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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 222 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 48)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal  
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access  
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue d’Alsace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rock Art Research: The Journal of the Australian Rock Art Research Association (AURA)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
SAGVNTVM. Papeles del Laboratorio de Arqueología de Valencia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [54 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • The digital radiography of archaeological pottery: Program and protocols
           for the analysis of production
    • Authors: A.F. Greene; C.W. Hartley; P.N. Doumani Dupuy; M. Chinander
      Pages: 120 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A.F. Greene, C.W. Hartley, P.N. Doumani Dupuy, M. Chinander
      Archaeologists collaborating with material scientists at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of the Making of Ancient Eurasia (MAE) Project have developed formal methodological standards for the assemblage-based digital radiographic (DR) analysis of archaeological pottery. While analog radiography of pottery (X-radiography, Xeroradiography, etc.) has functioned as a common disciplinary tool for some time, inaccessibility, obsolescence, and significantly enhanced functionality have made DR instrumentation increasingly attractive and vital. This article presents the theoretical underpinnings, technique development, and resultant protocols that allow digital radiography to analyze very large assemblages and provide quantitative data sets that act as true counterparts to geochemical and mineralogical ones. As a technique of structural pottery evaluation, DR is particularly suited to the analysis of ceramic paste preparation and vessel formation, providing lines of evidence that can flesh out neglected portions of the chaîne opératoire, augment existing geochemical or typological classifications, and help more deeply characterize various potting traditions. Such datasets are most useful to scholars interested in harnessing the ability of the pottery “life cycle” to shed light on economic life, learning frameworks, and human social differences and group identities. The technical capacities and analytical potential of DR are demonstrated through several test analyses of ancient Chinese pottery, to be followed by more extensive case studies in draft. Prospects for closely related, three-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic approaches are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Provenance of polychrome and colourless 8th–4th century BC glass from
           Pieria, Greece: A chemical and isotopic approach
    • Authors: A. Blomme; P. Degryse; E. Dotsika; D. Ignatiadou; A. Longinelli; A. Silvestri
      Pages: 134 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A. Blomme, P. Degryse, E. Dotsika, D. Ignatiadou, A. Longinelli, A. Silvestri
      Glass objects from Pydna and Methoni in modern-day Greece, dated to the eighth to fourth century BC, were chemically investigated. The combined use of multiple analytical techniques allowed the elemental and isotopic characterization of these polychrome and colourless glass artefacts in order to examine their provenance. All fragments were found to be soda-lime-silica natron-based glass produced from a rather pure silica-rich sand containing sea shells, and mixed with natron possibly coming from more than one source. Based on the strontium and neodymium isotopic signatures, most glass artefacts likely derive from a Syro-Palestinian production site although the exact location is unknown. Also the oxygen isotopic signature of most of the samples suggests the manufacturing of the artefacts from raw materials with a primary origin along the Syro-Palestinian coast. Nevertheless, the use of particular raw materials cannot be excluded for some artefacts, as some samples show enriched δ18O values pointing to a different glassmaking tradition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Zonkey: A simple, accurate and sensitive pipeline to genetically identify
           equine F1-hybrids in archaeological assemblages
    • Authors: Mikkel Schubert; Marjan Mashkour; Charleen Gaunitz; Antoine Fages; Andaine Seguin-Orlando; Shiva Sheikhi; Ahmed H. Alfarhan; Saleh A. Alquraishi; Khaled A.S. Al-Rasheid; Richard Chuang; Luca Ermini; Cristina Gamba; Jaco Weinstock; Onar Vedat; Ludovic Orlando
      Pages: 147 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Mikkel Schubert, Marjan Mashkour, Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Shiva Sheikhi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Saleh A. Alquraishi, Khaled A.S. Al-Rasheid, Richard Chuang, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Jaco Weinstock, Onar Vedat, Ludovic Orlando
      Horses, asses and zebras, can produce first-generation F1-hybrids, despite their striking karyotypic and phenotypic differences. Such F1-hybrids are mostly infertile, but often present characters of considerable interest to breeders. They were extremely valued in antiquity, and commonly represented in art and on coinage. However, hybrids appear relatively rarely in archaeological faunal assemblages, mostly because identification based on morphometric data alone is extremely difficult. Here, we developed a methodological framework that exploits high-throughput sequencing data retrieved from archaeological material to identify F1-equine hybrids. Our computational methodology is distributed in the open-source Zonkey pipeline, now part of PALEOMIX (https://github.com/MikkelSchubert/paleomix), together with full documentation and examples. Using both synthetic and real sequence datasets, from living and ancient F1-hybrids, we find that Zonkey shows high sensitivity and specificity, even with limited sequencing efforts. Zonkey is thus well suited to the identification of equine F1-hybrids in the archaeological record, even in cases where DNA preservation is limited. Zonkey can also help determine the sex of ancient animals, and allows species identification, which advantageously complements morphological data in cases where material is fragmentary and/or multiple candidate equine species coexisted in sympatry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T13:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
       
  • Settling in Sahul: Investigating environmental and human history
           interactions through micromorphological analyses in tropical semi-arid
           north-west Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Dorcas Vannieuwenhuyse, Sue O'Connor, Jane Balme
      The Pleistocene continent of Sahul was first settled by people who arrived by watercraft from Island South East Asia about 50,000 years ago. Some of the oldest archaeological sites in Sahul are located in the southern Kimberley, in northwest Australia. This area lies within the southern zone of influence of the tropical monsoon and thus has always been highly sensitive to changes in monsoon dynamics over time. How these climatic changes have affected the colonisation and occupation of Australia is an important research theme in Australian archaeology. This paper illustrates the contribution and challenges of micromorphology in deciphering palaeoenvironmental and anthropogenic markers in a still largely unexplored Australian context. Micromorphological analysis of two archaeological sequences in the Napier Range (Carpenters Gap 1 and 3) provides a complementary and comprehensive reconstruction of the human-climate history in this area spanning nearly 50,000 years of Australian human presence. The results demonstrate an opportunistic use of sites by people through time, surprisingly independent of local climatic variation, suggesting highly flexible subsistence strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Sediments or soils? Multi-scale geoarchaeological investigations of
           stratigraphy and early cultivation practices at Kuk Swamp, highlands of
           Papua New Guinea
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Tim Denham, Elle Grono
      Kuk Swamp is a globally significant archaeological site of early agriculture in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Mixed-method and multi-scalar investigations of the stratigraphy and selected feature fills at Kuk were instrumental in determining the character of plant exploitation and agricultural practices there during the early and mid Holocene. In this paper, macro-scale (field recording), meso-scale (X-radiography) and micro-scale (thin section micromorphology) analyses are presented in summary form for a stratigraphic column, as well as for a palaeochannel and palaeosurfaces associated with plant exploitation at c.10,000 cal BP and cultivation at 7000–6400 cal BP. Major and minor stratigraphic units have been characterised, primary and secondary formation processes differentiated, and the anthropic associations of specific stratigraphic units determined, especially in regards to cultivation. The Kuk research highlights several methodological problems with the investigation of early cultivation on allophane-rich soils in tropical environments.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Cave stratigraphies and cave breccias: Implications for sediment
           accumulation and removal models and interpreting the record of human
           occupation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Sue O’Connor, Anthony Barham, Ken Aplin, Tim Maloney
      Many of the key debates in archaeology hinge on the chronology and interpretation of data gathered from cave and rockshelter stratigraphies, especially those in karstic limestone environments which are selectively targeted by archaeologists because of their superior preservation characteristics. It has long been recognized that such sites often contain a variety of cemented deposits including cave breccias and that some breccias contain anthropogenic inclusions such as stone artefacts, shell and burnt animal bones. Cementation enhances the survival through time of such brecciated deposits. This can result in chrono-stratigraphic intervals surviving on cave walls and speleothems that are no longer represented in the stratigraphy of cave floors. This has important implications for understanding apparent presence/absence of human occupation and cultural continuity as seen in archaeo-stratigraphy in caves and rockshelters, especially in relation to human migration in the humid tropics in SE Asia and the Pacific, and over Pleistocene to Holocene timescales. Here we discuss localized breccia formation, the erosional processes that leave remnant deposits adhering to walls and speleothems at heights well above current cave floors, and the possible significance of local and regional processes, especially changing base levels, in triggering gutting out phases impacting cave floor sediment architectures. Equally significant in terms of chronological completeness, representativeness and bias is the contribution made by cultural materials encased in older breccias as they erode and are (re-)incorporated into younger accumulating cultural deposits. Case studies from cave sites in Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste are used to illustrate these issues.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Initial micromorphological results from Liang Bua, Flores (Indonesia):
           Site formation processes and hominin activities at the type locality of
           Homo floresiensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg, Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, Linda C. Prinsloo, Jatmiko, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Sri Wasisto, Richard G. Roberts
      Liang Bua, a karstic cave located on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, is best known for yielding the holotype of the diminutive hominin Homo floresiensis from Late Pleistocene sediments. Modern human remains have also been recovered from the Holocene deposits, and abundant archaeological and faunal remains occur throughout the sequence. The cave, the catchment in which it is located and the gross aggradational phases of the sediment sequence have all been subject to a great deal of scientific scrutiny since the discovery of the holotype of H. floresiensis in 2003. A recent program of geoarchaeological research has extended analyses of the site’s deposits to the microstratigraphic (micromorphological) level. The stratigraphic sequence in the cave is well defined but complex, comprising interstratified sediments of diverse lithologies and polygenetic origins, including volcanic tephras, fine-grained colluvium, coarse autogenic limestone gravels, speleothems and anthropogenic sediments, such as combustion features. The sedimentological and chemical heterogeneity suggest that processes of site formation and diagenesis varied markedly through time, both laterally and vertically. We present initial results from samples collected in 2014 from an excavation area near the rear of the cave, which yielded radiocarbon ages from charcoal that fill an important temporal gap in the chrono-stratigraphic sequence of previously excavated areas of the site. The results indicate marked changes in site environment and hominin activity during the Late Pleistocene, relating primarily to the degree to which the cave was connected to the hydrogeological system and to the varying intensities of use of the cave by hominins. Importantly, we identify anthropogenic signs of fire-use at the site between 41 and 24 thousand years ago, most likely related to the presence of modern humans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Post-depositional alteration of humid tropical cave sediments:
           Micromorphological research in the Great Cave of Niah, Sarawak, Borneo
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): M. Stephens, J. Rose, D.D. Gilbertson
      The post-depositional alteration of cave sediments is of critical importance for the recognition, identification and investigation of geoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence. There have been relatively few studies of tropical cave sediments using micromorphology and this work represents one of the most detailed with 26 samples taken from deposits in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of Niah that cover the last >∼55,000 BP, and contain the earliest known evidence for the remains of modern humans in Southeast Asia. Cave sediments situated in the humid tropics are subject to relatively high temperatures and moisture conditions that promote high rates of chemical alteration and geomorphic change. This paper outlines those post-depositional features that occurred in situ in the West Mouth and include: translocation and concentration; bioturbation; excrement; bone alteration; plant alteration; clast alteration and guano decomposition. It examines their implications for recognising past human activities (e.g. fire-altered materials), the preservation of archaeological remains, the nature of palaeoenvironments and of localised physical and bio-geochemical processes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Approaches to Middle Stone Age landscape archaeology in tropical Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): David K. Wright, Jessica C. Thompson, Flora Schilt, Andrew S. Cohen, Jeong-Heon Choi, Julio Mercader, Sheila Nightingale, Christopher E. Miller, Susan M. Mentzer, Dale Walde, Menno Welling, Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu
      The Southern Montane Forest-Grassland mosaic ecosystem in the humid subtropics southern Rift Valley of Africa comprised the environmental context for a large area in which modern human evolution and dispersal occurred. Variable climatic conditions during the Late Pleistocene have ranged between humid and hyperarid, changing the character of the ecosystem and transforming it at different points in time into a barrier, a refuge, and a corridor between southern and eastern African populations. Alluvial fans presently blanket the areas adjacent to major river systems, which were key areas of prehistoric human habitation. These sets of variables have created conditions that are both challenging and advantageous to conduct archaeological research. Lateritic soil development has resulted in poor organic preservation and facilitated insect bioturbation, which has demanded an integrated micro-macro scale approach to building a reliable geochronology. An integrated field and analytical methodology has also been employed to identify the nature and degree of post-depositional movement in alluvial deposits, which preserve a wide range of spatial integrity levels in buried stone artifact assemblages between 47 and 30 ka in Karonga, northern Malawi. This paper describes the methodological advances taken toward understanding open-air Middle Stone Age archaeology in sub-tropical Africa, and explores the inferential potential for understanding Pleistocene human ecology in the important southern Rift Valley region.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • The geoarchaeology of hominin dispersals to and from tropical Southeast
           Asia: A review and prognosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley
      Tropical Southeast Asia is a critically important region for addressing the major questions and grand challenges that concern us today regarding Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals across the Old World. Geoarchaeological science is widely employed in many regions of the world to contextualise archaeological material and provide an environmental backdrop against which to explore archaeological narratives. However, in Southeast Asia there is an apparent lag in the routine use of this Earth-Science approach despite the abundance of archaeological sites important in explicating past hominin dispersals to and from the region. In this review of the state-of-the-art of geoarchaeological research in Southeast Asia, I examine the role of the discipline in addressing the important issues in archaeology today. I identify where geoarchaeology is being used and to what effect, highlighting gaps in the geoarchaeological dataset. From a methodological point of view it is imperative that archaeologists and geoarchaeologists working in Southeast Asia (and other humid tropical regions of the world) fully appreciate how to interpret the geoarchaeological signatures associated with this climate regime so that methods and practice can be refined. A series of steps that will serve to drive forward geoarchaeological research in the region are also proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Niche construction and optimal foraging theory in Neotropical agricultural
           origins: A re-evaluation in consideration of the empirical evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno, Anthony J. Ranere, Ruth Dickau, Francisco Aceituno
      The various theoretical approaches advanced over the past 50 years to explain the origins of agriculture have prompted much discussion and debate. Most recently, controversy has arisen concerning the utility of two Darwinian approaches; namely, cultural niche construction (CNC) and human behavioral ecology-derived optimal foraging theory (OFT). Recent papers advocate for the primacy of cultural niche construction, calling for optimal foraging approaches to be all but disregarded in the quest to explain how and why foragers became farmers (Smith, 2015, 2016; Zeder, 2015, 2016). In particular, it is claimed that archaeological, paleo-environmental, and paleontological evidence from the Neotropics of northern South America fail to meet predictions derived from OFT theory, while predictions said to be derived from CNC-based approaches are supported (Smith, 2015, 2016; Zeder, 2015). However, a number of misreadings of the northern South America evidence are made in those discussions, while some pertinent literature is not considered. In this paper we discuss these misreadings and provide a clear re-articulation of the original data and interpretations, finding support for OFT predictions. Our re-evaluations of OFT and CNC further suggest they can, in fact, be complimentary explanatory approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • The identification of poultry processing in archaeological ceramic vessels
           using in-situ isotope references for organic residue analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): A.C. Colonese, A. Lucquin, E.P. Guedes, R. Thomas, J. Best, B.T. Fothergill, N. Sykes, A. Foster, H. Miller, K. Poole, M. Maltby, M. Von Tersch, O.E. Craig
      Poultry products are rarely considered when reconstructing pottery use through organic residue analysis, impinging upon our understanding of the changing role of these animals in the past. Here we evaluate an isotopic approach for distinguishing chicken fats from other animal products. We compare the carbon isotopes of fatty acids extracted from modern tissues and archaeological bones and demonstrate that archaeological bones from contexts associated with pottery provide suitable reference ranges for distinguishing omnivorous animal products (e.g. pigs vs. chickens) in pots. When applied to pottery from the Anglo-Saxon site of Flixborough, England, we succeeded in identifying residues derived from chicken fats that otherwise could not be distinguished from other monogastric and ruminant animals using modern reference values only. This provides the first direct evidence for the processing of poultry or their products in pottery. The results highlight the utility of ‘in-situ’ archaeological bone lipids to identify omnivorous animal-derived lipids in archaeological ceramic vessels.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Geoarchaeology of urban space in tropical island environments: Songo
           Mnara, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Federica Sulas, Jeffrey Fleisher, Stephanie Wynne-Jones
      Past urban settlements in tropical island environments offer particularly challenging sites for mainstream archaeology. Often associated with shallow stratigraphic sequences, archaeological sediments and soils in these sites are strongly influenced by local geology and seawater. This study discusses the advantages and challenges of developing an integrated geoarchaeological programme to examine the use of space at the Swahili stonetown of Songo Mnara Island, Tanzania. This exceptionally well preserved site, occupied for less than two centuries (C14th–16th AD), comprises a complex urban layout with stone-built houses, wattle-and-daub structures, funerary complexes, activity areas such as wells, and open areas. The programme has combined geoarchaeological (soil macro- and micromorphology, ICP-AES, pH, EC), geophysical (magnetic susceptibility) and archaeological (large excavations, test trenches, artefact distribution mapping) techniques to investigate the use of space across different contexts. Initial geoarchaeological prospection and opportunistic soil sampling have allowed framing of the island’s environmental settings and archaeological deposits as well as outlining open spaces in between buildings. Subsequent research applied a systematic sampling strategy to map geochemical and artefact distributions in conjunction with context-specific soil micromorphology. The results provide a means to map out the impact of occupation across the site as well as to differentiate between open, roofed and unroofed spaces. ICP-AES results, for example, demonstrate that measurements of Ca, Mg, P, S and Sr levels can help discriminate occupation/activity areas in tropical island environments. They also indicate that the depletion of certain elements (e.g. Na, K, and Ni) should be considered as a means of differentiating between roofed and unroofed spaces. The combination of different methodologies demonstrates the importance of addressing discrepancies as well as correlations between multiple datasets for deciphering features within urban spaces in tropical environments and interpreting ancient activities that occurred within them.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Buried in ashes: Site formation processes at Lapa do Santo rockshelter,
           east-central Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Ximena S. Villagran, André Strauss, Christopher Miller, Bertrand Ligouis, Rodrigo Oliveira
      Few archaeological sites in the Americas contain high concentrations of human burials dating back to the early Holocene. The tropical karstic region of Lagoa Santa, in central Brazil (state of Minas Gerais) is one of the richest bioanthropological records available to study the behaviors and funerary practices of early Holocene South Americans, with more than 200 skeletons found so far. One of the key locations to examine the history of human settlement in Lagoa Santa is the site of Lapa do Santo, a rockshelter known to contain the oldest rock art and the earliest evidence of funerary complexity in the continent. In this geoarchaeological investigation we focus on the early Holocene settlement at Lapa do Santo (7.9–12.7 cal kyBP) applying high-resolution geoarchaeological techniques, such as micromorphology, organic petrology and μFTIR, on both archaeological, modern reference and experimental samples. This is the first time that a micro-contextual approach integrated with experimental geoarchaeology has been applied to study the formation of rockshelter deposits in a tropical setting. Our results show that the stratigraphic sequence formed under the dual influence of anthropogenic sedimentation—through continuous combustion activities—and geogenic sedimentation in the form of oxisol aggregates which fell from above the limestone cliff into the rockshelter. Intact hearths and remobilized combustion debris, possibly hearth rake-out, are close to the graves suggesting repeated burning activities as part of the ritual behavior of early Holocene South Americans. Large amounts of ash are intermixed with heated and unheated oxisol aggregates. Heated termite mound fragments were also found mixed within the sediments. Post-depositional alteration of the site includes limited bioturbation and localized, low energy surface water and sub-surface concentrations of moisture, leading to precipitation of dense, secondary carbonates. The age inversions can be attributed to the human action of reworking the ashy sediments and not to post-abandonment processes. Despite this, the overall preservation of the sediments is good and most human burials can be considered to be in primary context.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Marco Gonzalez, Ambergris Caye, Belize: A geoarchaeological record of
           ground raising associated with surface soil formation and the presence of
           a Dark Earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 77
      Author(s): Richard I. Macphail, Elizabeth Graham, John Crowther, Simon Turner
      Marco Gonzalez, on the south-west end of the island of Ambergris Caye, Belize, has well-preserved Maya archaeological stratigraphy dating from Preclassic times (ca. 300 B.C.) to the Late Classic period (ca. A.D. 550/600 to 700/760). Although later occupations are recorded by house platforms and inhumations (Terminal Classic to Early Postclassic), and use of the site continued until the 16th century A.D., intact stratigraphy is rare in these cases owing to a greater degree of disturbance. Nonetheless, understanding site formation entails accounting for all processes, including disturbance. The site’s depositional sequence—as revealed through soil micromorphology and chemistry and detailed here—has yielded critical information in two spheres of research. As regards archaeology and the elucidation of Maya activities on the caye over time, soil micromorphology has contributed beyond measure to what we have been able to distinguish as material remains of cultural activity. Detailed descriptions of the nature of the material remains has in turn helped us to clarify or alter interpretations based on artefacts that have been identified or sediments characterised according to traditional recovery techniques. The other major sphere in which soil micromorphology and chemistry play a critical role is in assessment of the environmental impact of human activity, which enables us to construct and test hypotheses concerning how the site formed over time; what materials and elements contributed to the character of the sediments, especially in the formation of a specific Maya Dark Earth type that is developed from carbonate rich deposits; and how the modern surface soils acquired the appearance of a Dark Earth, but essentially differ from them. In terms of agricultural soil sustainability, the Marco Gonzalez surface soil is neo-formed by a woodland vegetation drawing upon the nutrients and constituents present in both the Dark Earth and underlying better preserved stratified deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Developing FTIR microspectroscopy for analysis of plant residues on stone
           tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Gilliane Monnier, Ellery Frahm, Bing Luo, Kele Missal
      The analysis of residues on stone tools can yield important insights into the tool-using behaviors of Paleolithic hominins. The ambiguity of residue identifications using visible-light microscopy (VLM) has led to the development of additional techniques for their characterization. Reflectance-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) is a technique with great potential to aid in non-destructive residue identifications. Recent applications of the technique, however, have been hampered by methodological challenges, causing the infrared signals to be dominated by the stone rather than the residues. We address this problem by systematically testing the limits of FTIRM on five categories of experimental plant residues (wood bark, wood pith, grass leaves, starch, and resin). We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain FTIRM spectra of in situ plant residues wherein the effect of the stone is virtually eliminated. We also generate reflectance FTIRM spectral standards for each plant residue investigated and provide peak assignments for the major peaks in all spectra. The sensitivity of the technique means that slight differences in sample preparation can result in spectral differences as well. This means that archaeological application of the technique will require (1) careful, peak-by-peak analyses of the results, (2) extensive spectral libraries, and (3) research into the effects of decomposition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T15:52:49Z
       
  • Palaeolithic and prehistoric dogs and Pleistocene wolves from Yakutia:
           Identification of isolated skulls
    • Authors: Mietje Germonpré; Sergey Fedorov; Petr Danilov; Patrik Galeta; Elodie-Laure Jimenez; Mikhail Sablin; Robert J. Losey
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Mietje Germonpré, Sergey Fedorov, Petr Danilov, Patrik Galeta, Elodie-Laure Jimenez, Mikhail Sablin, Robert J. Losey
      Four isolated canid skulls from four sites (Badyarikha River, Tirekhtyakh River, Ulakhan Sular, Malyi Lyakhovsky Island) in the Sakha Republic of northern Siberia are here described. Three specimens date from the Pleistocene and range in age from more than 50,000 years to about 17,200 years old, the fourth specimen is about 950 years old. The Yakutian canid skulls are compared with Palaeolithic dogs, recent Northern dogs, Pleistocene wolves and recent Northern wolves by multivariate analyses of standardised cranial measurements in order to determine with which reference group they have the closest affinity. These analyses permitted to identify the Tirekhtyakh River specimen as a Pleistocene wolf. The Ulakhan Sular specimen resembles the Palaeolithic dogs and the Malyi Lyakhvosky specimen the recent Northern dogs. The Badyarikha River skull falls in between groups. The archaeological implications of the presence of ancient canid specimens resembling Palaeolithic and early dogs in arctic northeast Asia are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Genetic studies on the prehispanic population buried in Punta Azul cave
           (El Hierro, Canary Islands)
    • Authors: Alejandra C. Ordóñez; R. Fregel; A. Trujillo-Mederos; Montserrat Hervella; Concepción de-la-Rúa; Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Alejandra C. Ordóñez, R. Fregel, A. Trujillo-Mederos, Montserrat Hervella, Concepción de-la-Rúa, Matilde Arnay-de-la-Rosa
      The aim of this study was to establish the genetic studies of the population from one of the most important known aboriginal funerary spaces of the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands), the Punta Azul cave, which harbors remains of 127 individuals. Sixty-one adult tibiae were examined, 32 left and 29 right. Radiocarbon dating yields an antiquity of 1015–1210 AD. We have obtained an overall success rate of 88.5% for the molecular sexing, and of 90.16% for the uniparental markers. Short tandem repeats (STR) profiles were also possible for 45.9% of the samples. This performance is a consequence of the good conservation of the bones in their archaeological context. The mtDNA composition of the sample is characterized by the complete fixation of the H1-16260 lineage. These results can be explained by a mixture of consecutive founding events, a bottleneck episode at the beginning of the colonization and/or as a consequence of genetic drift. Paternal lineages were also affected by these processes but in a less acute way. These differences lead us to propose social behaviors as an explanation for this difference. The maternal transmission of the lineages, mentioned in ethnohistorical sources of the Archipelago, could be an explanation. These results could be in agreement with endogamous practices, but the autosomal STR results indicate a relative high diversity. These results have allowed us to characterize the Punta Azul cave population and see the way in which geographical isolation, the process of adaptation and specific social behaviors affected the aboriginal population of the Island.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Hemorrhagic fever virus, human blood, and tissues in Iron Age mortuary
           vessels
    • Authors: Conner J. Wiktorowicz; Bettina Arnold; John E. Wiktorowicz; Matthew L. Murray; Alexander Kurosky
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Conner J. Wiktorowicz, Bettina Arnold, John E. Wiktorowicz, Matthew L. Murray, Alexander Kurosky
      This study identifies and interprets the proteins present on sherds from six ceramic mortuary vessels from a burial mound near the Heuneburg, an early Iron Age (750–400 BCE) hillfort in southwest Germany, using a novel adaptation of proteomic analysis that identified 166 proteins with high confidence. Surprisingly, among the identified proteins were peptides from Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a pathogen previously unknown in this geographic region and time period, as well as peptides from human blood and tissues. These results highlight the first example of a viral cause of death of at least one high-status individual from the Iron Age west-central Europe and provide the first archaeological evidence for the interment of human organs in mortuary vessels in the region. We also demonstrate the suitability and value of a proteomics approach for discovery-based residue analysis of archaeological ceramic vessels and reveal how identification of adsorbed proteins can provide insight into prehistoric mortuary practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Least cost path analysis of early maritime movement on the Pacific
           Northwest Coast
    • Authors: Robert Gustas; Kisha Supernant
      Pages: 40 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Robert Gustas, Kisha Supernant
      In this paper, we present a new method for modeling past maritime movement events using least cost path analysis. Nontraditional measures of movement cost, including cultural, environmental, and physiological variables, were calculated. Using multiple cost-weighting scenarios, spatial resolutions, and different considerations of overland travel, movement routes were predicted for five Pacific Northwest Coast study areas. This work uses a new application of least cost path analysis to seascapes and marine movement and the results have led to a better understanding of migration during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The resulting routes were systematically analyzed and compared to determine which produced the results most likely to predict high-use coastal movement corridors. We found that modeling scenarios where culturally derived costs of movement were highly weighted and in which overland travel was very costly produced the best predictions of possible past movement events. These models show that predicted routes cluster in distinct patterns which are influenced by the geography of the seascape through which the movement event is taking place and that areas of high traffic are most likely to be located immediately offshore and to the south of islands as well as in the spaces between landmasses. This knowledge increases our ability to predict the location of drowned sites on the Northwest Coast and is important in contemporary archaeology because it can help locate new sites in a landscape that has radically changed over the last 20,000 years. GIS analysis can reveal new sites hidden by changing sea levels, which may not be easily located using traditional forms of site prospection. Accurate modeling of maritime movement opens many coastal areas to increased archaeological exploration and has the potential for the discovery of new sites in drowned locations.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • A new method for extracting the insoluble occluded carbon in
           archaeological and modern phytoliths: Detection of 14C depleted carbon
           fraction and implications for radiocarbon dating
    • Authors: Yotam Asscher; Steve Weiner; Elisabetta Boaretto
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Yotam Asscher, Steve Weiner, Elisabetta Boaretto
      Phytolith-rich layers in archaeological sites constitute well defined stratigraphic horizons that would be invaluable if absolutely dated. Previous attempts to radiocarbon date phytoliths produced inconsistent results using plants with known ages. In this study a new approach to extract and analyze the silica occluded carbon was tested on well-dated archaeological contexts in Beth Shemesh and Tell es-Safi/Gath, and on modern wheat plants that grew in a controlled environment. Results show that by dissolving the silica using mild conditions, phytolith insoluble fractions can be extracted and their radiocarbon contents analyzed reproducibly. After phytolith dissolution, the remaining insoluble fractions with 10–30%C have radiocarbon concentrations that are statistically similar to associated charred seeds (within 2σ), and insoluble fractions with 40%C show concentrations that are identical to the seeds. These results show that the insoluble fraction of phytoliths is a suitable material for answering chronological questions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T20:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Optically-stimulated luminescence profiling and dating of historic
           agricultural terraces in Catalonia (Spain)
    • Authors: Tim Kinnaird; Jordi Bolòs; Alex Turner; Sam Turner
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Tim Kinnaird, Jordi Bolòs, Alex Turner, Sam Turner
      Dating agricultural terraces is a notoriously difficult problem for archaeologists. The frequent occurrence of residual material in terrace soils and the potential for post-depositional disturbance mean that conventional artefactual and lab-based dating methods often provide unreliable dates. In this paper we present a new technique using luminescence field profiling coupled with OSL dating to produce complete (relative) sequences of dates for sedimentary stratigraphies associated with agricultural terraces and earthworks. The method is demonstrated through a series of case-studies in western Catalonia, Spain, in which we reconstruct the formation sequence of earthwork features from the Middle Ages through to the present day. OSL profiling at the time of archaeological survey and excavation permitted spatially and temporally resolved sediment ‘chronologies’ to be generated, and provides the means to interpret the environmental and cultural archives contained in each. The case-studies presented here show that luminescence approaches are a valuable tool to reconstruct landscape histories.

      PubDate: 2016-12-11T20:44:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Farmer fidelity in the Canary Islands revealed by ancient DNA from
           prehistoric seeds
    • Authors: Jenny Hagenblad; Jacob Morales; Matti W. Leino; Amelia C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jenny Hagenblad, Jacob Morales, Matti W. Leino, Amelia C. Rodríguez-Rodríguez
      The Canary Islands were settled in the first millennium AD by colonizers likely originating from North Africa. The settlers developed a farming economy with barley as the main crop. Archaeological evidence suggests the islands then remained isolated until European sea-travellers discovered and colonized them during the 14th and 15th centuries. Here we report a population study of ancient DNA from twenty-one archaeobotanical barley grains from Gran Canaria dating from 1050 to 1440 cal AD. The material showed exceptional DNA preservation and genotyping was carried out for 99 single nucleotide markers. In addition 101 extant landrace accessions from the Canary Islands and the western Mediterranean were genotyped. The archaeological material showed high genetic similarity to extant landraces from the Canary Islands. In contrast, accessions from the Canary Islands were highly differentiated from both Iberian and North African mainland barley. Within the Canary Islands, landraces from the easternmost islands were genetically differentiated from landraces from the western islands, corroborating the presence of pre-Hispanic barley cultivation on Lanzarote. The results demonstrate the potential of population genetic analyses of ancient DNA. They support the hypothesis of an original colonization, possibly from present day Morocco, and subsequent isolation of the islands and reveal a farmer fidelity to the local barley that has lasted for centuries.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T02:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Identifying domestic horses, donkeys and hybrids from archaeological
           deposits: A 3D morphological investigation on skeletons
    • Authors: Pauline Hanot; Claude Guintard; Sébastien Lepetz; Raphaël Cornette
      Pages: 88 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Pauline Hanot, Claude Guintard, Sébastien Lepetz, Raphaël Cornette
      The first evidence for the domestication of donkeys (Equus asinus) dates back to at least 6000-5000 BP in Northeast Africa, and their dispersion is attributed to the ancient Romans. Latin authors described donkeys as being particularly suitable for the transport of goods and farm work. In addition, they were also bred to produce prized hybrids, particularly mules, which were perfectly adapted to the long-distance transport of people and goods. However, although the historical sources extensively describe their economic importance, both donkey and hybrid remains are surprisingly scarce in the archaeological record. This apparent contradiction is probably due to the difficulties involved in correctly identifying their bones: relatively few bones displaying morphological and metrical criteria can be used for identification, so it is often based purely on bone size. The aim of this study, therefore, is to propose solutions to identify domestic equid bones using 3D geometric morphometrics on isolated and combinations of anatomical elements. A set of 3D coordinates were registered on the 18 main skull and limb bones of 111 modern reference specimens (i.e. 42 horses, 44 donkeys and 25 hybrids). In this paper, we present the classification rate obtained on this reference sample using the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm. The application of this method on archaeological skeletons from Roman to modern sites is also presented. The percentage of correctly classified specimens was between 77% and 95% for all 18 bones, and higher than 80% for 10 of the fragmentation patterns we defined. Using a combination of several bones enabled us to increase the rate of correct reclassification to a maximum of 97%. The application to archaeological skeletons proved the ability of this method to identify domestic horses and donkeys from archaeological samples. Correspondingly, some bones, and especially combinations of bones, provided good rates to identify hybrids. This method has proved reliable in detecting the presence of donkeys and hybrids from the archaeological samples of equid bones, and should enrich our knowledge regarding their spread across Europe.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • Facilitating tree-ring dating of historic conifer timbers using Blue
           Intensity
    • Authors: Rob Wilson; David Wilson; Miloš Rydval; Anne Crone; Ulf Büntgen; Sylvie Clark; Janet Ehmer; Emma Forbes; Mauricio Fuentes; Björn E. Gunnarson; Hans W. Linderholm; Kurt Nicolussi; Cheryl Wood; Coralie Mills
      Pages: 99 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Rob Wilson, David Wilson, Miloš Rydval, Anne Crone, Ulf Büntgen, Sylvie Clark, Janet Ehmer, Emma Forbes, Mauricio Fuentes, Björn E. Gunnarson, Hans W. Linderholm, Kurt Nicolussi, Cheryl Wood, Coralie Mills
      Dendroarchaeology almost exclusively uses ring-width (RW) data for dating historical structures and artefacts. Such data can be used to date tree-ring sequences when regional climate dominates RW variability. However, the signal in RW data can be obscured due to site specific ecological influences (natural and anthropogenic) that impact crossdating success. In this paper, using data from Scotland, we introduce a novel tree-ring parameter (Blue Intensity – BI) and explore its utility for facilitating dendro-historical dating of conifer samples. BI is similar to latewood density as they both reflect the combined hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content in the latewood cell walls of conifer species and the amount of these compounds is strongly controlled, at least for trees growing in temperature limited locations, by late summer temperatures. BI not only expresses a strong climate signal, but is also less impacted by site specific ecological influences. It can be concurrently produced with RW data from images of finely sanded conifer samples but at a significantly reduced cost compared to traditional latewood density. Our study shows that the probability of successfully crossdating historical samples is greatly increased using BI compared to RW. Furthermore, due to the large spatial extent of the summer temperature signal expressed by such data, a sparse multi-species conifer network of long BI chronologies across Europe could be used to date and loosely provenance imported material.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • The adoption of pottery by north-east European hunter-gatherers: Evidence
           from lipid residue analysis
    • Authors: Ester Oras; Alexandre Lucquin; Lembi Lõugas; Mari Tõrv; Aivar Kriiska; Oliver E. Craig
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 78
      Author(s): Ester Oras, Alexandre Lucquin, Lembi Lõugas, Mari Tõrv, Aivar Kriiska, Oliver E. Craig
      Pottery was adopted by hunter-gatherers in the Eastern Baltic at the end of the 6th millennium cal BC. To examine the motivations for this cultural and technological shift, here we report the organic residue analysis of ceramic vessels from the earliest pottery horizon (Narva) in this region. A combined approach using GC-MS, GC-C-IRMS and bulk IRMS of residues absorbed into the ceramic and charred surface deposits was employed. The results show that despite variable preservation, Narva ceramic vessels were preferentially used for processing aquatic products. We argue that pottery was part of a new Late Mesolithic subsistence strategy which included more intensive exploitation of aquatic foods and may have had important implications, such as increased sedentism and population growth.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T17:58:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2016)
       
  • An investigation into the effects of X-ray on the recovery of ancient DNA
           from skeletal remains
    • Authors: Lars Fehren-Schmitz; Joshua Kapp; Kim Laura Ziegler; Kelly M. Harkins; Gary P. Aronsen; Gerald Conlogue
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Joshua Kapp, Kim Laura Ziegler, Kelly M. Harkins, Gary P. Aronsen, Gerald Conlogue
      The application of radiographic imaging methods like conventional X-Ray and computed tomography (CT) in bioarchaeological research is normally considered to be non-invasive. While this holds true on the macro- and microscopic level, little is known about potentially induced damage on the molecular level that could inhibit the successful recovery of ancient DNA (aDNA) from such specimens. Although there has been speculation concerning possible damage to DNA recovered from ancient remains following exposure to radiation, little research has been published. Past studies attempted to determine the specific effect of X-ray and computed tomography on the amplification of DNA from bone of recently butchered animals. Although the results suggested exposure to clinical level of radiation decreased the recovery of aDNA, the un-dehydrated state of the samples might have biased the results. In this study we utilized dry human archaeological bones from nine prehistoric and historic individuals and exposed them to different levels of radiation using conventional X-ray to more accurately examine the issue. Employing Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of shotgun sequencing libraries, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and multiplex PCR of autosomal genetic markers we show that neither the exposure to conventional X-ray dosages (moderate irradiation) used in archaeological imaging studies nor 20-fold increased dosages (strong irradiation) have a significant effect on the quantity and quality of DNA that can be recovered from these ancient specimens. We conclude that the application of radiographic imaging methods in bioarchaeology does not impair the success of subsequent aDNA studies if simple precautions are followed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T16:55:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Iron isotopes as a potential tool for ancient iron metals tracing
    • Authors: Jean Milot; Franck Poitrasson; Sandrine Baron; Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jean Milot, Franck Poitrasson, Sandrine Baron, Marie-Pierre Coustures
      Provenance studies of iron artefacts have become an important topic in archaeology to better understand the socio-economic organization of ancient societies. Elemental and isotopic tracing methods used so far for iron metal provenance studies showed some limitations, and the development of new additional tracers are needed. Since the last decade, the rise of cutting edge analytical techniques allows for the development of new isotopic tools for this purpose. The present study explores for the first time the use of iron isotopes analyses as a potential method for ancient iron metal tracing. Ore, slag and metal samples from two experimental reconstitutions of iron ore reduction by bloomery process were collected. Their Fe isotope compositions were measured by Multi Collector – Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to assess the possible impact of smelting on the Fe isotope composition of the metal produced. Our results show that the iron isotope compositions of the slag and metal are for 8 out of 9 samples analyzed undistinguishable from that of the starting ores. This suggests that overall, no significant Fe isotope fractionation occurs along the chaîne opératoire of iron bars production, even if slight isotopic differences might be found in blooms before refinement. This fact, combined with the natural isotopic variability of iron ores, as reported in the literature, may allow the use of Fe isotopes as a relevant tracer for archaeological iron metals. This new tracing approach offers many perspectives for provenance studies. The combination of elemental and Fe isotope analyses should thus be useful to validate origin hypotheses of ancient iron artefacts.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Late Pleistocene/early Holocene maritime interaction in Southeastern
           Indonesia – Timor Leste
    • Authors: Christian Reepmeyer; Sue O'Connor; Mahirta; Tim Maloney; Shimona Kealy
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Christian Reepmeyer, Sue O'Connor, Mahirta, Tim Maloney, Shimona Kealy
      This study analysed over 1000 obsidian stone artefacts excavated from two adjoining shelters at Tron Bon Lei on Alor Island Indonesia using portable XRF. The study showed an unambiguous separation of three different source locations (Groups 1, 2 and 3). Two sources (Group 2 and 3a, b, c) dominate the assemblage numerically. Group 1 and 2 indicate use of a single volcanic formation with a strong match between Group 1 artefacts and artefacts from sites in Timor Leste. Obsidian occurs in the earliest occupation layer in the Alor sites but does not include Group 1 artefacts which occur only after approx. 12,000 cal BP. Currently the geographical location of the Group 1 outcrop is unknown, however, based on the late appearance of the Group 1 artefacts in the Alor sequence it is likely that the location is not on Alor, but rather on another island of the Sunda chain. The dating of Group 1 artefacts in widely spaced sites on the never geographically connected islands of Timor and Alor indicates that maritime interaction between islands began by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The distribution of the obsidian in Tron Bon Lei shelter Pit B shows that there were periods of more intense interaction punctuated by periods when interaction declined or ceased.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T20:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • The analytical nexus of ceramic paste composition studies: A comparison of
           NAA, LA-ICP-MS, and petrography in the prehispanic Basin of Mexico
    • Authors: Wesley D. Stoner
      Pages: 31 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Wesley D. Stoner
      Ceramic compositional analyses have become a common part of archaeological inference. With a multitude of techniques available, which provide the best opportunity to answer specific research questions? I define an analytical nexus of techniques to help archaeologists determine which techniques provide the most appropriate methodology for their study regions. The relation among bulk chemical (NAA), spot chemical (LA-ICP-MS), and in situ mineral (petrography) analyses are explored through ceramics sampled from different time periods across the Basin of Mexico. Spatial and temporal patterns of compositional variability are identified with respect to the cultural systems living there. While different questions require different techniques, a stable bulk signature, like that provided by NAA, acts as a closed system that sums to 100 percent of all cultural and natural variables affecting paste composition. By comparison to the bulk baseline, any other technique that focuses on a fraction of the whole will also provide information on the unknown fractions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Remote sensing landscapes of water management on the Victorian goldfields,
           Australia
    • Authors: Peter Davies; Jodi Turnbull; Susan Lawrence
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Peter Davies, Jodi Turnbull, Susan Lawrence
      The integration of remote sensing technologies, GIS and mobile mapping platforms is producing new insights into the archaeology of historic water management systems. Our case study of the gold rush in 19th-century Victoria, Australia, has identified ditches, dams, mining claims and sediment sinks at site and landscape scales that are normally obscured by dense vegetation. New technologies including LiDAR provide solutions to these challenges and make possible the analysis and interpretation of these spatially diffuse but historically linked sites. For the first time it is possible to record and analyse a complex archaeological landscape in north-east Victoria that is the result of alluvial mining activity in the later 19th and early 20th century. This approach offers a significant advance in Australasian archaeological science and provides an important model for other researchers examining industrial landscapes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Characterization of an archaeological decorated bark cloth from Agakauitai
           Island, Gambier archipelago, French Polynesia
    • Authors: Andrea Seelenfreund; Marcela Sepúlveda; Fiona Petchey; Barbara Peña-Ahumada; Claudia Payacán; Sebastián Gutiérrez; José Cárcamo; Olga Kardailsky; Ximena Moncada; Ana María Rojas; Mauricio Moraga; Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith; Daniela Seelenfreund
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Andrea Seelenfreund, Marcela Sepúlveda, Fiona Petchey, Barbara Peña-Ahumada, Claudia Payacán, Sebastián Gutiérrez, José Cárcamo, Olga Kardailsky, Ximena Moncada, Ana María Rojas, Mauricio Moraga, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Daniela Seelenfreund
      Bark cloth (‘tapa/kapa’) is a fabric made from beaten plant fibres. In the Pacific tapa made of paper mulberry has been of great cultural importance and its use is associated with both utilitarian and ceremonial contexts. In the 19th century, traditional bark cloth was largely replaced by Western cloth. On some islands, tapa making was banished with the arrival of missionaries and Christianization. This is the case for the Gambier Islands in French Polynesia. Only a few tapa pieces from this island group survive and are held in Museum collections. In this work, we present results of the analysis of a bark cloth bundle discovered at the Te Ana o te Tetea cave on Agakauitai in the Gambier Archipelago. The bundle was made up of large and small strips of thin tapa, with some watermarks left by the beaters. Associated with the tapa, were a piece of wood and cordage. A few of the bark cloth samples showed symmetrical black lines along some of the folds. This paper presents the results of a number of analyses performed on the bark cloth bundle from this island with the aim of determining its age, if the decorations were man-made and the plant species used for its manufacture. Samples were dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and the designs were analyzed by portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for elemental characterization. Raman spectroscopy was also performed in order to assess the chemical nature of pigments. These analyses allow us to conclude that the finds date to the pre-European contact period for this island group and that these lines can be attributed to man-made designs. In addition, genetic analysis of the ribosomal region were performed to identify the species used in its manufacture, which indicate that the plant used to make the tapa cloth was Broussonetia papyrifera or paper mulberry. The availability of new genetic sequencing techniques allow for new and very sensitive analyses of archaeological material that require careful handling from the beginning in order to avoid sample contamination.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Isotopic evidence of breastfeeding and weaning practices in a
           hunter–gatherer population during the Late/Final Jomon period in eastern
           Japan
    • Authors: Takumi Tsutaya; Akina Shimomi; Shiori Fujisawa; Kazumichi Katayama; Minoru Yoneda
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Takumi Tsutaya, Akina Shimomi, Shiori Fujisawa, Kazumichi Katayama, Minoru Yoneda
      Jomon hunter–gatherers in Japan commonly show Neolithic characteristics, such as intensive utilization of potteries, grinding stones, and many plant food sources. In this study, breastfeeding and weaning practices in a Jomon hunter–gatherer population are investigated to evaluate two hypotheses concerning the relations between utilization of potteries/plant foods and early weaning and children's diet around and after the weaning process. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were investigated for 46 subadult and 47 adult human skeletons excavated from the Yoshigo site of the Late/Final Jomon period (approximately 4000–2300 years BP) in eastern Japan. A new analytical procedure was developed and residuals of nitrogen isotope ratios were calculated to cancel out the effect of positive correlation in the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Age changes in the residuals showed that the age at the end of weaning in the Yoshigo population was 3.5 years (2.3–5.5 years in 95% credible interval), which is not younger than that in typical non-industrialized populations and the other skeletal hunter–gatherer populations. Furthermore, most infants were probably weaned using a combination of the same food sources as those eaten by adults. These results suggest that the utilization of pottery and plant food per se is not a sole determinant of the age at the end of weaning in past human populations, and a special diet was not always applied during and just after the weaning process.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • Tracing edges: A consideration of the applications of 3D modelling for
           metalwork wear analysis on Bronze Age bladed artefacts
    • Authors: Barry Molloy; Mariusz Wiśniewski; Frank Lynam; Brendan O'Neill; Aidan O'Sullivan; Alan Peatfield
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 76
      Author(s): Barry Molloy, Mariusz Wiśniewski, Frank Lynam, Brendan O'Neill, Aidan O'Sullivan, Alan Peatfield
      In many regions of Europe, bronze metalwork survives in excellent states of preservation that enable us to examine traces of use on objects that are indicative of the ways in which they were used. This is a relatively young field of archaeometric research and the methodologies employed are as yet to be consolidated. A systematic relationship typically exists between experimental archaeology and the analyses of ancient objects to understand the character and causation of traces of use on objects. Mediation between these approaches has typically been undertaken using physical casts of damage on ancient objects or primary documentation and illustration by hand. We propose in this paper that advances in digital 3D modelling provide a new and dynamic interlocutor between artefact analyses and experimental archaeology. To this end, we evaluate the pros and cons of two of the affordable and commonly used modes of 3D data capture – laser scanning and structure from motion/photogrammetry – for studying the wear on bladed metal objects. We conclude that 3D modelling has considerable potential for enhancing metalwork wear analysis and object biography research. This is due to the dynamics of storing and displaying wear data for particular objects and by linking the study of traces of use on ancient objects more generally with those developed through experimental research.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T19:14:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2016)
       
  • The spatial pattern of climate change during the spread of farming into
           the Aegean
    • Authors: Nicolas Gauthier
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Nicolas Gauthier
      I examine the relationship between the spatial pattern of aridification in the northeastern Mediterranean ca 8600 years ago and the spread of Neolithic farmers into the region surrounding the Aegean Sea. I use a generalized additive model to downscale winter rainfall from a state-of-the-art paleoclimate simulation. The model performs well at reproducing the present-day pattern of rainfall in the northeastern Mediterranean, and it generates physically-interpretable estimates of past rainfall consistent with global and regional proxy records of early Holocene climate. Comparing modeled rainfall with Neolithic settlement patterns reveals spatially-heterogeneous regional impacts of this period of global aridification. Only the humid regions of the Aegean coast experienced major drought, while more inland zones temporarily experienced more rainfall. The result of this spatially heterogeneous climate event was, conversely, more homogeneous regional rainfall. Neolithic colonists from southwest Asia would have encountered new landscapes with a more familiar, and predictable, precipitation regime.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T18:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Copper mining and smelting technology in the northern Lowveld, South
           Africa, ca. 1000 CE to ca. 1880 CE
    • Authors: David Killick; Duncan Miller; Thomas Panganayi Thondhlana; Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Pages: 10 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): David Killick, Duncan Miller, Thomas Panganayi Thondhlana, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      We report chemical, petrographic and metallographic studies of copper ores and slags recovered during sporadic surface surveys and excavations over the past fifty years in the Phalaborwa and Murchison Range areas of the northern Lowveld of South Africa. The copper slags around Phalaborwa have unusual mineral assemblages, attributable to the unique geochemistry of the main ore body, the Phalaborwa Complex, where copper minerals were mined from a carbonatite composed of magnetite, calcite and apatite. Strongly reducing conditions had to be avoided to minimise contamination of the copper with iron and phosphorus. As the copper ores contain almost no silicates, silica/alumina flux was added to produce slag. The Precambrian zinc-copper ores of the Murchison Range were also smelted, but during smelting any zinc that was not volatilised was taken up by minerals in the slag, so brass was not produced.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T18:50:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • A lead-isotope database of copper ores from the Southeastern Alps: A tool
           for the investigation of prehistoric copper metallurgy
    • Authors: G. Artioli; I. Angelini; P. Nimis; I.M. Villa
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Artioli, I. Angelini, P. Nimis, I.M. Villa
      The Southeastern Alps were an important source of copper metal in prehistory, at least from the Eneolithic and through the Bronze Age, as documented by the abundant and substantial presence of smelting slags. Evidence of mining activity is scarce, because of limited ad hoc investigation and because of the subsequent systematic erasing by post-Medieval exploitation. Moreover, until recently the profusion of archaeometallurgical and archaeological investigations focusing on the prehistoric exploitation of Northern Alpine, Central European, and Balkan ore sources has somehow obscured the early role of the Italian Southern Alps as a major copper producing area. The recent advances in the systematic characterization of the copper ores in the Southeastern Alps (including Alto Adige, Trentino, Veneto, and nearby regions) by lead isotope analysis, supported by mineralogical and geochemical interpretation, offer now the appropriate tools to re-evaluate the extent of prehistoric mining and the local patterns of ore exploitation. The developed database is a powerful tool to identify the metal derived from local production. It is suggested that (1) based on the abundance and chronological distribution of smelting slags evidence, two major periods of mining exploitation took place, the first in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC and the second during the Late Bronze Age; and (2) based on the discrimination of copper sources and the available analyses, most of the metal circulating in Northern Italy and in the greater Po Valley region was actually produced from Southern Alpine ores.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Imaging and photogrammetry models of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) by Unmanned
           Aerial Vehicles: A high-resolution digital database for research and
           conservation of Early Stone Age sites
    • Authors: Gaygysyz Jorayev; Karol Wehr; Alfonso Benito-Calvo; Jackson Njau; Ignacio de la Torre
      Pages: 40 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Gaygysyz Jorayev, Karol Wehr, Alfonso Benito-Calvo, Jackson Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
      This paper presents the first aerial mapping of Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetric techniques, to provide a detailed digital cartographic basis for this world-renowned paleoanthropological site. The survey covered an area of 32 km2 of Olduvai Gorge, and through the use of aerial photos and ground control points from Global Navigation Satellite Systems, an orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model, with a higher than 5 cm/pixel ground resolution, were produced. The Digital Surface Model was then denoised to calculate a Digital Elevation Model, and a high-resolution imaging model of Olduvai Gorge was generated. A preliminary morphometric characterization using Geographic Information Systems shows the potential of this approach when analysing multiple topographic variables in large areas of paleoanthropological relevance, including production of a new map template for Olduvai Gorge and new data for the investigation of sedimentary and tectonic processes. These results constitute one of the first attempts to obtain high quality imagery from large geographic areas amenable to Early Stone Age research, and introduce new workflows for the creation of Digital Elevation Models. Overall, the digital dataset produced is intended to support archaeological and geological investigation in this area, and provide new monitoring tools for the conservation of cultural heritage.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T22:29:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Natron glass production and supply in the late antique and early medieval
           Near East: The effect of the Byzantine-Islamic transition
    • Authors: Matt Phelps; Ian C. Freestone; Yael Gorin-Rosen; Bernard Gratuze
      Pages: 57 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Matt Phelps, Ian C. Freestone, Yael Gorin-Rosen, Bernard Gratuze
      Palestine and Egypt supplied the Mediterranean and Europe with virtually all of its glass for most of the first millennium CE. While the Muslim conquest in the 7th century saw major political and economic adjustment, immediate changes to material culture appear to have been minimal. This paper examines the impact of the Byzantine-Islamic transition on the natron glass industry of Palestine from the 7th to 12th century. A series of 133 well-contextualised glass vessels from selected excavations in modern day Israel have been analysed for major, minor and trace elements using LA-ICP-MS. These glasses are assigned to previously established primary production groups, allowing the elucidation of the chronology of key changes in glass production in the region. Results indicate a relatively abrupt compositional change in the late 7th - early 8th centuries, covering the reforming reigns of al-Malik and al-Walid, which marks the end of “Byzantine” glass production and the establishment of the furnaces at Bet Eli'ezer. At about this time there was an influx of glass of an Egyptian composition. Production of Bet Eli'ezer type glass appears to have been limited to a short time span, less than 50 years, after which natron glass production in Palestine ceased. Plant ash glass is first encountered in the late 8th-early 9th century, probably as a result of reduced local natron glass production creating the conditions in which plant ash glass technology was adopted. Egypt continued to produce natron glass for up to a century after its demise in Palestine. It is reasoned that the change and then collapse in natron glass production in Palestine may well have been as a consequence of a reduction in the quantities of available natron. This affected Palestine first, and Egypt up to 100 years later, which suggests that the factors causing the reduction in natron supply originated at the source and were long term and gradual, not short term events.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T14:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Reflectance - Current state of research and future directions for
           archaeological charcoal; Results from a pilot study on Irish Bronze Age
           cremation charcoals
    • Authors: Robyn Veal; Lorna O'Donnell; Laura McParland
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Robyn Veal, Lorna O'Donnell, Laura McParland
      ‘Reflectance’ is a method that estimates the absolute burn temperature of charcoal from the ‘shininess’ of resin mounted samples. The method's usefulness for archaeological charcoal is yet to be comprehensively studied. This article details first results from reflectance testing of archaeological charcoals excavated from Irish Bronze Age cremations, which included calcined bone. As calcination of bone commences at 650 °C, it was expected that the charcoals would reflect at least this temperature. This was not the case for taxonomically identified charcoals >2 mm, nor for micro-charcoals of c. 250 μm, although measured temperatures rose slightly with decreasing fraction size of charcoal remains. Depositional practice, combustion completeness and taphonomic influences may have all played a part in this result, and these will need careful consideration in different archaeological circumstances. However, the greatest challenge for reflectance of archaeological materials lies in obtaining full agreement on the production and use of reflectance calibration curves. Current calibration curves differ substantially, by 100–150 °C ( ±50–75 °C) and in one instance up to as much as 180 °C ( ±90 °C). Without better agreement on calibration, the method's ultimate usefulness in archaeological research will be limited. At the level of refinement currently possible, it will still be useful for determining very high or very low temperature processes, and possibly the difference between charcoal fuel and raw wood fuel fires. The latter has distinct implications for estimating ancient forest wood consumption, since more wood is consumed in processes employing charcoal fuel. Proving the utility of reflectance for archaeological purposes may also require modification of normal practice for archaeological field collection of charcoal, to include collection and laboratory processing of un-sieved soil samples.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Tropical ancient DNA from bulk archaeological fish bone reveals the
           subsistence practices of a historic coastal community in southwest
           Madagascar
    • Authors: Alicia Grealy; Kristina Douglass; James Haile; Chriselle Bruwer; Charlotte Gough; Michael Bunce
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Alicia Grealy, Kristina Douglass, James Haile, Chriselle Bruwer, Charlotte Gough, Michael Bunce
      Taxonomic identification of archaeological fish bones provides important insights into the subsistence practices of ancient coastal peoples. However, it can be difficult to execute robust morphological identification of fish bones from species-rich fossil assemblages, especially from post-cranial material with few distinguishing features. Fragmentation, weathering and burning further impede taxonomic identification, resulting in large numbers of unidentifiable bones from archaeological sites. This limitation can be somewhat mitigated by taking an ancient DNA (aDNA) bulk-bone metabarcoding (BBM) approach to faunal identification, where DNA from non-diagnostic bone fragments is extracted and sequenced in parallel. However, a large proportion of fishing communities (both past and present) live in tropical regions that have sub-optimal conditions for long-term aDNA preservation. To date, the BBM method has never been applied to fish bones before, or to fossils excavated from an exposed context within a tropical climate. Here, we demonstrate that morphologically indistinct bulk fish bone from the tropics can be identified by sequencing aDNA extracted from 100 to 300 ya archaeological midden material in southwest Madagascar. Despite the biases of the approach, we rapidly obtained family, genus, and species-level assemblage information, and used this to describe a subset of the ichthyofauna exploited by an 18th century fishing community. We identified 23 families of fish, including benthic, pelagic, and coral-dwelling fishes, suggesting a reliance on a variety of marine and brackish habitats. When possible, BBM should be used alongside osteological approaches to address the limitations of both; however, this study highlights how genetic methods can nevertheless be a valuable tool for helping resolve faunal assemblages when morphological identification is hindered by taphonomic processes, lack of adequate comparative collections, and time constraints, and can provide a temporal perspective on fish biodiversity in the context of accelerated exploitation of the marine environment.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Master and apprentice: Evidence for learning in palaeolithic portable art
    • Authors: Olivia Rivero
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Olivia Rivero
      This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of 280 pieces of Cantabrian and Pyrenean Middle Magdalenian portable art. Particular technical traces left on the medium by the act of engraving were identified through microscopic analysis and used to build a quantitative estimation of the overall technical aptitude of the engraver. Some traces considered as accidents or errors in the tracing were counted negatively, whereas others reflecting control of the tool and mastership in the use of various techniques were counted positively. A multivariate analysis based on this quantitative index, along with criteria including the type of medium was carried out using Correspondence Factor Analysis and completed with relevant statistical tests. The analysis clearly distinguishes three groups of pieces: those with a negative index, those that present a low positive index resulting from a balance between positive and negative traces, and those with a highly positive index. These different categories of pieces may be tentatively assigned to different levels of experience in tool control and engraving techniques. The mean value of the technical index seems to be correlated with the type of medium and differs significantly in the various sites studied in the corpus. These data allow us to pose some hypotheses concerning the transmission of knowledge in Magdalenian societies, such as differential access to raw materials according to the engraver's experience, and different functionality of sites based on their production of decorated objects.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Architectural energetics for tumuli construction: The case of the medieval
           Chungul Kurgan on the Eurasian steppe
    • Authors: Jordan Pickett; John S. Schreck; Renata Holod; Yuriy Rassamakin; Oleksandr Halenko; Warren Woodfin
      Pages: 101 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 75
      Author(s): Jordan Pickett, John S. Schreck, Renata Holod, Yuriy Rassamakin, Oleksandr Halenko, Warren Woodfin
      The present work introduces the first architectural energetics analysis of a medieval tumulus from the Eurasian/Pontic steppe. In contrast to New World earthworks, tumuli on the steppe were constructed 1) with sod taken from the environment immediately surrounding the construction site, 2) with the use of draft animals and metal tools, and 3) in identifiable phases as part of funerary rituals over a period of weeks or months. These variables introduce problems which are confronted through 1) the application of novel historically attested rates for construction and 2) the creation of new, replicable mathematical methods for modeling materials transport.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2016)
       
  • Beyond size: The potential of a geometric morphometric analysis of shape
           and form for the assessment of sex in hand stencils in rock art
    • Authors: Emma Nelson; Jason Hall; Patrick Randolph-Quinney; Anthony Sinclair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Emma Nelson, Jason Hall, Patrick Randolph-Quinney, Anthony Sinclair
      Hand stencils are some of the most enduring images in Upper Palaeolithic rock art sites across the world; the earliest have been dated to over 40 Kya in Sulawesi and 37 Kya in Europe. The analysis of these marks may permit us to know more about who was involved in the making the of prehistoric images as well as expanding the literature on the evolution of human behaviour. A number of researchers have previously attempted to identify the sex of the makers of Upper Palaeolithic hand stencils using methods based on hand size and digit length ratios obtained from digital or photo-based images of modern reference samples. Some analyses report that it was males who were responsible for the majority of hand stencils, whilst the most recent analysis determined that females produced the majority of hand stencils. Taken together, however, these studies generate contrasting and incompatible interpretations. In this study we critically review where we currently stand with methods of sexing the makers of hand stencils and the problems for the interpretation of hand markings of Palaeolithic age. We then present the results of a new method of predicting the sex of individuals from their hand stencils using a geometric morphometric approach that detects sexual differences in hand shape and hand form (size and shape). The method has the additional advantage of being able to detect these differences in both complete, as well as partial hand stencils. Finally we urge researchers to test this method on other ethnic groups and populations and consider ways of combining efforts towards a common goal of developing a robust, predictive methodology based on diverse modern samples before it is applied to Upper Palaeolithic hand stencils.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T02:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.001
       
  • Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus
           settlements in northern India
    • Authors: Bates C.A.; Petrie R.N. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): J. Bates, C.A. Petrie, R.N. Singh
      The nature and timing of rice domestication and the development of rice cultivation in South Asia is much debated. In northern South Asia there is presently a significant gap (c.4200 years) between earliest evidence for the exploitation of wild rice (Lahuradewa c.6000 BCE) and earliest dated evidence for the utilisation of fully domesticated rice (Mahagara c.1800 BCE). The Indus Civilisation (c.3000–1500 BCE) developed and declined during the intervening period, and there has been debate about whether rice was adopted and exploited by Indus populations during this ‘gap’. This paper presents new analysis of spikelet bases and weeds collected from three Indus Civilisation settlements in north-west India, which provide insight into the way that rice was exploited. This analysis suggests that starting in the period before the Indus urban phase (Early Harappan) and continuing through the urban (Mature Harappan/Harappan), post-urban (Late Harappan) and on into the post-Indus Painted Grey Ware (PGW) period, there was a progressive increase in the proportion of domesticated-type spikelet bases and a decrease in wild-types. This pattern fits with a model of the slow development of rice exploitation from wild foraging to agriculture involving full cultivation. Importantly, the accompanying weeds show no increased proportions of wetland species during this period. Instead a mix of wetland and dryland species was identified, and although these data are preliminary, they suggest that the development of an independent rice tradition may have been intertwined with the practices of the eastern most Indus peoples. These data also suggest that when fully domesticated Oryza sativa ssp. japonica was introduced around 2000 BCE, it arrived in an area that was already familiar with domesticated rice cultivation and a range of cultivation techniques.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T15:21:07Z
       
  • Geoarchaeological research in the humid tropics: A global perspective
    • Authors: Mike W. Morley; Paul Goldberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Mike W. Morley, Paul Goldberg
      Geoarchaeological research is now commonly undertaken as an integral component of archaeological investigations across much of the world. However, in humid tropical regions there is a relative shortfall of this Earth-Science approach to understanding archaeological records. In these regions, where hot and humid conditions prevail for significant parts of the year, sedimentological records are prone to high levels of diagenesis, bioturbation and weathering. This means that understanding and quantifying archaeological site formation processes can be very challenging because we may have not have sufficient existing data with which to decipher the stratigraphic (and microstratigraphic) features recorded in these sequences. In this paper we introduce a special issue of Journal of Archaeological Science in which we showcase a selection of geoarchaeological research from across the equatorial regions of five continents, highlighting the types of stratigraphic sequences and sedimentological features that are likely to be encountered, and evaluating the tools that can be employed to maximise the geoarchaeological potential of these unique records. Additionally, we use this opportunity to review geoarchaeology in the humid tropics from a global perspective, outlining the main problems that geoarchaeologists face working in these environments and the techniques available to mitigate them.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.002
       
  • Adaptations to sea level change and transitions to agriculture at Khao Toh
           Chong rockshelter, Peninsular Thailand
    • Authors: Ben Marwick; Hannah G. Van Vlack; Cyler Conrad; Rasmi Shoocongdej; Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit; Seungki Kwak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ben Marwick, Hannah G. Van Vlack, Cyler Conrad, Rasmi Shoocongdej, Cholawit Thongcharoenchaikit, Seungki Kwak
      This study reports on an analysis of human adaptations to sea level changes in the tropical monsoonal environment of Peninsula Thailand. We excavated Khao Toh Chong rockshelter in Krabi and recorded archaeological deposits spanning the last 13,000 years. A suite of geoarchaeological methods suggest largely uninterrupted deposition, against a backdrop of geological data that show major changes in sea levels. Although there is a small assemblage of mostly undiagnostic ceramics and stone artefacts, there are some distinct changes in stone artefact technology and ceramic fabric. There is a substantial faunal assemblage, with changes in both the mammalian and shellfish taxa during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition that correlate with local sea level fluctuation. This assemblage provides an opportunity to explore subsistence behaviours leading up to the transition to the Neolithic. We explore the implications for current debates on the prehistoric origins of agricultural subsistence in mainland Southeast Asia. The data highlight the importance of local contingencies in understanding the mechanisms of change from foragers to agriculturalists.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T15:00:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2016.10.010
       
 
 
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