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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 242 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 57)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access  
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archéopages : Archéologie et société     Open Access  
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archipel     Open Access  
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Berkala Arkeologi     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [67 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Early stage blunting causes rapid reductions in stone tool performance
    • Authors: Alastair Key; Michael R. Fisch; Metin I. Eren
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Alastair Key, Michael R. Fisch, Metin I. Eren
      Palaeolithic stone technologies have never been investigated in terms of how sharpness influences their ability to cut. In turn, there is little understanding of how quickly stone cutting edges blunt, how past populations responded to any consequent changes in performance, or how these factors influenced the Palaeolithic archaeological record. Presented here is experimental data quantitatively detailing how variation in edge sharpness influences stone tool cutting performance. Significant increases in force (N) and material displacement (mm) requirements occur rapidly within early stages of blunting, with a single abrasive cutting stroke causing, on average, a 38% increase in the force needed to initiate a cut. In energetic terms, this equates to a 70% increase in work (J). Subsequent to early stages of blunting we identify a substantial drop in the impact of additional edge abrasion. We also demonstrate how edge (included) angle significantly influences cutting force and energy requirements and how it co-varies with sharpness. Amongst other conclusions, we suggest that rapid reductions in performance due to blunting may account for the abundance of lithic artefacts at some archaeological sites, the speed that resharpening behaviours altered tool forms, and the lack of microscopic wear traces on many lithic implements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • An insight into the burial practices of the late pre-Hispanic Los
           Amarillos community (northwestern Argentina) through the study of ancient
    • Authors: Fanny Mendisco; Christine Keyser; Veronica Seldes; Axel E. Nielsen; María Gabriela Russo; Eric Crubézy; Bertrand Ludes
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fanny Mendisco, Christine Keyser, Veronica Seldes, Axel E. Nielsen, María Gabriela Russo, Eric Crubézy, Bertrand Ludes
      A palaeogenetic analysis has been undertaken on the pre-Hispanic settlement of Los Amarillos (Regional Development Period, Jujuy Province, Argentina) to reconstruct kin relationship between individuals buried in two domestic areas. The aim of this study was first to genetically characterize the relationships between the individuals buried within the same funerary structure and, secondly, to correlate these genetic data with archaeo-anthropological data to discuss the burial practices and social organization of the Los Amarillos community. An analysis of both uniparental (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) and biparental (autosomal STRs) genetic markers was conducted on eighteen individuals recovered from three different burial structures. The very good DNA preservation contributed to characterize 13 mitochondrial haplotypes, 5 Y-chromosomal haplotypes and 11 complete autosomal STR profiles. The kinship analysis revealed that the domestic areas were used as family graves. Furthermore, they reveal that a maternal lineage is shared by a majority of the studied individuals from different sectors, suggesting matrilocal practices.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Breaking down the bullion. The compliance of bullion-currencies with
           official weight-systems in a case-study from the ancient Near East
    • Authors: Nicola Ialongo; Agnese Vacca; Luca Peyronel
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Nicola Ialongo, Agnese Vacca, Luca Peyronel
      In this paper we provide an analytical insight on a specific form of bullion-currency. Through the comparison of the statistical properties of different samples of hacksilver and balance weights from various contexts of the Near Eastern Bronze Age, the study attempts to assess whether the weight values of bullion-currencies can be expected to comply with existing weight-standards. The results of the statistical analyses on a silver hoard from Ebla (Syria) strongly suggest that hacksilver in the Bronze Age Near East was shaped and/or fragmented in order to comply with the weight-systems that were in use in the trade networks where it circulated. The results also show the possibility to quantify the level of affinity between different weight-systems. The study is intended to provide a starting point for future research, aimed at the identification of different forms of bullion-currencies in pre- and protohistoric economies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • A citation network analysis of lithic microwear research
    • Authors: Christopher J. Dunmore; Ben Pateman; Alastair Key
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Christopher J. Dunmore, Ben Pateman, Alastair Key
      The introduction of lithic microwear research into the wider archaeological community by Keeley (1980) was concurrent with the development of the processual paradigm and the adoption of the scientific method. Subsequently, lithic microwear research has benefited from over 35 years of innovation, including the introduction of novel methodological and analytical procedures. The present study employs a citation network to objectively analyse the development of microwear research. Given developments in technology, as well as the institutional isolation of early microwear research, the present analysis considers the citation network that stems from Keeley's seminal 1980 volume. The 363 papers identified as having cited Keeley (1980) in the subsequent 35 years were treated as individual nodes within the citation network. Before analysis, nodes were assigned attributes, including the type of research published and whether they were supportive of three key aspects of Keeley's experimental program: the ability to determine the function of the tool and to ascertain the type of worked material from microwear, as well as the use of high-powered microscopy techniques. Emergent properties of the papers, including closeness centrality, indegree and betweenness centrality, are used to test for significant differences between paper attributes. Similarly a clustering algorithm is used to objectively define distinct clusters of important papers within the discipline. Results indicate that a small number of nodes in the network maintain statistically significant influence on the form of the citation network. These important nodes and the distinct ‘schools of thought’ identified are discussed in the context of Keeley's initial contribution to the sub-field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Scientific preparations of archaeological ceramics status, value and long
           term future
    • Authors: Patrick Sean Quinn
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Patrick Sean Quinn
      Thin sections, resin blocks, pressed pellets, fused beads, milled powders, solutions and digested residues are several key sample formats used in the invasive scientific analysis of ancient ceramics. They are crucial tools that enable researchers to characterise the mineralogical, geochemical, molecular and microstructural composition of pottery and other ceramic artefacts, in order to interpret their raw materials, manufacturing technology, production locations and functions. Despite the importance of such preparations, key issues about their status, such as whether they are still artefacts or not, who owns them and where they should reside after analysis, are rarely addressed in the archaeological or archaeometric literature. These questions have implications for the long-term future of thin sections, resin blocks and other sample formats, as well as their accessibility for future research. The present paper highlights the above problem and assess the roles, perspectives and needs of ceramic analysts, field archaeologists, commercial units, curators, policy makers, professional bodies, special interest groups and funding agencies. Finally, guidelines are put forward that can be taken into account when deciding on the value and research potential of scientific specimens of archaeological ceramics, as well as strategies for their curation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Microflint in archaeological sediments from Boker Tachtit, Israel: A new
           method for quantifying concentrations of small flint fragments
    • Authors: Zane Stepka; Omry Barzilai; Steve Weiner; Elisabetta Boaretto
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zane Stepka, Omry Barzilai, Steve Weiner, Elisabetta Boaretto
      Flint is one of the most common rock types used for producing stone tools. During flint knapping huge amounts of microscopic sized flint particles are produced. Thus the presence of high concentrations of microflint in a sedimentary layer, could be a good indication that flint was knapped at that location. We have developed and tested a method for quantification of microflint concentrations in sediments. The method involves concentrating the microflints in specific density fractions, and then counting a representative proportion of the flint fragments using a polarized light microscope. We show that the method successfully identifies a knapping layer in an Initial Upper Palaeolithic level at the site of Boker Tachtit, Israel. This level also contains macroscopic flint debitage, including refitted artifacts. Microflint quantification can aid in identifying knapping areas and be useful for better understanding site formation processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Experimental construction of hunter-gatherer residential features,
           mobility, and the costs of occupying “persistent places”
    • Authors: Christopher Morgan; Dallin Webb; Kari Sprengeler; Marielle (Pedro) Black; Nicole George
      Pages: 65 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Christopher Morgan, Dallin Webb, Kari Sprengeler, Marielle (Pedro) Black, Nicole George
      Temporal and caloric costs associated with building common hunter-gatherer residential features – housefloors, housepits, storage pits, rock rings, and various types of wickiups – are presented based on experimental construction of these types of features. For subsurface features, excavation rates and associated labor costs are consistent regardless of feature type, soil type, or feature size. Labor costs for surface features are largely dependent on feature size, complexity, and availability of raw materials. In total, the per-family costs of building a single-family hunter-gatherer residential base are just under one 8-h day and approximately 2500 kcal per person. Combined, these data indicate relatively low costs are associated with hunter-gatherer investments in persistent places and in residential facilities made from locally-available resources. Implied by the study is that initial use of a place might reduce the costs of and thus encourage subsequent reoccupations and that raw material availability may have played as much of a role in decisions about when to move as density and distribution of subsistence resources.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Ceramic studies using portable XRF: From experimental tempered ceramics to
           imports and imitations at Tell Mozan, Syria
    • Authors: Ellery Frahm
      Pages: 12 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Ellery Frahm
      Studies of Northern Mesopotamian complex societies have long been predicated on ceramic wares, whereby ceramic variation is thought to reflect cultural variation. There is, however, an increasing appreciation for the role of imitation, itinerancy, and other phenomena in the distribution of ceramic styles. Much of this newfound nuance is due to chemical studies. Increasingly ceramics have been studied using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). The utility of pXRF in ceramic research relies on being able to interpret the data in behaviorally meaningful ways. Thus, one approach to considering the efficacy of pXRF for ceramic studies proceeds from understanding the ways in which clays and tempers act as variables and influence the data in ways that reflect past behaviors. First, this study uses experimental replicas to exert systematic control over individual parameters (e.g., temper size, volume), allowing a better understanding of their influence. Second, this study considers Bronze Age wares at Tell Mozan in northeastern Syria. The experimental ceramics and Tell Mozan sherds are technological products that retain chemical evidence of choices made during their production. In the experimental ceramic set, a predicted phenomenon (e.g., the “dilution” effect from temper) occurred as expected, and elemental data differentiated clays and tempers selected for their manufacture. In the archaeological assemblage, elemental approaches established that distinctions between imports and locally made imitations are not always apparent by conventional means, and the use of pXRF is one way to overcome current shortcomings as well as contribute new insights.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Raw material impact strength and flaked stone projectile point performance
    • Authors: Chris Loendorf; Lowell Blikre; William D. Bryce; Theodore J. Oliver; Allen Denoyer; Greg Wermers
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Chris Loendorf, Lowell Blikre, William D. Bryce, Theodore J. Oliver, Allen Denoyer, Greg Wermers
      Archaeologists have previously proposed several different measures of flaked stone raw material “quality”, but this variable has proven difficult to quantify, and the precise characteristics that improve performance remain unclear. This paper presents the results of controlled experiments that were designed to test projectile points made from stones with varying impact strength. By comparing an independent measure of strength with projectile point experimental data, our research suggests that this variable can be objectively measured, and it is a good predictor of some aspects of projectile tip function. Our results show that highly homogenous fine-grained materials with low impact strength (e.g., obsidian) perform well when penetrating elastic materials such as skin and muscle. These same materials, however, function poorly when penetrating more inelastic materials like rawhide, and they are substantially less durable.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Quantifying the effects of erosion on archaeological sites with
           low-altitude aerial photography, structure from motion, and GIS: A case
           study from southern Jordan
    • Authors: Matthew D. Howland; Ian W.N. Jones; Mohammad Najjar; Thomas E. Levy
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Matthew D. Howland, Ian W.N. Jones, Mohammad Najjar, Thomas E. Levy
      Cutting-edge photogrammetric techniques combined with traditional methods are a boon for archaeologists interested in performing spatial analyses. Low-altitude aerial photography (LAAP) combined with photogrammetric Image Based Modeling (IBM) comprise a workflow that allows for precise and accurate recording of both photographic and elevation data of archaeological sites with a great deal of speed and efficiency. Through these techniques, the researcher can create spatially-referenced orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEMs), which can serve as the basis for investigations into site formation processes. Due to the rapidity of the creation of these datasets, analysis of site formation processes can be completed over the course of hours or days. The results of such site formation studies can inform and guide further archaeological investigations of sites. This paper presents the application of a combined LAAP-IBM method to acquire GIS data, which serves as the basis for a case study of a new model of the effects of erosion on archaeological sites – a key factor in understanding site formation processes. These methods are applied to Khirbat Nuqayb al-Asaymir, a Middle Islamic site in southern Jordan, as a case study.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Chemical analysis of glass beads from Igbo Olokun, Ile-Ife (SW Nigeria):
           New light on raw materials, production, and interregional interactions
    • Authors: Abidemi Babatunde Babalola; Laure Dussubieux; Susan Keech McIntosh; Thilo Rehren
      Pages: 92 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Abidemi Babatunde Babalola, Laure Dussubieux, Susan Keech McIntosh, Thilo Rehren
      The site of Igbo Olokun on the northern periphery of Ile-Ife has been recognized as a glass-working workshop for over a century. Its glass-encrusted crucibles and beads were viewed as evidence of secondary processing of imported glass until the high lime, high alumina (HLHA) composition of the glass was recognized as unique to the region. Archaeological excavations conducted at Igbo Olokun recovered more than twelve thousand glass beads and several kilograms of glass-working debris. Fifty-two glass beads from the excavated assemblage were analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to understand the chemical characteristics of the Igbo Olokun glass beads in comparison with previously analyzed beads. The analyses affirm the prevalence of HLHA glass beads, and provide firm evidence of a new compositional group characterized by low lime, high alumina (LLHA); no imported soda-lime glass beads were among the analyzed samples. The evidence from crucibles indicates that LLHA glass was worked together with HLHA glass at Igbo Olokun and may have been made locally as part of the same technological tradition. Most likely, granitic sand with or without added calcium carbonate was used to produce these two types of glass, and colorants rich in MnO, Fe2O3, CuO, and CoO were intentionally added. Its occurrence in other West African societies, and the presence of some soda-lime glass beads in other sites in Ile-Ife suggest that Ife was involved in regional and inter-regional networks during the early to mid 2nd millennium AD and possibly earlier.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Joint health in free-ranging and confined small bovids - Implications for
           early stage caprine management
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Michaela I. Zimmermann, Nadja Pöllath, Mihriban Özbaşaran, Joris Peters
      Human interference with the life cycle of wild ruminant species in the 10th-9th millennia BCE was essential to the ‘Neolithic Revolution’ in the Near East. Being a process of learning by doing, initial ruminant management must have been challenging to both founder flocks and people, but information about potential problems is hitherto lacking in the archaeological record. Here we report on a skeletal condition affecting joint health in small bovids. Detailed examination of the bone surfaces of astragalus of modern and Goitered gazelles as well as wild and domestic sheep revealed circumscribed mesoscopic lesions that we classified into five stages based on their size and properties. Our study demonstrates that intra-articular bone damage is significantly more pronounced in animals living confined to enclosures. Similar non-physiologic conditions have been evidenced in juvenile and adult sheep from early Neolithic contexts throughout Anatolia and interpreted as evidence for locomotor stress due to restricted mobility and stabling on-site. Still in the course of the early Neolithic, joint health improved significantly, implying a better mastering of sheep management over the centuries. In conclusion, pathologic profiling yields the potential for tracing initial management of captive ruminants. Apart from Southwest Asia, the methodological approach presented here seems appropriate for detecting similar developments in the human-animal relationship of behaviorally comparable medium- and large-sized herbivore taxa in other parts of the Old and New Worlds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • Predictive modeling for archaeological site locations: Comparing logistic
           regression and maximal entropy in north Israel and north-east China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Ido Wachtel, Royi Zidon, Shimon Garti, Gideon Shelach-Lavi
      Archaeological predictive modeling is a tool that helps assess the likelihood of archaeological sites being present at different locations in the landscape. Such models are used for research purposes, as an analytical tool to better explain settlement patterns and past human behavior. They are also an important tool for the preservation of archaeological sites, as they can help planners avoid areas where sites are likely to exist. In this study we compare two methods of predictive modeling for archaeological site locations using two independent case studies. The more commonly used method of logistic regression is compared with a newer method of maximal entropy (MaxEnt). We examine the effectiveness of both models on two independent datasets collected from the Upper Galilee (northern Israel) and the Fuxin area (northeast China). While both methods have proven useful, in both cases the MaxEnt models produced much better results, which were much more efficient, than those of the logistic regression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • Editorial: JAS on the move
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Robin Torrence, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      On his retirement as Editor of Journal of Archaeological Science (JAS) at the end of 2017, we celebrate Thilo Rehren's contributions to the growth of the journal over the past 13 years and, consequently, his impacts in shaping archaeological science as a discipline. Since Rehren was an architect of the new consortium of journals comprising JAS and JAS Reports, on this occasion it is also appropriate to consider the future of publishing in the constantly evolving field of archaeological science.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • Tracing grog and pots to reveal neolithic Corded Ware Culture contacts in
           the Baltic Sea region (SEM-EDS, PIXE)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Elisabeth Holmqvist, Åsa M. Larsson, Aivar Kriiska, Vesa Palonen, Petro Pesonen, Kenichiro Mizohata, Paula Kouki, Jyrki Räisänen
      The Neolithic Corded Ware Culture (CWC) complex spread across the Baltic Sea region ca. 2900/2800–2300/2000 BCE. Whether this cultural adaptation was driven by migration or diffusion remains widely debated. To gather evidence for contact and movement in the CWC material culture, grog-tempered CWC pots from 24 archaeological sites in southern Baltoscandia (Estonia and the southern regions of Finland and Sweden) were sampled for geochemical and micro-structural analyses. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were used for geochemical discrimination of the ceramic fabrics to identify regional CWC pottery-manufacturing traditions and ceramic exchange. Major and minor element concentrations in the ceramic body matrices of 163 individual vessels and grog temper (crushed pottery) present in the ceramic fabrics were measured by SEM-EDS. Furthermore, the high-sensitivity PIXE technique was applied for group confirmation. The combined pot and grog matrix data reveal eight geochemical clusters. At least five geochemical groups appeared to be associated with specific find locations and regional manufacturing traditions. The results indicated complex inter-site and cross-Baltic Sea pottery exchange patterns, which became more defined through the grog data, i.e., the previous generations of pots. The CWC pottery exhibited high technological standards at these latitudes, which, together with the identified exchange patterns and the existing evidence of mobility based on human remains elsewhere in the CWC complex, is indicative of the relocation of skilled potters, possibly through exogamy. An analytical protocol for the geochemical discrimination of grog-tempered pottery, and its challenges and possibilities, is presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • Testing the validity of stable isotope analyses of dental calculus as a
           proxy in paleodietary studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Samantha D.R. Price, Anne Keenleyside, Henry P. Schwarcz
      Stable isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ15N) of dental calculus have been suggested as a proxy for the study of diet of ancient populations but questions about their validity have been raised. Here we test this question, introducing significant improvements in the analysis of δ13C and comparing our results for δ13C and δ15N of calculus with corresponding analyses of associated well-preserved bone which are widely believed to provide reliable paleodiet values. The content of organic material in calculus is decreased by ∼75% compared with modern calculus, resulting in diagenetic changes to δ13C and δ15N of organic matter. Neither δ13C nor δ15N analyses of the organic component of calculus provide accurate estimates of paleodiet. Although δ15N values of dental calculus are correlated with δ15N values of bone collagen from the same individual, it is clear that they have been greatly affected by diagenesis, as shown by a correlation between C/N ratio and δ15N. The inorganic (mineral-bound) carbon component of calculus, analyzed separately from the organic component, gave δ13C values slightly offset from δ13C values of CO3 in bone mineral. Thus it alone appears to have potential as a dietary proxy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • Bears and humans, a Neanderthal tale. Reconstructing uncommon behaviors
           from zooarchaeological evidence in southern Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Matteo Romandini, Gabriele Terlato, Nicola Nannini, Antonio Tagliacozzo, Stefano Benazzi, Marco Peresani
      Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), brown bear (Ursus arctos), and Neanderthals were potential competitors for environmental resources (shelters and food) in Europe. In order to reinforce this view and contribute to the ongoing debate on late Neanderthal behavior, we present evidence from zooarchaeological and taphonomic analyses of bear bone remains discovered at Rio Secco Cave and Fumane Cave in northeast Italy, an extended geographic area north of the Adriatic Sea. The remains from both caves come from layers dated to 49-42 ky cal. BP, and suggest close interactions between humans and bears, with data not only limited to the association of Mousterian lithic artifacts with numerous bear remains, but also the detection of clearly preserved traces of human modification such as cut and percussion marks, which enable a reconstruction of the main steps of fur recovery and the butchering process. Examples of Neanderthal bear exploitation are extremely sporadic in Europe, and Grotta Rio Secco and Grotta Fumane can be considered rare cases of remain accumulations generated by the human predation of bears of varied age classes during or near the end of hibernation. All of this evidence suggests that bears had a strategic role in the nomadic economy of Neanderthal hunting groups.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
  • A new look at an old dog: Bonn-Oberkassel reconsidered
    • Authors: Luc Janssens; Liane Giemsch; Ralf Schmitz; Martin Street; Stefan Van Dongen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Luc Janssens, Liane Giemsch, Ralf Schmitz, Martin Street, Stefan Van Dongen
      The Bonn-Oberkassel dog remains (Upper Pleistocene and 14223 +- 58 years old) have been reported more than 100 years ago. Recent re-examination revealed the tooth of another older and smaller dog, making this domestic dog burial not only the oldest known, but also the only one with remains of two dogs. This observation brings the total known Magdalenian dogs to nine. Domestication of dogs during the final Palaeolithic has important implications for understanding pre-Holocene hunter-gatherers. Most proposed hunter-gatherer motivations for domesticating dogs have been utilitarian. However, remains of the Bonn-Oberkassel dogs may offer another view. The Bonn-Oberkassel dog was a late juvenile when it was buried at approximately age 27–28 weeks, with two adult humans and grave goods. Oral cavity lesions indicate a gravely ill dog that likely suffered a morbillivirus (canine distemper) infection. A dental line of suggestive enamel hypoplasia appears at the 19-week developmental stage. Two additional enamel hypoplasia lines, on the canine only, document further disease episodes at weeks 21 and 23. Pathological changes also include severe periodontal disease that may have been facilitated by immunodeficiency. Since canine distemper has a three-week disease course with very high mortality, the dog must have been perniciously ill during the three disease bouts and between ages 19 and 23 weeks. Survival without intensive human assistance would have been unlikely. Before and during this period, the dog cannot have held any utilitarian use to humans. We suggest that at least some Late Pleistocene humans regarded dogs not just materialistically, but may have developed emotional and caring bonds for their dogs, as reflected by the survival of this dog, quite possibly through human care.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.004
  • Wound ballistics: The prey specific implications of penetrating trauma
           injuries from osseous, flaked stone, and composite inset microblade
           projectiles during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, Alaska U.S.A.
    • Authors: Janice Wood; Ben Fitzhugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Janice Wood, Ben Fitzhugh
      Research in the field of wound ballistics has identified three major types of penetrating trauma injuries that will affect wound severity of a projectile point into hard or soft tissues: puncture, incised, and lacerated. In this study, we report on dual ballistics experiments conducted to better understand the wounding mechanisms of three prehistoric projectile point classes made respectfully of polished bone, bifacially flaked stone, and composite antler inset with microblades. Each class of projectiles was launched into ballistics gelatin and into the carcass of a reindeer to explore the relative performance characteristics of each class in terms of tool durability and wound infliction. Our methods of evaluation included a detailed measurement of projectile attributes before and after penetration of both gelatin and carcass that were then compared using tip-metrics, penetration depth, and total interior wound area. Our results strongly suggest that the wounding potential differed significantly between projectile point classes and in turn, strongly influenced wound severity. We suggest that point mechanics may implicate a “prey specific” hunting strategy and propose that such analyses can help us better understand prehistoric hunter-gather behavior and technological variability.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.006
  • ‘Illuminating’ the interior of Kukulkan's Pyramid, Chichén Itzá,
           Mexico, by means of a non-conventional ERT geophysical survey
    • Authors: Andrés Tejero-Andrade; Denisse L. Argote-Espino; Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava; Esteban Hernández-Quintero; René E. Chávez; Alejandro García-Serrano
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Andrés Tejero-Andrade, Denisse L. Argote-Espino, Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava, Esteban Hernández-Quintero, René E. Chávez, Alejandro García-Serrano
      Chichén Itzá, located in the north-central portion of the Yucatán Peninsula, is one of the major pre-Hispanic cities established in the southern lowlands of Mexico. The main objective of this investigation was to “unveil” the interior of the pyramid of El Castillo, also known as the Temple of Kukulkan, an emblematic structure in this archaeological site. To that end, 828 flat electrodes were deployed around each of the 9 bodies that compose the pyramid, including the base of the structure. A dataset consisting of 37,548 observations was obtained. A precise topographic control for each electrode was carried out and introduced in the inversion model. The mathematical process to compute a final 3D model was made possible by taking 9 observation levels (33,169 measurements) into account, due to computational limitations. The results showed the existence of two older pyramids within the main Mayan building and provided important information regarding our understanding of this Mayan civilization. Future archaeological studies in the older substructure could reveal information about early settlement on this site, its evolution in time and its cultural influences.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2017)
  • Bio-cultural interactions and demography during the Middle to Upper
           Palaeolithic transition in Iberia: An agent-based modelling approach
    • Authors: Carolina Cucart-Mora; Sergi Lozano; Javier Fernández-López de Pablo
      Pages: 14 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): Carolina Cucart-Mora, Sergi Lozano, Javier Fernández-López de Pablo
      The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition was a process of cultural and biological replacement, considered a turning point in human evolutionary history. Various hypotheses have been used to explain the disappearance of Neanderthals from Eurasia. However, very few studies have explicitly examined the causative role of demography on Neanderthal and anatomically modern humans (AMH) interaction. Here we use an integrative method based on computational modelling and the analysis of archaeological data to construct an agent based model that explores the influence of demographic variables (birth and death rates) and mobility (home range size) on the bio-cultural interaction between AMH and Neanderthals during the transition from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic on the Iberian Peninsula (50 ka to 30 ka BP). Our simulation results are consistent with the current radiocarbon framework for the disappearance of Neanderthals in this region. This suggest that the extinction of Neanderthals could be explained by inter-specific differences in demographic behaviour and mobility patterns compared with AMH.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2017)
  • Was the drought really responsible' Assessing statistical
           relationships between climate extremes and cultural transitions
    • Authors: Keith W. Kintigh; Scott E. Ingram
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): Keith W. Kintigh, Scott E. Ingram
      It is commonplace to assert causal relationships between episodes of extreme climate with dramatic cultural shifts. We explore the problem of statistically assessing the correspondence between episodes of extreme climate (such as droughts) and cultural events (such as depopulation) they are purported to explain. In order to do this: 1) We describe a method that permits the objective identification of climate extremes in a way that is independent of their supposed causal outcomes; 2) We discuss how we identify and date cultural transitions of interest; 3) We explore a variety of decision rules for determining whether or not there is a match between a given extreme climate interval and the interval during which a transition began; and 4) We propose an intuitive Monte Carlo approach to statistically assess the observed correspondence between the climate extremes and the cultural transitions. Our application does not indicate statistical support for a linkage between intervals of extreme climate and major transitions in any of the seven cultural traditions in the Southwest US that we examined.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2017)
  • Formation, morphology and interpretation of darkened faecal spherulites
    • Authors: M.G. Canti; C. Nicosia
      Pages: 32 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): M.G. Canti, C. Nicosia
      Faecal spherulites are a common indicator of dung in archaeological deposits and most of the basic processes of their formation and taphonomy have been explained. However, a darkened form is also regularly found, ranging from slightly transparent through to completely opaque. These have been less well studied, so we set out here to understand what actually causes the darkening and to determine the range of conditions required to produce the changes. Darkened spherulites were successfully created by heating dung to between 500 °C and 700 °C with the gaseous products constrained. The maximum production in our experiments was at 600 °C. The darkened spherulites often expanded during the alteration process and some of the expanded ones become distorted. SEM examination was only possible through destructive preparation processes, but examples were found showing expansion beyond the normal size range. These had a distinctive internal structure characterised by very fine crystallinity and larger scale fracturing, perhaps resulting from organic matter loss and/or CaCO3 alteration. Prolonged oxidative heating failed to remove the darkening, leading to the possibility that it is partly a structural phenomenon, with opacification arising from compound relief. Based on these findings, darkened spherulites can now be confidently interpreted as; resulting from dung being heated in conditions of limited gaseous exchange to between 500 and 700 °C, then not heated again beyond ca. 700 °C. These sorts of conditions could occur, around the edge of, or beneath, any fire where fresh dung is being burned or where the existing stratigraphy has a dung component.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2017)
  • Earliest salt working in the world: From excavation to microscopy at the
           prehistoric sites of Ţolici and Lunca (Romania)
    • Authors: Dominique Sordoillet; Olivier Weller; Nicolas Rouge; Martine Buatier; Jean-Pierre Sizun
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): Dominique Sordoillet, Olivier Weller, Nicolas Rouge, Martine Buatier, Jean-Pierre Sizun
      Since the Early Neolithic, salt has played an important role in the social and economic development of populations. Consequently, the study and comprehension of salt management strategies have become a significant component of current archaeological research. This study is part of an interdisciplinary research program consisting of excavations and detailed analyses on two Early Neolithic salt working sites situated in the sub-Carpathian region of Romania, Lunca and Ţolici (county Neamţ). These remarkably well-preserved sites are characterised by stratified deposits several meters thick. Detailed stratigraphic descriptions were followed by optical microscopy analysis (soil micromorphology) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with geochemical analysis (EDS). The aim of these analyses was to identify specific sedimentary, petrographic and chemical characteristics that could be linked to salt working process. The results enable us to describe the main site formation process over time and to detect chemical components of edible salt (Na and Cl) in Early Neolithic ashes. These new data consolidate previous interpretations of the operating procedures implemented from the Early Neolithic to the Bronze Age. Two techniques appear to have been preferentially adopted: pouring natural brine onto combustion structures during the Early Neolithic and evaporation in specific ceramic containers from the Chalcolithic onwards.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2017)
  • Identifying the reworking and stratigraphic provenance of bones by
           exploring multivariate geochemical relationships with the ‘Perio-spot’
    • Authors: Rhy McMillan; Dominique Weis; Marghaleray Amini; Dominique Bonjean
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 88
      Author(s): Rhy McMillan, Dominique Weis, Marghaleray Amini, Dominique Bonjean
      Erosional processes often rework materials of different ages into the same sedimentary facies, producing time-averaged deposits. Such reworking is common at archaeological sites, and researchers must consider the resulting time-averaging effects when using natural stratigraphy to situate artifacts and remains in time. At Scladina Cave, a Neandertal site in Belgium, we developed a method for identifying reworked facies and the stratigraphic provenance of mammal bones based on their post-mortem trace element characteristics and crystallinity. We collected sixty-two faunal remains from throughout the site's sedimentary sequence and analyzed them for trace element concentrations and crystallinity with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. Our novel approach, the ‘Perio-spot’ technique, quantifies the trace element characteristics and crystallinity from the most diagenetically altered part of a bone with high spatial resolution. Trace element concentrations, rare earth element patterns, and crystallinity of ‘Perio-spots' correlate throughout the Scladina sedimentary sequence. Based on stratigraphic trends in bone chemistry and crystallinity, we subdivide the Scladina sequence into two successive periods of early diagenesis, a period of later diagenesis, and a transitional period between the early and later diagenesis periods. The period boundaries also correspond to major climatic fluctuations identified in the site's stratigraphy by other means (e.g., palynology and heavy mineralogy). The stratigraphic provenance of nine cave bear femora support the confinement of reworking to within each of the diagenetic periods; the provenance of two indeterminate faunal remains that visually resemble the taphonomic alteration of the Scladina Neandertal (taphonomic proxies) suggest that the individual may be significantly older than previously hypothesized. Evaluating the temporal integrity of exhumed assemblages and the original sedimentary context of bones with our method is thus a valuable addition to archaeological analyses, especially beyond the temporal range of radiocarbon dating or in contexts with very low preservation potential of organic materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T16:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2017)
  • Quantitative comparisons of the color of CuAs, CuSn, CuNi, and CuSb alloys
    • Authors: Marianne Mödlinger; Maikel H.G. Kuijpers; Dennis Braekmans; Daniel Berger
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 88
      Author(s): Marianne Mödlinger, Maikel H.G. Kuijpers, Dennis Braekmans, Daniel Berger
      The colors of copper alloys are of particular interest in archaeology and can be characterized quantitatively and systematically. The CIELAB color system can determine different color parameters such as a*, b*, and L* by means of a spectrophotometer that describes the surface color. Additional information such as C* and h values can be calculated from these parameters which allows one to build a set of color-composition diagrams that connects chromaticity and alloy composition. With such data it is possible to estimate the color of prehistoric metal artifacts with similar chemical composition. A better understanding of the association between metallurgical composition and color will aid the research of prehistoric metalwork because choices in production and use of metal were likely influenced by this particular quality of metal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T13:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal approaches to archaeological radiocarbon dates
    • Authors: E.R. Crema; A. Bevan; S. Shennan
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): E.R. Crema, A. Bevan, S. Shennan
      Summed probability distributions of radiocarbon dates are an increasingly popular means by which to reconstruct prehistoric population dynamics, enabling more thorough cross-regional comparison and more robust hypothesis testing, for example with regard to the impact of climate change on past human demography. Here we review another use of such summed distributions – to make spatially explicit inferences about geographic variation in prehistoric populations. We argue that most of the methods proposed so far have been strongly biased by spatially varying sampling intensity, and we therefore propose a spatial permutation test that is robust to such forms of bias and able to detect both positive and negative local deviations from pan-regional rates of change in radiocarbon date density. We test our method both on some simple, simulated population trajectories and also on a large real-world dataset, and show that we can draw useful conclusions about spatio-temporal variation in population across Neolithic Europe.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Bone deep: Variation in stable isotope ratios and histomorphometric
           measurements of bone remodelling within adult humans
    • Authors: G.E. Fahy; C. Deter; R. Pitfield; J.J. Miszkiewicz; P. Mahoney
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): G.E. Fahy, C. Deter, R. Pitfield, J.J. Miszkiewicz, P. Mahoney
      Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope studies of ancient human diet increasingly sample several skeletal elements within an individual. Such studies draw upon differences in bone turnover rates to reconstruct diet during different periods of time within an individual's lifetime. Rib and femoral bone, with their respectively fast and slow remodelling rates, are the bones most often sampled to reconstruct shorter and longer term signals of diet prior to death. It is poorly understood if δ13C and δ15N vary between bone types within a single individual, or if this variation corresponds with bone turnover rate (BTR). Here, we determined δ13C and δ15N for ten different bones from ten adult human skeletons (n = 5 males; n = 5 females). Isotope values were compared to the rate that each bone remodeled, calculated from osteon population (OPD) density. Results reveal that isotope ratios varied within each skeleton (δ13C: max = −1.58‰; δ15N: max = 3.05‰). Humeri, metacarpals, and ribs had the highest rate of bone remodelling; the occipital bone had the lowest. A regression analyses revealed that higher rates of bone remodelling are significantly and negatively correlated with lower δ15N. Our results suggest that the occipital bone, with its slow rate of bone renewal, may prove useful for isotopic studies that reconstruct diet over longer periods of time within an individual's lifetime. Isotope studies that compare individual skeletal elements between populations should standardize their methodology to bones with either a slow or fast turnover rate.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Little Ice Age catastrophic storms and the destruction of a Shetland
           Island community
    • Authors: Matthew Bampton; Alice Kelley; Joseph Kelley; Michael Jones; Gerald Bigelow
      Pages: 17 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Matthew Bampton, Alice Kelley, Joseph Kelley, Michael Jones, Gerald Bigelow
      Subarctic communities are useful bellwethers of human adaptability to climate change. Previous studies have compared the socio ecological adaptations of culturally comparable but geographically separated communities such as medieval Greenland and Iceland. In the Shetland Islands during the Little Ice Age (LIA) unusual storminess in the 16th and 17th centuries deposited wind driven sand in the township of Broo, Dunrosssness, and on its surrounding estates. Documents, historical records and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dated sand layers show the history of deposition, and reveal two episodes of sand movement one from the mid 16th century, the second from the late 17th or early 18th century. Artifacts, records and stratigraphy suggest Broo's inhabitants successfully resisted the 16th century sand incursion, but were driven from their homes by the early 18th century. Adjacent communities embedded in the same socio economic culture survived the same events and remain viable settlements to the present day. Wind simulations demonstrate that storm conditions are likely to produce markedly lower wind velocities in the area around Broo than over the surrounding landscape making it singularly vulnerable to sand inundation. In this instance human ingenuity and resilience could not counter the misfortune of location. We conclude that in this marginal environment small geographical differences had profound and lasting impact on survivability during an episode of catastrophic environmental change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Canyon Creek revisited: New investigations of a late prehispanic turquoise
           mine, Arizona, USA
    • Authors: Saul L. Hedquist; Alyson M. Thibodeau; John R. Welch; David J. Killick
      Pages: 44 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Saul L. Hedquist, Alyson M. Thibodeau, John R. Welch, David J. Killick
      Turquoise has been used in the American Southwest since “time immemorial,” and remains an important material for contemporary indigenous groups of the region. Detailed studies of ancient turquoise mines are few, however, and inferences of turquoise procurement and provenance have been limited. Our intensive investigation of one mine, the Canyon Creek locale in Arizona, integrates archaeology and geochemistry to enhance understanding of the mine and its output. A detailed description of the mine's morphology and geologic setting lays foundations for interpreting an isotopic analysis of specimens from the mine's four localities. The analysis reveals extremely radiogenic Pb isotope ratios, which distinguish Canyon Creek turquoise from that of other known sources in the American Southwest. Its distinctive isotopic signature makes Canyon Creek turquoise readily identifiable in archaeological assemblages. The presence of turquoise from Canyon Creek at late prehispanic settlements in east-central Arizona helps clarify the mine's chronology of use and regional distribution. Our observations suggest the mine was larger than previously supposed, and that it provided an important source of turquoise for inhabitants of the region during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries AD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T20:36:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Comparing archaeological proxies for long-term population patterns: An
           example from central Italy
    • Authors: Alessio Palmisano; Andrew Bevan; Stephen Shennan
      Pages: 59 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Alessio Palmisano, Andrew Bevan, Stephen Shennan
      Raw counts of archaeological sites, estimates of changing settlement size and summed radiocarbon probability distributions have all become popular ways to investigate long-term regional trends in human population. Nevertheless, these three archaeological proxies have rarely been compared. This paper therefore explores the strengths and weaknesses of different kinds of archaeological evidence for population patterns, as well as how they address related issues such as taphonomic loss, chronological uncertainty and uneven sampling. Our overall substantive goal is to reconstruct demographic fluctuations in central Italy from the Late Mesolithic to the fall of the Roman Empire (7500 BC-AD 500), and with this in mind, we bring to bear an unusually detailed and extensive dataset of published central Italian archaeological surveys, consisting of some 10,971 occupation phases at 7383 different sites. The comparative results demonstrate reassuring consistency in the suggested demographic patterns, and where such patterns diverge across different proxies (e.g. Late Bronze Age/Iron Age) they often do so in useful ways that suggest changes in population structure such as site nucleation or dispersal.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Using multivariate techniques to assess the effects of raw material,
           flaking behavior and tool manufacture on assemblage variability: An
           example from the late Middle Paleolithic of the European Plain
    • Authors: Marcel Weiss; Aleksander Otcherednoy; Andrzej Wiśniewski
      Pages: 73 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Marcel Weiss, Aleksander Otcherednoy, Andrzej Wiśniewski
      The late Middle Paleolithic in central and eastern Europe is defined by the presence or absence of certain bifacial tools and blank production methods. Hence, the assemblages between MIS 5a and MIS 3 are classified as Mousterian, Taubachian, Micoquian, Micoquo-Prondnikien, Prądnik cycle and Keilmessergruppen, among others. We like to address here the questions of what do these assemblages look like when the type fossils (“fossil directeur”) are set aside and what are the main drivers of variability within and between these assemblages. Therefore, we analyzed nine assemblages of four late Middle Paleolithic open-air sites of the European Plain: Pouch and Königsaue for central Germany, Wrocław-Hallera Av. for southwestern Poland and Khotylevo I-6-2 for western Russia. Our study is based on an attribute analysis of flakes, as they are the most numerous artifact type in the lithic assemblages, bearing traces of the flaking technology in their morphology. Linear and nonlinear multivariate statistical analyses of the flake attributes show similar patterns for the assemblages and show no distinctions between Mousterian and Micoquian assemblages aside from the type fossils. Additionally, assemblage variability is, except for one case, not site specific or regional. The analysis of the factors that drive within and between assemblage variability revealed that the assemblages are influenced by site preservation, raw material size and economy, as well as similar blank production and tool manufacture methods that are present in varying degrees in each assemblage. In other words, taking into account site preservation, the overall character of these late Middle Paleolithic assemblages primarily reflects the flexible application of late Neanderthal flaking and tool production methods to the local raw material constraints. Once the type fossils are removed, these assemblages represent a range of variability that cannot be grouped readily into named archaeological entities that could represent distinct human groups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • The identification of extinct megafauna in rock art using geometric
           morphometrics: A Genyornis newtoni painting in Arnhem Land, northern
    • Authors: Rommy Cobden; Chris Clarkson; Gilbert J. Price; Bruno David; Jean-Michel Geneste; Jean-Jacques Delannoy; Bryce Barker; Lara Lamb; Robert G. Gunn
      Pages: 95 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Rommy Cobden, Chris Clarkson, Gilbert J. Price, Bruno David, Jean-Michel Geneste, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Bryce Barker, Lara Lamb, Robert G. Gunn
      Identifying extinct fauna in rock art is a common but difficult exercise. Here we use geometric morphometric analysis of shape to examine the oft-cited painting from Arnhem Land attributed by Gunn et al. to the long-extinct species Genyornis newtoni. We compare the shape of key anatomical features in this painting to anatomical depictions of Genyornis as well as to two other possible candidates – the emu and the magpie goose. Comparisons are also made to rock art depictions of these birds from northern Australia. We find that while the so-called ‘Genyornis’ painting does more closely resemble anatomical depictions of Genyornis than any other bird examined, all rock art images overlap in shape to such a degree that confident assignment of this image to any avian species is problematic.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Circulation of iron products in the North-Alpine area during the end of
           the first Iron Age (6th-5th c. BC): A combination of chemical and isotopic
    • Authors: Philippe Dillmann; Roland Schwab; Sylvain Bauvais; Michael Brauns; Alexandre Disser; Stéphanie Leroy; Guntram Gassmann; Philippe Fluzin
      Pages: 108 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Philippe Dillmann, Roland Schwab, Sylvain Bauvais, Michael Brauns, Alexandre Disser, Stéphanie Leroy, Guntram Gassmann, Philippe Fluzin
      Os isotopic ratios and trace element approaches were used to compare the signatures of ore and slag from different potential production sites located in eastern France and South-West Germany with the signature of artefacts from the end of the first Iron Age. A set of 31 artefacts was tested, consisting of bipyramidal semi-products, chariot tires, blooms and other commodities. The complementarity of the two approaches is demonstrated. Bipartite bipyramidal semi-products made by assembling two crude masses of distinct origins are evidenced suggesting the existence of intermediate producing centres assembling products from different origins. Only the provenance of blooms and wheel-tires could be established as local. Two spheres of metal circulation were evidenced: prestige and local. Bipyramidal semi-products and chariot tires belong to different long distance distribution networks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T20:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
  • Tempered strength: A controlled experiment assessing opportunity costs of
           adding temper to clay
    • Authors: Michelle Rae Bebber
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Michelle Rae Bebber
      The addition of pottery additives (temper) provides both production-based benefits gained during the initial vessel formation phase, and performance-based benefits associated with post-firing vessel daily use. This paper presents the results of a controlled archaeological experiment designed to assess the opportunity costs associated with the addition of temper to clay during prehistoric pottery production sequences. Specifically, this study builds upon earlier research using material science methods to more broadly assess whether vessel strength is sacrificed by the addition of temper into the clay body. Standardized experimental ceramic test specimens, based directly upon petrographic analysis of archaeological samples from a regional context (South Central Ohio, USA) and produced using glacially-deposited illite-based clay, were subjected to mechanical strength tests using an Instron Series IX universal testing machine. The results demonstrate that there are indeed opportunity costs associated with temper addition: lost potential strength and reduced vessel use-life. Overall, untempered samples were significantly stronger than samples tempered with the most commonly used regional tempers—grit, limestone, and burnt shell—in terms of peak load and modulus of rupture. In other words, the results presented here suggest that prehistoric potters were losing the opportunity to create significantly stronger vessels in favor of the benefits that come with the addition of temper. Understanding of the existence, kind, and degree of opportunity costs that come with the addition of temper to clay emphasizes just how important the benefits of tempering must have been for the technology to be invented, experimented with, and ultimately so widely adopted.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T04:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
  • Experimental design of the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram
    • Authors: M. Radivojević; J. Pendić; A. Srejić; M. Korać; C. Davey; A. Benzonelli; M. Martinón-Torres; N. Jovanović; Ž. Kamberović
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): M. Radivojević, J. Pendić, A. Srejić, M. Korać, C. Davey, A. Benzonelli, M. Martinón-Torres, N. Jovanović, Ž. Kamberović
      The aesthetic appearance of metals has long been recognised in archaeometric studies as an important factor driving inventions and innovations in the evolution of metal production. Nevertheless, while studies of ancient gold metallurgy are well supported by modern research in colour characteristics of gold alloys, the colour properties of major prehistoric copper alloys, such as arsenical copper and tin bronzes, remain either largely understudied or not easily accessible to the western scholarship. A few published studies have already indicated that alloying and heat treatment change the colours of copper alloys, although they are mainly based on examples of prehistoric tin bronze objects and experimental casts. Here we present a procedure for building the Cu-As-Sn ternary colour diagram, starting with experimental casting of 64 binary and ternary alloys in this system. We used two types of information to produce two different ternary colour diagrams: one based on photographs of the samples, and the other based on the colorimetric measurements. Furthermore, we developed a procedure for creating a graphic representation of colours in the Cu-As-Sn ternary diagram using QGIS. As an initial case study, we plotted the composition of the world's earliest tin bronze artefacts; the graphic representation further supports claims about the importance of a golden hue for their invention and demand, c. 6500 years ago. We argue that the presented colour diagrams will find wide use in future investigations of aesthetics of prehistoric copper alloys.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.001
  • Differentiating between cutting actions on bone using 3D geometric
           morphometrics and Bayesian analyses with implications to human evolution
    • Authors: Erik Otárola-Castillo; Melissa G. Torquato; Hannah C. Hawkins; Emma James; Jacob A. Harris; Curtis W. Marean; Shannon P. McPherron; Jessica C. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Erik Otárola-Castillo, Melissa G. Torquato, Hannah C. Hawkins, Emma James, Jacob A. Harris, Curtis W. Marean, Shannon P. McPherron, Jessica C. Thompson
      Studies of bone surface modifications (BSMs) such as cut marks are crucial to our understanding of human and earlier hominin subsistence behavior. Over the last several decades, however, BSM identification has remained contentious, particularly in terms of identifying the earliest instances of hominin butchery; there has been a lack of consensus over how to identify or differentiate marks made by human and non-human actors and varying effectors. Most investigations have relied on morphology to identify butchery marks and their patterning. This includes cut marks, one of the most significant human marks. Attempts to discriminate cut marks from other types of marks have employed a variety of techniques, ranging from subjectively characterizing cut mark morphology using the naked eye, to using high-powered microscopy such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or micro-photogrammetry. More recent approaches use 3D datasets to obtain even more detailed information about mark attributes, and apply those to the fossil record. Although 3D datasets open promising new avenues for investigation, analyses of these datasets have not yet taken advantage of the full 3D surface morphology of BSM. Rather, selected cross-sectional slices of 3D scans have been used as proxies for overall shape. Here we demonstrate that 3D geometric morphometrics (GM), under the “Procrustes paradigm” and coupled with a Bayesian approach, probabilistically discriminates between marks caused by different butchery behaviors. At the same time, this approach provides a complete set of 3D morphological measurements and descriptions. Our results strengthen statistical confidence in cut mark identification and offer a novel approach that can be used to discriminate subtle differences between cut mark types in the fossil record. Furthermore, this study provides an incipient digital library with which to make future quantitative comparisons to archaeological examples, including contentious specimens that are key to understanding the earliest hominin butchery.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.004
  • Artists before Columbus: A multi-method characterization of the materials
           and practices of Caribbean cave art
    • Authors: Alice V.M. Samson; Lucy J. Wrapson; Caroline R. Cartwright; Diana Sahy; Rebecca J. Stacey; Jago Cooper
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Alice V.M. Samson, Lucy J. Wrapson, Caroline R. Cartwright, Diana Sahy, Rebecca J. Stacey, Jago Cooper
      This study represents the first positive identification of plant gum binding media in pre-Columbian art, and the first dates from indigenous cave art in the Caribbean. Mona Island reveals an extensive and well-preserved pre-Columbian and early colonial subterranean cultural landscape with dense concentrations of newly-discovered cave art in up to 30 caves. A multi-method approach to the research of pigments and binding media, charcoal, and cave sediments was used to elucidate the technologies, chronologies and processes of indigenous art and artists. Analyses included on-site use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (P-XRF) device to inform sample selection, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) on paint and charcoal samples, polarized light microscopy (PLM) for material characterizations, and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for detailed chemical analysis of paint structures and composition. In addition direct dates of cave art using radiocarbon (C14) and Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating methods are discussed. Results demonstrate multiple centuries of cave use during indigenous occupation and multiple phases and techniques of mark-making in dark zone locations within extensive cave systems. Visitors set out on pre-meditated journeys underground, making rock art using pigments from the cave floors, which they mixed into complex paints with the addition of plant gums from outside. This study is the first of its kind in the Caribbean providing insight into native paint recipes, material choices, and mark-making techniques. The methods have scope for widespread application and advance the integration of cave art research in archaeology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T16:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.012
  • Bronze Age iron: Meteoritic or not' A chemical strategy.
    • Authors: Albert Jambon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Albert Jambon
      Bronze Age iron artifacts could be derived from either meteoritic (extraterrestrial) or smelted (terrestrial) iron. This unresolved question is the subject of a controversy: are some, all or none made of smelted iron' In the present paper we propose a geochemical approach, which permits us to differentiate terrestrial from extraterrestrial irons. Instead of evaluating the Ni abundance alone (or the Ni to Fe ratio) we consider the relationship between Fe, Co and Ni abundances and their ratios. The study of meteoritic irons, Bronze Age iron artifacts and ancient terrestrial irons permit us to validate this chemical approach. The major interest is that non-invasive p-XRF analyses provide reliable Fe:Co:Ni abundances, without the need to remove a sample; they can be performed in situ, in the museums where the artifacts are preserved. The few iron objects from the Bronze Age sensu stricto that could be analyzed are definitely made of meteoritic iron, suggesting that speculations about precocious smelting during the Bronze Age should be revised. In a Fe:Co:Ni array the trend exhibited by meteoritic irons departs unambiguously from modern irons and iron ores. The trend of Ni/Fe vs Ni/Co in different analysis points of a single object corroded to variable extents provides a robust criterion for identifying the presence of meteoritic iron. It opens the possibility of tracking when and where the first smelting operations happened, the threshold of a new era. It emphasizes the importance of analytical methods for properly studying the evolution of the use of metals and metal working technologies in our past cultures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.008
  • Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European
           prehistory through copper isotopes
    • Authors: Wayne Powell; Ryan Mathur; H. Arthur Bankoff; Andrea Mason; Aleksandar Bulatović; Vojislav Filipović; Linda Godfrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Wayne Powell, Ryan Mathur, H. Arthur Bankoff, Andrea Mason, Aleksandar Bulatović, Vojislav Filipović, Linda Godfrey
      Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
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