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        1 2     

  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 182 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (4 followers)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (14 followers)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (123 followers)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Advances in Archaeological Practice : A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription  
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (26 followers)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (6 followers)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (17 followers)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access  
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Antiqua     Open Access   (3 followers)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (13 followers)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (87 followers)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (12 followers)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (2 followers)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (1 follower)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (6 followers)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription  
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (1 follower)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (16 followers)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (10 followers)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (1 follower)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access  
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (17 followers)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre | BUCEMA - Articles     Open Access   (4 followers)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (18 followers)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (121 followers)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (1 follower)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (2 followers)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (1 follower)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (97 followers)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (1 follower)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (1 follower)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (93 followers)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Études océan Indien     Open Access  
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (137 followers)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (2 followers)
Exchange     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (7 followers)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (1 follower)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology , The     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (12 followers)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (88 followers)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (75 followers)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (6 followers)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (9 followers)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (5 followers)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (2 followers)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)

        1 2     

Journal of Archaeological Science    [84 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
  • Application of an entropy maximizing and dynamics model for understanding
           settlement structure: the Khabur Triangle in the Middle Bronze and Iron
           Ages
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Toby Davies , Hannah Fry , Alan Wilson , Alessio Palmisano , Mark Altaweel , Karen Radner
      We present a spatial interaction entropy maximizing and structural dynamics model of settlements from the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) and Iron Ages (IA) in the Khabur Triangle (KT) region within Syria. The model addresses factors that make locations attractive for trade and settlement, affecting settlement growth and change. We explore why some sites become relatively major settlements, while others diminish in the periods discussed. We assess how political and geographic constraints affect regional settlement transformations, while also accounting for uncertainty in the archaeological data. Model outputs indicate how the MBA settlement pattern contrasts from the IA for the same region when different factors affecting settlement size importance, facility of movement, and exogenous site interactions are studied. The results suggest the importance of political and historical factors in these periods and also demonstrate the value of a quantitative model in explaining emergent settlement size distributions across landscapes affected by different socio-environmental causal elements.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Testing a novel method to identify salt production pottery via release and
           detection of chloride ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Danielle R. Raad , Shuicheng Li , Rowan K. Flad
      A recently published analytical technique to detect chloride ions in ceramic vessels that were used to produce salt is replicated (Horiuchi et al., 2011). The method involves releasing bound chloride ions permanently retained by the vessel via a chemical exchange reaction with ammonium fluoride, following the removal of all unbound salt with water. The chloride concentration is measured in solution and used to quantify the amount of salt that was bound to the ceramic matrix. Our data suggest that this method is not a viable way to consistently discriminate salt-making pottery, as the detected chloride may not be derived from salt production activities, but from the ceramic material of the pot itself. We employ experimental vessels in which salt-making was simulated, in addition to analyzing excavated sherds from two Chinese and one North American site known to have been involved in salt production. The method proposed by Horiuchi et al. is not able to distinguish salt-making and non-salt-making vessels from one another.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Multi-image photogrammetry as a practical tool for cultural heritage
           survey and community engagement
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): John McCarthy
      Multi-image photogrammetry is rapidly emerging as an important archaeological tool due in large part to the increasing level of automation in off the shelf software. The technique can offer significant reductions in the cost of archaeological survey and in the enhancement of survey results and is of particular value therefore to archaeologists working in contract-led context, which in many areas accounts for the majority of archaeological work (up to 80% in Scotland for example). Recent advances in multi-image photogrammetric software have resulted in highly automated workflows and significantly reduced the burden of technical knowledge required to produce survey results of an acceptable standard. Although the majority of multi-image photogrammetry surveys are still undertaken in an academic context the technique is increasingly being used by a far wider proportion of heritage professionals, many of whom are not first and foremost specialists in photogrammetry. The adoption of such highly automated workflows presents certain risks with regard to accuracy and reliability of results as noted by Remondino et al. (2012, 52). However the enormous potential of the technique for rapid and accurate survey and for reduced costs cannot be ignored and the challenge we face is to ensure that the highly automated workflows adopted by archaeologists in contract-led contexts are robust and reliable and underpinned by guidance and knowledge exchange. This paper is not intended as a comprehensive technical review of the technical aspects of the technique or of its development but instead focusses on highlighting its potential as a practical everyday tool for archaeological practitioners to apply in two of the main types of contract-led archaeological work, rapid survey and community engagement. A non-technical overview of the technique is given followed by case studies illustrating how the technique has been applied successfully in a non-academic contract-led and community engagement context. These surveys have been undertaken with very limited budgets for both survey and post-processing of data and typically with very limited time frames. In each case study, use of multi-image photogrammetry has allowed for better, faster and more cost-effective results than would otherwise have been possible. Case studies include a survey of an Iron Age fort, a rapid survey of exposed segments of an intertidal wreck, both commissioned for heritage management purposes and a community survey of a 17th century gravestone undertaken by children under the age of 16. Finally the obstacles to wider adoption in the contract-led sector are discussed and it is argued that a concerted approach is required to create and disseminate simple and reliable workflows.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • A trace element study for the provenance attribution of ceramic artefacts:
           the case of Dressel 1 amphorae from a late-Republican ship
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Cristina M. Belfiore , Mauro F. La Russa , Donatella Barca , Giuliana Galli , Antonino Pezzino , Silvestro A. Ruffolo , Marco Viccaro , Giusj V. Fichera
      The present contribution is concerned with the archaeometric study of underwater Dressel 1 amphorae recovered from a late-Republican shipwreck, identified in 1986 near the island of Ponza (Italy). The study aims to identify the production area of investigated amphorae (now assumed to be localized in the Latial/Campanian area) and, therefore, verify the archaeological hypothesis on the trade route of the ship. For this purpose, an innovative analytical approach based on in situ geochemical investigations of clinopyroxene crystals occurring within the aplastic inclusions of examined amphorae, has been used. Such an approach, recently proposed and successfully tested by some authors only for major elements, has been implemented with extension of the investigation to trace elements through laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses. Obtained data suggest the Latial area as the most reasonable for provenance of the studied amphorae, casting new lights on some initial assumptions formulated on the basis of archaeological considerations.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Archaeobotanical remains from late 6th/early 5th millennium BC Tel Tsaf,
           Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Philip Graham
      This study illustrates how archaeobotanical information is a key line of evidence for investigating the emergence of social complexity in the southern Levant during the late 6th/early 5th millennium BC. The ability of emerging elites to produce surplus agricultural produce was an important factor in social stratification. Excavations at the site of Tel Tsaf (5200–4600 cal BC) in the central Jordan River Valley, Israel revealed four courtyard buildings each containing a number of large storage silos indicating that the inhabitants of the site had the ability to store large amounts of comestibles. The results of the archaeobotanical analysis indicate the presence of barley (Hordeum sp.), wheat (Triticum sp., Triticum dicoccum, Triticum monococcum), lentil (Lens culinaris), and pea (Pisum sativum) throughout the site. Analysis of flotation samples from the silos indicate that cereals were stored relatively free of processing debris, but that weeds mimicking crops (wild grasses of a similar size to the cultivars) had not been removed. This suggests a relatively high degree of labor organization due to the large amount of work involved in cleaning cereals of processing debris post-harvest.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • “I sing of arms and of a man…”: medial epicondylosis and
           the sexual division of labour in prehistoric Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Sébastien Villotte , Christopher J. Knüsel
      Sexual division of labour in European prehistory is usually inferred by indirect means: ethnographic analogy, pictorial representation, or from grave inclusions. The study of skeletal activity-related morphology seems the most direct means by which to interrogate the question of sexual division of labour in past societies. In this paper we present the results of an analysis of enthesopathies (i.e. lesions of the tendon attachments) of the elbow in three time-successive population samples spanning the prehistoric, pre-industrial historic, and modern European eras. We employ an innovative analytical procedure, the lateral to medial epicondylar ratio (L/M ratio) to assess limb use. Results indicate a tendency for lateral epicondylosis in all samples, except for prehistoric males, who possess medial epicondylosis more frequently, and for the right side only. The increased prevalence of pathological changes of the right medial epicondyle suggests lateralized limb use that corresponds with “thrower's elbow”. This indicates that males, but not females, preferentially employed movements involving throwing motions in these hunter-gatherer and early farming groups. Based on this evidence we postulate the existence of a persistent sexual division of labour in these prehistoric European populations involving one or several strenuous activities linked to unilateral limb use.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Inter-ethnic social interactions in 16th century La Florida: sourcing
           pottery using siliceous microfossils
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Neill J. Wallis , Ann S. Cordell , Kathleen A. Deagan , Michael J. Sullivan
      A case study is presented to test the notion that minority pottery types from 16th century contexts at the Fountain of Youth (FOY) site in St. Augustine reflect population movements from the north that preceded major political reorganizations in the region. Petrographic methods are employed to trace the manufacturing origins of early historic period aboriginal pottery in northeast Florida. Fragments of siliceous microfossils, including sponge spicules, opal phytoliths, and, most notably, diatoms, were identified in the matrix of some early historic period aboriginal pottery from FOY, as well as in some clay samples from the coastal region of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia. Diatom taxa are identified and their spatial distribution is assessed. The distribution of microfossils supports the nonlocal manufacturing origins of some samples from St. Augustine and conform to expectations about the historic movement of certain aboriginal groups to the settlement.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Early Upper Paleolithic bone processing and insights into small-scale
           storage of fats at Vale Boi, southern Iberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Tiina Manne
      The Upper Paleolithic site of Vale Boi in coastal, southwestern Portugal currently represents one of the earliest known cases of grease-rendering in Eurasia, with initial occupation of the site occurring during the early Gravettian at ∼28,000 BP. Already by this time, Vale Boi foragers were intensively processing ungulate carcasses by rendering grease from their bones. Zooarchaeological evidence of grease rendering includes extensive fragmentation of red deer and equine remains, abundant evidence of impact features on specimens and a lower proportion of preserved grease-rich skeletal portions. Comparisons of red deer and horse bone portions with density assays and utility indices suggest that ungulates at Vale Boi were systematically processed for their marrow and bone grease. The early onset of grease-rendering at Vale Boi, in addition to heavy rabbit exploitation may have been spurred by ungulate communities unable to support human consumer-demand on their own. However, the continued practice of grease-rendering at Vale Boi over the course of the Upper Paleolithic may also be closely related to the significance of bone fats for mobile hunter–gatherers – as a highly valued, storable and easily-transportable resource.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • From analysis to interpretation. A comment on the paper by Rasmussen
           et al. (2012)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Ira Rabin
      The paper “The constituents of the ink from a Qumran inkwell: New prospects for provenancing the ink on the Dead Sea Scrolls” by Rasmussen et al. (2012) presents an account of the analysis of a residue from an unprovenanced inkwell. In this comment, I reassess their study and offer alternative interpretations of their experimental results.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • The zooarchaeological application of quantifying cranial shape differences
           in wild boar and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) using 3D geometric
           morphometrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Joseph Owen , Keith Dobney , Allowen Evin , Thomas Cucchi , Greger Larson , Una Strand Vidarsdottir
      The process of domestication increases the variety of phenotypes expressed in animals. Zooarchaeologists have attempted to study these changes osteologically in their search for the geographic and temporal origins of initial animal domestication during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Traditional biometric approaches have explored broad changes in body size over time, but this approach provides poor resolution. Here we investigate whether geometric morphometric (GMM) analyses of cranial shape can be used to provide better resolution between wild and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), since shape is less affected by environmental factors than size. GMM combined with traditional multivariate statistics were applied to the crania of 42 modern domestic pigs (representing 6 breeds), 10 wild × domestic first generation hybrid pigs and 55 adult wild boar. Further analyses were carried out on morphologically discrete portions of the crania to simulate the fragmented nature of archaeological mammal remains. We found highly significant discrimination between wild and domestic pigs, both on the whole crania, and subsets including the parietal, the basicranium, the angle of the nasal and the zygomatic. We also demonstrate that it is possible to discriminate different domestic breeds on the basis of cranial morphology, and that 1st generation hybrid wild × domestic pig morphology more closely resembles wild pigs than domestic, suggesting that a wild phenotype (here represented by morphology) is dominant over a recessive domestic one. Our data demonstrate that GMM techniques can provide a quantifiable, clear classification between wild and domestic Sus (even using partial cranial remains) which has significant implications for zooarchaeological research.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Reply to Ira Rabin's Comment on our paper Rasmussen et al. (2012)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Kaare Lund Rasmussen , Anna Lluveras Tenorio , Ilaria Bonaduce , Maria Perla Colombini , Leila Birolo , Eugenio Galano , Angela Amoresano , Greg Doudna , Andrew D. Bond , Vincenzo Palleschi , Giulia Lorenzetti , Stefano Legnaioli , Johannes van der Plicht , Jan Gunneweg
      In the Comment by Dr. I. Rabin from Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung in Berlin are stated many conjectures and apparent guesses contradicting several of our interpretations. Most of Rabin's ‘guesses’ and interpretations are unwarranted. Below we rebut some of the misinterpretations under separate headings.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Publication/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42




      PubDate: 2014-01-25T04:32:49Z
       
  • Does size matter? Changes in the size of animals throughout the
           English Saxon period (AD 450–1066)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Matilda Holmes
      Biometrical analysis of changes in the size of cattle, sheep/goat and pigs was carried out on data from 42 Anglo-Saxon sites. Log-scaling techniques on raw data and comparisons of summary data were employed in the analysis. A number of changes could be observed that were dependant on a continuation of Roman husbandry, importation of animals with the Saxon migration and links between stock size and Saxo-Norman developments in agriculture. A decline in the size of animals with time was also noted, yet it is likely that there would be little observable difference in the actual size of cattle and sheep of between one herd or flock to the next. Such homogeneity suggests that they were not isolated populations, but that some trade of stock occurred between sites. Limitations and problems in working with biometrical data are also discussed, most notably sample size, the reduction in the robustness of datasets with an increase in variables, and those associated with using summary and raw data.


      PubDate: 2014-01-17T03:06:53Z
       
  • Sourcing archaeological asphaltum (bitumen) from the California Channel
           Islands to submarine seeps
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Kaitlin M. Brown , Jacques Connan , Nicholas W. Poister , René L. Vellanoweth , John Zumberge , Michael H. Engel
      Asphaltum, often referred to as bitumen, is a naturally occurring form of petroleum that was used by ancient cultures for thousands of years. Asphaltum deposits are found throughout the world and occur both on land and submerged under water. Ethnohistoric accounts of native Californians suggest that asphaltum from terrestrial seeps was shaped by hand into cakes and traded throughout Southern California and was the only grade of asphaltum used to manufacture plank-canoes. While there are no terrestrial seeps on the California Channel Islands, drift asphaltum exuded from submarine seeps can frequently be found washed up on the shore. It remains unclear to what extent prehistoric island populations relied on this drift asphaltum and whether or not they acquired terrestrial asphaltum through trade. This study combines gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with carbon isotopic analysis in an effort to identify the sources of six archaeological bituminous mixtures from San Nicolas and San Miguel islands. We compare the archaeological asphaltum to four modern samples collected from marine tarballs and a mainland terrestrial seep. Further, we compare our results to a USGS chemometric database to determine if our archaeological samples match extant sources. Our results show that prehistoric peoples on the Channel Islands utilized drift asphaltum from submarine seeps in a variety of technological applications throughout the Holocene. The methods used in our study are globally applicable and can be used to address a variety of broad anthropological questions.


      PubDate: 2014-01-13T04:38:11Z
       
  • Paleoindian rock art: establishing the antiquity of Great Basin Carved
           Abstract petroglyphs in the northern Great Basin
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Emily S. Middleton , Geoffrey M. Smith , William J. Cannon , Mary F. Ricks
      One of the principal ways that researchers date archaeological sites is by using temporally diagnostic projectile points as index fossils; however, this practice has not been widely employed to date rock art sites. We use this approach here to test the hypothesis that the Great Basin Carved (GBCA) petroglyph style found in the northern Great Basin was produced by Paleoindians. Using frequencies of projectile points at 55 GBCA sites, we demonstrate that Paleoindian points are significantly overrepresented there relative to their occurrence on the general landscape, providing evidence that Great Basin populations produced rock art sometime during the Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene (TP/EH), ∼12,500–8000 radiocarbon years ago. Additionally, we examine several environmental variables at GBCA sites and propose a model of Paleoindian land-use in the northern Great Basin that highlights seasonal visits to uplands to procure geophytes (i.e., root crops).


      PubDate: 2014-01-09T09:03:58Z
       
  • Life in the proto-urban style: the identification of parasite eggs in
           micromorphological thin sections from the Basel-Gasfabrik Late Iron Age
           settlement, Switzerland
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Sandra L. Pichler , Christine Pümpin , David Brönnimann , Philippe Rentzel
      The Swiss Basel-Gasfabrik site represents an important Celtic settlement of urban character. Two species of intestinal parasites, Trichuris sp. and Ascaris sp., were identified in micromorphological thin sections from settlement pits. Species identification is complicated by taphonomic effects as well as the random representation of samples and cuts. Parasite eggs are encountered within and beyond original depository contexts due to water displacement and bioturbation. Our findings introduce micromorphology as a new means of paleoparasitological research which augments classical procedures. It captures parasite remains directly in their original microstratigraphic setting, thus providing information not to be obtained by classical flotation. Our observations are relevant for the selection of suitable sampling sites, sampling strategies, and methods of recovery and identification of paleoparasitological data in archeological sediments. They create new insights into site specific parasite dispersal and living conditions in the Late Iron Age.


      PubDate: 2014-01-09T09:03:58Z
       
  • Macrophysical Climate Modeling, economy, and social organization in Early
           Bronze Age Anatolia
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Bülent Arıkan
      The northern extremity of Mesopotamia, also known as the Hilly Flanks of the Fertile Crescent, witnessed a series of major sociopolitical and economic transformations during the Bronze Age, which led to the emergence of specialized pastoralism in the third millennium BC. This research focuses on the application of Macrophysical Climate Modeling (MCM) to eastern and southeastern Anatolia and correlates the results with the Early Bronze Age (ca. 3000–2000 BC) settlement patterns of the region. Changes in settlement systems throughout the Early Bronze Age are assessed from the perspective of heterarchic social organization and how various forms of pastoralism might have been used as adaptation to aridity. The significance of this research is that using the MCM the paleoclimatic backdrop is established for such adaptations, which may be used to study the long-term dynamics of human–environment relations.


      PubDate: 2014-01-09T09:03:58Z
       
  • Investigating the tool marks of stone reliefs from the Mausoleum of Cao
           Cao (AD155–AD220) in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Zhou Gu , Weibin Pan , Guoding Song , Zhenwei Qiu , Yimin Yang , Changsui Wang
      As a component of architectures, stone reliefs prevailing during the Han Dynasty (206BC–AD220) were usually found in coffin chambers and ancestral temples. Although the stone reliefs represent stone carving techniques of the Han Dynasty (202BC–AD220), little information about these techniques were known. In this study, the digital microscope with 3D surface reconstruction based on extended depth of focus (EDF) technology was used to investigate tool marks of stone reliefs excavated at the Mausoleum of Cao Cao (AD155–AD220) at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD25–AD220). The tool marks analysis shows that different carving techniques were involved. The surface was ground by a rotary grinding tool. Small flat-head tool could be used to lower the background. Curved lines were engraved by an oblique attack technique and the burin was held at the angle of about 35° to the contact surface. Thin straight lines were engraved by an upright attack technique. Concentric circles were possibly engraved by the dragging action of a tool like a h-shaped compass. Furthermore, it is envisioned that the EDF technology provide a new effective approach for tool marks analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-01-05T09:09:56Z
       
  • Using traditional biometrical data to distinguish West Palearctic wild
           boar and domestic pigs in the archaeological record: new methods and
           standards
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Allowen Evin , Thomas Cucchi , Gilles Escarguel , Joseph Owen , Greger Larson , Una Strand Vidarsdottir , Keith Dobney
      Traditionally, the separation of domestic pig remains from those of wild boar in zooarchaeological assemblages has been based on the comparison of simple size measurements with those from limited numbers of modern or archaeological reference specimens and then applying poorly defined cut-off values to make the identification calls. This study provides a new statistical framework for the identification of both domestic and wild Sus scrofa using standard molar tooth lengths and widths from a large modern comparative collection consisting of 407 West Palearctic wild boar and domestic pigs. Our study continues to rely upon so-called ‘cut-off’ values that correspond to the optimal separation between the two groups, but based upon a measure and visualisation of the error risk curves for erroneous identifications. On average, wild boar have larger teeth than domestic pigs and cut-off values were established for maximum tooth length and width, respectively as follows: 2.39 cm and 1.85 cm for second upper molar, 3.69 cm and 2.13 cm for third upper molar, 2.26 cm and 1.50 cm for second lower molar, 3.79 cm and 1.75 cm for third lower molar. Specimens below and above these cut-offs are most likely to be, respectively, domestic pig and wild boar and the risk of providing a wrong identification will depend on the distance to the cut-off value following a relative risk curve. Although likely containing high risk of inherent statistical error, nonetheless this basic metrical identification-tool (based only on recent specimens), is here shown to correctly re-identify 94% of the Neolithic pigs from Durrington Walls (England) as domestic pig. This tool could be employed not only to systematically re-evaluate previous identifications of wild or domestic Sus scrofa, but also to establish new identifications where more powerful and reliable approaches such as Geometric Morphometrics cannot be applied.


      PubDate: 2014-01-05T09:09:56Z
       
  • Rediscovering the lost archaeological landscape of southern New England
           using airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 43
      Author(s): Katharine M. Johnson , William B. Ouimet
      Recently, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data has been made publicly available for the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island in New England, a geographic region in the northeastern United States. Despite the wide range of archaeological studies that have been undertaken with LiDAR on a global scale, few published studies exist in the United States, and no published studies exist for the northeastern US, which has a unique historical and geomorphological landscape. This landscape is densely forested, and archaeological studies in this region highlighting how humans have historically shaped the New England landscape can benefit greatly from the use of LiDAR. This paper contributes to the growing international dialogue regarding the use of LiDAR for archaeological studies by providing examples of features that have been discovered in this region, how these features can be interpreted in conjunction with historical documents and used for reconnaissance surveys, and how these interpretations can contribute to theoretical anthropological perspectives regarding how humans divide and use the landscape. Our analysis has positively identified numerous archaeological sites that have not been previously recorded by archaeological studies.


      PubDate: 2014-01-05T09:09:56Z
       
  • Mapping plow zone soil magnetism to delineate disturbed archaeological
           site boundaries
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Daniel P. Bigman
      This paper presents the results of a magnetic susceptibility survey at Ocmulgee National Monument, a large archaeological site located in central Georgia. Ocmulgee consists of numerous bluffs, each subjected to plowing and erosion. Archaeological remains preserved differentially better on some bluffs, while remains on other bluffs have been obliterated. Magnetic susceptibility readings were recorded in the plow zone on Mound X Ridge, an area of the site that is significantly disturbed. Although the archaeological site is no longer intact, superparamagnetic micro-particles from daub, ceramics, or charcoal have been mixed from 100 years of plowing and remain in the plow zone. The goal of the project was to delineate the northern boundary of this activity area. Thirty posthole tests were excavated and the presence or absence of artifacts from each posthole test was recorded. Magnetic susceptibility values were also recorded in the plow zone following excavation of each test. The positive correlation of high susceptibility values with presence of artifacts indicates this method is useful for mapping disturbed site boundaries of plowed archaeological sites. This method is quicker than more traditional invasive testing and does not further disturb archaeological remains if posthole tests are not excavated below the plow zone.


      PubDate: 2013-12-16T13:33:18Z
       
  • FT-Raman spectroscopy as a method for screening collagen diagenesis in
           bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Christine A.M. France , Daniel B. Thomas , Charlotte R. Doney , Odile Madden
      This study examines Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive screening method to determine collagen quality in archaeological and paleontological bones. Bone samples were characterized for collagen quality using well-established elemental abundance analyses (i.e., percentage nitrogen and C:N) as the primary criteria for classification. FT-Raman spectra were collected from outer surfaces and freshly cut cross-sections of both well-preserved and poorly-preserved historic mammal bones. Peak heights and peak areas were studied visually and with bivariate and multivariate statistics. Raman spectra from cross-sections provided the most accurate determination of collagen quality. A ratio of the 960 cm−1 and 1636 cm−1 peak heights provided the most unambiguous distinction between bones with well-preserved and poorly-preserved collagen. The 960 cm−1 and 1636 cm−1 peaks represent phosphate anion stretching in the bone mineral and amide carbonyl stretching in the collagen, respectively. FT-Raman spectra from bones with well-preserved collagen produced a 960 cm−1:1636 cm−1 ratio of 19.4 or less (after peaks were baseline corrected). This mineral to collagen ratio was typically greater in poorly-preserved samples as organic material tends to be more susceptible to early stages of diagenesis. These criteria now can be used to accurately determine collagen quality in bones before sacrificing samples to the lengthy and destructive chemical extractions necessary for carbon-14 dating, stable isotope analyses, proteomic analyses, and other techniques of archaeological or paleontological interest.


      PubDate: 2013-12-16T13:33:18Z
       
  • Stable dietary isotopes and mtDNA from Woodland period southern Ontario
           people: results from a tooth sampling protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Susan Pfeiffer , Ronald F. Williamson , Judith C. Sealy , David G. Smith , Meradeth H. Snow
      Bioarchaeological research must balance scholarly commitment to the generation of new knowledge, descendants' interests in their collective past, and the now common practice of rapid re-interment of excavated human remains. This paper documents the first results of a negotiated protocol built on the retention of one tooth per archaeologically derived skeleton, teeth that can then be used for destructive testing associated with ancient DNA and stable isotope investigations. Seven archaeological sites dating from the 13th to 16th centuries provided 53 teeth, 10 of which were subdivided between DNA and isotope labs. All tooth roots yielded haplogroup results, and five provided more detailed sequence results. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen document heavy reliance on maize among all individuals, as well as reliance on a diverse range of fish. This work establishes baseline mtDNA information for Northern Iroquoians, and confirms the value of using dental tissues for dietary reconstruction. Particularly when human remains are fragmentary or co-mingled, this approach holds promise for ongoing incorporation of bioarchaeology into reconstructions of past peoples' lives.


      PubDate: 2013-12-16T13:33:18Z
       
  • Stable isotope indicators of provenance and demographics in 18th and 19th
           century North Americans
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Christine A.M. France , Douglas W. Owsley , Lee-Ann C. Hayek
      Using stable isotopes to gain insight into individual life histories is a valuable tool for unidentified or incomplete remains lacking historic records. This study analyzed stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes from bones and teeth of 18th–19th century North Americans of known ancestry, social class, and region of origin in an effort to discern qualitative patterns and create a quantitative predictive model of demographic information. The δ13Ccollagen, δ13Cstructural carbonate, and δ18Ostructural carbonate values provide the most overall information for detecting demographic differences, with δ15Ncollagen and δ18Ophosphate to a lesser degree. Region of origin was the most predictable demographic factor with 82% correct classifications based on a two-variable model using δ13Ccollagen and δ18Ometeoric water calculated from δ18Ostructural carbonate, which reflects the influence of dominant local vegetation types and local drinking water. Ancestry was correctly identified in 68% of cases using δ13Ccollagen. Social class was less predictable with correct identification in 60% of cases based on δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O values where the upper class was most distinguishable. Isotope patterns observed in ancestry and social class groups are linked to cultural food preferences and food availability. Certain sample sites, such as military burials and urban cemeteries, show a greater range of isotope values suggesting a variety of individual regional origins and cultural backgrounds. Burials of extreme upper or lower class individuals show greater isotopic homogeneity suggesting reliance on localized food sources or cultural preferences for particular dietary choices.


      PubDate: 2013-12-16T13:33:18Z
       
  • Iron reinforcements in Beauvais and Metz Cathedrals: from bloomery or
           finery? The use of logistic regression for differentiating smelting
           processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): A. Disser , P. Dillmann , C. Bourgain , M. L'Héritier , E. Vega , S. Bauvais , M. Leroy
      A specific statistical approach was tested to determine the ironmaking processes (bloomery or indirect) used to manufacture iron reinforcements found in two French gothic medieval monuments: Metz and Beauvais Cathedrals. Slag inclusions embedded in the metallic matrix were analysed and the major element compositions were quantified, using a Si Drift EDS detector permitting the study of several hundred inclusions per artefact. First, pre-processing was applied to the raw data to discriminate inclusions from the smelting stage (or refining stage for the indirect process) from those formed during post-reduction operations (forging etc…). PCA and hierarchical clustering on the major element compositions were then performed. Secondly, a specific multivariate statistical method, logistic regression, was applied to a learning set of data from a reference set of samples. This allowed the development of a model capable of distinguishing artefacts from the two smelting processes and to link unknown samples to one or the other. This model was then used to study artefacts from the Mutte Tower of Metz Cathedral and Beauvais Cathedral. This allowed us to confirm the extensive use of iron reinforcements since the construction of Beauvais cathedral. In the Mutte Tower of Metz Cathedral clamps from Lorraine reinforced some parts of the monument from its construction between the 13th and the 15th centuries.


      PubDate: 2013-12-12T04:31:59Z
       
  • Archaeomagnetism at Ebla (Tell Mardikh, Syria). New data on geomagnetic
           field intensity variations in the Near East during the Bronze Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Yves Gallet , Marta D'Andrea , Agnès Genevey , Frances Pinnock , Maxime Le Goff , Paolo Matthiae
      Thanks to systematic excavations conducted at Tell Mardikh/Ebla (Syria) during more than 40 years, we collected eleven groups of Bronze Age ceramic fragments defining a series of seven time intervals dated to between ∼2300 BC and ∼1400 BC. Archaeointensity experiments were performed using the Triaxe protocol that takes into account both anisotropy thermoremanent magnetization and cooling rate effects. The results, complemented by three other data previously obtained from Ebla, allow the recovery of geomagnetic field intensity variations over nearly 1000 years characterized by a V-shape, with a distinct relative intensity minimum around the 18th century BC. They also permit to constrain the occurrence of an intensity maximum between ∼2300 and ∼2000 BC. Together with other archaeointensity data obtained from Syrian, Levantine and Anatolian regions, the results from Ebla help to make emerging a coherent pattern of geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Near East over the entire Bronze period. This evolution was marked by distinct intensity maxima at ∼2600–2500 BC, ∼2300–2000 BC, ∼1550–1350 BC and at the very beginning of the first millennium BC (Iron Age), the latter showing a much higher magnitude than the three older ones. We discuss the fact that the detected geomagnetic field intensity maxima could be associated with the occurrence of archaeomagnetic jerks that appear synchronous, within age uncertainties, with significant regional climatic fluctuations.


      PubDate: 2013-12-12T04:31:59Z
       
  • Widening the market. Strontium isotope analysis on cattle teeth from
           Owslebury (Hampshire, UK) highlights changes in livestock supply between
           the Iron Age and the Roman period
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): C. Minniti , S. Valenzuela-Lamas , J. Evans , U. Albarella
      87Sr/86Sr isotopic analysis was performed on 95 cattle teeth from the Iron Age and Roman rural site of Owslebury (Hampshire). This constitutes one of largest strontium (Sr) isotopic projects in Roman archaeology and the first ever dealing with Iron Age cattle. The Sr isotopic signal of Middle Iron Age cattle is consistent with a local Sr signature, while in the Late Iron Age and, even more so, in both Roman phases cattle were introduced to the site from a greater variety of geographic areas. Although it is not possible to track down the exact origin of these introduced cattle, some must have travelled substantial distances (70 km and more). The widening of the market illustrated by our study is consistent with artefactual evidence from the site, indicating an increase in trade in the Late Iron Age, which is further emphasised in the Roman period.


      PubDate: 2013-12-12T04:31:59Z
       
  • More questions than answers: the Southeast Asian Lead Isotope Project
           2009–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Thomas Oliver Pryce , Sandrine Baron , Bérénice H.M. Bellina , Peter S. Bellwood , Nigel Chang , Pranab Chattopadhyay , Eusebio Dizon , Ian C. Glover , Elizabeth Hamilton , Charles F.W. Higham , Aung Aung Kyaw , Vin Laychour , Surapol Natapintu , Viet Nguyen , Jean-Pierre Pautreau , Ernst Pernicka , Vincent C. Pigott , Mark Pollard , Christophe Pottier , Andreas Reinecke , Thongsa Sayavongkhamdy , Viengkeo Souksavatdy , Joyce White
      As in most parts of the world, ancient Southeast Asian metal production and exchange has been accorded great importance as a cultural and technological development with far-reaching economic and political impacts. Here we present the results of the Southeast Asian Lead Isotope Project's 2009–2012 research campaign, a systematic effort to empirically reconstruct regional metal exchange networks and their attendant social interactions c. 1000 BC–c. 500 AD. The study's morpho-stylistic, technological, elemental and isotopic datasets cover early metal production (minerals and slag) and consumption (Cu, Cu–Sn, Cu–Pb, Cu–Sn–Pb alloys) assemblages from thirty sites in eight countries. These data have either identified or substantiated long-range maritime and terrestrial exchange networks connecting Han China and Mauryan India with most of continental Southeast Asia. The variety and intensity of the attested metal exchange behaviours hints at a dynamic and innovative 1st millennium BC regional economy and the vibrant exchange of cultural practices amongst populations separated by thousands of kilometres. Important too is the provision of indirect evidence for intra-regional economic integration between the Southeast Asia's metal-consuming lowland majorities and metal-producing upland minorities. Southeast Asia has a comparable surface area and present day population to Europe, and thus our efforts represent only the beginning for diachronic and multi-scalar metal exchange research. However, archaeometallurgical methodologies have the potential to greatly improve our understanding of Southeast Asia's vast cultural diversity and interconnectedness. With this paper we lay the framework for such an endeavour and, we hope, define the major questions for its next phase.


      PubDate: 2013-12-12T04:31:59Z
       
  • A geophysical investigation of a newly discovered Early Bronze Age site
           near Petra, Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Thomas M. Urban , Clive Vella , Emanuela Bocancea , Christopher A. Tuttle , Susan E. Alcock
      The hinterland of the famed Nabataean city of Petra in southwestern Jordan has yielded archaeological remains ranging from the Paleolithic to the Medieval Period, with a time-span of approximately one-million years of human and hominin activity represented in the archaeological record of the region. Bronze Age sites, however, have been grossly underrepresented for reasons that are not presently well understood, even to the extent that some past researchers have assumed that the region was sparsely occupied during this period. Our team has conducted a preliminary investigation at a previously undocumented Early Bronze Age site, located on an isolated hilltop in the northern hinterland of Petra. The site was recently noted during a pedestrian survey in the area as part of the Brown University Petra Archaeological Project (BUPAP). Follow up documentation and investigation included the production of a site plan, a geophysical survey with magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar, and small scale exploratory excavation. The geophysical results revealed a number of archaeological features in addition to yielding information about site taphonomy. Qualitative examination of the survey results indicated evidence of structures, burnt features, and modern disturbance, while potential-field transformations offered additional insights on the distribution of some of these features.


      PubDate: 2013-12-12T04:31:59Z
       
  • New aspects of natural science studies of archaeological burial monuments
           (kurgans) in the southern Russian steppes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): V.A. Demkin , V.M. Klepikov , S.N. Udaltsov , T.S. Demkina , M.V. Eltsov , T.E. Khomutova
      Soil-archeological soil studies on the kurgan burial site ‘Peregruznoe’, located to the north of the Yergeninskaya upland 80 km from the city of Volgograd, Russia, were performed. For the first time, data on the structure of soil cover in the dry steppe zone during Sarmatian times (AD 1) were obtained. From paleosol data it was established that, in the second half of the first century AD, the prevailing humid climate progressively changed to more arid conditions similar to those of the modern time. Using the methodology and theoretical conceptions of archaeological soil science, the age of the monuments investigated was detailed. For one of the kurgans, the original technology involved in erecting the monument was reconstructed and the time of year when construction had taken place was determined. Principally, new information on the details of the funeral rites of the Middle Sarmatian tribes in the Lower Volga region was obtained.


      PubDate: 2013-12-08T10:59:06Z
       
  • Holocene-aged human footprints from the Cuatrociénegas Basin, NE
           Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Nicholas J. Felstead , Silvia Gonzalez , David Huddart , Stephen R. Noble , Dirk L. Hoffmann , Sarah E. Metcalfe , Melanie J. Leng , Bruce M. Albert , Alistair W.G. Pike , Arturo Gonzalez-Gonzalez , José Concepción Jiménez-López
      Two sets of well-preserved human footprints have been found in tufa sediments in the Cuatrociénegas Basin, NE Mexico, and here we present their U-series dates of 10.55 ± 0.03 ka and 7.24 ± 0.13 ka. The former are the oldest known footprints in Mexico, although their exact location is unknown, the latter form part of a trackway with eleven in situ human footprints. Oxygen (and to a lesser extent) carbon isotope data from the sediments suggest that the tufa with in situ footprints formed during a transition to a wetter (less arid) period, while pollen evidence indicates the basin floor presence of pecan (Carya) and willow (Salix sp.) before the onset of regional Chihuahuan Desert aridity. These footprints confirm the presence of humans, possibly nomadic hunter–gatherer groups, which persisted until the 18th Century AD.


      PubDate: 2013-12-08T10:59:06Z
       
  • Isotope evidence for the use of marine resources in the Eastern Iberian
           Mesolithic
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Domingo C. Salazar-García , J. Emili Aura , Carme R. Olària , Sahra Talamo , Juan V. Morales , Michael P. Richards
      There are relatively few coastal Mesolithic sites in the Iberian Mediterranean region, probably due to a number of factors including sea level changes and the disappearance of sites due to agriculture and urbanisation. However, recent excavations have uncovered inland sites that have marine faunal remains (i.e. molluscs and fish) and lithics from the coastal area, which both indicate interactions between the coast and the upland valleys. These inland sites are located at a distance of 30–50 km from today's coastline and are at altitudes higher than 1000 m. We report on additional information on the links between the coast and these inland sites through the use of dietary isotope analysis (carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis) of collagen extracted from human and faunal remains at the sites of Coves de Santa Maira, Penya del Comptador and Cingle del Mas Nou. The results indicate that Mesolithic diet in this region was largely based on C3 terrestrial resources, but there was measurable evidence of low-level consumption of marine resources at both coastal and inland sites.


      PubDate: 2013-12-08T10:59:06Z
       
  • An exploratory study of the deterioration mechanism of ancient
           wall-paintings based on thermal and moisture expansion property analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Xiang He , Magen Xu , Hui Zhang , Bingjian Zhang , Bomin Su
      To extend the lifetime of wall-paintings in the Mogao Grottoes, various kinds of conservation materials (for example, PVA, acrylic acid and B72) and techniques (for example, adhesion, consolidation and surface coating) have been used in the past decades. However, as a basic concern, it still remains obscured how the deterioration mechanism of wall-paintings changes after conservation materials are applied. In this contribution, an assumption was advanced to clarify this mechanism. Different layers in the wall-paintings have different physical properties, such as thermal and moisture expansions, which may be altered after the conservation materials penetrate into the paintings. The differences of these properties may cause stress between the layers in the paintings with the change of environmental factors, which will finally lead to deterioration of wall-paintings. A series of experiments were performed to determine thermal and moisture expansion properties of consolidated wall-painting plasters. The impact of the conservation materials on the expansion properties of wall-painting plasters was quantified, in order to evaluate these materials. Consistency of experimental conclusions and conservation experience validated this hypothetical mechanism.


      PubDate: 2013-12-04T04:43:10Z
       
  • An integrated stable isotope study of plants and animals from Kouphovouno,
           southern Gree a new look at Neolithic farming
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Petra Vaiglova , Amy Bogaard , Matthew Collins , William Cavanagh , Christopher Mee , Josette Renard , Angela Lamb , Armelle Gardeisen , Rebecca Fraser
      This paper presents the first study that combines the use of ancient crop and animal stable isotopes (carbon and nitrogen) and Zooarchaeology Mass Spectrometry species identification (ZooMS) for reconstructing early farming practices at Kouphovouno, a Middle–Late Neolithic village in southern Greece (c. 5950–4500 cal. BC). Debate surrounding the nature of early farming predominantly revolves around the intensity of crop cultivation: did early farmers move around the landscape while practicing temporary farming methods such as slash and burn agriculture or did they create more permanent fields by investing high labor inputs into smaller pieces of land that produced higher crop yields? The need to address these questions using a direct assessment of the intensity and scale of cultivation is apparent, and an integrated stable isotope approach provides such an opportunity. The results of this study support the model of small-scale mixed farming, where crop cultivation and animal husbandry are closely integrated. The farmers directed their intensive management towards crops grown for human consumption (free-threshing wheat), while growing fodder crop (hulled barley) more extensively. Pulses were cultivated under a high-manuring/high-watering regime, likely in garden plots in rotation with free-threshing wheat. The diets of the livestock enable us to investigate which parts of the landscape were used for browsing and grazing and indicate that animal management changed in the Late Neolithic. The sheep and goats were now kept in smaller numbers and grazed together and new pasture grasses may have been sought for the grazing of cattle. This study demonstrates that beyond its applicability for palaeodietary reconstruction, analysis of stable isotopes of archaeological crop and animal remains has important implications for understanding the relationship between humans, plants and animals in an archaeological context.


      PubDate: 2013-12-04T04:43:10Z
       
  • Investigating archaeological looting using satellite images and GEORADAR:
           the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Rosa Lasaponara , Giovanni Leucci , Nicola Masini , Raffaele Persico
      Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. To this purpose Ground Penetrating Radar prospections were conducted in some looted sites.


      PubDate: 2013-12-04T04:43:10Z
       
  • Carn Goedog is the likely major source of Stonehenge doleritic bluestones:
           evidence based on compatible element geochemistry and Principal Component
           Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Richard E. Bevins , Rob A. Ixer , Nick J.G. Pearce
      The Stonehenge bluestones were first sourced to outcrops in the high parts of the eastern Mynydd Preseli in SW Wales by H.H. Thomas in the early 1920s. He recognised the distinctive ‘spotted dolerite’ from his fieldwork in that area and suggested that the tors of Carn Meini (also known as Carn Menyn) and Cerrigmarchogion were the most likely sources. In the early 1990s, in a major contribution to our understanding of the Stonehenge bluestones, the geochemistry of a set of samples from Stonehenge monoliths and debitage was determined and compared against the geochemistry of dolerites from the eastern Mynydd Preseli by a team from the Open University led by R.S. Thorpe. They argued that the majority of the Stonehenge dolerites could be sourced from outcrops in the Carn Meini-Carn Gyfrwy area, based on the concentrations of the so-called ‘immobile’ elements (elements which are not affected by rock alteration processes), in particular TiO2, Y, and Zr. However, these elements are incompatible during crystallization of mineral phases in basaltic systems (that is they do not enter into the mineral phases which are crystallizing but are concentrated in the residual liquid) which severely hampers their use in discriminating between different pulses of an evolving magma (as is the case of the doleritic sills emplaced high in the crust and now exposed in the Mynydd Preseli). An alternative strategy in this study re-examines the data set of Thorpe's team but investigates the concentration of elements which are compatible in such basaltic systems (that is elements which do enter into the crystallizing mineral phases), namely MgO, Ni, Cr and Fe2O3. On the basis of the abundances of these elements on bivariate plots and also by using Principal Component Analysis on the dataset available and various sub-sets we identify three compositional groupings for the Stonehenge doleritic monolith and debitage samples and conclude that the majority of them (Group 1 of this paper) can be sourced to the prominent outcrop in the eastern Mynydd Preseli known as Carn Goedog. We also offer potential sources (with one exception) for those Stonehenge dolerites which appear not to relate to Carn Goedog.


      PubDate: 2013-12-04T04:43:10Z
       
  • Dark earths and the human built landscape in Amazonia: a widespread
           pattern of anthrosol formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Morgan J. Schmidt , Anne Rapp Py-Daniel , Claide de Paula Moraes , Raoni B.M. Valle , Caroline F. Caromano , Wenceslau G. Texeira , Carlos A. Barbosa , João A. Fonseca , Marcos P. Magalhães , Daniel Silva do Carmo Santos , Renan da Silva e Silva , Vera L. Guapindaia , Bruno Moraes , Helena P. Lima , Eduardo G. Neves , Michael J. Heckenberger
      Ancient anthrosols known as Amazonian dark earths or terra preta are part of the human built landscape and often represent valuable landscape capital for modern Amazonian populations in the form of fertile agricultural soils. The fertility, resilience, and large stocks of carbon in terra preta have inspired research on their possible role in soil fertility management and also serve as an example for a growing biochar industry it is claimed will sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. Although there is considerable scientific and public interest in terra preta, there is still much debate and little concrete knowledge of the specific processes and contexts of its formation. Research indicates that the formation of terra preta occurred mainly in midden deposits, themselves patterned around habitation areas, public areas, and routes of movement. Data from topographic mapping, soil analyses, and excavations in three regions of Amazonia demonstrate a widespread pattern of anthrosol formation in ring-shaped mounds surrounding flat terraces that extend across large areas of prehistoric settlements. It is hypothesized that there is a widespread type or types of occupation where the terraces were domestic areas (houses or yards) surrounded by refuse disposal areas in middens which built up into mounds over time, forming large deposits of terra preta and creating what could be called a ‘middenscape’. Initial results support the hypotheses, showing the interrelationship of residential and public areas, anthrosols, routes of movement, and natural resources. The patterning of anthrosols in ancient settlements indicates the use of space and can therefore serve as a basis for comparison of community spatial organization between sites and regions.


      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:32:38Z
       
  • An historic sign, possible Mesolithic menhir, DStretch, and problems in
           dating rock art to the Sauveterrian in the Massif de Fontainebleau
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Duncan Caldwell , Ulrika Botzojorns
      This paper uses typological analyses and image-enhancement software called DStretch to eliminate an engraved and pigmented monolith as a chronological marker for dating the largest concentration of supposed Mesolithic rock art in the world – the “classic” schematic engravings of the Massif de Fontainebleau. It shows that part of the block, which was thought to have lain undisturbed for over 7000 years and has been referred to as a “Rosetta Stone” for dating the area's art, actually bears historic letters. The orientation of these painted letters, whose tops all point towards the block's narrow end, and absence of both the letters and apparent medieval engravings around the other end indicate that the monolith's broader end was planted in the soil and more tapered one was exposed when the markings were made. This means that the monolith was upright. The only candidate we could find for keeping it vertical for long on a sandy floor was an oval cluster of small rounded boulders in the Mesolithic layer underneath. If these stones were used to brace the block, its exposed section could have been marked at any time between the monolith's erection and collapse up to 7 millennia later. But they also indicate that the monolith may be one of the oldest known menhirs in France.


      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:32:38Z
       
  • Non-invasive investigation of a pre-Hispanic Maya screenfold book: the
           Madrid Codex
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): D. Buti , D. Domenici , C. Miliani , C. García Sáiz , T. Gómez Espinoza , F. Jímenez Villalba , A. Verde Casanova , A. Sabía de la Mata , A. Romani , F. Presciutti , B. Doherty , B.G. Brunetti , A. Sgamellotti
      The Madrid Codex, one of only a few existing pre-Hispanic Maya codices that survived the Spanish destruction, has been analysed in situ at the Museo de América in Madrid by means of an array of non-invasive techniques. This investigation has provided information concerning the colouring materials used in its manufacture, namely calcium carbonate, red ochre, vegetal carbon black and Maya blue pigments observing bright blue to grey hues. A discussion of archaeological implications of the materials identified, as well as some comparative observations with those previously acquired on the Central Mexican Codex Cospi have been addressed.


      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:32:38Z
       
  • Deeply colored and black-appearing Roman glass: a continued research
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): S. Cagno , P. Cosyns , A. Izmer , F. Vanhaecke , K. Nys , K. Janssens
      In the context of archaeological and historical assessment of Roman black-appearing glass, the chemical and physical characterization of a large collection of samples originating from various areas of the Roman Empire has been gathered over the past years to (i) verify whether a minor segment of the overall Roman glass production can help in determining possible diachronic changes in Roman imperial glass production (1st century AD – 5th century AD) and (ii) reveal regional compositional differences. In this paper, the latest results on the chemical composition of an additional 44 black-appearing Roman glass samples are presented, together with general conclusions based upon the entire compositional dataset of over 400 analyzed black glass samples. The results show that the Roman black glass is obtained through several glass compositions with a specific chronological, geographical and typological distribution.


      PubDate: 2013-11-30T04:32:38Z
       
  • Arsenical copper and bronze in Middle Bronze Age burial sites of southern
           Portugal: the first bronzes in Southwestern Iberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Pedro Valério , António M. Monge Soares , Maria Fátima Araújo , Rui J.C. Silva , Eduardo Porfírio , Miguel Serra
      Middle Bronze Age was a transition period in Iberia, characterised by the emergence of bronzes after more than a millennium of a conservative metallurgy of copper with arsenic. Despite its importance there are no relevant studies on MBA metallurgy in Southwestern Iberia due to the absence, until recently, of known settlements and the scarcity of metals. However, recent archaeological excavations have brought to light important finds dated to the SW Iberian Bronze Age such as new burial monuments and open settlements. About 50 artefacts from hypogea, cists and domestic contexts (pits) from Torre Velha 3 (Serpa) and Monte da Cabida 3 (Évora) were analysed by micro-EDXRF, reflected light microscopy, SEM–EDS and Vickers microhardness testing. Radiocarbon dating of their archaeological contexts established a chronology of ∼1900–1300 cal BC. Despite presenting different burial practices both sites share the almost exclusive use of arsenical coppers (4.1 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 1.5 wt.% As, respectively). However, few awls and a dagger from Torre Velha 3 are among the earliest evidence of bronze in SW Iberia, being dated to the second quarter of the 2nd Millennium BC. These bronzes are similar (9.6 ± 1.2 wt.% Sn) to LBA alloys suggesting trade with a region with a developed bronze metallurgy. The emergence of bronze in SW Iberia during the first half of the 2nd Millennium BC points to an earlier introduction or a more rapid expansion than initially assumed. Nevertheless, these arsenical coppers and bronzes display a similar manufacture involving hammering and annealing cycles. A final hammering increased the hardness, which could be higher for bronzes. Arsenical coppers display variable operational conditions often with poorer thermomechanical work as expected from a prehistoric technology. A bronze dagger with silver rivets evidences the prestige value of early bronzes to MBA communities. Similarly, an arsenical copper dagger with silver coloured rivets shows the ability of MBA metallurgists to replicate prestige objects with indigenous knowledge.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:34:45Z
       
  • Early Neolithic household behavior at Tell Seker al-Aheimar (Upper Khabur,
           Syria): a comparison to ethnoarchaeological study of phytoliths and dung
           spherulites
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Marta Portillo , Seiji Kadowaki , Yoshihiro Nishiaki , Rosa M. Albert
      Tell Seker al-Aheimar, located in the Upper Khabur, northeastern Syria, is an early Neolithic settlement that chrono-culturally spans from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) to the Proto-Hassuna period (Pottery Neolithic). The site is one of the largest and best documented Neolithic sites in this relatively poorly investigated region in Upper Mesopotamia. Among the occupation sequence of the site with well-defined architectural phases, the Late PPNB settlement (late 8th to early 7th millennium cal. BC) is characterized by an extensive mud-brick architecture, which comprises large multi-roomed rectangular buildings and gypsum-plastered floors. Our research questions center on the identification of domestic activities and their spatial distributions in the site through integrated studies of phytoliths and dung spherulites using an ethnoarchaeological approach. The ethnoarchaeological research included the study of agricultural and dung remains obtained from modern domestic structures from the top of the tell and the modern village of Seker al-Aheimar. The examined activity areas and materials comprised indoor storage and processing spaces, open areas, fireplaces, building materials and livestock enclosures. We use the ethnoarchaeological results to interpret the distributions of both phytolith and spherulite concentrations in archaeological contexts in terms of domestic activities that took place both within and outside buildings. Building spaces and their adjacent areas showed material accumulation resulting from household debris, including food remains, construction materials, matting, hearth cleaning and fuel residues. Indoor activities included the use of certain areas for storage, cereal-processing and cooking. The identification of livestock dung remains in fireplaces suggests the use of dung as a fuel source. We compare these new results with our previous studies of different phases and areas of the site to discuss diachronic and spatial trends in Neolithic household behaviors at Tell Seker al-Aheimar.


      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:34:45Z
       
  • In search of homelands: using strontium isotopes to identify biological
           markers of mobility in late prehistoric Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Anna J. Waterman , David W. Peate , Ana Maria Silva , Jonathan T. Thomas
      This study uses strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in dental enamel from burial populations related to the fortified Chalcolithic settlement site of Zambujal (c. 2800–1800 BC) to distinguish the presence of non-local individuals. Zambujal is located in the Estremadura region of Portugal near the Atlantic coast and has long been considered a central location of population aggregation, craft production, and trade during a time of increasing political centralization and social stratification until its eventually abandonment during the Bronze Age. While it is assumed that population migration and long distance trade played an important role in the region's development, little is known about the migration patterns of individuals or groups. The results of this study find that nine percent (5 out of 55) of the total surveyed individuals can be classified as non-local (based on 87Sr/86Sr values distinct from the local bioavailable range of 0.7090–0.7115 as defined by 2sd of the sampled human mean), the majority of which come from one burial site, Cova da Moura. Comparisons with other regional data suggest the possibility that some of these non-locals come from the Alentejo region of the Portuguese interior, corresponding with known exchange patterns.


      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:34:45Z
       
  • Anglo-Saxon origins investigated by isotopic analysis of burials from
           Berinsfield, Oxfordshire, UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Susan S. Hughes , Andrew R. Millard , Sam J. Lucy , Carolyn A. Chenery , Jane A. Evans , Geoff Nowell , D. Graham Pearson
      The early fifth century transition from Roman Britain to Anglo-Saxon England is a poorly understood period in British history. Historical narratives describe a brutal conquest by Anglo-Saxon invaders with nearly complete replacement of the indigenous population, but aspects of the archaeological record contradict this interpretation leading to competing hypotheses. Rather than replacement, a smaller group of Germanic immigrants may have settled in England as part of the social, religious, and political turmoil happening in western Europe at this time (Dark, 2000; Henig, 2002; Higham, 1992) or rapid acculturation with little contribution from Germanic immigrants may have occurred in the vacuum of Roman abandonment. As the number of Anglo-Saxon immigrants arriving in Britain is one of the focal issues of this debate, strontium and oxygen isotopic ratios, with their ability to identify immigrants in a burial population, offer a technique to test competing hypotheses. We employ oxygen and strontium isotope ratios in tooth enamel to identify the number of continental immigrants in a sample of 19 individuals from the early Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Wally Corner, Berinsfield in the Upper Thames Valley, Oxfordshire, UK. Local variation in bio-available strontium isotope ratios is established using faunal remains from the site and by sampling soils on geological formations within 8 km of the site. The oxygen isotope results show a homogeneous sample that is slightly enriched when calibrated to local meteoric water. One individual with a significantly depleted value may be a continental immigrant. Three others are strontium outliers. With only 5.3% of the sample originating from Europe, the isotopic data support the hypothesis of acculturation. In addition, the isotopic data shows no temporal patterning, although females show a statistically significant enrichment in the oxygen isotope ratio.


      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:34:45Z
       
  • Pre-agricultural management of plant resources during the Jomon period in
           Japan—a sophisticated subsistence system on plant resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Shuichi Noshiro , Yuka Sasaki
      In Japan plant remains excavated from lowland sites have been studied extensively in the past thirty years. These studies revealed that, during the Jomon period dating from 15,000–2500 cal BP that had polished stone tools and pottery but not agriculture, people managed plant resources around settlements intensively since the early Jomon period starting at ca. 7000 cal BP. This management of plant resources was first recognized as intensive use of Castanea crenata timbers around settlements and later confirmed with sustained occurrence of Castanea pollen around settlements only while settlements were maintained. Later studies revealed that, besides C. crenata resources, Jomon people managed forests of Toxicodendron vernicifluum introduced from China to make lacquer ware and cultivated other introduced plants such as Cannabis sativa, Lagenaria siceraria var. siceraria, and Perilla frutescens var. frutescens. Jomon people also seemed to have produced cultivated forms of C. crenata and legumes from native plants that bore fruits or seeds as large as modern cultigens. Thus, Jomon people had sophisticated management of plant resources centering on woody plants and tended and used them intensively.


      PubDate: 2013-11-26T04:34:45Z
       
  • Cryptotephra as a dating and correlation tool in archaeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): C.S. Lane , V.L. Cullen , D. White , C.W.F. Bramham-Law , V.C. Smith
      A new development in archaeological chronology involves the use of far travelled volcanic ash which may form discrete but invisible layers within a site's stratigraphy. Known as cryptotephra, these horizons can provide isochrons for the precise correlation of archaeological records at single moments in time, removing, or at least significantly reducing, temporal uncertainty within inter-site comparisons. When a tephra can be dated elsewhere, its age can be imported between records, providing an independent check on other dating methods in use and valuable age estimates for difficult to date sequences. The use of cryptotephra layers to date and correlate palaeoenvironmental archives is well established and there exists a wealth of tephra compositional data and regional tephrostratigraphic frameworks from which archaeological cryptotephra studies can benefit greatly. Existing approaches to finding and analysing cryptotephra are easily adapted to archaeological sequences, so long as the often complex nature of archaeological stratigraphies and sediment taphonomy are borne in mind.


      PubDate: 2013-11-22T04:14:07Z
       
  • The palaeo-Christian glass mosaic of St. Prosdocimus (Padova, Italy):
           archaeometric characterisation of tesserae with copper- or tin-based
           opacifiers
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Alberta Silvestri , Serena Tonietto , Gianmario Molin , Paolo Guerriero
      This paper reports the results of archaeometric characterisation of the tesserae, intentionally coloured with or without copper- or tin-based opacifiers, in the palaeo-Christian glass mosaic of St. Prosdocimus in Padova. In particular, 54 tesserae belonging to colour types Orange, Red, Brown, Green, Blue and Yellow are examined here. The multi-methodological approach (SEM-EDS, EMPA, XRPD, imaging spectroscopy in some cases coupled with XAS) gave valuable insights into the complex technologies behind palaeo-Christian glass mosaic production, with identification of various glassy matrixes typical of both Roman and Late Roman periods, and of opacifiers, both crystallised in situ (e.g., metallic copper and cuprite) and ex situ (e.g., cassiterite and lead stannate) and colourants (mainly iron, manganese and copper), all variously mixed in order to obtain the desired shades. In addition, the combination of all textural, chemical, diffractometric and spectroscopic data allows us to hypothesise that all the tesserae, used to decorate the Paduan chapel, were produced in the 6th century AD. This is because each chromatic group examined here reveals at least one technical feature typical of the 6th century and, in this context, the type of glassy matrix and/or opacifier used turns out to be particularly discriminatory. In particular, tesserae with copper-based opacifiers (cuprite and metallic copper), although the latter had been used from the Bronze Age onwards, are all characterised by the matrixes typical of the Late Roman period; tesserae with tin-based opacifiers are characterised by matrixes typical of both Roman and Late Roman periods and by opacifiers, which was not systematically used before the 4th century. However, the close compositional, textural and technological similarities of the tesserae from each chromatic group, particularly evident into those with tin-based opacifiers, is consistent with a small number of specialised workshops and skilled workers. Peculiar relationships among the oxidation states of colouring elements, their contents in the matrix, the type of opacifiers used, and the final colour of the tesserae were all identified. The correlations between copper and other associated elements (e.g., tin, zinc, antimony, iron), together with micro-textural observations, allow inferences regarding possible sources. Technological connections between Padova and Ravenna, the capital of Byzantine mosaic production in Italy, were documented, although in the case of orange tesserae good chemical correspondence was also identified with the Near East. Lastly, soda ash identified in Opaque Red and Orange tesserae are indicative of Medieval restoration.


      PubDate: 2013-11-22T04:14:07Z
       
  • Shell bead production in the Upper Paleolithic of Vale Boi (SW Portugal):
           an experimental perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Frederico Tátá , João Cascalheira , João Marreiros , Telmo Pereira , Nuno Bicho
      In this paper, we focused on shell bead production during the Upper Paleolithic at the site of Vale Boi in Southwestern Portugal as a means of understanding social visual transmission. Vale Boi has a long sequence dated to between c. 32 and 7 ka cal BP with well-preserved bone and shell assemblages from early Gravettian to Neolithic times. The archaeological shell bead collection includes over 100 specimens from the Gravettian, Proto-Solutrean, Solutrean and Magdalenian layers from Vale Boi, including at least 5 species: Littorina obtusata or Littorina fabalis, Trivia sp., Antalis sp., Mitrella scripta and Theodoxus fluviatilis. Experimental replication techniques included scratching, sawing, and hammering using lithic and bone implements on both internal and external sides of the shells. Experimental results indicate that there are a series of potential fabrication techniques for bead production, but there is a clear tendency in the archaeological record to use a single technique for each shell species. There also seems to be a focus on using a fast technique rather than a slower one, which seems to produce higher quality results. Finally, we also address the topic of the impact of bead production techniques on the evolution of bead design technology through all Upper Paleolithic record in SW Portugal.


      PubDate: 2013-11-22T04:14:07Z
       
  • Residential histories of elites and sacrificial victims at Huacas de
           Moche, Peru, as reconstructed from oxygen isotopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): J. Marla Toyne , Christine D. White , John W. Verano , Santiago Uceda Castillo , Jean François Millaire , Fred J. Longstaffe
      Early state formation on the Andean coast resulted in the creation of monumental, densely populated urban centers. The prehispanic Peruvian site of Huacas de Moche (∼A.D. 100–850) was one of the largest sites that developed during the Early Intermediate Period, and we examine its urban population dynamics and community interaction here. We use phosphate oxygen isotope compositions (δ 18Op) of tooth enamel (formed during childhood) and bone (continuously remodeled during life) to reconstruct the residential histories of 34 Moche individuals interred in urban tomb and sacrificial contexts at this site. These data are also used to explore the highly debated origin of Moche sacrifices and discuss the shift in victims' geographic origins over time. Local baseline water sources (δ 18Ow) were used to interpret the human δ 18Op values. Females from urban residential compound and platform mound tombs have more variable δ 18Op values than males, which suggest a patrilocal residence pattern. Males from the same elite contexts have δ 18Op values that reflect local water compositions, demonstrating lifetime residential stability and therefore a local elite. An earlier sacrificial group (Plaza 3C) appears to consist mostly of local individuals, but the greater inclusion of non-local individuals in a later sacrificial group (Plaza 3A) reflects more variability in origins of victims during later Moche state development. While the nature of Moche socio-political structure remains contentious, these data suggest a high degree of population mobility among distant Moche centers.


      PubDate: 2013-11-22T04:14:07Z
       
  • Ivory debitage by fracture in the Aurignacian: experimental and
           archaeological examples
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 42
      Author(s): Claire E. Heckel , Sibylle Wolf
      The recent focus on methods of osseous material transformation in the study of Upper Paleolithic technologies has shown that approaches to these materials vary between phases of the Upper Paleolithic. In the absence of the groove-and-splinter technique of blank extraction first widely documented in the Gravettian, production of ivory, bone, and antler blanks in the Aurignacian relied on processes of splitting and percussive fracture. The technological treatment of bone and antler in Aurignacian contexts has benefitted from renewed attention, but ivory processing and blank-production remains poorly understood in spite of the unique place that ivory occupies in many Aurignacian assemblages. In order to clarify the diagnostic features of ivory debitage, a series of experiments was conducted to produce ivory flakes under varying knapping conditions. These diagnostic features are products of the application of force to the complex internal morphology of proboscidean tusks, as explained in this article. Improved criteria for the identification of ivory flakes and manufacturing byproducts in the archaeological record are presented, and are illustrated with examples from two Aurignacian sites well known for ivory processing: Abri Castanet (Dordogne, France) and Hohle Fels Cave (Swabian Jura, Germany). A better understanding of ivory structure and improved identification of the products of ivory debitage in the Aurignacian will aid in the recovery and analysis of ivory artifacts and further efforts to reconstruct technological approaches to this complex material.


      PubDate: 2013-11-22T04:14:07Z
       
 
 
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