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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 180 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice : A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 29)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access  
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access  
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access  
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [155 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2570 journals]   [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
  • An assessment of procedures to remove exogenous Sr before 87Sr/86Sr
           analysis of wet archaeological wool textiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): I.C.C. von Holstein , L. Font , E.E. Peacock , M.J. Collins , G.R. Davies
      Strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) has been employed as a provenancing tool for archaeological wool textiles. To date, the effect of post-depositional (soil burial environment) contamination on keratin samples, which contain ∼ ppm concentrations of Sr, has not been rigorously investigated. We compared published methods for removing exogenous Sr from keratinous textiles, using either: (1) compressed N2 gas, (2) HF(aq) solution (with and without a strong oxidising agent to remove dyestuff) or (3) organic solvents. 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr contents were determined in undyed and madder-dyed/alum-mordanted moieties of the same wool textile, buried for up to three years in contrasting environments (marine sediment/fenland bog), and two archaeological textiles recovered in Iceland (one typical and one atypical of local manufacture). Undyed experimental samples had low Sr contents (0.07−0.29 ppm) that were increased by both dyeing (0.14−8.92 ppm) and soil burial (0.11−15.01 ppm). The efficacy of Sr removal was: HF(aq)+oxidising agent > organic solvents > HF(aq) > compressed N2. Unburied samples showed little variation in 87Sr/86Sr ratio between cleaning methods (0.00006−0.00035); buried samples showed greater variation (0.00257−0.00713). Archaeological samples showed Sr contents greater than experimental soil burials (1−118 ppm), and 87Sr/86Sr values consistent with Icelandic groundwater (0.70357−0.70540). No cleaning methods retrieved original (unburied and undyed) 87Sr/86Sr ratios except treatment with compressed N2 in undyed samples. Exogenous Sr from the short term soil burial environment is probably mostly present as particulates. We conclude that 87Sr/86Sr ratios of archaeological wool textiles recovered from wet burial environments do not accurately reflect wool provenance even after cleaning with the methods investigated.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T04:13:02Z
       
  • Shipping sheep or creating cattle: domesticate size changes with Greek
           colonisation in Magna Graecia
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jane S. Gaastra
      This study presents the evidence for an increase in the size of livestock concurrent with Greek colonisation in the region of southern Italy referred to by the Romans as Magna Graecia. Biometrically distinct varieties of sheep and cattle are identified from sites of ancient Greece. Through biometric comparisons these varieties are distinct and distinguishable from those of pre-colonisation sites in southern Italy. The size of these livestock is shown to increase following the foundation of Greek colonial settlements in the area. Whether through domesticate translocation or local improvements the process of Greek colonisation in Magna Graecia is shown to have had a significant impact on local livestock populations in colonisation areas of southern Italy.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T04:13:02Z
       
  • Contribution of two malacological successions from the Seine floodplain
           (France) in the reconstruction of the Holocene palaeoenvironmental history
           of northwest and central Europe: vegetation cover and human impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Salomé Granai , Nicole Limondin-Lozouet
      Malacological sequences from two archaeological sites on the floodplain of the Seine, Northern France, provide new data on the palaeoenvironmental development of this region during much of the Holocene. Both sites, situated ∼100 km apart, have broadly similar sedimentary archives with comparable malacological successions. These Holocene malacological assemblages shed light on the development of the vegetation cover. From the late Neolithic, they reflect open environments, possibly resulting from increasing use of the floodplain for agropastoral activities. These developments are reminiscent of those observed from molluscan assemblages in other regions of northwest and central Europe. The landscape is cleared of trees between 4500 and 1200 cal BC. At the end of the Subboreal, it is dominated by agricultural land.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T04:13:02Z
       
  • Artifact preservation and post-depositional site-formation processes in an
           urban setting: A geoarchaeological study of a 19th century neighborhood in
           Detroit, Michigan, USA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jeffrey L. Howard , Krysta Ryzewski , Brian R. Dubay , Thomas W. Killion
      A geoarchaeological study was carried out to assess levels of artifact deterioration occurring in a historic-period urban soil during the 20th century. The study site is a former house-lot in a park created in 1919 by demolition of a residential community in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The results show that despite nearly a century of burial in an urban soil impacted heavily by pollution and other anthropogenic activity, many 19th century artifacts are remarkably well preserved. The observed weathering stability sequence of glass > bone > mortar > plaster > paint is consistent with decreasing solubility product values of the corresponding principal mineral constituent (glass < apatite < portlandite < gypsum < cerrusite). Even severely weathered 19th century nails and mortar can often be distinguished using optical petrographic and SEM-EDAX methods. The excellent state of artifact preservation is attributed to a calcareous soil microenvironment, and artificial compaction which limited the weathering effects of water and oxygen. Artifact preservation was further enhanced by burial beneath a thick biomantle created by the casting activity of an invasive species of earthworm. However, Lumbricus terrestris may now pose the greatest threat to artifact preservation because casting and burrowing activities are decreasing bulk density, and promoting the diffusion of air and water into the soil. Early excavation is recommended to recover artifacts in soils impacted by the combined effects of urban pollution and earthworm burrowing. Anthropogenic microparticles smaller than those normally classified as microartifacts were found to be useful indicators of human occupation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-10-18T04:13:02Z
       
  • The evolution of Roman urban environments through the archaeobotanical
           remains in Modena - Northern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Giovanna bosi , Anna Maria mercuri , Marta bandini mazzanti , Assunta Florenzano , Maria Chiara montecchi , Paola torri , Donato labate , Rossella rinaldi
      The paper reports on the urban archaeobotany of Modena, a town that lies on the southern Po Plain of the Emilia Romagna region, Northern Italy. Founded in 183 BC, it was an important Roman colony known as Mutina. The integrated study of micro- and macro-remains, the interdisciplinary archaeological and botanical approach, and the comparison of on-site/off-site records allow the reconstruction of an urban environment of the past. Pollen and macroremains from four archaeological sites located in and around the ancient walls, along with pollen from an off-site trench, were studied with an integrated approach, aimed at reconstructing the main floristic, vegetational and palaeoecological features of the town and its surroundings between the 6th century BC and the 10th century AD. During the Roman age, the natural plant landscape was characterised by wetlands, thinly scattered mixed oak woods, cereal fields, gardens and other human environments; during the Late Roman and Early Medieval age, the woodlands increased. Some currently rare, or locally extinct, species lived in the area. The fragmentation of the landscape has been evident since the Roman times because pieces of the natural environments have survived near lands strongly modified by inhabitants.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T04:13:02Z
       
  • Geometric documentation of historical pavements using automated digital
           photogrammetry and high-density reconstruction algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Santiago Martínez , Juan Ortiz , MªLuz Gil
      Historical pavements are intrinsic elements of cultural heritage and require the same protection as monuments. Documenting their geometry is necessary for various reasons beyond heritage and historical considerations. Technicians need accurate data from every paving stone because each is unique. The shape any replacement stones must preserve the original slope to ensure that the runoff to sewers is not modified. This process requires much time and meticulous field measurements. Close-range photogrammetry and automatic image correlation, in particular, automatic digital photogrammetry and 3D reconstruction algorithms, make it possible to retrieve precise metric data on irregular surfaces with a high degree of automation. This paper describes the implementation of the structure from motion based photogrammetry methodology applied to the geometric documentation of historical pavements. Technicians and professionals can improve the protocols for historical pavement analysis and conservation. A case study is presented based on a representative section of a street (Travesía das Dúas Portas) in Santiago de Compostela, Spain.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Assessing measurement error in paleozoological osteometrics with bison
           remains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ryan P. Breslawski , David A. Byers
      Paleozoologists seldom consider how measurement error affects their osteometric data. This error may vary between measured dimensions or with degrees of physical deterioration. We investigate this problem with a paleontological sample of five bison radii displaying different levels of physical deterioration. We instructed twelve students to repeatedly measure two dimensions on each radius. The measurement data reveal between dimension variability in how well students repeat their own measurements and variability in how well they reproduce each other’s measurements. Further, for one dimension, physical deterioration affects measurement repeatability and reproducibility. Our results suggest that analysts should exercise more care in selecting which bones they include in metric studies of fossil bison. Further, in paleozoological studies generally, analysts should calculate measurement errors using the most weathered and error prone specimens that they wish to include in a measured sample. When possible, these errors should be a product of repeated measurements by multiple analysts to ensure reproducibility.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Feasibility studies of Sn isotope composition for provenancing ancient
           bronzes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): E. Yamazaki , S. Nakai , Y. Sahoo , T. Yokoyama , H. Mifune , T. Saito , J. Chen , N. Takagi , N. Hokanishi , A. Yasuda
      This study examined isotope fractionation during bronze casting and assessed variation in Sn isotope composition of Chinese bronze products to ascertain whether a Sn isotope tracer is applicable to provenance studies of bronze products or not. A casting experiment revealed that the Sn isotope composition of a bronze block surface becomes slightly heavier, 0.22‰ in δ124Sn/120Sn scale, (δ124Sn/120Sn = [(124Sn/120Snsample)/(124Sn/120Snstandard)−1] × 103), than original Sn beads because of selective evaporation of light isotopes. The Sn isotope compositions of six bronze product samples excavated in China were analyzed. The variation of δ124Sn/120Sn in the six samples was as great as 0.4‰. Six bronze samples showed small but detectable isotope variation that surpassed isotope shift during casting. Results suggested that the application of Sn isotope ratio to provenance studies of bronze products was of limited use because of the small variation. However, it was also shown that the Sn isotope ratio can be applied for provenancing a bronze sample with a distinct isotope composition.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Precise Chronology of Polynesian Temple Construction and Use for
           Southeastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands Determined by 230Th Dating of Corals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Patrick V. Kirch , Regina Mertz-Kraus , Warren D. Sharp
      Emergent archaic states in pre-contact Hawai'i used a ritual control hierarchy implemented through a system of temples to manage production, extract tribute, and reinforce the legitimacy of the ruling elites. Based on a limited sample of precise 230Th dates from coral offerings on Maui Island temples it had been hypothesized that this temple system rapidly expanded during the period from A.D. 1580-1640. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining an expanded sample of 39 new 230Th coral dates from temples in Kahikinui District, and one sample from the summit of a cinder cone that likely had ritual significance. Combined with seven coral dates previously obtained, this yields a suite of 46 230Th coral dates from 26 temples in the district. Dates from both surface offerings and corals in architecturally integral contexts (placed in situ during temple construction) strongly agree in documenting a major phase of temple construction in Kahikinui beginning ca. A.D. 1550 and continuing until ca. A.D. 1700. The precise chronology afforded by 230Th coral dating clearly resolves the timing and tempo of temple construction, shows that it corresponded closely with the reigns of Maui rulers credited in Hawaiian traditions with establishing and strengthening the first island-wide polity, and underscores the importance of monumental ritual architecture in the emergence of archaic states in ancient Hawai'i.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Technological tradition of the Mongol Empire as inferred from bloomery and
           cast iron objects excavated in Karakorum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jang-Sik Park , Susanne Reichert
      Iron objects from Karakorum, the former capital of the Mongol Empire, were metallographically examined. Most were forged out of bloomery iron, particularly those requiring superior functional properties. By contrast, approximately one third were made from cast iron, with carbon levels approximating either cast iron or ultrahigh carbon steel. The carbon concentration of the bloomery products was controlled either by a carburisation treatment directed at the functional parts or by the welding of a pre-carburized steel plate to a low carbon body. By comparison, cast iron-based steelmaking was achieved by subjecting pieces of solid cast iron to a combined thermal and mechanical treatment aimed at accelerating decarburisation. Some anonymous cast objects were circulated as a feedstock for this unique process, naturally taking the form of thin plates. Also, the cast products examined were contaminated with substantial amounts of sulfur and silicon, suggesting that they originated from liquid iron smelted at relatively high temperatures using fossil fuel instead of charcoal. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the Mongol Empire took advantage of an effective multi-faceted iron tradition, which combined bloomery-based and cast iron-based iron technologies. It is important to note, however, that the former still remained the key technological tradition dominating the local contemporary iron industry.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Demise of a harbor: A geochemical chronicle from Ephesus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Hugo Delile , Janne Blichert-Toft , Jean-Philippe Goiran , Friederike Stock , Florent Arnaud-Godet , Jean-Paul Bravard , Helmut Brückner , Francis Albarède
      At the end of the first century BC, Ephesus became the Roman capital of Asia Minor and the most important commercial, religious, and cultural center of the region. In order to evaluate the status of anthropogenic fluxes in the port of Ephesus, a 12 m long sediment core drilled in the Roman basin was investigated to shed light on the paleo-environmental evolution of the harbor using grain size distribution analysis, 14C ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Pb isotope compositions. With the help of complementary sedimentological data and Principal Component Analysis, five distinct units were identified which, together, reflect the different stages of water history in the harbor. Among the major disruptive events affecting the port were earthquakes and military events, both of which were particularly effective at destroying the water distribution system. Seasonal floods of the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) were the major source of the silt that progressively infilled the harbor. Silting in was further enhanced by the westward migration of the river mouth. A single major disruptive event located at 550 cm core depth and heralding the development of anoxia in the harbor marks the end of the dynamic regime that otherwise controlled the harbor water throughout the Roman Empire period. This remarkable event may correspond to a major disruption of the aqueduct system or to a brutal avulsion of the Cayster River bed. It clearly represents a major disturbance in the history of life at Ephesus. It is poorly dated, but probably occurred during the reign of Augustus or shortly after. Lead isotope and trace metal evidence suggest that in the four bottom units pollution was subdued with respect to other Pb metal inputs, presumably those from aqueducts and natural karstic springs. Near the top of the core, which coincides with harbor abandonment and the more recent period, anthropogenic Pb contamination is clearly visible in both Pb abundances and isotopic compositions.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T03:35:19Z
       
  • Observed Methods of Cuneiform Tablet Reconstruction in Virtual and Real
           World Environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Andrew Lewis , Sandra Woolley , Eugene Ch'ng , Erlend Gehlken
      The reconstruction of fragmented artefacts is a tedious process that consumes many valuable work hours of scholars' time. We believe that such work can be made more efficient via new techniques in interactive virtual environments. The purpose of this research is to explore approaches to the reconstruction of cuneiform tablets in the real and virtual environment, and to address the potential barriers to virtual reconstruction of fragments. In this paper we present the results of an experiment exploring the reconstruction strategies employed by individual users working with tablet fragments in real and virtual environments. Our findings have identified physical factors that users find important to the reconstruction process and further explored the subjective usefulness of stereoscopic 3D in the reconstruction process. Our results, presented as dynamic graphs of interaction, compare the precise order of movement and rotation interactions, and the frequency of interaction achieved by successful and unsuccessful participants with some surprising insights. We present evidence that certain interaction styles and behaviours characterise success in the reconstruction process.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T02:46:23Z
       
  • An approximation to the study of black pigments in Cova Remigia
           (Castellón, Spain). Technical and cultural assessments of the use of
           carbon-based black pigments in Spanish Levantine Rock Art
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Esther López-Montalvo , Valentín Villaverde , Clodoaldo Roldán , Sonia Murcia , Ernestina Badal
      Spanish Levantine Rock Art is a unique pictorial expression within the prehistoric European context. Located in shelters in the inland regions of the Iberian Mediterranean basin, this art form, which must be necessarily studied in the frame of the process of neolithization of this territory, still lacks direct dating, and therefore its authorship is still open to debate. In this paper we present the first characterization of black pigments used in the Cova Remigia shelters in the Valltorta-Gassulla area (Castellón, Spain) by means of EDXRF spectrometry combined with SEM-EDS and Raman spectroscopy. Our aim is both to identify the raw material used for the preparation of black pigments and to make a first approach to the cultural choices involved in its use. The results are relevant for several reasons. Firstly, carbon-based black pigments have been identified for the first time in northern regions of Levantine rock art. Secondly, the recurrent use of black pigments in Cova Remigia questions the assumption of its restricted use in Spanish Levantine art. Thirdly, posterior repainting and graphic re-appropriation of black figures have been observed in Cova Remigia, giving rise to the combination of two colours, black and red, fact that is extremely rare in this rock art tradition. Finally, the identification of organic matter in the black pigments opens the possibility of radiocarbon dating.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-10-09T02:46:23Z
       
  • Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte
           rockshelter (Central France)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Thierry Aubry , Luca Antonio Dimuccio , Jan-Pieter Buylaert , Morgane Liard , Andrew S. Murray , Kristina Jørkov Thomsen , Bertrand Walter
      Transformation in technological patterns associated with the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition between 50 and 40 ka in Western Europe and their relationship with the Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human populations and behaviors are issues that continue to stimulate heated debate. In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz and feldspar grains, to establish a timeline for material culture and sedimentary dynamic changes during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition. Technology, refitting studies and taphonomy of lithic artifacts recovered in the geoarchaeological field units D1 and D2 permit to characterize 3 reduction strategies (Levallois, Discoidal and Châtelperronian blade) that took place between the cold Heinrich events 5 and 4. We discuss the implications of the results to characterize the end of the Middle Palaeolithic, and for distinguishing anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors in Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic assemblage's variability.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T02:46:23Z
       
  • Unreliability of the induced obsidian hydration method with abbreviated
           hot-soak protocols
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Alexander K. Rogers , Daron Duke
      The induced hydration method is based on temperature scaling; obsidian samples are hydrated in the laboratory at elevated temperatures, and hydration rims are then measured. The activation energy and diffusion constant are determined analytically, and the hydration rate computed for temperatures of archaeological interest. It is desirable to minimize the hot-soak times in the interest of efficient use of laboratory equipment; however, the technique yields poor results for some obsidians when used with such experimental protocols. We applied the induced hydration method to obsidian specimens from seven sources in southeastern Nevada, using a frequently-used protocol which minimizes the hot-soak times. We then measured the hydration rims using optical microscopy. When plotted graphically, the resulting rates are not linear as would be expected, but instead consistently form shallow sigmoid curves. They are also found to be unrealistically high. Further, we find that hydration rate varies with time at a constant temperature, contrary to expectations. We conclude that this protocol does not adequately model long-term hydration and discuss the implications of this finding. We recommend the development of experimental designs that adequately model long-term hydration.


      PubDate: 2014-10-04T02:01:35Z
       
  • The Middle Pleistocene handaxe site of Shuangshu in the Danjiangkou
           Reservoir Region, central China
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Hao Li , Chao-rong Li , Kathleen Kuman , Jie Cheng , Hai-tao Yao , Zhao Li
      The presence of Acheulean tool types (e.g. handaxes and cleavers) in East Asia has recently attracted considerable attention. They challenge the long lasting concept that the Early Palaeolithic in East Asia is characterized only by Mode 1 technology, and they reflect the diversity and complexity of Palaeolithic culture during hundreds of thousands of years. In this paper, we present a detailed technological analysis of the in situ artifact assemblage at the Shuangshu site (Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China), as well as intra- and inter-regional comparisons of some characteristic traits used to test the difference between handaxes in the East and the West. The results show that there are two reduction sequences taking place. One is expressed in the predominant use of quartz in the production the small-to-medium sized artifacts, which is an expedient technology that dominates the whole assemblage, and the other is represented by the predominant use of quartz phyllite and trachyte in the production of Large Cutting Tools (LCTs). The latter displays the technical criteria characteristic of Acheulean technology, although its origins are much debated. In addition, the number of LCTs and total artifacts is generally low for the size of the excavation area, which probably is a result of relatively small population size and the high mobility of hominids. The thickness of handaxes has been shown not to be a reliable variable in demonstrating the difference between the East and the West.


      PubDate: 2014-10-04T02:01:35Z
       
  • Combining glaciological and archaeological methods for gauging glacial
           archaeological potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Stephanie R. Rogers , Mauro Fischer , Matthias Huss
      Recent climate changes have led to an increase in the exposure of archaeological remains in frozen environments due to the melting of glaciers and ice patches, and the thawing of permafrost. In some cases, the discovery of glacial archaeological findings has occurred due to chance. In order to avoid the risk of losing exceptional, often organic, cultural remains due to decomposition, systematic and predictive methods should be employed to locate areas of high glacial archaeological potential. Here, we merged archaeological and glaciological methods to create a new type of archaeological prediction model in the field of glacial archaeology. Locational analysis and glaciological modelling were used to highlight current and future areas of archaeological potential in the Pennine Alps, located between Switzerland and Italy. Future glacier area was calculated in 10 year increments until 2100. By 2090, 93% of glacier area is expected to have disappeared. The results from the final model, GlaciArch, provide new insights into future glacial archaeological prospection in the Pennine Alps by narrowing down a study region of 4500 km2 into several manageable square kilometre sites.


      PubDate: 2014-10-04T02:01:35Z
       
  • Lower limb skeletal biomechanics track long-term decline in mobility
           across ∼6150 years of agriculture in Central Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): A.A. Macintosh , R. Pinhasi , J.T. Stock
      Central Europe is a region with a rich agricultural history that dates back to the emergence of the first Neolithic cultures here during the second part of the 6th millennium BC. The effects of prolonged cultural change on the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region have not yet been fully reported. This study investigates diachronic trends in lower limb cross-sectional geometry among preindustrial Central Europeans spanning over 6000 years from the initial spread of agriculture in the region (∼5300 cal BC) to the Early Medieval (∼850 AD). Midshaft diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties were derived from 443 three-dimensional laser scans of femora and tibiae. Results documented temporal change that was particularly pronounced in the tibia relative to the femur, indicative of declining compressional strength (males), bending and torsional rigidity (males), and increasingly more circular cross-sections (both sexes). When examined chronologically by cemetery, a major shift towards lower tibial rigidity was identified in the Late Bronze Age among males, after which time sexual dimorphism also declined. Regional variation in tibial rigidity was identified among males, being consistently low in males from modern-day Vojvodina (Serbia) relative to contemporaneous males elsewhere in Central Europe. In contrast, female temporal trends by cemetery were indicative of progressive but gradual declines in tibial loading. Results report systematic change in lower limb cross-sectional geometry among preindustrial Central European agriculturalists that are likely indicative of declining terrestrial mobility through 6000+ years of cultural change in the region.


      PubDate: 2014-10-04T02:01:35Z
       
  • Identification of starch granules using a two-step identification method
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Li Liu , Sai Ma , Jianxin Cui
      Starch analysis has proven to be a powerful method applicable to recover microbotanical remains of starchy foods in archaeological contexts, and morphometric analysis is the most commonly used methodological approach for identifying starch granules. However, it is sometimes not easy to achieve a high level of accuracy in identification, if several coexisting taxa in an assemblage exhibit similar starch morphology. The current study attempts to use both traditional morphometric observation and also a computer-based discriminant analysis to create a multivariate model, in order to separate Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi) from foxtail millet (Setaria italica ssp. italica) and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) that show considerable overlapping in starch morphology and size. The two-step identification method generated in this study shows a greater power of discrimination for identifying these three taxa with high success rates. The model was then used for identification in ancient assemblages with satisfactory efficiency and accuracy. This method will be most useful for application to ancient starch assemblages recovered from sites where dry-land farming was a significant part of the subsistence strategy, such as in East Asian Neolithic and Bronze Ages.


      PubDate: 2014-10-04T02:01:35Z
       
  • High resolution space and ground-based remote sensing and implications for
           landscape archaeology: the case from Portus, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Simon J. Keay , Sarah H. Parcak , Kristian D. Strutt
      Ground-based archaeological survey methods, together with aerial photography and satellite remote sensing data, provide archaeologists with techniques for analysing archaeological sites and landscapes. These techniques allow different properties to be detected dependent on the nature of archaeological deposits, although clear restrictions exist, either with their physical limitations, or in the extent and nuances of their application. With recent developments in landscape archaeology technologies, it is increasingly necessary to adopt an integrated strategy of prospection, incorporating both ground-based non-destructive methods and remotely sensed data, to understand fully the character and development of archaeological landscapes. This paper outlines the results of a pilot project to test this approach on the archaeological landscape of Portus, the port of Imperial Rome. Its results confirm the potential that exists in enhancing the mapping of this major port complex and its hinterland by means of an integration of satellite remote-sensing data, geophysical survey and aerial photography. They have made it possible for new questions to be raised about Portus and its environs and, by implication, suggest that integrated fieldwork strategies of this kind have much more to tell us about major Classical sites and other large and complex sites across the globe than by addressing them by means of single methods alone.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • The surface hydration of soda-lime glass and its potential for historic
           glass dating
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Christopher M. Stevenson , Molly Gleeson , Steven W. Novak
      More than three decades ago the idea of using ambient water diffusion on manufactured glasses as an archeological dating method was proposed for historic period artifacts. In this study, we use infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to model water diffusion into the surface of two soda-lime glasses that differ principally in the alumina and magnesium content. Lower temperature hydration experiments (60–140 °C) were conducted and the surface diffused water was measured by infrared absorption, transflectance, and reflectance spectroscopy to establish the diffusion coefficients and activation energies, and to investigate the change in glass surface structure with time at a constant temperature. SIMS was also used to document water diffusion within a sample recovered from a 19th century archeological slave quarters at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello plantation in Virginia, USA.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • From Evenk campfires to prehistoric hearths: charcoal analysis as a tool
           for identifying the use of rotten wood as fuel
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Auréade Henry , Isabelle Théry-Parisot
      We present a new approach combining ethnoarchaeology and experimentation aiming towards a better understanding of prehistoric firewood use and management. The example of present fuel management practices among a residentially mobile group of Evenk Siberian reindeer herders, shows how ethnoarchaeology can provide an analytical background for the study of complex man–environment interrelations. Ethnographic observation confirmed in particular that the moisture content and structural soundness of the wood can be linked to hearth function: rotten conifers for instance, are used for hide smoking by several groups living in the boreal forests of the Northern hemisphere. Charcoal samples from an Evenk hearth fed with rotten Larix cajanderi (Siberian larch) showed a high proportion of microscopic features diagnostic of fungal alterations. A series of systematic experimental combustions on Pinus sylvestris (scots Pine) confirmed the existence of a relationship between the frequency and the intensity of fungal alterations visible after the combustion and the initial state of the wood used in the hearth. The establishment of an alteration index allows now to take a new parameter, the structural soundness of the wood, into account when performing archaeological charcoal analyses.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • Comparative methods for distinguishing flakes from geofacts: a case study
           from the Wenas Creek Mammoth site
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Patrick M. Lubinski , Karisa Terry , Patrick T. McCutcheon
      Archaeologists have long struggled with distinguishing lithic materials modified by humans (artifacts) from natural objects (e.g., geofacts or zoofacts). This problem is especially difficult for finds of small numbers of flake-like lithic specimens, and particularly for very old finds. We attempt to address the artifact versus geofact problem at a paleontology site by employing three systematic and objective tests on the two recovered possible artifacts. First, they are compared with debitage attributes typically expected of artifacts and geofacts based on published experimental and actualistic data. Second, they are compared in terms of nine of these attributes with a toolstone sample from the site excavation matrix. Third, the two possible artifacts are scored for these nine attributes and graphed against the toolstone matrix sample and two samples of flintknapped debitage assemblages. In all three comparisons, the two specimens are more like artifacts than geofacts. While this does not prove the specimens are artifacts, it at least shows they cannot be easily dismissed as the sort of geofacts typically expected in the site matrix. We argue that this distinction is an important first step in the evaluation of possible lithic artifacts.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • In search of Paleolithic dogs: a quest with mixed results
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Darcy F. Morey
      Archaeological evidence has long placed the origins of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) just prior to the beginning of the Holocene Epoch, some 12,000–15,000 years ago. Some studies of genetic profiles of modern canids have, however, suggested a much earlier origin, dating to Paleolithic times and perhaps exceeding 100,000 years. With such studies as a backdrop, cases have been made recently on archaeological grounds for Paleolithic dogs that in certain cases exceed 30,000 years old. When examined systematically, however, some such studies exhibit conceptual and methodological flaws, calling into serious question the accuracy of the cases advanced. At least one recent study highlights that difficulty. When a series of cases for putative Paleolithic dogs is assessed, convincing cases for such dogs are confined to about the past 15,000 years, or latest Paleolithic times. Further developments on certain specific fronts may change that, but for the time being the longstanding archaeological understanding of the dog domestication time frame continues to be reasonably accurate. Recent molecular genetic studies are converging on that temporal framework as well. Archaeologists need not be automatically swayed by ongoing changes in molecular genetic profiles.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • Agricultural suitability and fertility in occidental piedmont of
           Calchaquíes Summits (Tucumán, Argentina)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): María Marta Sampietro Vattuone , Jimena Roldán , Mario Gabriel Maldonado , María Gisela Lefebvre , Marta Amelia Vattuone
      Our study area is located in the piedmont of Calchaquíes Summits (Tucumán Province, Northwest Argentina). The objectives of this paper are to improve the knowledge of Pre-Hispanic agricultural practices on landscape and soils, and to provide new knowledge about land fertility of agricultural areas, taking into account the environmental settings. Physical and chemical features, such as structure, texture, pH, calcium, organic and inorganic phosphorus, and available copper, manganese, and iron were taken into account. After photointerpretation and field surveys, two agricultural terraced geomorphological units were sampled. Samples were made in comparable off-site locations and the archaeological sites. After Principal Component Analysis, physicochemical analysis showed that texture is the most significant difference between the two archaeological sites. Agricultural practices introduced high chemical variations, despite the substantial differences between agricultural and off-site profiles. This is the first approach of this nature in Northwest Argentina.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • Taphonomic analysis of rodent bone accumulations produced by the
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Claudia I. Montalvo , Fernando J. Fernández , M. Soledad Liébana , Miguel Santillán , José H. Sarasola
      The main objective of this study was to determine the taphonomic characteristics of ingested rodent prey remains recovered from White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus, Accipitriformes) pellets. Bones were analyzed in order to identify taphonomic features produced by this predator. Sampling was performed during the austral reproductive season of 2011 in Central Argentina (La Pampa province). The taphonomic variables evaluated suggest that E. leucurus produces strong digestion (categories 4–5). Results and interpretations were compared with results provided by samples from the Black-shouldered Kite, Elanus caeruleus, in Algelia, and from other Falconiformes and Accipitriformes species. The dietary similarity of E. leucurus and Barn Owl (Tyto alba, Strigiformes), suggests that both raptors are dietary counterparts, consuming the same trophic resources alternatively during day and night, but overlapping in their diets. In this context, the role of E. leucurus as fossil or archaeological bone accumulators or as an agent involved on the formation of the deposit might introduce an equifinality problem. The results presented here can be used as an analytical model for the interpretation of the micromammal fossil record from paleontological and archaeological sites.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • Lithic tool management in the Early Middle Paleolithic: an integrated
           techno-functional approach applied to Le Pucheuil-type production (Le
           Pucheuil, northwestern France)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Talía Lazuén , Anne Delagnes
      The significant development of predetermined flake technologies marks the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic in Europe. This phenomenon is not only expressed by the increase in the Levallois methods, but it also includes a diversity of other flaking methods, e.g. micro-Levallois, Kombewa, truncated-faceted and Le Pucheuil, often related to secondary reduction sequences. The tool management and use patterns they fulfill are still largely unknown due to the scarcity of use-wear analyses, whereas their technological characteristics are well defined. In this paper we present a combined technological and functional study of Le Pucheuil-type flakes (Delagnes, 1993), from the eponymous Early Middle Paleolithic site of Le Pucheuil (northwestern France). The technical investment during the reduction sequence is relatively low but flaking is nevertheless guided by specific and constant technical rules which result in the production of predetermined flakes. These flakes share common morphotechnical attributes: an acute, straight or slightly curved, distal edge opposed to a robust and wide proximal area. The use-wear analysis shows that this morphology was clearly sought after insofar as the distal acute edges were used as working edges while the proximal edges served as prehensile areas. Despite their similarity, Le Pucheuil-type flakes were used for a variety of tasks, including butchery but also hide scraping, wood and non-woody plant working. Tool management suggests that their production responded to deferred and/or collective uses. Our combined approach points to: 1. the high degree of elaborateness and flexibility of the tool management strategies developed in the Early Middle Paleolithic in Europe, 2. the presence of long-lasting and multi-activity occupations in an open-air context during the harsh environmental conditions at the beginning of the penultimate glaciation (OIS 6). The results finally show the great potential of combined technological/functional approaches to lithic assemblages as a way to refine our understanding of the technical, social and economical organization of Neanderthal hunter-gatherers, most specifically in contexts where lithics are the only preserved materials.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T01:39:55Z
       
  • Development of a metric technique for identification of rib number
           (position) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): an initial
           attempt
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Heather L. Ramsay , R. Lee Lyman
      Zooarchaeologists have traditionally largely ignored ungulate ribs because they are seldom identifiable to genus or species, and they cannot be sorted as to which rib is represented (first, seventh, twelfth). Measurements of six dimensions of 287 ribs from 15 individual white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) reveal that four dimensions do not differentiate ribs as to position. The ratio of costal facet height to costal facet width, however, gives a >90 percent chance of correctly categorizing proximal ribs as either anterior (ribs 1–6) or posterior (ribs 9–13). Future research should incorporate frequencies of anterior and posterior ribs into studies of skeletal part frequencies. The metric technique of rib seriation could be applicable to other ungulate taxa.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • Geophysical prospecting and remote sensing for the study of the San
           Rossore area in Pisa (Tuscany, Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Giovanni Leucci , Lara De Giorgi , Giuseppe Scardozzi
      With the dual purpose of extending knowledge about the archaeological site of San Rossore and of assisting archaeologists in the recovery process of the ships, geophysical surveys integrated with remote sensing analyses were performed. The surveys were conducted at selected locations, placed on the plan of excavation (approximately 5 m above the ancient surface) and near the archaeological excavation area. Passive (Self Potentials) and active (Induced Polarization) electrical methods were used. The choice of geophysical methods was due to the peculiarity of the geological characteristics of the site. In fact, the sediments embodying the archaeological remains are mainly silts and silty sands, which are moderately conductive. Furthermore, a shallow groundwater hosted in the alluvial deposits (at approximately 2 m below the surface plane) is present in the site. Induced Polarization results inside the excavation area allowed identifying some anomalies related to the ship boundaries, as well as other anomalies probably attributable to archaeological features. Additionally, the Self Potentials measurements carried out in the area near the archaeological excavation evidenced the presence of other archaeological features such as two ships, a pier and other structures. Furthermore, the multitemporal remote sensing data allow the identification of many traces related to filling of channels and ditches. Finally, the integration of the data contributed to a better interpretation of the archaeological site.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • In the footsteps of Pliny: tracing the sources of Garamantian carnelian
           from Fazzan, south-west Libya
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): E. Gliozzo , D.J. Mattingly , F. Cole , G. Artioli
      References in the ancient sources indicate that the Libyan desert was a source of ‘carbunculi’: semi-precious red stones and gemstones variously interpreted as ruby, garnet and spinel, amongst others. While gemstones are not attested in the geological strata of Fazzan (south-west Libya), a range of silica-based stones including chert, chalcedony, agate and carnelian are known to originate in this area, linked to an early civilisation known as the Garamantes. It has been long proposed that the geochemical signature and the variations in the relative proportions of quartz:moganite phases can be used to distinguish between groups of stones of different origin. The proposed methodology was tested on a number of archaeological samples from the Garamantian sites of Jarma (ancient Garama) and Saniat Jibril, in Fazzan. Fragments of chert, carnelian and amazonite found at the two sites have been identified as raw materials associated with beadmaking. Trace elemental data obtained by LA-ICP-MS were combined with mineralogical data obtained by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on the same samples and a group of reference samples. The dataset has been compared with the available literature and data from other localities around the world. To this purpose a preliminary database of silica-based materials was established for provenance work. Based on the scarce data available in the literature, the importation of these stones from Eastern localities such as India may be ruled out. The measured data on archaeological samples and debitage allow us to define a reliable reference group of parameters for materials from Fazzan, which are likely to be derived from a unique geological source. The methodology should be extended and compared with cherts and carnelians from a range of Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan sites. This characterisation work is a tool of high potential utility for a new investigation of ancient contact and trade across the Trans-Saharan zone.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • No Man is an island: evidence of pre-Viking Age migration to the Isle of
           Man
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): K.A. Hemer , J.A. Evans , C.A. Chenery , A.L. Lamb
      The Isle of Man occupies a central position in the Irish Sea, in close proximity to the coasts of Ireland, north Wales, northwest England and southwest Scotland. The island's location means it presents an ideal stopping point for seafarers navigating the Irish Sea ‘trade highway’, and consequently, during the early medieval period, the island was the focus of power struggles between British and Irish elites, and eventually became the target of attack and subsequent settlement of people from Scandinavia during the Viking Age. It is the Viking-Age evidence that has been central to the discussion of migration to the Isle of Man to date, whilst less consideration has been given to population mobility to the island prior to the 10th century. This paper seeks to address this by presenting strontium and oxygen isotope data for a sample (n = 12) of two pre-10th century cemetery populations from the Isle of Man: Balladoole and Peel Castle. This study highlights evidence for mobility to the island prior to the advent of Viking-Age migrations, and consideration is given to the possible motivations for this early medieval mobility.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • Optimal foraging, dietary change, and site use during the Paleolithic at
           Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Britt M. Starkovich
      This paper evaluates a long sequence of zooarchaeological remains from Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece) within the paradigm of evolutionary ecology. The prey choice, central place foraging, and patch choice models are applied to the dataset in order to understand subsistence shifts related to local resource depression and changes in the intensity of site use from the Middle Paleolithic through Mesolithic. Major trends in prey choice indicate that Middle Paleolithic hominins tended to focus on high-ranked large game resources, while Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic occupants shifted to lower-ranked small game, fast-moving animals in particular. Overarching shifts in prey use do not correspond to environmental change, so they likely reflect human impacts on local prey populations. Reconstructions of body part profiles indicate that hunters exploited large game animals locally, possibly as they passed through the gorge or drank at a nearby stream. Occupation intensity at the site was highest at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which is reflected by an increase in material culture such as lithics and hearth features, as well as different subsistence strategies. Specifically, bone marrow processing is more important, evidenced by ungulate transport decisions that focus on marrow-rich elements, and an overall increase in marrow processing intensity. Environmental data indicate that conditions in southern Greece were particularly favorable at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which supported rich ungulate faunas and larger populations of their hominin predators in the area. In general, faunal data from Klissoura Cave 1 fit within larger trends found in the Mediterranean over the course of the Late Pleistocene, which indicate that human hunting pressures were on the rise. However, many aspects of prey use are specific to Klissoura Cave 1, reflecting unique environmental and cultural circumstances of southern Greece at various phases in the occupation of the site.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Estimating original flake mass on blades using 3D platform area: problems
           and prospects
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antoine Muller , Chris Clarkson
      This study tests how well the ITMC (Initial-/Terminal-Mass Comparison) method of Clarkson and Hiscock (2011) measures reduction specifically on blades, a largely overlooked flake type in reduction measures. We demonstrate the utility of using platform area to model the extent of reduction on retouched blades. The platform areas of 124 blades were accurately measured in three dimensions using a digital scanner. A positive relationship was observed between 3D platform area and blade mass, with greater platform areas being associated with greater masses. Multivariate regression was used to strengthen the relationship between platform area and initial mass by isolating the variables of platform, termination and indentor type as well as external platform angle. As was proposed by Clarkson and Hiscock (2011), reduction intensity can be estimated by predicting initial blade mass from the relationship between platform area and mass, and comparing this to the observed mass of a retouched blade. Our analysis returned some surprising results that raise questions about the operation of fracture mechanics, particularly for punch blades and those with focalised platforms, and the suitability of the ITMC as a holistic method of flake reduction analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Electrochemical reconstruction of a heavily corroded Tarentum hemiobolus
           silver coin: a study based on microfocus X-ray computed microtomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Benedetto Bozzini , Alessandra Gianoncelli , Claudio Mele , Aldo Siciliano , Lucia Mancini
      In this paper we report on the electrochemical reconstruction of a Tarentum hemiobolus Ag coin, severely corroded in marine environment. As assessed by conventional analytical tools, most of the initially metallic Ag coin had been converted to AgCl by exposure to the aggressive coastal burial conditions. X-ray computed microtomography proved that only small portions of the artefact had preserved their metallic nature. Since the engraving was preserved partly in the corrosion product bulk and partly in the metallic rests, electrodeposition of Ag from the AgCl layer, under controlled conditions ensuring shape preservation, resulted in the reconstruction of the coin surface with full recovery of the original engraving. Such optimal electrodeposition conditions were identified by a combination of electrochemical and quasi-in situ X-ray microtomography experiments, carried out with artificially corrored engraved Ag wires. Microtomography of the reconstructed coin confirmed the compaction of the external Ag layer and disclosed that the central core of the coin still contains unconverted AgCl. The presence of such a mineralised core does not however impact the numismatic use of the coin and the safeguard of the original engraving.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Coastal paleogeography of the California–Oregon–Washington and
           Bering Sea continental shelves during the latest Pleistocene and Holocene:
           implications for the archaeological record
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jorie Clark , Jerry X. Mitrovica , Jay Alder
      Sea-level rise during the last deglaciation and through the Holocene was influenced by deformational, gravitational, and rotational effects (henceforth glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) that led to regional departures from eustasy. Deglacial sea-level rise was particularly variable spatially in areas adjacent to the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets. Such regional variability in sea level due to GIA is important to identify when investigating potential coastal migration pathways used by early Americans. An improved understanding of regional sea-level rise may also be used for predictive modeling of potential archaeological sites that are now submerged. Here we compute relative sea-level change across the California–Oregon–Washington and Bering Sea continental shelves since the Last Glacial Maximum using an ice-age sea-level theory that accurately incorporates time-varying shoreline geometry. The corresponding non-uniform sea-level rise across these continental shelves reveals significant departures from eustasy, which has important implications for improved understanding of potential coastal migration routes and predictive modeling of the location of now-submerged archaeological sites.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • LA-ICP-MS analysis of Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Charles A. Speer
      A key tenet of Clovis period hunter–gatherer mobility is the utilization of large ranges based on the appearance of exotic raw materials, particularly chert, in Clovis assemblages. The identification of the sources of chert in Clovis period assemblages is problematic as it has relied on macroscopic properties. Macroscopic characteristics of chert can be highly variable in a single outcrop, occur across very large areas, and have correlates in unrelated and far removed contexts. An instrumental geochemical approach was utilized that potentially offers advances in the capacity to link chert artifacts to their sources. Trace element data was recovered from 33 Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site (41BL323) using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This data was compared to trace element data recovered from 224 primary geologic samples of chert from multiple primary sources across the Edwards Plateau in Texas. The Clovis points were compared to the geologic sources using canonical discriminant analysis to establish group membership at three spatial scales: macro-regional (greater than 500 km), regional (between 30 and 500 km), and local (between 1 and 30 km). It was found at the macro-regional scale that 21 of the 33 Clovis points were to be geochemically similar to Edwards Plateau sources. At the regional scale, 15 of the 21 identified Edwards Plateau Clovis points could be attributed to a particular source. Lastly, only two Clovis points could be identified to particular sources at the local scale.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Intra- and inter-individual variation in δ13C and δ15N in human
           dental calculus and comparison to bone collagen and apatite isotopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jelmer W. Eerkens , Alex de Voogt , Tosha L. Dupras , Samuel C. Rose , Eric J. Bartelink , Vincent Francigny
      There are mixed opinions on the suitability of dental calculus for paleodietary reconstruction using stable isotope analysis. We examine δ13C and δ15N values of calculus samples from two regions, central California in the USA and Sai Island in the Sudan. When atomic C/N ratios are less than 12 in calculus, results show positive correlations at both the regional and individual level between stable isotopes of bone collagen and calculus, suggesting these materials track similar dietary behaviors. Correlations are still positive but lower between δ13C values of calculus and bone apatite. Stable isotope ratios of calculus show between 30% and 50% greater variation than bone, are typically enriched in 15N (mean = 2.1‰ higher), and are depleted in 13C relative to bone collagen (mean = 0.8‰ lower) and apatite (mean = 6.4‰ lower). Calculus from multiple teeth was analyzed separately for seven individuals to examine intra-individual variation. Results show that within an individual δ13C varies up to 1.8‰, and δ15N up to 2.1‰, which may explain some of the weak bone-calculus correlations previously reported in the literature. When atomic C/N ratios are greater than 12, calculus correlates more poorly with bone collagen, suggesting these samples should be treated with caution.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Variability in late Holocene shellfish assemblages: the significance of
           large shore barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) in South African
           West Coast sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonieta Jerardino
      The archaeological significance of barnacles has been documented in several places around the world, but this remains to be realised for South Africa. In the absence of local ethnographic observations, it was proposed that large barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) were taken to campsites attached to large black mussels (Choromytilus meridionalis) as part of scavenged beach-stranded fauna. Basic observations available until recently for South African West Coast shell middens showed that the presence of large shore barnacles is chronologically patterned. Some hints regarding transport decisions were also apparent. This paper examines the variability in large barnacle abundance through time and space using mollusc and crustacean shell samples from eight late Holocene sites situated at different distances from rocky shorelines. Modern knowledge on the ecology of collected species is used to interpret inter-assemblage variability. This study shows that barnacle abundance depends on at least three aspects, namely: the degree of wave exposure from which barnacles and other shellfish were collected, possible shifts in the main season of shellfish collection in the last 1700 years, and field processing before transporting shellfish loads to camps.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Assessing heavy metal exposure in Renaissance Europe using synchrotron
           microbeam techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonio Lanzirotti , Raffaella Bianucci , Racquel LeGeros , Timothy G. Bromage , Valentina Giuffra , Ezio Ferroglio , Gino Fornaciari , Otto Appenzeller
      A number of archaeological studies have used chemical analysis of preserved, human biological tissues to assess the potential exposure of historic figures and ancient populations to heavy metals. Accurately assessing historic levels of heavy-metal body burden for these individuals based on analysis of remnant soft-tissue, hair and bone collected from preserved human remains is often complicated by the potential for post-mortem chemical modifications and contamination of the body and burial site. This study employs high-resolution, synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, tomography and absorption spectroscopy of human remains collected in an archaeological context in an effort to discriminate between heavy metals such as mercury and lead that may have been incorporated through either endogenous or exogenous processes. These methods were used to analyze bone and hair samples from Ferrante II of Aragon, King of Naples (1469–1496) and Isabella of Aragon, Duchess of Milan (1470–1524). These individuals are likely to have been exposed to generally similar levels of heavy metals in their lifetime, would have been embalmed using similar methods and the post-mortem exposure to contaminants is likely to have been similar. Although the remains from both Ferrante II of Aragon and Isabella of Aragon contain high amounts of mercury and lead, the high-resolution and –sensitivity synchrotron microprobe techniques employed in this study provide insight in to the likelihood these metals were incorporated pre-mortem rather than as ante-mortem contaminants. Although synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping and tomography are generally consistent with measured mercury from Isabella hair samples being endogenous in nature, the high levels of mercury seen in Ferrante II's remains are most likely related to post-mortem embalming of the corpse. However, application of microfocused X-ray fluorescence compositional mapping and lead L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to bone samples collected from Ferrante II show that the measured lead is likely endogenous and the result of in-life exposure to this heavy metal.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Occurrence of lungfish in the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia dates
           back to 3850 yr BP
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Anne Kemp , Leon Huynen
      Bone fragments collected from the Platypus RockShelter in southeast Queensland, on the banks of the Brisbane River, can be compared with bone from the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and suggest that this species, which was widely distributed in Queensland in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits, was also found in the Brisbane River as recently as 3850 years before the present, based on current 14C dates. The fragments have dimensions and morphology consistent with parts of lungfish jaws and palatal bones, and differ from the bones of teleost fish of comparable size that live in the Brisbane River. Unfortunately, attempts to extract mitochondrial DNA from the bones have not been successful due to very low levels of endogenous DNA. The presence of morphologically identifiable lungfish bones suggests that the Brisbane River has, and always did have, a population of lungfish that belong in this river and were not translocated. The Brisbane River is separated from the Mary and Burnett Rivers by mountain ranges, and the Rockshelter is 90 km away from the nearest tributary of the Mary River. Using a morphological analysis of carbon-dated midden site skeletal material, we show that lungfish were present in the Brisbane River over three thousand years ago, and may always have been there, despite attempts to translocate lungfish to this habitat. This finding is significant because lungfish are now seriously at risk in all of their present habitats from human interference in the environment and the resulting loss of biodiversity. Confirmation that the Brisbane River contains a population of lungfish, and always has done, increases the need for protection of this endangered species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The alleged Early Palaeolithic artefacts are in reality geofacts: a
           revision of the site of Kończyce Wielkie 4 in the Moravian Gate,
           South Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Andrzej Wiśniewski , Janusz Badura , Tomasz Salamon , Józef Lewandowski
      In this paper we show that a site Kończyce Wielkie 4 (SW Poland) published in JAS (2010a) by Foltyn et al. can no longer be accepted as a reliable evidence for the oldest presence of humans in the northern part of Carpathians and Sudetes Mountains (Matuyama-Brunhes). Unfortunately, in the light of conducted analysis among others with Peacock's method, it seems that the lithics from Kończyce Wielkie appear to be much more similar to geofacts rather than to artefacts. As a background for comparison Lower Paleolithic artefacts from two German sites Wallendorf and Wangen were used. Moreover, the petrological determination of the finds from Kończyce Wielkie is also dubious issue. Foltyn et al. suggested a long distance transport of lithics from several sources. As it has been demonstrated in the paper, local glacial sediments consist of rocks that are analogous to published lithic spectrum. Finally, the geological data shown by Foltyn et al. seem to be incorrect.
      Authors did not take into account the results concerning the regional geology that indicate clearly much younger age of layers dated by Foltyn et al. (2010a) at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Taphonomy of Verreaux's Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) prey accumulations from
           the Cape Floral Region, South Africa: implications for archaeological
           interpretations
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Aaron Armstrong , Graham Avery
      We conducted a taphonomic analysis of modern prey accumulations of Verreaux's Eagle (VE; Aquila verreauxii) from the Cape Floral Region of South Africa. VE nest in or around cliffs and rocky outcrops, places that also attract other bone accumulators, including humans. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the signatures of VE bone accumulation with as much precision as possible in order to differentiate between the prey remains of other bone accumulators, especially in relation to fossil assemblages that originate in and around cliffs, rock shelters, and caves. Towards this end, we describe the taxonomic composition, skeletal-part representation, bone breakage patterns, and bone surface modifications of mammal bones as well as the range of variability within those signatures. Based on the frequency of bone modifications we determine that VE modify the bones of their prey more often than do other eagle species. We suggest that taphonomic patterns derived from predation by other eagle taxa are not the most appropriate means to identify VE predation in faunal assemblages. In addition, we conclude that there is patterned variability in the ways that VE accumulate and modify the bones of their prey. There are two distinct skeletal-parts preservation, bone breakage, and bone surface modification patterns among the prey in our sample: one that characterizes hyraxes, mole-rats, and carnivores, and another that characterizes hares and bovids. Faunal analysts investigating the potential role of VE at fossil sites should be aware of 1) these taphonomic patterns and differences and 2) that there is no singular pattern of accumulation. We define patterns of preservation, breakage, and bone modification that can be employed on a taxon-specific basis to distinguish VE prey remains from other bone accumulators.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Using LiDAR data to locate a Middle Woodland enclosure and associated
           mounds, Louisa County, Iowa
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Melanie A. Riley , Joseph A. Tiffany
      LiDAR data is used to locate an enclosure reported at the McKinney site (13LA1) as well as destroyed mounds associated with the Toolesboro mound group National Historic Landmark (13LA29). Using various geo-visualization and interpolation techniques, one of us (Riley) located the earthwork enclosure, eight mounds, and possibly a ninth or an excavation spoil pile. An anomaly north of 13LA1 and within the detected enclosure area were also identified. There is no modern survey relating to these two anomalies. Our results support historic accounts regarding the location and shape of the McKinney enclosure and its relationship to the Toolesboro mound group. All features found by LiDAR will be ground truthed in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • A combined approach: using NAA and petrography to examine ceramic
           production and exchange in the American southwest
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Mary F. Ownby , Deborah L. Huntley , Matthew A. Peeples
      Over the past few decades, ceramic provenance research has seen the increased use of both chemical and mineralogical analyses. However, the success of each method is dependent both on the geological environment and the behavioral processes that created the pottery under study. The combination of bulk chemical and petrographic datasets may assist in overcoming the shortcomings of each method and improve the assignment of ceramics to specific production locations. Our research uses a mixed mode approach based on dissimilarity matrices and multidimensional scaling. The resulting combined dataset helps us assess the geographic extent of production and distribution of Maverick Mountain Series and Roosevelt Red Ware pottery found in the Upper Gila and Mimbres valleys of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. These pottery types have been connected to northern migrants arriving in these areas during the 13th century AD and subsequent regional scale social changes. This research provides a case study in the advantages of using complementary analytical techniques and combining their results to answer behavioral questions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Shine like metal: an experimental approach to understand prehistoric
           graphite coated pottery technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Attila Kreiter , Szabolcs Czifra , Zsolt Bendő , Jánosné Egri Imre , Péter Pánczél , Gábor Váczi
      In the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, so-called graphite-coated vessels were ubiquitous in the Carpathian Basin. Studies on graphite-coated vessels are usually carried out from a typological point of view, describing the shape and decoration of such wares and assessing the effects that co-existing cultural groups may have had on each other. Even though the practice of graphite coating had been present in East-Central Europe for several centuries, the way graphite coating was produced has never been investigated systematically. Technological study of graphite coating can, however, highlight interesting details about this practice and the high skill and knowledge of potters that was necessary for this type of ceramic production. In this study, a methodology of making graphite coated vessels, and in turn achieving a metallic luster, is presented through a range of experiments. The results are compared with graphite coating found on archaeological ceramics from a Late Bronze Age site. The experiments point out that graphite coating can be achieved in several different ways; however, only a limited number of technological choices would result in highly metallic luster. During the experiments different graphite coating techniques were tried which elucidate the possible ways prehistoric potters utilized graphite, surface treatments and firing conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The utilisation of carnivore scavenging evidence in the interpretation of
           a protohistoric French pit burial
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Thomas Colard , Yann Delannoy , Stephan Naji , Stéphane Rottier , Joël Blondiaux
      Scavenging is one of the main taphonomic changes that bone assemblages undergo. This paper presents specific taphonomic data on bone modification by canids from the French archaeological site of Duisans ‘La Sèche-Epée,’ dating from the ‘La Tène A' period (500–400 BC). Anthropological description and analysis of two incomplete male skeletons found in a pit allows us to document the postmortem alteration of bodies by canid scavengers and poses several questions about the nature of the deposit. The morphology of these marks, which are sometimes similar to antemortem lesions, and the disarticulation and dispersal of anatomical parts are crucial elements that need to be accurately described and accounted for in archaeological or forensic contexts. The evidence of violent death and the secondary treatment of the cadavers can be interpreted as either an opportunistic votive burial, an actual sacrifice with a specific ritual pattern, or more traditionally, a deviant deposit in which the individuals were deprived of funerals and exposed to scavengers.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Characterising native plant resins from Australian Aboriginal artefacts
           using ATR-FTIR and GC/MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): C.D. Matheson , A.J. McCollum
      Resin use by Australian Aborigines has been documented in ethnographic accounts across the continent and is also evident from archaeological and anthropological artefacts. This research assesses the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the identification of native plant resins on museum artefacts. A collection of thirteen museum artefacts were analysed using light microscopy and characterised using both ATR-FTIR and GC/MS. The resins were identified to the plant genus and one to the species level, as spinifex (Triodia spp. R.Br.), ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys (F. Muell.) Baill.) and grass tree (Xanthorrhoea spp. Sm.) by comparison to a reference collection of modern exudates from 34 Australian plant species. The two analytical methods used, produced a significant agreement in results but one has practical advantages. On eight of the artefacts, ATR-FTIR was able to be performed on the residue in situ, without removal, presenting a non-destructive analytical method for the identification of resins which is applicable to rare and delicate artefacts from museum collections. Permission to remove the residue off the artefact is not always granted or feasible, so ATR-FTIR has a significant advantage over GC/MS and other methods which require chemical treatment or even destruction of the archaeological sample. Both of the methods examined are demonstrated to accurately infer the botanical origin of archaeological and anthropological resins, providing insight on the use, preparation and trading of resins, with the consequent contribution to an understanding of the development and use of hafted tools and other aspects of cultural development.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Developing a low cost 3D imaging solution for inscribed stone surface
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Adam P. Spring , Caradoc Peters
      The article uses a 3D imaging based solution where surface shading is determined by surface geometry. It is applied to inscribed stone surfaces in order to examine lettering and other carvings dated to the 5th - 9th centuries AD. Mid-range terrestrial laser scanning and structure from motion (SfM) based photogrammetry were cross-examined in order to create a low cost, but nevertheless highly accurate solution to 3D imaging that requires a computer, a camera, open source software like CloudCompare and a SfM based service called Photo located at ReCap360.autodesk.com. Ambient occlusion (AO) shading was used to show improvements made to the SfM data, which was achieved by adding known parameters to all photographs used. It simulates the direct light components of a light source so that exposed areas appear lightened and enclosed areas (like crevices and incisions) appear darkened. In the case study, AO was used to differentiate lettering in the inscription from damage and weathering on the granite surface of the Tristan Stone, as well as picking up a previously unnoticed wheel-head cross. This particular inscribed stone is located near Fowey in Cornwall, UK, and was known as the Long Stone before its name was changed on British Ordnance Survey (OS) Maps in 1951. The Tristan Stone was the first artefact to be scanned by the FARO Focus3D laser scanner after its release in 2010.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • High potential of calcareous tufas for integrative multidisciplinary
           studies and prospects for archaeology in Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Julie Dabkowski
      Calcareous tufas are continental carbonates from open-air conditions, specific to wet and warm periods. They contain abundant remains of fauna and flora fossilised in situ and may accumulate regularly over thousands of years offering high stratigraphic resolution for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. As they are mainly comprised of calcite, tufas allow direct and precise dating as well as geochemical reconstructions of past climates. Additionally, recent investigations have highlighted their strong potential for archaeology as several studied sequences provided high quality record of in situ prehistoric levels. Tufas are thus a unique archive in continental areas for development of synergic multidisciplinary investigations of past human societies and associated environmental and climate evolution. We emphasise that calcareous tufa are key-deposits to investigate human–environment–climate interactions during interglacial periods, from Lower Palaeolithic to Antiquity, in Europe.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • New ways to extract archaeological information from hyperspectral pixels
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Michael Doneus , Geert Verhoeven , Clement Atzberger , Michael Wess , Michal Ruš
      Airborne remote sensing for archaeology is the discipline that encompasses the study of archaeological remains using data collected from an airborne platform by means of digital or film-based aerial photography, airborne laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging etc. So far, airborne hyperspectral scanning or – more accurately – airborne imaging spectroscopy (AIS) has occupied only a very small niche in the field of archaeological remote sensing: besides reasons of cost, the common archaeologically-insufficient ground-sampling distance can be considered the main limiting factor. Moreover, the technical processing of these data sets with a high level of potential redundancy needs specialized software. Typically, calculation of band ratios and a principal component analysis are applied. As a result, the few practical applications of archaeological AIS have not been entirely convincing so far. The aim of this paper is to present new approaches for analysing archaeological AIS data. The imagery under study has a ground-sampling distance of 40 cm and covers the Roman town of Carnuntum (Austria). Using two algorithms embedded in a specifically developed MATLAB® toolbox, it will be shown how the extracted archaeological information can be enhanced from high-resolution hyperspectral images. A comparison with simultaneously acquired vertical photographs will indicate the specific advantages of high-resolution AIS data and the gain one can obtain when exploiting its potential using any of the newly presented methods.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
 
 
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