages, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources of the Archipelago, could be an explanation. These results could be in agreement with endogamous practices, but the autosomal STR results indicate a relative high diversity. These results have allowed us to characterize the Punta Azul cave population and see the way in which geographical isolation, the process of adaptation and specific social behaviors affected the aboriginal population of the Island.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Hemorrhagic fever virus, human blood, and tissues in Iron Age mortuary
           vessels
    • Authors: Conner J. Wiktorowicz; Bettina Arnold; John E. Wiktorowicz; Matthew L. Murray; Alexander Kurosky
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Conner J. Wiktorowicz, Bettina Arnold, John E. Wiktorowicz, Matthew L. Murray, Alexander Kurosky
      This study identifies and interprets the proteins present on sherds from six ceramic mortuary vessels from a burial mound near the Heuneburg, an early Iron Age (750–400 BCE) hillfort in southwest Germany, using a novel adaptation of proteomic analysis that identified 166 proteins with high confidence. Surprisingly, among the identified proteins were peptides from Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a pathogen previously unknown in this geographic region and time period, as well as peptides from human blood and tissues. These results highlight the first example of a viral cause of death of at least one high-status individual from the Iron Age west-central Europe and provide the first archaeological evidence for the interment of human organs in mortuary vessels in the region. We also demonstrate the suitability and value of a proteomics approach for discovery-based residue analysis of archaeological ceramic vessels and reveal how identification of adsorbed proteins can provide insight into prehistoric mortuary practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Least cost path analysis of early maritime movement on the Pacific
           Northwest Coast
    • Authors: Robert Gustas; Kisha Supernant
      Pages: 40 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Robert Gustas, Kisha Supernant
      In this paper, we present a new method for modeling past maritime movement events using least cost path analysis. Nontraditional measures of movement cost, including cultural, environmental, and physiological variables, were calculated. Using multiple cost-weighting scenarios, spatial resolutions, and different considerations of overland travel, movement routes were predicted for five Pacific Northwest Coast study areas. This work uses a new application of least cost path analysis to seascapes and marine movement and the results have led to a better understanding of migration during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The resulting routes were systematically analyzed and compared to determine which produced the results most likely to predict high-use coastal movement corridors. We found that modeling scenarios where culturally derived costs of movement were highly weighted and in which overland travel was very costly produced the best predictions of possible past movement events. These models show that predicted routes cluster in distinct patterns which are influenced by the geography of the seascape through which the movement event is taking place and that areas of high traffic are most likely to be located immediately offshore and to the south of islands as well as in the spaces between landmasses. This knowledge increases our ability to predict the location of drowned sites on the Northwest Coast and is important in contemporary archaeology because it can help locate new sites in a landscape that has radically changed over the last 20,000 years. GIS analysis can reveal new sites hidden by changing sea levels, which may not be easily located using traditional forms of site prospection. Accurate modeling of maritime movement opens many coastal areas to increased archaeological exploration and has the potential for the discovery of new sites in drowned locations.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • A new method for extracting the insoluble occluded carbon in
           archaeological and modern phytoliths: Detection of 14C depleted carbon
           fraction and implications for radiocarbon dating
    • Authors: Yotam Asscher; Steve Weiner; Elisabetta Boaretto
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Yotam Asscher, Steve Weiner, Elisabetta Boaretto
      Phytolith-rich layers in archaeological sites constitute well defined stratigraphic horizons that would be invaluable if absolutely dated. Previous attempts to radiocarbon date phytoliths produced inconsistent results using plants with known ages. In this study a new approach to extract and analyze the silica occluded carbon was tested on well-dated archaeological contexts in Beth Shemesh and Tell es-Safi/Gath, and on modern wheat plants that grew in a controlled environment. Results show that by dissolving the silica using mild conditions, phytolith insoluble fractions can be extracted and their radiocarbon contents analyzed reproducibly. After phytolith dissolution, the remaining insoluble fractions with 10–30%C have radiocarbon concentrations that are statistically similar to associated charred seeds (within 2σ), and insoluble fractions with 40%C show concentrations that are identical to the seeds. These results show that the insoluble fraction of phytoliths is a suitable material for answering chronological questions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Optically-stimulated luminescence profiling and dating of historic
           agricultural terraces in Catalonia (Spain)
    • Authors: Tim Kinnaird; Jordi Bolòs; Alex Turner; Sam Turner
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Tim Kinnaird, Jordi Bolòs, Alex Turner, Sam Turner
      Dating agricultural terraces is a notoriously difficult problem for archaeologists. The frequent occurrence of residual material in terrace soils and the potential for post-depositional disturbance mean that conventional artefactual and lab-based dating methods often provide unreliable dates. In this paper we present a new technique using luminescence field profiling coupled with OSL dating to produce complete (relative) sequences of dates for sedimentary stratigraphies associated with agricultural terraces and earthworks. The method is demonstrated through a series of case-studies in western Catalonia, Spain, in which we reconstruct the formation sequence of earthwork features from the Middle Ages through to the present day. OSL profiling at the time of archaeological survey and excavation permitted spatially and temporally resolved sediment ‘chronologies’ to be generated, and provides the means to interpret the environmental and cultural archives contained in each. The case-studies presented here show that luminescence approaches are a valuable tool to reconstruct landscape histories.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T20:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Farmer fidelity in the Canary Islands revealed by ancient DNA from
           prehistoric seeds
    • Authors: Jenny Hagenblad; Jacob Morales; Matti W. Leino; Amelia C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jenny Hagenblad, Jacob Morales, Matti W. Leino, Amelia C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
      The Canary Islands were settled in the first millennium AD by colonizers likely originating from North Africa. The settlers developed a farming economy with barley as the main crop. Archaeological evidence suggests the islands then remained isolated until European sea-travellers discovered and colonized them during the 14th and 15th centuries. Here we report a population study of ancient DNA from twenty-one archaeobotanical barley grains from Gran Canaria dating from 1050 to 1440 cal AD. The material showed exceptional DNA preservation and genotyping was carried out for 99 single nucleotide markers. In addition 101 extant landrace accessions from the Canary Islands and the western Mediterranean were genotyped. The archaeological material showed high genetic similarity to extant landraces from the Canary Islands. In contrast, accessions from the Canary Islands were highly differentiated from both Iberian and North African mainland barley. Within the Canary Islands, landraces from the easternmost islands were genetically differentiated from landraces from the western islands, corroborating the presence of pre-Hispanic barley cultivation on Lanzarote. The results demonstrate the potential of population genetic analyses of ancient DNA. They support the hypothesis of an original colonization, possibly from present day Morocco, and subsequent isolation of the islands and reveal a farmer fidelity to the local barley that has lasted for centuries.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T02:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Identifying domestic horses, donkeys and hybrids from archaeological
           deposits: A 3D morphological investigation on skeletons
    • Authors: Pauline Hanot; Claude Guintard; Sébastien Lepetz; Raphaël Cornette
      Pages: 88 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Pauline Hanot, Claude Guintard, Sébastien Lepetz, Raphaël Cornette
      The first evidence for the domestication of donkeys (Equus asinus) dates back to at least 6000-5000 BP in Northeast Africa, and their dispersion is attributed to the ancient Romans. Latin authors described donkeys as being particularly suitable for the transport of goods and farm work. In addition, they were also bred to produce prized hybrids, particularly mules, which were perfectly adapted to the long-distance transport of people and goods. However, although the historical sources extensively describe their economic importance, both donkey and hybrid remains are surprisingly scarce in the archaeological record. This apparent contradiction is probably due to the difficulties involved in correctly identifying their bones: relatively few bones displaying morphological and metrical criteria can be used for identification, so it is often based purely on bone size. The aim of this study, therefore, is to propose solutions to identify domestic equid bones using 3D geometric morphometrics on isolated and combinations of anatomical elements. A set of 3D coordinates were registered on the 18 main skull and limb bones of 111 modern reference specimens (i.e. 42 horses, 44 donkeys and 25 hybrids). In this paper, we present the classification rate obtained on this reference sample using the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm. The application of this method on archaeological skeletons from Roman to modern sites is also presented. The percentage of correctly classified specimens was between 77% and 95% for all 18 bones, and higher than 80% for 10 of the fragmentation patterns we defined. Using a combination of several bones enabled us to increase the rate of correct reclassification to a maximum of 97%. The application to archaeological skeletons proved the ability of this method to identify domestic horses and donkeys from archaeological samples. Correspondingly, some bones, and especially combinations of bones, provided good rates to identify hybrids. This method has proved reliable in detecting the presence of donkeys and hybrids from the archaeological samples of equid bones, and should enrich our knowledge regarding their spread across Europe.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Facilitating tree-ring dating of historic conifer timbers using Blue
           Intensity
    • Authors: Rob Wilson; David Wilson; Miloš Rydval; Anne Crone; Ulf Büntgen; Sylvie Clark; Janet Ehmer; Emma Forbes; Mauricio Fuentes; Björn E. Gunnarson; Hans W. Linderholm; Kurt Nicolussi; Cheryl Wood; Coralie Mills
      Pages: 99 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Rob Wilson, David Wilson, Miloš Rydval, Anne Crone, Ulf Büntgen, Sylvie Clark, Janet Ehmer, Emma Forbes, Mauricio Fuentes, Björn E. Gunnarson, Hans W. Linderholm, Kurt Nicolussi, Cheryl Wood, Coralie Mills
      Dendroarchaeology almost exclusively uses ring-width (RW) data for dating historical structures and artefacts. Such data can be used to date tree-ring sequences when regional climate dominates RW variability. However, the signal in RW data can be obscured due to site specific ecological influences (natural and anthropogenic) that impact crossdating success. In this paper, using data from Scotland, we introduce a novel tree-ring parameter (Blue Intensity – BI) and explore its utility for facilitating dendro-historical dating of conifer samples. BI is similar to latewood density as they both reflect the combined hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content in the latewood cell walls of conifer species and the amount of these compounds is strongly controlled, at least for trees growing in temperature limited locations, by late summer temperatures. BI not only expresses a strong climate signal, but is also less impacted by site specific ecological influences. It can be concurrently produced with RW data from images of finely sanded conifer samples but at a significantly reduced cost compared to traditional latewood density. Our study shows that the probability of successfully crossdating historical samples is greatly increased using BI compared to RW. Furthermore, due to the large spatial extent of the summer temperature signal expressed by such data, a sparse multi-species conifer network of long BI chronologies across Europe could be used to date and loosely provenance imported material.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • The adoption of pottery by north-east European hunter-gatherers: Evidence
           from lipid residue analysis
    • Authors: Ester Oras; Alexandre Lucquin; Lembi Lõugas; Mari Tõrv; Aivar Kriiska; Oliver E. Craig
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Ester Oras, Alexandre Lucquin, Lembi Lõugas, Mari Tõrv, Aivar Kriiska, Oliver E. Craig
      Pottery was adopted by hunter-gatherers in the Eastern Baltic at the end of the 6th millennium cal BC. To examine the motivations for this cultural and technological shift, here we report the organic residue analysis of ceramic vessels from the earliest pottery horizon (Narva) in this region. A combined approach using GC-MS, GC-C-IRMS and bulk IRMS of residues absorbed into the ceramic and charred surface deposits was employed. The results show that despite variable preservation, Narva ceramic vessels were preferentially used for processing aquatic products. We argue that pottery was part of a new Late Mesolithic subsistence strategy which included more intensive exploitation of aquatic foods and may have had important implications, such as increased sedentism and population growth.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • An investigation into the effects of X-ray on the recovery of ancient DNA
           from skeletal remains
    • Authors: Lars Fehren-Schmitz; Joshua Kapp; Kim Laura Ziegler; Kelly M. Harkins; Gary P. Aronsen; Gerald Conlogue
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Joshua Kapp, Kim Laura Ziegler, Kelly M. Harkins, Gary P. Aronsen, Gerald Conlogue
      The application of radiographic imaging methods like conventional X-Ray and computed tomography (CT) in bioarchaeological research is normally considered to be non-invasive. While this holds true on the macro- and microscopic level, little is known about potentially induced damage on the molecular level that could inhibit the successful recovery of ancient DNA (aDNA) from such specimens. Although there has been speculation concerning possible damage to DNA recovered from ancient remains following exposure to radiation, little research has been published. Past studies attempted to determine the specific effect of X-ray and computed tomography on the amplification of DNA from bone of recently butchered animals. Although the results suggested exposure to clinical level of radiation decreased the recovery of aDNA, the un-dehydrated state of the samples might have biased the results. In this study we utilized dry human archaeological bones from nine prehistoric and historic individuals and exposed them to different levels of radiation using conventional X-ray to more accurately examine the issue. Employing Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of shotgun sequencing libraries, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and multiplex PCR of autosomal genetic markers we show that neither the exposure to conventional X-ray dosages (moderate irradiation) used in archaeological imaging studies nor 20-fold increased dosages (strong irradiation) have a significant effect on the quantity and quality of DNA that can be recovered from these ancient specimens. We conclude that the application of radiographic imaging methods in bioarchaeology does not impair the success of subsequent aDNA studies if simple precautions are followed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T16:55:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Iron isotopes as a potential tool for ancient iron metals tracing
    • Authors: Jean Milot; Franck Poitrasson; Sandrine Baron; Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jean Milot, Franck Poitrasson, Sandrine Baron, Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Provenance studies of iron artefacts have become an important topic in archaeology to better understand the socio-economic organization of ancient societies. Elemental and isotopic tracing methods used so far for iron metal provenance studies showed some limitations, and the development of new additional tracers are needed. Since the last decade, the rise of cutting edge analytical techniques allows for the development of new isotopic tools for this purpose. The present study explores for the first time the use of iron isotopes analyses as a potential method for ancient iron metal tracing. Ore, slag and metal samples from two experimental reconstitutions of iron ore reduction by bloomery process were collected. Their Fe isotope compositions were measured by Multi Collector – Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to assess the possible impact of smelting on the Fe isotope composition of the metal produced. Our results show that the iron isotope compositions of the slag and metal are for 8 out of 9 samples analyzed undistinguishable from that of the starting ores. This suggests that overall, no significant Fe isotope fractionation occurs along the chaîne opératoire of iron bars production, even if slight isotopic differences might be found in blooms before refinement. This fact, combined with the natural isotopic variability of iron ores, as reported in the literature, may allow the use of Fe isotopes as a relevant tracer for archaeological iron metals. This new tracing approach offers many perspectives for provenance studies. The combination of elemental and Fe isotope analyses should thus be useful to validate origin hypotheses of ancient iron artefacts.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Late Pleistocene/early Holocene maritime interaction in Southeastern
           Indonesia – Timor Leste
    • Authors: Christian Reepmeyer; Sue O'Connor; Mahirta; Tim Maloney; Shimona Kealy
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Christian Reepmeyer, Sue O'Connor, Mahirta, Tim Maloney, Shimona Kealy
      This study analysed over 1000 obsidian stone artefacts excavated from two adjoining shelters at Tron Bon Lei on Alor Island Indonesia using portable XRF. The study showed an unambiguous separation of three different source locations (Groups 1, 2 and 3). Two sources (Group 2 and 3a, b, c) dominate the assemblage numerically. Group 1 and 2 indicate use of a single volcanic formation with a strong match between Group 1 artefacts and artefacts from sites in Timor Leste. Obsidian occurs in the earliest occupation layer in the Alor sites but does not include Group 1 artefacts which occur only after approx. 12,000 cal BP. Currently the geographical location of the Group 1 outcrop is unknown, however, based on the late appearance of the Group 1 artefacts in the Alor sequence it is likely that the location is not on Alor, but rather on another island of the Sunda chain. The dating of Group 1 artefacts in widely spaced sites on the never geographically connected islands of Timor and Alor indicates that maritime interaction between islands began by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The distribution of the obsidian in Tron Bon Lei shelter Pit B shows that there were periods of more intense interaction punctuated by periods when interaction declined or ceased.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • The analytical nexus of ceramic paste composition studies: A comparison of
           NAA, LA-ICP-MS, and petrography in the prehispanic Basin of Mexico
    • Authors: Wesley D. Stoner
      Pages: 31 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Wesley D. Stoner
      Ceramic compositional analyses have become a common part of archaeological inference. With a multitude of techniques available, which provide the best opportunity to answer specific research questions? I define an analytical nexus of techniques to help archaeologists determine which techniques provide the most appropriate methodology for their study regions. The relation among bulk chemical (NAA), spot chemical (LA-ICP-MS), and in situ mineral (petrography) analyses are explored through ceramics sampled from different time periods across the Basin of Mexico. Spatial and temporal patterns of compositional variability are identified with respect to the cultural systems living there. While different questions require different techniques, a stable bulk signature, like that provided by NAA, acts as a closed system that sums to 100 percent of all cultural and natural variables affecting paste composition. By comparison to the bulk baseline, any other technique that focuses on a fraction of the whole will also provide information on the unknown fractions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Beyond size: The potential of a geometric morphometric analysis of shape
           and form for the assessment of sex in hand stencils in rock art
    • Authors: Emma Nelson; Jason Hall; Patrick Randolph-Quinney; Anthony Sinclair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Emma Nelson, Jason Hall, Patrick Randolph-Quinney, Anthony Sinclair
      Hand stencils are some of the most enduring images in Upper Palaeolithic rock art sites across the world; the earliest have been dated to over 40 Kya in Sulawesi and 37 Kya in Europe. The analysis of these marks may permit us to know more about who was involved in the making the of prehistoric images as well as expanding the literature on the evolution of human behaviour. A number of researchers have previously attempted to identify the sex of the makers of Upper Palaeolithic hand stencils using methods based on hand size and digit length ratios obtained from digital or photo-based images of modern reference samples. Some analyses report that it was males who were responsible for the majority of hand stencils, whilst the most recent analysis determined that females produced the majority of hand stencils. Taken together, however, these studies generate contrasting and incompatible interpretations. In this study we critically review where we currently stand with methods of sexing the makers of hand stencils and the problems for the interpretation of hand markings of Palaeolithic age. We then present the results of a new method of predicting the sex of individuals from their hand stencils using a geometric morphometric approach that detects sexual differences in hand shape and hand form (size and shape). The method has the additional advantage of being able to detect these differences in both complete, as well as partial hand stencils. Finally we urge researchers to test this method on other ethnic groups and populations and consider ways of combining efforts towards a common goal of developing a robust, predictive methodology based on diverse modern samples before it is applied to Upper Palaeolithic hand stencils.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T02:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.001
       
  • Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus
           settlements in northern India
    • Authors: Bates C.A.; Petrie R.N. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): J. Bates, C.A. Petrie, R.N. Singh
      The nature and timing of rice domestication and the development of rice cultivation in South Asia is much debated. In northern South Asia there is presently a significant gap (c.4200 years) between earliest evidence for the exploitation of wild rice (Lahuradewa c.6000 BCE) and earliest dated evidence for the utilisation of fully domesticated rice (Mahagara c.1800 BCE). The Indus Civilisation (c.3000–1500 BCE) developed and declined during the intervening period, and there has been debate about whether rice was adopted and exploited by Indus populations during this ‘gap’. This paper presents new analysis of spikelet bases and weeds collected from three Indus Civilisation settlements in north-west India, which provide insight into the way that rice was exploited. This analysis suggests that starting in the period before the Indus urban phase (Early Harappan) and continuing through the urban (Mature Harappan/Harappan), post-urban (Late Harappan) and on into the post-Indus Painted Grey Ware (PGW) period, there was a progressive increase in the proportion of domesticated-type spikelet bases and a decrease in wild-types. This pattern fits with a model of the slow development of rice exploitation from wild foraging to agriculture involving full cultivation. Importantly, the accompanying weeds show no increased proportions of wetland species during this period. Instead a mix of wetland and dryland species was identified, and although these data are preliminary, they suggest that the development of an independent rice tradition may have been intertwined with the practices of the eastern most Indus peoples. These data also suggest that when fully domesticated Oryza sativa ssp. japonica was introduced around 2000 BCE, it arrived in an area that was already familiar with domesticated rice cultivation and a range of cultivation techniques.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
       
  • Geoarchaeological research in the humid tropics: A global perspective
    • Authors: Mike W. Morley; Paul Goldberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg
      Geoarchaeological research is now commonly undertaken as an integral component of archaeological investigations across much of the world. However, in humid tropical regions there is a relative shortfall of this Earth-Science approach to understanding archaeological records. In these regions, where hot and humid conditions prevail for significant parts of the year, sedimentological records are prone to high levels of diagenesis, bioturbation and weathering. This means that understanding and quantifying archaeological site formation processes can be very challenging because we may have not have sufficient existing data with which to decipher the stratigraphic (and microstratigraphic) features recorded in these sequences. In this paper we introduce a special issue of Journal of Archaeological Science in which we showcase a selection of geoarchaeological research from across the equatorial regions of five continents, highlighting the types of stratigraphic sequences and sedimentological features that are likely to be encountered, and evaluating the tools that can be employed to maximise the geoarchaeological potential of these unique records. Additionally, we use this opportunity to review geoarchaeology in the humid tropics from a global perspective, outlining the main problems that geoarchaeologists face working in these environments and the techniques available to mitigate them.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.002
       
  • Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh
           Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
    • Authors: Ben Marwick; Hannah G. Van Vlack; Cyler Conrad; Rasmi Shoocongdej; Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit; Seungki Kwak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ben Marwick, Hannah G. Van Vlack, Cyler Conrad, Rasmi Shoocongdej, Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit, Seungki Kwak
      This study reports on an analysis of human adaptations to sea level changes in the tropical monsoonal environment of Peninsula Thailand. We excavated Khao Toh Chong rockshelter in Krabi and recorded archaeological deposits spanning the last 13,000 years. A suite of geoarchaeological methods suggest largely uninterrupted deposition, against a backdrop of geological data that show major changes in sea levels. Although there is a small assemblage of mostly undiagnostic ceramics and stone artefacts, there are some distinct changes in stone artefact technology and ceramic fabric. There is a substantial faunal assemblage, with changes in both the mammalian and shellfish taxa during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition that correlate with local sea level fluctuation. This assemblage provides an opportunity to explore subsistence behaviours leading up to the transition to the Neolithic. We explore the implications for current debates on the prehistoric origins of agricultural subsistence in mainland Southeast Asia. The data highlight the importance of local contingencies in understanding the mechanisms of change from foragers to agriculturalists.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.010
       
 
 
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