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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 223 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 40)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeofauna     Open Access  
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access  
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Comechingonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

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Journal Cover   Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [60 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2799 journals]
  • Experimental dissolution of lead from bronze vessels and the lead content
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ying Qin, Haomiao Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Huang Huang, Ya Qin, Yaoting Xie
      Human skeletal lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental factors. However, there is minimal research into the lead content found in ancient Chinese human remains. A series of dissolving lead experiments on ancient bronze vessels containing lead revealed that lead contamination occurred when ancient people used lead-rich alloy vessels for cooking, heating and storing food and wine. 65 ancient bone and teeth samples (from occupants of tombs and sacrificed people and dogs of different tombs) excavated from a Western Zhou Period (B.C.1046∼B.C.771) burial area in Hengbei, Jiangxian of Shanxi Provinces were analysed using ICP-MS to determine their lead content. The lead content of teeth and bones from the remains of high-status individuals differs from those of the slaves and servants within the same tombs. In addition, it is observable that differences of bone lead contents are clearly related to social ranks.

      PubDate: 2015-10-03T21:00:36Z
  • Iron Age Migration on the island of Öland: Apportionment of Strontium
           by Means of Bayesian Mixing Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Helene Wilhelmson, Torbjörn Ahlström
      Migration is a complex subject to approach in archeology and the new materials and methods available, such as isotope analysis and DNA, make it possible, and necessary, to ask new questions. The objective of this paper is to highlight the possibilities with using a new approach to migration on a population level by applying Bayesian mixing analysis of strontium isotopes. The selected case, the island of Öland in the Baltic, was based on 109 human samples dated to the Early (500 BC-AD 400,n=71) and Late (AD 400-1050, n=38) periods. The results from both periods demonstrate that the distribution of Strontium (Sr) is multimodal with several peaks not associated with the local variation. Our results show a large immigration to Öland from other geological areas, with 32% of the population in the Early period and 47% in the Late period being nonlocal. In order to unravel these distributions, we use a Bayesian mixing analysis. The Bayesian mixing analysis provides us with a mean to disentangle the distribution of Sr that is not uninformed. The gravity model, however simplistic, is relevant for explaining the strontium variation in the population in Öland both in the Early and Late period. Our results indicate a significant internal migration in Scandinavia that is increasing in the Late Iron Age at the same time as the Viking expansions (the more well studied external migration), which is usually the only migration discussed. We argue that the method proposed and tested on the case of Öland adds new perspectives for approaching migration patterns in general on a population level, a perspective that is hitherto lacking in archaeology.

      PubDate: 2015-09-28T21:41:26Z
  • Beyond redundancy and multiplicity. Integrating phytolith analysis and
           micromorphology to the study of Brussels Dark Earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Luc Vrydaghs, Terry B. Ball, Yannick Devos
      Multiplicity, when different phytolith morphotypes are produced within a taxon, and redundancy, when the same phytolith morphotypes are produced by different taxa, are persistent challenges in phytolith analysis. This article discusses and demonstrates how micromorphological and phytolith analyses of soil thin sections can be integrated to address issues of redundancy and multiplicity, as well as depositional history when studying archaeological soils and sediments. Opal phytoliths are created by the accumulation and precipitation of monosilicic acid (Si(OH)4) within plant tissues. Usually the process produces a variety of phytolith morphotypes with specific anatomical distribution within the plant tissues. When deposited in soil, phytoliths from decomposed plant tissue become microfossils of the plants in which they were produced. Decomposition or decay of plant tissue can take place either before or after it is incorporated into the soil matrix. When decay takes place after plant tissue is incorporated into a soil matrix, the anatomical distribution of the phytoliths within the tissue is often preserved, if the soil has not been affected by post-burial disturbances. Typically, analysis of phytoliths in soil begins with removing the phytoliths from the soil using techniques such as heavy liquid floatation, thereby destroying much of the distribution pattern of the phytoliths within the matrix and losing potentially important data. Analyzing phytoliths within soil thin sections is becoming a more frequently applied alternative to analyzing phytoliths extracted from the soil. Thin sections preserve the distribution patterns of phytoliths within an archaeological deposit or soil and as such can help researchers answer questions concerning redundancy, multiplicity and depositional history. In this study we demonstrate how the integration of phytolith analysis with micromorphological analysis of a series of thin sections made from Brussels urban archaeological deposits that have complex and multiphase formation histories can be used to differentiate phytoliths with different histories. The potential for improved botanical identification of the different groups of phytoliths is also discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-09-24T20:01:11Z
  • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and spatial analysis of
           geometric lines in the Northern Arabian Desert
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): C.D. Athanassas, G.O. Rollefson, A. Kadereit, D. Kennedy, K. Theodorakopoulou, Y.M. Rowan, A. Wasse
      In this paper we generate chronological constraints through optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on extensive prehistoric stone structures that stretch out in the Arabian Desert and appear as geometric lines, known as the "Works of the Old Men". Two major types of the "Works" that are common throughout the Arabian Desert are the "wheels" and the more intensively investigated "desert kites". Here, OSL dating was applied to "wheels" in the Wadi Wisad area, in the eastern badia of Jordan. OSL dating generated ages that fall into the Late Neolithic to Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. This chronological spectrum is consistent with the well-documented prehistoric activities at the archaeological site of Wisad Pools, also located in the Wadi Wisad area. Spatial analyses of the "Works" in Wadi Wisad and in the Azraq Oasis revealed that: 1) the wheels are organized in clusters, 2) the spatial distribution of the wheels is predetermined by the kites, 3) the kites were most probably created earlier than the wheels in the study areas and 4) a cluster of wheels nearby the Azraq Oasis tentatively demonstrates ranking and, perhaps, tendency for alignment, although this is not the case for the other wheel-clusters studied. Despite the progress toward understanding the chronological and spatial aspects of the wheels, a great deal of research remains to resolve the actual nature of these enigmatic stone structures.

      PubDate: 2015-09-24T20:01:11Z
  • A Conceptual Framework for a Computer-Assisted, Morphometric-Based
           Phytolith Analysis and Classification System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Rand R. Evett, Rob Q. Cuthrell
      Although automated approaches to shape analysis and object classification have been widely applied in the biological sciences, technical and time considerations have limited their use in phytolith research. As advanced microscopy systems become more affordable and accessible and digital imaging software provides a wider range of sophisticated analytical tools, there is increased potential for effective use of machine-vision and automation in phytolith research. In this paper, we describe technical limitations of phytolith imaging and identify several techniques that might improve results. Drawing on examples of software developed for related disciplines, we then describe a conceptual framework for development and integration of automated phytolith analysis software for: separating phytoliths from non-phytolith material in digital images; segmentation of phytolith boundaries; quantitative phytolith feature extraction, including a discussion of potentially more powerful, non-traditional parameters of phytolith shape and texture; phytolith classification and identification; and phytolith database image retrieval. While recognizing the difficulty of implementing this framework and the need for extensive empirical testing of suggested approaches on phytoliths, we examine the possibility of aggregating quantitative phytolith data collected in studies worldwide to construct a cloud-based database of phytolith images with associated morphotype data.

      PubDate: 2015-09-19T21:57:29Z
  • The Development of Phytoliths in Plants and its Influence on their
           Chemistry and Isotopic Composition. Implications for Palaeoecology and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Martin J. Hodson
      Relatively little is known about how phytoliths develop and form in the plant. We will consider the development of phytoliths where silica is deposited in the cell wall and those where it is deposited in the cell lumen. The cellular environment in which phytoliths develop affects their chemistry. In cell wall phytoliths, silica is deposited onto a carbohydrate matrix which gives the silica some order. Lumen phytoliths would be expected to contain more lipids, proteins and possibly nucleic acids than cell wall phytoliths. The chemical structure of the silica in phytoliths, other elements within their structure (calcium, aluminium, carbon, nitrogen), and isotopes of silicon, oxygen, and carbon may all give information beyond the more usual morphological analysis. There is increasing interest in using these features as proxies in palaeoecological and archaeological research.

      PubDate: 2015-09-19T21:57:29Z
  • New Approaches to Modeling the Volume of Earthen Archaeological Features:
           A Case-Study from the Hopewell Culture Mounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Matthew Magnani, Whittaker Schroder
      Raised archaeological features form an abundant part of the prehistoric record, and come in many forms, from earthen mounds to shell mounds. To calculate the volume of these features, archaeologists have relied on multiple strategies from simple geometric formulae to the use of aerial photogrammetry, typically to create energetic estimates of construction. No matter the technique, an undeveloped application of such volume estimates has the potential to inform our understanding of erosional processes and feature degradation. The largest of these earthen structures are typically best mapped and studied, leaving a paucity of data on the smaller, ubiquitous and often peripheral earthworks presently understudied at major archaeological sites. These smaller mounds are significantly threatened to disappear completely from the record simply because of their lesser volume. Using case studies from the Hopewell and Newark mounds of the United States, we compare traditional methods of calculating mound volume for the purposes of ascertaining erosional processes with new photogrammetric protocols. Prior to this, the methodology is checked using artificially constructed earthworks of known volume, which are modified in controlled ways. The results presented here have implications not only for understanding prehistoric energetics more accurately in commonly overlooked portions of archaeological sites, but can also be used in the protection and potential reconstruction of archaeological mound features. While these sites are often afforded better protection than they have been in the past, they are still exposed to natural and man-made erosional processes which warrants their detailed recording.

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T07:18:20Z
  • The prehistoric individual, connoisseurship and archaeological science:
           The Muisca goldwork of Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Marcos Martinón-Torres, María Alicia Uribe-Villegas
      Unlike art historians, archaeologists rarely make systematic attempts at attributing artefacts to individual artisans – they stop at the broader category of ‘provenance regions’ or ‘technical styles’. The identification of archaeological individuals, however, allows detailed insight into the organisation of workshops, knowledge transmission, skill, and the tension between individual and social agency. This paper reviews the potential of archaeological science methods to identify individual artisans through the study of material culture. Focusing on the Muisca votive goldwork of Colombia, it combines stylistic, chemical and microscopic analyses to identify idiosyncratic motor habits, material selections and artistic preferences that allow the identification of individual makers and manufacturing events. The results are informative of the internal dynamics between the Muisca technological tradition, religious behaviour and craft specialists. We conclude by outlining the potentials and challenges of science-based archaeological connoisseurship in other contexts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-09-12T07:18:20Z
  • Striking a difference? The effect of knapping techniques on blade
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Hege Damlien
      Studies of lithic blade technology offer an important step towards explanations of technological diversification among Stone Age hunter-gatherers, and for tracking continuity and change in cultural traits through time and space. One prominent example is the many efforts to map the spatiotemporal diffusion of pressure blade technology. In this context, a key concern is to distinguish the various knapping techniques, applied by prehistoric knappers. Specific observable blade attributes, found by experimental work is proposed to provide essential information, to determine the technique used. To date, however, the causal relationship between blade knapping techniques and postulated technique-related attributes remains largely untested in quantitative terms. With the purpose of contributing to a better understanding of how various knapping techniques, and in this case the indentor type used for blade removal, effect particular aspects of blade morphology, statistical analysis of experimental data is used, and subsequently applied as a basis for predicting knapping techniques in blade assemblages from Early and Middle Mesolithic (ca. 9500–6300 cal. BC) Southern Norway. The results clearly indicate a considerable overlap in the distributions of the majority of the attributes with regards to technique, and that their causal relationship should be viewed with considerable caution. The discriminate capability increases, however, when specific composite attributes are considered. Importantly, what is also shown is that at the blade population level, results from statistical analysis of experimental data contribute to predict general tendencies in knapping technique variability in archaeological blade assemblages, while simultaneously formalising the discriminating characteristics that differentiate those assemblages. Taken together, these results have implications when investigating variation and change in blade technology in time and space.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • Multi-emission luminescence dating of heated chert from the Middle Stone
           Age sequence at Sodmein Cave (Red Sea Mountains, Egypt)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Christoph Schmidt, Karin Kindermann, Philip van Peer, Olaf Bubenzer
      Sodmein Cave in Egypt is one of the rare archaeological sites in north-eastern Africa conserving human occupation remains of a period most relevant for the ‘Out of Africa II’ hypothesis. This underlines the need for establishing a chronological framework for the more than 4 m of stratified sediments ranging from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Neolithic. The lowest layer J hosts huge fireplaces, from which we report luminescence ages of heated chert fragments unearthed from different depths. The ‘multi-emission’ dating approach – using both the blue and red TL of each specimen as well as the OSL emission of one sample – allowed identifying the most reliable ages. Samples yield ages between <121 ± 15 ka (maximum age) and 87 ± 9 ka. These data evidence human presence at the site during MIS 5. For integrating Sodmein Cave into the actual discussion of the dispersal patterns of modern humans and to identify potential connections with other sites in the Nile Valley and in the Middle East, a sound and reliable chronology is indispensable.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • A revised chronology for the archaeology of the lower Yangtze, China,
           based on Bayesian statistical modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Tengwen Long, David Taylor
      Bayesian statistical modelling, based on 128 existing radiometric (radiocarbon and thermoluminescence) dates and associated information from a database totalling 252 dates, was used to generate a revised chronological framework for the lower Yangtze, eastern China. The framework covers the period from the terminal Pleistocene through to the mid to late Holocene, and thus the appearance of and subsequent developments in food production in the region, which is marked in the archaeological record by seven cultural phases. Results indicate that the age span of the Shangshan, Kuahuqiao, Hemudu, Majiabang, Songze, Liangzhu, and Maqiao cultural phase were, respectively, ca. 10,800–8600 cal BP, ca. 7900–7200 cal BP, ca. 7100–5200 cal BP, ca. 7200–5200 cal BP, ca. 5700–5200 cal BP, ca. 5500–4000 cal BP, and ca. 3700–3200 cal BP. In addition to providing a basis for a more robust absolute dating of archaeological remains in the lower Yangtze in the future, the results raise important questions deserving of further research. These questions relate to a priori assumptions concerning the degree of temporal separation of Neolithic cultural phases on the Yangtze Delta. A coexistence of cultures on the Yangtze Delta evident in the results does not accord with the existing model for the region, which generally assumes a replacement of one cultural phase by the next. Coexistence of cultures could have been supported by a high degree of environmental variability on the Yangtze Delta, or by social factors, such as different levels of preference towards innovations or traditions, or some combination of factors.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • Compound-specific amino acid isotopic proxies for detecting freshwater
           resource consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Emily C. Webb, Noah V. Honch, Philip J.H. Dunn, Gunilla Eriksson, Kerstin Lidén, Richard P. Evershed
      Of central importance to palaeodietary reconstruction is a clear understanding of relative contributions of different terrestrial (i.e., C3 vs. C4 plants) and aquatic (i.e., freshwater vs. marine) resources to human diet. There are, however, significant limitations associated with the ability to reconstruct palaeodiet using bulk collagen stable isotope compositions in regions where diverse dietary resources are available. Recent research has determined that carbon-isotope analysis of individual amino acids has considerable potential to elucidate dietary protein source where bulk isotopic compositions cannot. Using δ 13CAA values for human and faunal remains from Zvejnieki, Latvia (8th – 3rd millennia BCE), we test several isotopic proxies focused on distinguishing freshwater protein consumption from both plant-derived and marine protein consumption. We determined that the Δ 13CGly-Phe and Δ 13CVal-Phe proxies can effectively discriminate between terrestrial and aquatic resource consumption, and the relationship between essential δ 13CAA values and the Δ 13CGly-Phe and Δ 13CVal-Phe proxies can differentiate among the four protein consumption groups tested here. Compound-specific amino acid carbon-isotope dietary proxies thus enable an enhanced understanding of diet and resource exploitation in the past, and can elucidate complex dietary behaviour.

      PubDate: 2015-09-07T19:26:58Z
  • “All Models are Wrong But Some Are Useful”: A Response to
           Campbell’s Comment on Estimating Mytilus californianus Shell Size
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Gerald G. Singh, Iain McKechnie, Todd J. Braje, Breana Campbell
      Developing useful methods for estimating animal body size from fragmentary remains is a key focus of zooarchaeological research. Here, we respond to Greg Campbell’s critique regarding methods we recently developed to predict Mytilus californianus shell size from archaeological contexts using linear regression. We show that Campbell’s assertion that our regressions are “inaccurate” is incorrect and mischaracterizes the premise and results of our study. We appreciate that Campbell draws attention to the importance of allometry but do not agree that archaeologists must first describe ontogenetic size relationships before developing a practical method for size prediction in zooarchaeology. We further argue that pooling data from broad geographic scales incorporates diverse growing conditions into a predictive model to account for the uncertainties across archaeological time scales. We conclude by highlighting the difference between zoological and zooarchaeological research goals and emphasize that the precision required for a particular analysis can create a mismatch between analytical expectations and archaeologically applicable research questions.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T08:06:42Z
  • Archaeological sequence diagrams and Bayesian chronological models
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Thomas S. Dye, Caitlin E. Buck
      This paper develops directed graph representations for a class of archaeological sequence diagrams, such as the Harris Matrix, that do not include information on duration. These “stratigraphic directed graphs” differ from previous software implementations of the Harris Matrix, which employ a mix of directed graph and other data structures and algorithms. A “chronological directed graph” to represent the relationships in a Bayesian chronological model that correspond to the possibilities inherent in a sequence diagram, and an algorithm to map a stratigraphic directed graph to a chronological directed graph are proposed and illustrated with an example. These results are intended to be a proof of concept for the design of a front-end for Bayesian calibration software that is based directly on the archaeological stratigrapher's identification of contexts, observations of stratigraphic relationships, inferences concerning parts of once-whole contexts, and selection of materials for radiocarbon dating.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T08:06:42Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • 6500-Year-old Nassarius shell appliqués in Timor-Leste: technological
           and use wear analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62
      Author(s): Michelle C. Langley, Sue O'Connor
      With recognition of the early Holocene antiquity of marine shell beads in Island Southeast Asia only recently occurring, we become aware of how little is really known regarding this enigmatic class of material culture. Here we report on worked Nassarius spp. shells recovered from the Timorese sites of Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2, and which date back to around 6500 years ago. Analysis of manufacturing traces, use wear, and residues apparent on these 91 shell artefacts indicate that they were most likely used as appliqués attached to a textile or other woven item (such as baskets). These are the first mid-Holocene shell appliqués to be identified in this region, and only the second example of this technology at this antiquity identified in the world. Consistency in manufacturing methods and use over several thousand years at the studied sites indicates a >4500 year long tradition of Nassarius spp. shell appliqué use in Timor-Leste.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Molecular evidence of use of hide glue in 4th millennium BC Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Niels Bleicher, Christian Kelstrup, Jesper V. Olsen, Enrico Cappellini
      A well-preserved bow, dated by dendrochronology to 3176–3153 BC, was found at the waterlogged Neolithic site “Parkhaus Opéra” in Zurich (Switzerland). The surface of the bow, made of yew (Taxus baccata), was decorated with bark strips from a different, broad-leaved, tree species. In order to investigate whether the bark decoration was fixed to the bow with hide or fish glue, mass spectrometry (MS)-based ancient protein sequencing was attempted to detect possible traces of collagen residues. The sequences retrieved, in particular collagen type 3 (COL3A1), indicate that most probably skin, and possibly other slaughtering by-products, were used as the initial materials to produce hide glue. Amongst the candidate animal species that the glue could have originated from, cattle and domestic ovicaprids were confidently identified. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the oldest evidence of the use of animal-based glue in Europe. It demonstrates that in the late 4th millennium BC human communities, aside from benefitting from more commonplace primary and secondary products, also exploited domestic animals to extract a high value-added biochemical.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Fatal force-feeding or Gluttonous Gagging? The death of Kestrel SACHM
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Salima Ikram, Ruhan Slabbert, Izak Cornelius, Anton du Plessis, Liani Colette Swanepoel, Henry Weber
      The use of digital CT imaging on a bird mummy from Iziko Museums of South Africa in Cape Town has allowed us to carry out a virtual autopsy on the animal. We have been able to establish its species, cause and probable time of death, as well as, for the first time, to find evidence for the maintenance of a captive raptor population in ancient Egypt. This may represent early evidence of keeping raptors in captivity anywhere in the world.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T12:42:01Z
  • Diet and herding strategies in a changing environment: Stable isotope
           analysis of Bronze Age and Late Antique skeletal remains from
           Ya'amūn, Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Michela Sandias, Gundula Müldner
      Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 45 human and 23 faunal bone collagen samples were measured to study human diet and the management of domestic herbivores in past Jordan, contrasting skeletal remains from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and the Late Roman and Byzantine periods from the site of Ya'amūn near Irbid. The isotope data demonstrate that the management of the sheep and goats changed over time, with the earlier animals consuming more plants from semi-arid habitats, possibly because of transhumant herding strategies. The isotope data for fish presented here are the first from archaeological contexts from the Southern Levant. Although fish of diverse provenance was available at the site, human diet was predominately based on terrestrial resources and there was little dietary variability within each time-period. Isotopic variation between humans from different time-periods can mostly be explained by ‘baseline shifts’ in the available food sources; however, it is suggested that legumes may have played a more significant role in Middle and Late Bronze Age diet than later on.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Communities of identity, communities of practice: Understanding Santa Fe
           black-on-white pottery in the Española Basin of new Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Suzanne L. Eckert, Kari L. Schleher, William D. James
      The research presented here focuses on Santa Fe Black-on-white pottery produced during the Late Coalition/Early Classic Transition (AD 1250–1350) in the northern Rio Grande region, New Mexico. We combine design data with compositional analyses to gain a greater understanding of ceramic production and circulation in this region and to evaluate the communities of practice and communities of identity reflected in pottery. We combine mineralogical and INAA chemical compositional datasets to argue for at least three production provenances; we further argue that nine potential petrofacies represent different resource procurement zones within the production provenances. We argue that these data, combined, represent a minimum of three different communities of practice. Despite multiple communities of practice, similar designs were being used as decoration that reflects a single community of identity. We argue that during this transitional time period examined here, producers of Santa Fe Black-on-white were intentionally practicing a form of identity maintenance across all of the villages in which it was produced.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Backed point experiments for identifying mechanically-delivered armatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Katsuhiro Sano, Masayoshi Oba
      The emergence of mechanically-delivered armatures was a crucial event in human evolution, indicating technological and cognitive advances. Morphometric analysis has been the most commonly employed method to explore this subject. While a morphometric analysis can demonstrate a potential capability as a projectile, it is inevitable that the analyzed sample includes artifacts that were not used as hunting weapons. Furthermore, proxies derived from ethnographic references might be dependent on spatio-temporal contexts. Thus, a reliable identification of spearthrower darts and arrowheads in archaeological assemblages requires new indicators. Here we present results of controlled experiments, using backed point replicas, designed to test a correlation between impact velocities and impact trace patterns. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of experimental replicas indicated that complex fracture formation, including large numbers and dimensions of spin-offs as well as distinctive microscopic linear impact traces (MLITs), provide useful markers for determining mechanically-delivered backed points.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • Cooking fish and drinking milk? Patterns in pottery use in the
           southeastern Baltic, 3300–2400 cal BC
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Carl Heron, Oliver E. Craig, Alexandre Luquin, Valerie J. Steele, Anu Thompson, Gytis Piličiauskas
      A study of pottery vessel contents and use was undertaken in order to obtain information on food processed in Subneolithic and Neolithic vessels from Nida and Šventoji (3300–2400 cal BC). The aim is to assess pottery use during major changes in the coastal environment and in material culture. Bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope, lipid biomarker and compound specific carbon isotope analysis was undertaken on ‘foodcrusts’, charred deposits adhering to vessel surfaces, and absorbed residues from different vessel types. In addition, three archaeological seal bones were analysed for bulk collagen and compound specific carbon isotope analysis to establish collagen-lipid offsets to inform interpretation of the data. The results show that the majority of the vessels were used for processing aquatic products. At Nida the data suggest exploitation of freshwater resources and, in the later stages of occupation, dairying. Analysis of a small number of Subneolithic vessels from Šventoji produced results that are also consistent with processing of aquatic products. Other substances identified include Pinaceae sp. resin or tar and beeswax. These data demonstrate that identifying patterns in pottery use contributes to understanding Neolithisation processes.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
  • The implication of varying 14C concentrations in carbon samples extracted
           from Mongolian iron objects of the Mongol period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jang-Sik Park
      Accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) radiocarbon measurements were performed with carbon samples extracted from cast iron and steel artifacts excavated in the 13th to 14th century Karakorum site of the Mongol period. The 14 C levels in most specimens were too low to represent the real age of the given artifacts, particularly in cast iron objects, whose 14 C concentrations were negligible. This discrepancy was much less pronounced in steel objects, but still quite significant. One notable exception was found, however, in a steel artifact whose radiocarbon date was consistent with its known age. These AMS data suggest that mineral coal was employed primarily for the smelting of cast iron while charcoal served as the major source of fuel for other iron and steelmaking processes. This can explain the significant variation in 14 C concentrations for steel products that were fabricated by treating cast iron in a charcoal-fired environment, as confirmed in some of the artifacts examined. This variation may have important archaeological applications in characterizing technological transitions associated with the use of fossil fuels in preindustrial iron industry.

      PubDate: 2015-08-21T01:51:39Z
  • Eneolithic copper smelting slags in the Eastern Alps: local patterns of
           metallurgical exploitation in the Copper Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): G. Artioli, I. Angelini, U. Tecchiati, A. Pedrotti
      A number of slags of all known sites in the Italian Eastern Alps showing occurrences of copper smelting activities in the Copper Age have been characterized by lead isotope analysis. All the investigated smelting slags from Trentino (Romagnano Loc, La Vela, Gaban, Acquaviva di Besenello, Montesei di Serso) and Alto Adige/Sud Tyrol (Millan, Gudon, Bressanone Circonvallazione Ovest) have been recently characterized by thorough mineralogical, petrographical and chemical analysis and demonstrated to be the product of copper smelting activities of chalcopyrite-based mineral charges, with an immature technological extraction process referred as the “Chalcolithic” smelting process. Revision of the available radiocarbon dates show that the metallurgical activities pertaining to the analysed slags can be attributed to the third millennium BC. The lead isotope analysis indicates clearly that the mineral charge use for the smelting process was extracted from nearby mineral deposits. The detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of ores and slags allows for the first time to define the local organization of the metallurgical operations.

      PubDate: 2015-08-21T01:51:39Z
  • 3D Numerical Simulation on the Flow Field of Single Tuyere Blast Furnaces:
           A Case Study of the Shuiquangou Iron Smelting Site Dated from the 9th to
           13th Century in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Xing Huang, Wei Qian, Wei Wei, Jingning Guo, Naitao Liu
      Two round and two square blast furnaces used for cast iron smelting were excavated at the Shuiquangou smelting site near Beijing that was dated from the 9th to 13th century. On the basis of the data from 3D laser scanning and a comparison with other smelting sites, both the round and square furnaces were reconstructed. Based on two limit data groups and one median data group, the flow fields in the furnaces were simulated by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A special flow field with vortex was qualitatively indicted to be caused by the construction of a single slant tuyere. This single slant tuyere was beneficial to the flow transportation, reactions and gas distribution in the furnaces. This construction was common in furnaces in the Central Plains during the same period. Compared with the square furnace, the round furnace was more complicated and advanced. The square furnace followed the furnace profile and blast design from North-eastern China. The CFD method was found to be helpful in the research on the history of iron smelting.

      PubDate: 2015-08-16T18:19:36Z
  • Constructing chronologies in Viking Age Iceland: Increasing dating
           resolution using Bayesian approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62
      Author(s): Catherine M. Batt, Magdalena M.E. Schmid, Orri Vésteinsson
      Precise chronologies underpin all aspects of archaeological interpretation and, in addition to improvements in scientific dating methods themselves, one of the most exciting recent developments has been the use of Bayesian statistical analysis to reinterpret existing information. Such approaches allow the integration of scientific dates, stratigraphy and typological data to provide chronologies with improved precision. Settlement period sites in Iceland offer excellent opportunities to explore this approach, as many benefit from dated tephra layers and AMS radiocarbon dates. Whilst tephrochronology is widely used and can provide excellent chronological control, this method has limitations; the time span between tephra layers can be large and they are not always present. In order to investigate the improved precision available by integrating the scientific dates with the associated archaeological stratigraphy within a Bayesian framework, this research reanalyses the dating evidence from three recent large scale excavations of key Viking Age and medieval sites in Iceland; Aðalstræti, Hofstaðir and Sveigakot. The approach provides improved chronological precision for the dating of significant events within these sites, allowing a more nuanced understanding of occupation and abandonment. It also demonstrates the potential of incorporating dated typologies into chronological models and the use of models to propose sequences of activities where stratigraphic relationships are missing. Such outcomes have considerable potential in interpreting the archaeology of Iceland and can be applied more widely to sites with similar chronological constraints.

      PubDate: 2015-08-16T18:19:36Z
  • Experimental and functional analysis of late Middle Paleolithic flake
           cleavers from southwestern Europe (France and Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62
      Author(s): Émilie Claud, Marianne Deschamps, David Colonge, Vincent Mourre, Céline Thiébaut
      The presence of flake cleavers at the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the Vasco-Cantabria region (southwestern France and northern Spain) is one element of the variability in Mousterian lithic industries in southwestern Europe. Because the function of these tools has rarely been studied, we undertook a use-wear analysis of them in order to gain a better understanding of the technological characteristics of late Middle Paleolithic industries in this geographic zone. We conducted a series of experiments using these tools for activities associated with the processing of animal and vegetal materials. The experimental reference collection thus constituted was subject to a low-power use-wear analysis and served as the basis of our interpretation of the use-wear traces present on the archaeological flake cleavers of several assemblages (Olha I and II, Gatzarria, El Castillo). These flake cleavers revealed similarities with the experimental pieces that were hafted and used for percussion to fell trees and divide carcasses. These data allow us to discuss the role of functional and cultural factors in the development of this tool type.

      PubDate: 2015-08-12T00:17:01Z
  • Volumetric models from 3D point clouds: The case study of sarcophagi cargo
           from a2nd century AD Roman shipwreck near Sutivanon island Brač,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Aleš Jaklič, Miran Erič, Igor Mihajlović, Žiga Stopinšek, Franc Solina
      Multi-image photogrammetry can in favorable conditions even under water generate large clouds of 3D points which can be used for visualization of sunken heritage. For analysis of under-water archeological sites and comparison of artifacts, more compact shape models must be reconstructed from 3D points, where each object or a part of it is modeled individually. Volumetric models and superquadric models in particular are good candidates for such modeling since automated methods for their reconstruction and segmentation from 3D points exist. For the study case we use an underwater wreck site of a Roman ship from 2nd century AD located near Sutivan on island Brač in Croatia. We demonstrate how superquadric models of sarcophagi and other stone blocks can be reconstructed from an unsegmented cloud of 3D points obtained by multi-image photogrammetry. We compare the dimensions of stone objects measured directly on the corresponding 3D point cloud with dimensions of the reconstructed superquadric models and discuss other advantages of these volumetric models. The average difference between point-to-point measurements of stone blocks and the dimensions of the corresponding superquadric model is on the order of few centimeters.

      PubDate: 2015-08-08T00:06:11Z
  • Isotopic investigation into the raw materials of Late Bronze Age glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): P. Degryse, L. Lobo, A. Shortland, F. Vanhaecke, A. Blomme, J. Painter, D. Gimeno, K. Eremin, J. Greene, S. Kirk, M. Walton
      This paper discusses Sr-Nd-Sb isotopic analysis of Late Bronze Age glass to investigate the origin and nature of the mineral raw materials used in early glass making. Sr-Nd isotopic analysis characterizes the flux and silica component of the glass raw material mixture. This technique has been successfully applied to separate Egyptian from Mesopotamian glass signatures, also identifying the use of at least two distinct flux-silica mixtures in Mesopotamian glass making. Sb isotopic analysis is presented as a novel technique to examine the raw material used to opacify the earliest glass. It is demonstrated that Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass factories likely used an identical source of Sb, possibly originating from the Caucasus. This suggests a steady supply and long distance exchange or trade of this material during the Late Bronze Age.

      PubDate: 2015-08-08T00:06:11Z
  • Micro-photogrammetric characterization of cut marks on bones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Miguel Ángel Maté González, José Yravedra, Diego González-Aguilera, Juan Francisco Palomeque-González, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
      In the last few years, the study of cut marks on bone surfaces has become fundamental for the interpretation of archaeological sites and prehistoric butchery practices. Due to the difficulties in the correct identification of cut marks, many criteria for their description and classifications were suggested. This article presents an innovative methodology which supplements the microscopic study of cut marks. Despite the benefits of using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the two-dimensional identification of these marks, it has a number of drawbacks such as the high costs and, consequently, the limited sample studied. In this article, a low-cost technique for the analysis of cut mark micromorphology from a tri-dimensional perspective is introduced. It provides a high-resolution approach to cut mark characterisation such as morphology, depth, width, and angle estimation as well as section determination, measured directly on the marks on bones. Macro-photogrammetry records quantitative and qualitative information which can be statistically processed with standard multivariate and geometric morphometric tools.

      PubDate: 2015-08-08T00:06:11Z
  • Experimental study of bone modification by captive caracal (Caracal
           caracal); a model for fossil assemblage analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62
      Author(s): Brigette F. Cohen, Job M. Kibii
      Medium-size animals such as rabbits and hares are common occurrences in fossil assemblages, and make up a large part of the diet of many carnivores. However their mode of accumulation, especially in African localities is poorly understood. This investigation undertook experimental feeding of domestic rabbit carcasses to captive caracal (Caracal caracal), in order to create a taphonomic model of bone modifications that can be applied to fossil assemblages. We investigated the modification patterns of both the feeding refuse (non-ingested) and the scatological remains. The anatomical composition, breakage patterns, digestive modifications and tooth marks are described. The caracals preferentially fed on high yield parts of the rabbit carcass and discarded low yield parts like the cranium and feet, a pattern that has been observed in wild and captive coyotes when food resources are abundant. Rabbit remains from the caracal displayed poor survival, relative to other small carnivores. Fragmentation in the scat assemblage was high. Bones were extensively but lightly digested and carnivore tooth marks were frequent. This investigation provides a model of bone modification in a carnivore that while common in fossil localities has received little taphonomic attention. The study also exhibits how detailed actualistic investigations can provide information that may aid palaeoecological interpretations.

      PubDate: 2015-08-08T00:06:11Z
  • Eiland crucibles and the earliest relative dating for tin and bronze
           working in southern Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62
      Author(s): Foreman Bandama, Simon Hall, Shadreck Chirikure
      Over a century of research has demonstrated the historical importance of Rooiberg as a point source for tin production in preindustrial southern Africa. Current chronology suggests that the exploitation of the Rooiberg tin deposits began around AD1450 and continued into the 19th century. However, recent lead isotope and trace element studies of tin and bronze objects from AD1000 to 1300 sites, such as Great Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe, show that they were made with Rooiberg tin. Here we present technical analyses of two crucible sherds from Rhenosterkloof 3 near Rooiberg that were used in bronze production during the Eiland phase (AD1000–1300). The presence of tin bronzes during the Eiland phase indicates that Rooiberg tin was exploited from the early second millennium AD, almost three centuries earlier than previously believed, and affirms Rooiberg as an important source for bronze production in the southern African Iron Age.

      PubDate: 2015-08-08T00:06:11Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61

      PubDate: 2015-08-03T23:56:00Z
  • Glass Production at an Early Islamic Workshop in Tel Aviv
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ian C. Freestone, Ruth E. Jackson-Tal, Itamar Taxel, Oren Tal
      A refuse deposit at HaGolan Street, Khirbet al-Ḥadra, northeastern Tel Aviv, is rich in debris deriving from an Islamic period glass workshop, dating to the 7th–8th centuries. Twenty-four samples of glass vessels, chunks and moils were analysed by electron microprobe. Glass used in the workshop derives from three primary sources: Egypt II, somewhere in inland Egypt, Beth Eli‘ezer, near Hadera, Israel and a third group which appears to represent a previously unknown Levantine primary production centre. Glass corresponding to at least twelve production events has been identified. While vessels made of Beth Eli‘ezer and Egypt II glass have previously been reported from the same context, this is the first time that they have been related to the products of a single workshop. It appears that glass from both primary production centres was available in the later 8th century, and that the glass workers at HaGolan St were obliged to balance the high working and fuel costs of the stiff low-soda Levantine glass against the better working properties but higher raw material costs of the high-soda glass from Egypt.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • Roman and late-Roman glass from north-eastern Italy: The isotopic
           perspective to provenance its raw materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Filomena Gallo, Alberta Silvestri, Patrick Degryse, Monica Ganio, Antonio Longinelli, Gianmario Molin
      In this study, the strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotopic composition of Roman (1st-3rd century AD) and late-Roman glass (4th-6th century AD) from Adria and Aquileia, two of the most important archaeological sites of north-eastern Italy, is discussed. The majority of glass analysed, independent from age, shows values of strontium isotope ratios close to that of modern ocean water, indicating that the source of lime in the glass was marine shell, and likely coastal sands were used in its production. The Nd signature of all late-Roman glasses from Aquileia and of the majority of the Roman ones from Adria, independent from their chemical composition, is homogeneous and higher than -6 εNd, supporting the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin, probably located on Syro-Palestinian coast. However, the composition of late-Roman samples with HIMT signature, with lower 87Sr/86Sr values correlated to higher contents in Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO and lower contents in CaO, suggest an area of origin for this glass on the Egyptian coast. In addition, the different Nd signatures of two Adria Roman glasses (εNd < -7) suggests their primary production in western Mediterranean. Oxygen isotopes proved to be a further diagnostic method to discriminate natron and soda plant ash glass, and different silica sources, in the case of the soda plant ash glass. The combination of isotopic and chemical data supports the hypothesis of an eastern Mediterranean origin for late-Roman glass, which may be produced in few primary workshops on the Syro-Palestinian and Egyptian coast, although not necessarily in the same ateliers as have been identified so far. In the case of the Roman glass investigated, although the majority of data suggests an eastern Mediterranean origin, on the basis of Nd isotopes and chemical compositions, the existence of other primary glass producers located in the western Mediterranean can be suggested.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • Roman coloured glass in the Western provinces: the glass cakes and
           tesserae from West Clacton in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Sarah Paynter, Thérèse Kearns, Hilary Cool, Simon Chenery
      A collection of tesserae and two fragments from rounded cakes of coloured glass, probably dating to the 2nd century AD, were found at West Clacton Reservoir, Essex, in the UK, by Colchester Archaeological Trust. A selection of the finds were analysed using SEM-EDS and ICP-MS. This paper provides data on the composition of the different glass colours and discusses how each colour was made. Colourants and opacifiers were added to a base glass, most often one of the transparent, naturally coloured (blue-green) natron glass types widely available at the time, but there appear to be preferences in the type of base glass used for certain colours, which affects the type of antimonate opacifier precipitated. Possible reasons for using different types of base glass to make strongly coloured Roman glass are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • An Empirical Test of Shell Tempering as an Alkaline Agent in the
           Nixtamalization Process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Andrew J. Upton, William A. Lovis, Gerald R. Urquhart
      It has been argued that the transition to maize based diets across much of the Eastern Woodlands of North America ca. A.D. 1000 was the primary catalyst for the population increases, technological innovations, and fundamental shifts in social and cultural organization characteristic of Late Woodland, Mississippian, Upper Mississippian, and Iroquoian societies. However, raw or uncooked maize kernels alone are known to be a nutritionally inadequate subsistence staple. Nixtamalization, or the alkaline processing of dried raw maize to produce hominy, yields a more readily digestible and therefore healthier food resource. Such processing is ubiquitous amongst maize-based societies in the Americas. The timing of the transition to maize agriculture was also closely associated with the adoption of shell-tempered ceramics. As a result, an hypothesis has been offered by multiple authors that burned and crushed mollusc shell aplastic may act as an alkaline agent in the nixtamalization process. The research reported here provides a formal empirical test of this hypothesis. Findings indicate that no substantial structural or chemical changes to maize kernels result from the leaching of shell tempering alkaline products from the fabric of a ceramic vessel. Two constraints are noted in this process: the reduction in adherence of wet paste due to the addition of mussel shell derived calcium oxide (lime) or calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a tempering agent, and the necessity to avoid the decomposition of calcium carbonate to lime or slaked lime in order for the successful firing of shell-tempered vessels.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:30:12Z
  • The Production and Exchange of Moulded-carved Ceramics and the ‘Maya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Carmen Ting , Marcos Martinón-Torres , Elizabeth Graham , Christophe Helmke
      This paper examines the production and exchange of a particular type of ceramic vase designated ‘Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved’ by using thin-section petrography, INAA, and SEM-EDS. These vases were produced and circulated in the eastern Maya lowlands during a transitional period known as ‘Terminal Classic’, ca. A.D. 800-950. Significant changes, generally referred to as the Classic Maya Collapse, occurred in the socio-political order in the Maya lowlands at this time, although the pace and events leading to such changes remain poorly understood. By studying a selection of 62 Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved vases from various sites across Belize, we sought to offer a new perspective on the nature of this important transitional period. Our findings reveal that two main ceramic traditions – one employing calcite and the other volcanic ash temper – are represented by the vases. These traditions guided the selection of raw materials, surface finish, and firing methods. Vases of the calcite tradition were mostly used at or around the sites where they were produced, whereas those of the volcanic ash tradition appear to have been circulated over a wider region. The co-existence of multiple production groups and distribution spheres of the Ahk’utu’ vases, along with their style and decoration, is interpreted as indicating a proliferation of an ascending social segment and greater flexibility and fluidity in how the social hierarchy and political structure were maintained in the eastern Maya lowlands from the 9th century and onwards.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
  • Molecular sex identification of juvenile skeletal remains from an Irish
           medieval population using ancient DNA analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): S.N. Tierney , J. Bird
      The archaeological excavation of a medieval cemetery in North West Ireland led to the recovery of the largest collection of human remains from a burial ground in Ireland to date. This collection included a substantial number of juvenile remains. In order to enhance the interpretation of the assemblage and give a more complete picture of the population, a sample of the juvenile population from Ballyhanna were sexed using DNA based techniques so that the mortality ratio of the male and female non-adult individuals could be assessed. Sex identification of human remains is generally assigned using the morphology of the skeleton or on some occasions using associated grave goods. However in instances when an assemblage contains immature or fragmentary material, an alternative and reliable means of sexing these individuals is required. Ancient DNA research in recent years has proven itself to be such a reliable alternative. In this study the reliability and reproducibility of two PCR based sexing methods were evaluated first on 38 adults of known sex to determine the accuracy of these methods for sexing individuals from the Ballyhanna assemblage. Using real time PCR and STR profiling systems, a dependable and consistent sexing system was developed. The reproducibility of the amplified samples meant that the methods were valid and subsequently could be used to sex juveniles. The molecular sexing results from the juveniles sampled determined that four of these juvenile individuals were males, 10 were probable males, one was a probable female and four were inconclusive. The results from this study, although not fully representative of the juvenile population excavated, indicate an excess of male mortality.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
  • Mapping invisibility: GIS approaches to the analysis of hiding and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mark Gillings
      Analyses of visibility have become a commonplace within landscape-based archaeological research, whether through rich description, simple mapping or formal modelling and statistical analysis, the latter increasingly carried out using the viewshed functionality of GIS. The research presented here challenges current obsessions with what is visible to focus instead upon the interpretative benefits of considering the invisible and the complex interplay of visibility and concealment that frequently accompany landscape movement and experience. Having highlighted the difficulties in analysing relational properties such as invisibility and hiding using traditional archaeological techniques, a series of new GIS methodologies are presented and evaluated in the context of an original study of a series of remarkably small, visually non-intrusive prehistoric megalithic monuments. The results serve to challenge dominant interpretations of these enigmatic sites as well as demonstrating the utility, value and potential of the GIS-based approaches developed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T12:09:54Z
  • Assessing bone and antler exploitation at Riparo Mochi (Balzi Rossi,
           Italy): implications for the characterization of the Aurignacian in
           South-western Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): José-Miguel Tejero , Stefano Grimaldi
      The Aurignacian typo-technological tradition has long been considered linked with the dispersal of anatomically Modern Humans over western Eurasia at the onset of the Upper Palaeolithic. In Europe it is commonly divided into two main phases, the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian whose definitions is based on the typo-technological features of lithics and some osseous “markers” like the split-based points. The osseous industry has recurrently been cited as a major innovation signaling the transition from Middle to Early Upper Palaeolithic. Nevertheless, recent studies strongly suggest that the real innovation is antler working, as bone working has been found to be similar in the Mousterian and the Early Upper Palaeolithic. Riparo Mochi is among the key Western European sites for assessing the nature of shifts and continuities between the Proto- and Early Aurignacian phases of the technocomplex. These data are significant for the study of the distribution of the first anatomically Modern Humans in Eurasia owing to several factors: (1) preservation of the Proto- and Early Aurignacian levels; (2) their location along the likely southern dispersal route of the Aurignacian; (3) the richness of archaeological evidence; and (4) recent re-evaluation of their chrono-stratigraphy. The study of worked osseous remains allows us to establish the comparative characteristics of animal raw material exploitation within the Riparo Mochi Aurignacian. Results demonstrate that animal raw material exploitation increases from the bottom to the top of the archaeological sequence at this site. Hunting weapons, as well as personal ornaments other than those made on shells, are only present in Early Aurignacian layers. Antler working is not documented in the Proto-Aurignacian, which is consistent with the hypothesis of the appearance of antler hunting weapons only after the Heinrich Stadial 4 and Campanian Ignimbrite climatic events.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Testing archaeofaunal collections for differential fragmentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Carol E. Colaninno , Carla S. Hadden , Alexandra L. Emmons
      Body dimensions of animal remains provide evidence for subsistence technologies, seasonality of hunting and fishing, and generalized resource stress. Studies that rely on reconstructed body dimensions of fishes rarely address the possibility of differential preservation or recovery, which may result in inaccurate representations of size classes. We devise a method to test for differential fragmentation of archaeofauna1 specimens based on specimen size and location within the stratigraphic column. We also compare two methods for reconstructing animal size classes: one includes only complete specimens that can be measured accurately, and the other includes both fragmented and complete specimens. We use a collection of mullet (Mugil spp.) atlases from the McQueen Shell Ring, St. Catherines Island, Georgia (USA), many of which were included in a previous study of fish body size as evidence for fishing technologies. All atlases are sorted by size class and categorized as having complete or fragmented osteometric landmarks. There is a positive correlation (ρ = 0.45, P = 0.07) between atlas size class and proportion of specimens that are fragmented: smaller atlases are more likely to be recovered, identified, and measured without fragmentation compared to larger atlases. Size-based differential fragmentation may bias against the representation of larger-bodied individuals in this context. Frequency of fragmentation is not monotonically correlated with burial depth (ρ = −0.19, P = 0.39), and is higher in the upper-most and bottom-most levels of the stratigraphic column compared to intermediate depths. Depth-based differential fragmentation may bias results when stratigraphic sequences are used to evaluate change through time in animal body sizes.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • The contribution of geometric morphometric analysis to prehistoric
           ichnology: the example of large canid tracks and their implication for the
           debate concerning wolf domestication
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Lysianna Ledoux , Myriam Boudadi-Maligne
      Apart from exceptional cases, such as Laetoli, Koobi Fora or Happisburgh hominin trackways (Behrensmeyer and Laporte, 1981; Bennett et al., 2009; Raichlen et al., 2010; Ashton et al., 2014; Bennett and Morse, 2014), tracks are often underestimated in prehistoric research, particularly in cave contexts, despite their representing rich sources of behavioural and taphonomic information. The analysis of human and animal tracks in archaeological contexts can help to both untangle the chronology of cave occupations and identify the animal species who frequented different sites. Here we focus on differentiating large dog and wolf tracks that are very similar in both appearance and size. We use a large sample of 36 modern prints from two wolf subspecies (Canis lupus lupus and Canis lupus albus) and 106 dog tracks belonging to seven breeds (Beauceron, German Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, Great Dane, Siberian Husky and Rottweiler). This study uses an approach combining statistical analyses and geometric morphometrics (Berge et al., 2006; Bennett et al., 2009). Our results shed new light on the still unidentified canid tracks accompanying human footprints documented at Chauvet Cave in the Ardèche region of southern France (Clottes, 2001) and have important implications for current debates surrounding the timing of wolf domestication in Western Europe and prehistoric ichnology in general.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Radiocarbon-dating adhesive and wooden residues from stone tools by
           Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS): challenges and insights encountered
           in a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): A.B. Yates , A.M. Smith , F. Bertuch , B. Gehlen , B. Gramsch , M. Heinen , R. Joannes-Boyau , A. Scheffers , J. Parr , A. Pawlik
      In this study we present and assess a process to enhance archaeological residue AMS dating by focusing on contaminant confinement. The sequence of methods applied consists of: 1) optical residue and use-wear analyses, 2) experimental designs addressing cleaning treatments to mitigate impact of contaminants, 3) preparation and extraction of residues from (mostly) previously dated stone artefacts, and 4) establishing the elemental characteristics of residues by using SEM/EDX as a final step to avoid sample contamination during analyses. We found the alkaline surfactant Decon 90 is a useful solution for removal of skin scales and fabric fibre but has limited effect on graphite contamination introduced by pencil lead. Adhesive residues were not affected by Decon immersion, however, wooden residues from bog sites were partly dislodged. While the methodological sequence was in general successful and some artefact residues were dated within the anticipated age range, difficulties were encountered with other lithic residues. Some artefact residues attained AMS dates which appear to be affected by modern contaminants and other residue radiocarbon dates were seemingly affected by fossil shell derived from flint stone, plasticizers or from a fixative substance older than the fabrication and use of the artefact. One outcome from this study is that performing chemical residue identification earlier in the method sequence using non-destructive and non-contaminating methods would guide the choice of residue treatment and improve reliability of age determination.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • What is a litre of sediment? Testing volume measurement techniques for
           wet sediment and their implications in archaeobotanical analyses at the
           Late Neolithic lake-dwelling site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich,
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ferran Antolín , Bigna L. Steiner , Werner Vach , Stefanie Jacomet
      Volume measurements in archaeobotany are not performed uniformly. The goal of this paper therefore is to test the different known methods and to define the obtained differences, in order to make the density values (remains per litre of sediment) for plant macroremains in the samples comparable between sites. Three methods of volume measurement were tested for a large number of samples of different sizes coming from two late Neolithic layers of the lakeshore site of Parkhaus Opéra (Zürich, Switzerland). The sampled layers were preserved in waterlogged conditions and there were samples rich in sand, loam, lake marl but mostly consisting of organic remains, including uncharred subfossil plant macroremains. In general, the classical volume (that is the upper limit of the sediment in water) measured before and after freezing as pre-treatment gave similar results. But a systematic difference was found between the classical volume measured after freezing and the displacement volume. This difference could be described by a proportionality factor of 1.5. This proportionality factor could be used to make data obtained with different methods of volume measurement comparable, although more evaluations are needed from other sites in order to test the generality of the factor proposed.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Cultural landscape development on a west–east gradient in western
           Norway – potential of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ingvild Kristine Mehl , Anette Overland , Jan Berge , Kari Loe Hjelle
      Pollen analysis is the main method to obtain information on human impact on the vegetation through time. In this study, pollen records from one large lake, Kalandsvatn (inner coast), and three small lakes, Herøyvatn (outer coast), Fitjar (inner coast) and Herandsvatn (inner fjord) in Hordaland County, western Norway are investigated. The three small sites reflect different vegetation, climate and landscape types, resulting in different cultural landscapes. A recently developed approach, the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), is used to reconstruct regional and local vegetation cover in five hundred year time intervals, on a gradient from the coast to the inner fjord of western Norway. The regional estimates of vegetation cover as well as local differences between the sites are clearly demonstrated. The coast has been more open than the inner region in all time periods, with less than c. 70% tree cover prior to 5700 cal. BP. On a regional scale the tree cover was c. 90% in the same time period. Gradual opening of the regional forest started between 5700 and 5200 cal. BP. Forest disturbances, probably related to agriculture, are found both at the inner coast and in the inner fjord prior to 4200 cal. BP. Marked openings of the forests took place c. 4200 cal. BP at the outer coast, and c. 3700 cal. BP at the inner coast and inner fjord. From this time, heathlands dominated the open landscape at the coast. In the inner fjord region, grasslands in combination with cereal cultivation characterized the landscape. The inner coast area shows mixed vegetation cover with heathlands, grasslands and cultivated fields. Implementation of LRA suggests a stronger west–east vegetation gradient than indicated in the pollen percentage diagrams. The results show the potential of the LRA-approach in archaeological research.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Temple-complex post-dates tsunami deposits found in the ancient harbour
           basin of Ostia (Rome, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Hanna Hadler , Andreas Vött , Peter Fischer , Stefanie Ludwig , Michael Heinzelmann , Corinna Rohn
      Detailed geophysical and geoarchaeological investigations carried out in Ostia, ancient harbour of Rome, revealed two different generations of harbour basins and also proved the repeated impact of high-energy wave events on the study area. West of Ostia, at the southern bank of the Tiber, a lagoonal harbour existed from the 4th and 2nd cent. BC but was affected by strong siltation. At the same site, a river harbour was subsequently established from the 1st cent. AD onwards. Fluvial deposits of medieval age finally document Tiber river bank erosion affecting the abandoned site. Within the sedimentary record, distinct high-energy event deposits were found and seem to be related to tsunami impact that hit the ancient harbour site. Event I occurred prior to the harbour foundation between the 8th and 5th cent. BC and induced significant environmental changes. Event II hit the lagoonal harbour most probably in the 4th cent. BC. Event III caused a widespread burial of the lagoonal harbour basin which, at that time, was already silted up. Built directly on top of the youngest event deposit found at Ostia, the foundation of the (navalia-) temple-complex post-dates tsunami event III to the time before the early 1st cent. AD. Subsequently, the site was used as a river harbour.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • The hard knock life. Archaeobotanical data on farming practices during the
           Neolithic (5400–2300 cal BC) in the NE of the Iberian
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Ferran Antolín , Stefanie Jacomet , Ramon Buxó
      The archaeobotanical (seeds and fruits) dataset of the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula for the Neolithic period is presented and discussed in this paper in order to approach how early farmers produced their crops and how farming spread in the region. Ten crop plants were identified, including cereals (Triticum aestivum/durum/turgidum L., Triticum dicoccum Schübl., Triticum monococcum L., Hordeum vulgare L./distichon L. and Hordeum vulgare var. nudum), legumes (Vicia faba L., Lens culinaris Medik. and Pisum sativum L.) as well as oil plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Papaver somniferum L.). Two different traditions were observed by looking at the crop assemblages of the early Neolithic (5400–4500 cal BC). It is proposed that one group of farmers settled in the northeastern area of the region and chose to grow free-threshing cereals, especially naked wheat, while a second group settled in the central Catalan coast and along the Llobregat river and included glume wheats as important crops. These different patterns seem to survive during the middle Neolithic period, when naked barley becomes the main crop at some sites, maybe due to contacts with northern groups. The late Neolithic seems to translate into further changes but more investigations are needed. The weed assemblages available are meagre but the lack of indicators for shifting agriculture allowed confirming that crops were sown in permanent fields. It is concluded that early Neolithic settlements must have been more sedentary and farming practices more effort-demanding than previously thought.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Duck fleas as evidence for eiderdown production on archaeological sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Véronique Forbes
      Eiderdown has long been an important resource for northern cultures in the past but is overlooked in archaeology. Down, presumed to be from Eider ducks, has only been identified from a handful of high-status burials in Scandinavia. In order to test whether an archaeoentomological indicator for eiderdown production could be established, a survey of insects from two eiderdown productions sites in Iceland was conducted. The results identified over 500 duck fleas Ceratophyllus garei Rothschild and several beetle species from raw eiderdown and processing residue, as well as from pitfall traps placed in the floor of buildings where the down was stored and processed. It is argued that despite the fact that bird fleas parasitic on Eider ducks are not host-specific, their life history and microhabitat requirements, as well as the method employed to collect eiderdown, makes duck fleas a reliable indicator for eiderdown harvesting in archaeology.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
  • Maize, mounds, and the movement of people: isotope analysis of a
           Mississippian/Fort Ancient region
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 61
      Author(s): Robert A. Cook , T. Douglas Price
      The development of farming traditions has long interested archaeologists worldwide. The relationship between this process and human movement has become increasingly well defined in recent years. Here we examine this issue in a case study concerning the longstanding question of the spread of maize agriculture and Mississippian cultural traditions throughout much of the Eastern U.S. Although it has long been common to interpret the spread of Mississippian maize agriculture partially as a result of human migration, there have been very few direct studies of the question. We do so here by analyzing human tooth enamel from burials for 87Sr/86Sr and δ13C. Our results suggest that Fort Ancient societies adopted maize agriculture quickly with high levels of consumption at early sites. The intensity of maize consumption declined over time, however, in contrast to the current model. There is evidence for the presence of non-local individuals at early Fort Ancient sites, particularly Turpin, with the majority likely attributable to neighboring Mississippian regions. These developments occurred at some of the larger Fort Ancient sites by the mouths of the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio where the most abundant evidence for Mississippian house styles and objects is concentrated.

      PubDate: 2015-06-30T19:00:17Z
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