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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 234 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access  
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access  
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 43)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeofauna     Open Access  
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access  
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Comechingonia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Folia Historica Cracoviensia     Open Access  
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [48 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Accurate measurement with photogrammetry at large sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): P. Sapirstein
      Photogrammetry has become increasingly popular as a low-cost method for documenting cultural heritage and archaeological excavations. However, we have yet to establish best practices for its implementation at the site, or methods for assessing the accuracy of the resulting 3D measurements. This article presents a recent study of the Temple of Hera at Olympia, where a 25 × 55 m area was recorded at 1 mm resolution using photogrammetry both for survey and 3D reconstruction. Coded targets were set up throughout the site, which was then photographed in two phases. First, a site-wide survey established the locations of the network of targets. Second, sets of close-up photographs for detailed 3D reconstruction of the site were registered to the global survey via the targets. This technique developed at Olympia improves measurement accuracy by an order of magnitude compared to previous implementations, with a precision of at least 1 part in 50,000, and 95% of the surfaces located accurately within 2–3 mm.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T15:00:40Z
       
  • The challenge of identifying tuberculosis proteins in archaeological
           tissues
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Jessica Hendy, Matthew Collins, Kai Yik Teoh, David A. Ashford, Jane Thomas-Oates, Helen D. Donoghue, Ildikó Pap, David E. Minnikin, Mark Spigelman, Mike Buckley
      Following the report of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins found in archaeological bone by Boros-Major et al. (2011), we attempted to identify M. tuberculosis proteins in mummified lung tissues from which ancient DNA success had already been reported. Using a filter-aided sample preparation protocol modified for ancient samples we applied shotgun proteomics to seven samples of mummified lung, chest and pleura tissues. However, we only identified four peptides with unique matches to the M. tuberculosis complex, none of which were unique to M. tuberculosis, although we did identify a range of human proteins and non-mycobacterial bacterial proteins. In light of these results, we question the validity of the peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) approach presented by Boros-Major et al. (2011), especially because the PMF spectrum presented in Boros-Major et al. (2011) has similarities to that of human collagen, the dominant protein in the tissue under investigation. We explore the challenges of using proteomic approaches to detect M. tuberculosis, and propose that, given the contentious outcomes that have plagued ancient protein research in the past, the susceptibility of ancient material to modern contamination, and the degradation inherent in archaeological samples, caution is needed in the acquisition, analysis and reporting of proteomic data from such material.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T15:00:40Z
       
  • Deciduous enamel 3D microwear texture analysis as an indicator of
           childhood diet in medieval Canterbury, England
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Patrick Mahoney, Christopher W. Schmidt, Chris Deter, Ashley Remy, Philip Slavin, Sarah E. Johns, Justyna J. Miszkiewicz, Pia Nystrom
      This study conducted the first three dimensional microwear texture analysis of human deciduous teeth to reconstruct the physical properties of medieval childhood diet (age 1–8yrs) at St Gregory's Priory and Cemetery (11th to 16th century AD) in Canterbury, England. Occlusal texture complexity surfaces of maxillary molars from juvenile skeletons (n = 44) were examined to assess dietary hardness. Anisotropy values were calculated to reconstruct dietary toughness, as well as jaw movements during chewing. Evidence of weaning was sought, and variation in the physical properties of food was assessed against age and socio-economic status. Results indicate that weaning had already commenced in the youngest children. Diet became tougher from four years of age, and harder from age six. Variation in microwear texture surfaces was related to historical textual evidence that refers to lifestyle developments for these age groups. Diet did not vary with socio-economic status, which differs to previously reported patterns for adults. We conclude, microwear texture analyses can provide a non-destructive tool for revealing subtle aspects of childhood diet in the past.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T15:15:49Z
       
  • Reinventing the wheel? Modelling temporal uncertainty with
           applications to brooch distributions in Roman Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): M.J. Baxter, H.E.M. Cool
      A simple, simulation-based model of temporal uncertainty is presented that embraces other approaches recently proposed in the literature, including those more usually involving mathematical calculation rather than simulation. More specifically, it is shown how the random generation of dates for events, conditioned by uncertain temporal knowledge of the true date, can be adapted to what has been called the chronological apportioning of artefact assemblages and aoristic analysis (as a temporal rather than spatio-temporal method). The methodology is in the same spirit – though there are differences – as that underpinning the use of summed radiocarbon dates. A possibly novel approach to representing temporal change is suggested. Ideas are illustrated using data extracted from a large corpus of late Iron Age and Roman brooches, where the focus of interest was on their temporal distribution over a period of about 450 years.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T15:15:49Z
       
  • Alternative method for subsampling annual dentin layers in small mammalian
           teeth for stable isotope analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Florence Chan Evacitas, Graham A.J. Worthy, Lien-Siang Chou
      Several techniques have been used to sample annual dentin layers in mammalian teeth for stable isotope analysis. However tooth size in smaller animals and the conical arrangement of the dentin layers have constrained precision of subsampling and collection of adequate sample from each annual growth layer. We tested an alternative subsampling technique using teeth from Risso's dolphins (n = 15) that involved cutting out the annual dentin growth layer groups (GLGs) from 300 to 500 μm longitudinal sections from one half of a demineralized tooth and comparing the results to those obtained using a standard micromilling process on the other half of the same tooth. Subsamples were analyzed for elemental C and N content and for stable C and N isotopes. Subsamples obtained from cutting out the GLGs showed more consistent wt%N, wt%C, and atomic C/N ratios that were significantly different (P<0.0001) from those obtained by micromilling. Consequently, the δ15N and δ13C values differed significantly between methods with values from the former method being more concordant with the expected variations in the early years of Risso's dolphins. Deviations in δ13C values in the micromilled subsamples were large enough to create possible errors in interpretation of dietary sources. Cutting out the dentin layers reduced sample processing time by 90% and yielded ∼10% more collagen than micromilling. These results suggest that cutting out the annual dentin layers can produce greater yield of samples of better collagen quality with a much shorter processing time than the micromilling process and is, therefore, an effective method to subsample small mammalian teeth.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T15:15:49Z
       
  • Identification of Late Epigravettian hunting injuries: Descriptive and 3D
           analysis of experimental projectile impact marks on bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Rossella Duches, Nicola Nannini, Matteo Romandini, Francesco Boschin, Jacopo Crezzini, Marco Peresani
      The search for diagnostic criteria useful in hunting lesions identification is a new branch of investigation. Though recently there has been an increase in studies focused on this issue, no experimental works exist that analyze marks left by backed, morphologically standardized lithic projectiles like those used by the hunter-gatherers that peopled a large part of Europe during the Late Glacial. As such, this paper aims to provide comparison data for identifying archaeological Late Epigravettian projectile impact marks. At the same time, the potential of 3D scanning microscopy to distinguish hunting injuries from other taphonomic marks is assessed. The morphometric analyses, based on the descriptive criteria developed from other recent studies, highlight the presence of peculiar features of experimentally produced drag and puncture marks. These data are interpreted as a result of the specific design of Late Epigravettian lithic projectiles. The outcomes of 3D digital analysis confirm the crucial role of this methodological approach in taphonomic study, offering new clues in PIMs (Projectile Impact Marks) archaeological identification and distinction from cut marks, carnivore tooth marks and corrosion cavities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-20T15:15:49Z
       
  • The Greek and Asiatic marbles of the Florentine Niobids
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): D. Attanasio, C. Boschi, S. Bracci, E. Cantisani, F. Paolucci
      The provenance of the marbles used for ten Niobids sculptures discovered at Rome in 1583 and now at the Uffizi Galleries in Florence has been determined using a well-established multi-method approach including isotopic, petrographic and EPR data. An eleventh sculpture (inv. 304) that is not part of the original group but has been long associated with it has also been investigated. The results partly confirm the belief that the marble of several Niobids is Pentelic, but also identify statues such as the Niobe group, the elder Niobid and others that were made using Asiatic marbles from Docimium and Göktepe. Sculptures still considered to be Pentelic are, in fact, Asiatic, whereas statues that were assumed to be Asiatic are Pentelic. Marble data support the opinion that different ateliers contributed to the work and group the sculptures in agreement with the results of stylistic analysis as proposed by various scholars. Provenance data in connection with archaeological and art-historical results allow to formulate possible hypotheses on the way this famous and complex group of sculptures was assembled.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T15:15:49Z
       
  • Metalwork wear analysis: The loss of innocence
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Andrea Dolfini, Rachel J. Crellin
      Metalwork wear-analysis has now been practised for over two decades. In this paper the authors present the achievements of the discipline and critically assess the methodologies currently applied by practitioners. Whilst the achievements and contributions of the discipline to the wider study of archaeology, and to European prehistory in particular, are numerous, it is argued that an increase in scientific rigour and a focus on addressing limitations and open problems is required if metalwork wear-analysis is to flourish as a scientific field of research. Experimentation with higher magnifications and novel microscopic techniques is encouraged, alongside more standardised and explicit analytical protocols for analysis. More details and targeted descriptions of analytical protocols for experimental work are required: experiments must be designed to answer specific questions and address lacunas in knowledge. While at present the majority of practitioners focus their analyses on copper alloys from European prehistory, and most specifically from the Bronze Age, the authors suggest that a far wider range of materials are suitable for analysis including copper alloys from the Americas and iron alloys from historic and ethnographic collections. Expanding the range of materials studied would open the field up and give it far wider relevance to archaeology and material culture studies. Finally, it is argued that the discipline will advance more quickly if practitioners share their reference collections and databases of experimental marks digitally. The authors suggest that the creation of digital reference collections, open to all, would provide metalwork analysts with the opportunity to lead related fields of research such as lithic microwear and residue analysis, where individual reference collections are the norm and cross-comparability of analysis is therefore hindered.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T12:27:00Z
       
  • Identifying migrants in Roman London using lead and strontium stable
           isotopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Heidi Shaw, Janet Montgomery, Rebecca Redfern, Rebecca Gowland, Jane Evans
      The ancient settlement of Londinium (London) has long been characterized as a major commercial and bureaucratic centre of the Roman province of Britain (Britannia). Primary source information indicates that people were drawn to the city from around the Empire. Mortuary and archaeological material evidence also attest to its cosmopolitan nature and have long been used to characterize the people who are buried in Londinium and identify where they may have originated. Within the past decade, researchers have successfully applied isotopic analyses of strontium and oxygen to human remains from various settlements in Roman Britain in order to identify the migrant status of the inhabitants. Recent studies have highlighted the utility of lead isotopes for examining past mobility, particularly for the Roman period. The aim of this project, therefore, was to apply lead and strontium isotope analyses to dental enamel samples from twenty individuals excavated from Londinium. The results suggest that the geographic origins of the population of Roman London varied, comprising individuals local to Londinium and Britannia, but also from further afield in the Empire, including Rome. The findings from this study are a valuable addition to the growing stable isotope dataset that is helping to characterize the nature of migration in Roman Britain, and this has broader implications for interpreting the relationship of migration and identity in the province.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T11:01:21Z
       
  • Directions in current and future phytolith research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Débora Zurro, Juan José García-Granero, Carla Lancelotti, Marco Madella
      The analysis of phytoliths has progressed immensely in recent years. Increases in the number of phytolith works within several disciplines has substantially extended our knowledge about these microfossils, while at the same time diversifying the approaches by which they can be used as archaeological and palaeoenvironmental proxies. The insufficient standardisation of these works, however, greatly increases the difficulty of utilising this body of research within a broader framework of powerfully integrated methodologies and models in archaeobotany and palaeoenvironmental studies. Further standardisation will facilitate the broadening of phytolith research beyond technique-oriented work, permitting greater opportunity for its application to inform on past cultures and their strategies of plant resources exploitation as well as the dynamics related to climate change and anthropic-driven environmental modifications. The aim of this paper is to drive our discipline towards a set of “best practices” that arise from current phytolith research but that are often applied in an unsystematic manner.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T11:01:21Z
       
  • An experimental lion-to-hammerstone model and its relevance to understand
           hominin-carnivore interactions in the archeological record
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Elia Organista, Marta Pernas-Hernández, Agness Gidna, José Yravedra, Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo
      Traditional scavenging models have emphasized that a secondary intervention of hominins to carcasses previously consumed by carnivores should yield high tooth mark frequencies on long bone shafts. It has also been shown that the most feasible scavenging scenario for early Pleistocene African hominins would have been acquiring carcasses from felid kills and prior to hyenid intervention. Oddly, most experiments conducted in the past 20 years have been mostly based on bone modification patterns created by durophagous carnivores. Previous works emphasized that a felid-hominin model would be reflected in low frequencies of tooth-marked shaft specimens. The present work intends to put this hypothesis fully to test by replicating the complete felid-hominin scenario. Hammerstone breakage of bones from wild lion kills was simulated and the resulting anatomical and bone portion distribution of tooth mark frequencies was documented. Here, it is shown that wild lions inflict moderate damage to long bone ends. In contrast, hammerstone-broken shaft specimens bear very few tooth marks (usually <10% of fragments). It is shown that most damage inflicted by lions on carcasses during consumption occur on upper limb bones. Distal portions of radius-ulnae and tibiae are the least affected areas. This referential framework can potentially be applied to the archaeological record to reassert primary access to carcasses in some early Pleistocene African sites and unravel hominin-carnivore contribution to middle and late Pleistocene Eurasian palimpsests.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T11:01:21Z
       
  • Towards the identification of the exploitation of cattle labour from
           distal metapodials
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Minghao Lin, Preston Miracle, Graeme Barker
      The exploitation of cattle labour in agriculture and transport, prior to large-scale mechanisation, has significantly helped shape the development course of human societies. This paper addresses the question of how to recognise cattle traction using refined techniques derived from control bone samples. We propose a detailed examination of morphometrics from distal metapodials for this purpose. Our results show that metric datasets from specific parts of these elements demonstrate a separation between traction and non-traction groups. Statistical analyses support such separation, encouraging the application of this model to shed light on ancient animal labour exploitation. This model is additionally well suited to fragmentary materials – distal metapodials rather than the whole elements – enabling its wide potential application in zooarchaeological research.


      PubDate: 2016-01-02T16:11:21Z
       
  • The seeds of commerce: A network analysis-based approach to the
           Romano-British transport system
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Hector A. Orengo, Alexandra Livarda
      Communication routes are an important subject in the study of the human past. They allowed interactions between communities and the dispersal of goods and ideas. Their study, therefore, can shed light on the way in which communities inhabited the landscape, related to each other and were affected by macro-regional trends. Many methods, such as archaeomorphological analysis and Least Cost Route modelling (LCR), have been devised and are routinely employed for the reconstruction of ancient routes. Their analysis in terms of communication, trade or historical significance, however, has usually been left unexplored. This is probably due to the connected nature of routes, which form communication networks: these are shaped by interconnected nodes and extend over territories surpassing the regional scale in such a way that even a change in a single node or link can affect the whole network. Consequently, the partial reconstruction of communication networks provided by the aforementioned methods does not usually allow a holistic analysis. In this paper the relatively well understood British Roman road network is employed to explore the analytical possibilities offered by a combination of Social Network Analysis, Spatial Network Analysis and spatial interpolation-based distribution analysis. The British road network has been reconstructed using published data but also a variation of LCR in which cost surfaces are derived from cultural data obtained from large-scale cultural inventories. The distribution of introduced food plants during the Roman period serve as an excellent proxy for the study of trade along the network and its historical consequences. This multi-period archaeobotanical dataset has some evident advantages to other types of material remains: archaeobotanical remains are not reused as, for example, amphorae and, accordingly, they reflect a distribution pattern based on consumption or commerce. Some of them are imported (as they cannot be produced locally) and, consequently, their distribution would be applied through usage of the main routes. The results suggest a continuous inflow of exotics but highlight their changing transport routes, their differential access and the particular weight of certain nodal sites in the development of this commerce with direct impact on urbanisation and the overall economy of Britannia. The Roman road network acted as a major factor in the distribution of sites, their political and economic importance and their permanence or disappearance as global economic trends changed over time.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:21:04Z
       
  • Variation in camelid δ13C and δ15N values in relation to
           geography and climate: Holocene patterns and archaeological implications
           in central western Argentina
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Adolfo F. Gil, Andrew Ugan, Clara Otaola, Gustavo Neme, Miguel Giardina, Lumila Menéndez
      Camelids are among the largest wild and domestic faunas in South America and represent one of the most important taxa to pre-hispanic South America human populations. Stable isotope data from these animals play an important role in improving our understanding of human paleodiet, past human-animal interactions, Holocene environmental change, and modern camelid management. This paper presents δ13C and δ15N values taken from 91 camelid specimens distributed across western Argentina between 30° and 37° S. These samples come from three desert environments (Andean, Patagonia, and Monte) and include both modern and prehistoric samples. Camelid δ13C values range between −20.3‰ and −10.7‰, while δ15N values vary between 2‰ and 10.2‰. Mean isotope values differ by environmental context, with significant difference in δ13C and δ15N between Patagonian and Monte or Andean deserts. Camelid isotope values also vary with latitude, altitude and longitude, though differences in δ15N are weak, and these geographic differences are tied to climatic variables such as annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and season of precipitation. When comparing camelid δ13C values from Central-western Argentina with those from Northwest Argentina and Patagonia, we see a latitudinal trend of decreasing δ13C values, with the most negative values occurring in southern Patagonia and the most positive values in Northwest Argentina. Variation in camelid stable isotope values and their association with particular environmental contexts shows their value as a geographic marker and possibly as a paleoecological proxy. These results highlight the need to consider the geographic origin of camelid isotope values when using them to reconstruct human diet.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:21:04Z
       
  • Detection of shipwrecks in ocean colour satellite imagery
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): M. Baeye, R. Quinn, S. Deleu, M. Fettweis
      Waterborne swath acoustic and airborne laser systems are the main methods used to detect and investigate fully submerged shipwreck sites. In the nearshore, waterborne techniques are compromised as search tools as their effective swath is a function of water depth, necessitating very close survey line spacing in shallow water, increasing cost accordingly. Additionally, in turbid coastal waters bathymetric LiDAR is ineffective as it relies on clear non-turbid water. Therefore, the nearshore turbid zone represents a challenging area for archaeologists in the search for fully submerged archaeological sites. In this study, we describe a new methodology to detect the presence of submerged shipwrecks using ocean colour satellite imagery in turbid waters. We demonstrate that wrecks generate Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentration signals that can be detected by high-resolution ocean colour satellite data such as Landsat-8. Surface SPM plumes extend downstream for up to 4 km from wrecks, with measured concentrations ranging between 15 and 95 mg/l. The overall ratio between the plume and background SPM concentrations is about 1.4. During slack tidal phases sediments in suspension settle to create fluffy mud deposits near the seabed. Scour pits developed around wrecks act as sinks where fine-grained suspended material is preferentially deposited at slacks. The scour pits subsequently act as sources for suspended material when the bottom current increases after slacks. SPM plumes develop immediately before maximum ebb or flood current is reached, during maximum current and immediately after. Particulate matter is suspended in sufficient concentrations to be detected in ocean colour data. The ability to detect submerged shipwrecks from satellite remote sensors is of benefit to archaeological scientists and resource managers interesting in locating wrecks and investigating processes driving their evolution.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:21:04Z
       
  • From radiocarbon analysis to interpretation: A comment on “Phytolith
           radiocarbon dating in archaeological and paleoecological research: A case
           study of phytoliths from modern neotropical plants and a review of the
           previous dating evidence”, Journal of Archaeological Science (2015),
           doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2015.06.002.” by Dolores R. Piperno
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 66
      Author(s): Guaciara M. Santos, Anne Alexandre, Christine A. Prior
      The paper “Phytolith Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the Previous Dating Evidence” by Dolores R. Piperno presents radiocarbon analysis of phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants collected between 1964 and 2013. The analyses presented were intended to rebut the emerging hypothesis that invokes root-plant uptake, transport and reallocation of soil organic carbon into phytoliths that has been recently put forward as an explanation for the anomalous radiocarbon (14C) ages (of hundreds to thousands of years old) reported for modern grass phytoliths in Santos et al. (2010a, 2012a). We believe that the results presented in Piperno (2015) lack methodological rigor, mostly due to the absence of any procedural blank assessment, and that the attempts to disprove the hypothesis of uptake of soil organic matter (SOM) by phytoliths in Santos et al. (2012a) are not supported by a careful analysis. Rather than supporting the position that 100% of the carbon in phytoliths is of photosynthetic origin, which allows the use of phytolith carbon (or phytC) as a dating tool, the analysis of 14C in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in the study shows that the 14C ages are strongly affected by other sources of carbon. In this comment, we carefully reassess the 14C results in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in Piperno (2015) in the context of the 14C bomb-pulse methodology, SOM ages and turnover rates, and offer an alternative interpretation of the experimental results.


      PubDate: 2015-12-29T18:21:04Z
       
  • The power of the pyre – A holistic study of cremation focusing on
           charcoal remains
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Lorna O'Donnell
      The pyre was an integral part of the ritual of cremation, yet the actual wood that fuelled pyres has rarely been investigated from Bronze Age sites. This research examines environmental results focusing on charcoal data from the largest Bronze Age cremation cemetery discovered in Ireland, Templenoe. A holistic approach combines charcoal, plant-macro, osteological and artefactual results to provide new insights into the cremation process in prehistory. It demonstrates that particular trees (oak, pomaceous fruitwood and ash) were selected over 600 years to fuel the cremation pyres at Templenoe, trends which are reflected regionally in both Ireland and Britain. Comparison of charcoal with osteological data suggests that the selection of wood did not reflect age or sex. Pyre material was consistently buried with the cremated bones in graves indicating the importance of the pyre itself in the overall cremation process. Empty funerary pits or possible “cenotaphs” contain the exact same wood taxa as the graves with bone, suggesting that it may be correct to interpret these as graves. It is possible that pyre material could have been buried as a proxy for the body.


      PubDate: 2015-12-21T14:26:24Z
       
  • The wood of Merovingian weaponry
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Willy Tegel, Bernhard Muigg, Ulf Büntgen
      After metal, wood was the second most important material for weapon production in early medieval Europe. The weaponry of Merovingian warriors consisted of a double-edged long sword (spatha), a single-edged short sword (seax), a shield, a spear, an axe, as well as a bow and arrows. Belowground organic material remains have often been preserved through mineralisation processes over centuries to millennia. Although these objects are frequently found as grave goods in burials, systematic material identification is still missing. Here, we present wood anatomical features of 316 weapons from 42 cemeteries of the Merovingian Dynasty in northeastern France. The most commonly used wood for weapons was ash (Fraxinus excelsior), followed by alder (Alnus sp.) and hazel (Corylus avellana). While guaranteeing optimum quality and utility, these taxa were mostly considered for spears, arrows, spatha scabbards and shields. Density and mechanical properties further influenced wood selection. An attractive appearance of representative weaponry also affected species preference. At the same time, wood choice rooted in tradition, as knowledge transfer persisted over many centuries and cultures.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T14:22:33Z
       
  • Fishing with lure hooks at the Late Neolithic site of Vinča –
           Belo Brdo, Serbia
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): E. Cristiani, V. Dimitrijević, S. Vitezović
      The authors present an early evidence for the use of complex fishing techniques for obtaining variable fish resources in prehistoric south-east Europe as recovered at the Neolithic site of Vinča – Belo Brdo in Serbia. In particular, a group of bone artefacts have been analysed through the application of an integrated approach combining technological, use-wear, and residue analyses as well as the comparisons with ethnographic artefacts. The results of the functional analysis indicate that these artefacts were parts of lure hooks, i.e. composite hooks, probably used to catch large predatory fish. On methodological grounds, the discussion proposed in this paper could be relevant for other case studies worldwide where one finds prehistoric communities with evidence of fishing activities.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T14:22:33Z
       
  • PhytCore ODB: A new tool to improve efficiency in the management and
           exchange of information on phytoliths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Rosa M. Albert, Jose A. Ruíz, Andreu Sans
      Online databases (ODB's) ensure access to comparative phytolith keys to facilitate phytolith identification in plants. But, can they be improved in a more efficient way' This paper presents PhytCore version 2.0 (www.phytcore.org), which has been adapted from a searchable database to a multi-user work tool. The ODB includes digital images, and related information, of phytoliths from modern plant material, modern soils, paleosoils and archaeological material. It includes as well quantitative data related to the percentage presence of phytolith morphotypes in each given sample and it is structured to manage phytolith data and the retrieving of information through one or various simultaneous queries. PhytCore 2.0 is a multiplatform with a responsive design interface that enables access through desktop computers, mobile and tablet devices. PhytCore 2.0 is also and interactive platform opened to discussions and to the participation of other research groups who would like to share their own data while keeping copyright. Our aim is to offer the fruits of this research worldwide to facilitate international data sharing and optimize the available resources.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T14:22:33Z
       
  • Past population dynamics in Northwest Patagonia: An estimation using
           molecular and radiocarbon data
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): S. Ivan Perez, Paula N. Gonzalez, Valeria Bernal
      Studying demographic changes in past human populations is of great interest due to their role in processes of cultural change as well as the biological evolution of populations. Despite this, a general consensus about the most adequate methodological approach to this end is still lacking. Here, a new approach that combines radiocarbon frequency distributions —uncorrected and corrected by taphonomic bias— and demographic curves independently estimated with modern mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is used to estimate population size changes in Northwest Patagonia since the Pleistocene–Holocene transition to recent times. Results based on mtDNA sequences suggest a census size of approximately 3000 individuals (with an estimated female effective size of ca. 750 individuals) by the initial peopling of this region around 10,000 years ago. A strong correspondence between curves based on mtDNA data and those based on archaeological radiocarbon dates (n = 251) was obtained after the effect of taphonomic bias was accounted for. The demographic curves indicate that the population size was relatively stable during the earlier Early Holocene and it increased between 7000 and 5000 years ago, reaching a maximum size around 1000 years ago. Then, the population size declined until present time. We conclude that demographic inferences made on the basis of radiocarbon dates are not necessarily biased but this needs to be evaluated with independent evidence in each specific geographical region.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T14:22:33Z
       
  • Mammoth hunting – Impact traces on backed implements from a mammoth
           bone accumulation at Kraków Spadzista (southern Poland)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Bernadeta Kufel-Diakowska, Jarosław Wilczyński, Piotr Wojtal, Krzysztof Sobczyk
      This article presents the results of use-wear analysis of the backed implements (shouldered points and backed blades) discovered at Kraków Spadzista, trench B + B1. Of the 197 examined tools, 113 specimens (55%) bear traces of use. In this group, 55 artefacts show a complete set of clear, characteristic impact traces and could be interpreted as the flint parts of thrown weapons. They were used in mammoth hunting at the Kraków Spadzista site 24 thousand years ago. The hafting method can be identified on the basis of the direction of linear traces and impact negatives. Most of these artefacts were placed at the top of wooden or bone shaft. Only single specimens were attached laterally.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T14:22:33Z
       
  • Radiocarbon dates and anthropogenic signal in the South-Central Andes
           (12,500–600 cal. years BP)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Hernán J. Muscio, Gabriel E.J. López
      This paper presents the analysis of the anthropogenic signal documented by four time-series in the highlands of the South-Central Andes (Puna of Argentina and North Chile) spanning the period between 12,500 and 600 cal years BP. Our goal is to extract demographic and occupational histories from temporal data. In this way, based upon the full radiocarbon dataset and the sites of provenance of the dates, we built the following time-series: the summed probability distribution of calibrated ages; the relative frequency of calibrated ages; the relative frequency of sites per unit of time; and the frequency of new sites per unit of time. For controlling the effects of site destruction on the anthropogenic signal, we used the exponential model as well as the volcanic empirical model of taphonomic bias. The four time-series coincide in showing a regional pattern with a phase of low and fluctuating demography of relative long term duration, followed by an growth phase well evident at 5000 cal BP in a context the economic intensification. The long-term demographic success of the hunter-gatherers in the highlands many millennia before the consolidation of food production exemplifies the flexibility of this mode of subsistence for achieving human adaptation to extreme selective environments as the Puna.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T00:46:06Z
       
  • Lithic networks reveal early regionalization in late Pleistocene North
           America
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Briggs Buchanan, Marcus J. Hamilton, J. David Kilby, Joseph A.M. Gingerich
      North America was colonized by hunter–gatherer populations during the late Pleistocene, and the Clovis culture is the earliest well-documented evidence of this event. Long-standing questions about the colonization process persist, including the extent to which low-density populations maintained contact across the continent and if foraging territories overlapped or were spatially-discrete. Here, we use a network approach to examine the spatial structure of land use associated with the earliest hunter–gatherer populations in North America. In particular, we examine the co-occurrence of raw materials used for stone tool manufacture at archaeological sites across the continent. Using a database of 84 Clovis assemblages we show that there are three large isolated, mostly spatially-discrete, lithic exploitation networks across the continent. These regions closely correspond to previously identified differences in Clovis point form, suggesting that Clovis populations were becoming regionally distinct. This process of cultural diversification that begins in the late Pleistocene, continues to develop into the Holocene.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T00:46:06Z
       
  • 3D-GIS as a platform for visual analysis: Investigating a Pompeian house
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Giacomo Landeschi, Nicolò Dell'Unto, Karin Lundqvist, Daniele Ferdani, Danilo Marco Campanaro, Anne-Marie Leander Touati
      The aim of the present work is to introduce an innovative framework for employing 3D-GIS as an exploratory platform to perform visual analysis. Such a methodology is aimed at detecting patterns of visibility to simulate the past human perception of specific categories of artifacts placed inside a virtually reconstructed three-dimensional space. As a case study, the house of Caecilius Iucundus in Pompeii (regio V, insula 1, entrances 23 and 26) was chosen and two media of visual communication, a painting and a graffito were tested to make an assessment of their visual impact on hypothetical observers. The approach consists of a vector-based line-of-sight (LOS) analysis, now available as an integral component of the 3D-analyst toolkit of the ESRI ArcGIS 10.x software package. This toolkit allowed us to perform the entire process inside a GIS environment, without splitting the tasks among different software platforms. It was thus possible to detect a significant difference in terms of visibility among the observed objects.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T00:46:06Z
       
  • Is vertebral form a valid species-specific indicator for salmonids?
           The discrimination rate of trout and Atlantic salmon from archaeological
           to modern times
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Emilie Guillaud, Raphaël Cornette, Philippe Béarez
      Salmonids, especially Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and trout (Salmo trutta sspp.), are ubiquitous throughout the European Upper Paleolithic archaeological context; however, as these species are morphologically similar, species identification can be difficult. Here we present (I) a species classification rate for the two species using modern reference specimens, and (II) an application on archaeological vertebrae of Salmo sp. recovered from the cave of Le Taillis des Coteaux (Vienne, France). This cave contains a rich archaeological sequence with an exceptionally well preserved stratigraphy, encompassing the Upper Paleolithic from the Aurignacian to the Middle Magdalenian. To discriminate both species, we used a geometric morphometric approach to analyse vertebral form using landmarks and sliding semi-landmarks, coupled with k-Nearest Neighbour classification method. Other quantitative approaches like Principal Component Analyses exist, but the k-NN method increases the power of these analyses. Linear Discriminant Analysis was also used; however, the k-NN method provided better results. This study presents the initial results of geometric morphometric discrimination of European salmonid bones. The success rate of reassigning these to the modern reference specimens ranged from 84 to 100%, depending on the vertebrae studied, with the data indicating that S. trutta sspp. were the dominant taxon on site. This study provides clear evidence that vertebrae morphology can be used to differentiate salmonid species, allowing archaeological specimens, even partially broken, to be identified.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T00:46:06Z
       
  • Iron Age Nomads and their relation to copper smelting in Faynan (Jordan):
           Trace metal and Pb and Sr isotopic measurements from the Wadi Fidan 40
           cemetery
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Marc A. Beherec, Thomas E. Levy, Ofir Tirosh, Mohammad Najjar, Kyle A. Knabb, Yigal Erel
      The Faynan region in southern Jordan is the largest copper ore resource zone in the southern Levant and was exploited for these ores beginning ca. 8000 years BP. We discuss the relationship between nomadic populations and major copper smelting sites during the Iron Age (ca. 1200-500 BCE) based on mortuary excavations and toxic metal analyses at the Wadi Fidan 40 cemetery, the largest Iron Age mortuary complex in southern Jordan. The Iron Age represents the first industrial revolution in this part of the Middle East. The study presented here is the first to employ chemical and isotopic measurements from a systematically excavated Iron Age mortuary population to determine exposure to Cu and Pb pollution and mobility patterns (based on Sr isotopes). We describe a methodology to control for post-depositional diagenetic uptake of chemical elements in human teeth recovered from the cemetery that has not previously been applied in Faynan in ancient pollution studies. The results suggest that most of the excess of Pb and Cu measured in tooth enamel samples were a product of post-depositional diagenetic addition. Our findings suggest that the majority of people buried at the Wadi Fidan 40 cemetery were not exposed to metal pollution during their lives. The few individuals who were exposed to metal pollution exhibited a spectrum of traits indicative of lifestyle and social status. The results bring into question how severe the ancient pollution impacted the lives of the Iron Age population living in Faynan.


      PubDate: 2015-11-28T16:52:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64




      PubDate: 2015-11-28T16:52:10Z
       
  • LA-ICP-MS chemical analysis of archaeological otoliths as a tool for
           seasonality and site catchment studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Evan Peacock, Rinat Gabitov, Jonathan R. Frisch, Carla S. Hadden, Bradley Carlock, Kate L. Henderson
      Analysis of the trace element chemistry of otoliths via Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become common in fisheries-related work, allowing biologists to trace connectivity between habitats over the life cycles of fish. For archaeological specimens, elements from the outer edges of archaeological otoliths have the potential to provide information on site seasonality complementary to oxygen isotope data; they also may inform on place of capture of fish, thus elucidating exploited ranges and/or social and economic links between settlements. Adopting this method will require careful consideration of a number of complicating factors related to metabolic processes affecting otolith production, analytical procedures peculiar to LA-ICP-MS, and diagenesis, in addition to the usual complications of species identification and assessment of sample adequacy. Here, we review such factors as they affect the utility of the method for sourcing and seasonality research with archaeological otoliths, using the results of a pilot study of specimens from two Woodland-period sites in coastal Alabama, southeastern USA, to illustrate the potential and the current limitations of the method for archaeological research.


      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • Diagenetic effects on pyrolysis fingerprints of extracted collagen in
           archaeological human bones from NW Spain, as determined by pyrolysis-GC-MS
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Joeri Kaal, Olalla López-Costas, Antonio Martínez Cortizas
      Ancient collagen is used as archive for multiple pre-mortem traits. Testing the quality of the collagen extract is a common concern of those who engage in the reconstruction of ancient diets. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the pyrolysis fingerprints of human bone collagen especially in relation with diagenetic alteration. Pyrolysis-GC-MS was applied to 28 collagen samples extracted from archaeological human bone, corresponding to different chronological periods (Bronze Age to post-Medieval period; 1900 BC–1800 AD) and different types of burial environment (acidic and alkaline) from NW Spain. Collagen was extracted following the common methodology used in paleodiet analysis, and a commercial gelatin sample was included for comparison. Data evaluation was based on 58 pyrolysis products using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Principal component 1 (PC1, 45% of total variance) was related to the relative abundances of pyrolysis products of specific amino acids, with relatively degraded samples having larger proportions of the pyrolysis products of Pro/Hyp, Phe and Ala, while more intact samples showed larger proportions of Tyr, Trp and pyrolysis products of unspecific amino acid origin. PC1 scores were related to the period to which the samples corresponded, which reflects differences in diagenetic impact, probably controlled by a combination of age and burial deposit characteristics. PC2 (15%) probably reflects the well-known effects of disruption of the amino acid sequence (depolymerization), causing a decline in dimerization products (diketopiperazines) upon pyrolysis. This process was more intense in the collagen samples from acidic deposits than in the samples from alkaline deposits (a calcareous cave and coastal sand deposits with biogenic carbonates). The relationships between the PCA and individual pyrolysis products with known parameters of collagen quality (% C, % N, C/N ratio, % extractable collagen) were generally insignificant or weak. This might be explained by the rather narrow C/N range (3.19–3.36) of the samples, which had to meet the criteria for suitability for paleodiet analysis. Moreover, there was no significant relation between the isotopic composition of the extracted collagen (δ13C, δ15N) and pyrolyzate composition, suggesting that diagenesis has little effect on the isotopic fingerprints used in palaeodietary studies. Finally, no substantial contamination of microbial or exogenous tissue from the deposition environment to the osteological collagen extracts was identified. It is concluded that the δ13C and δ15N as proxies of palaeodiet from these diverse necropoleis in NW Spain is sustained.


      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • Impact of heating conditions on the carbon and oxygen isotope composition
           of calcined bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Christophe Snoeck, Rick J. Schulting, Julia A. Lee-Thorp, Matthieu Lebon, Antoine Zazzo
      Only the inorganic fraction of bone survives the high temperatures reached during cremation, so that it remains the sole material available for isotopic analyses. In order to assess the amount of information that can be extracted from such material, we measured carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the remaining carbonate fraction of experimentally heated modern bone, and cremated bone from several archaeological sites. The results show that the isotope composition of cremated bone is strongly altered, but some information can nevertheless be extracted. First, we find very little evidence of post-burial alterations on the isotope composition of calcined bone. More importantly, it appears possible to obtain information about the way bodies were burned (with or without fuel, oxygen availability) giving the opportunity to improve our knowledge regarding funerary practices in places and times where cremation was practiced.


      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • The pueblo decomposition model: A method for quantifying architectural
           rubble to estimate population size
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Samuel Duwe, B.Sunday Eiselt, J.Andrew Darling, Mark D. Willis, Chester Walker
      While most archaeological measures of population rely on material proxies uncovered through excavation (rooms, hearths, etc.), we identify a technique to estimate population at unexcavated sites (the majority of the archaeological record). Our case study focuses on ancestral Tewa Pueblo villages in northern New Mexico. Uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) and instrument mapping enables us to quantify the volume of adobe architectural rubble and to construct a decomposition model that estimates numbers of rooms and roofed over space. The resulting metric is applied at ten Pueblo villages in the region to ‘rebuild’ architecture, and calculate maximum architectural capacity and the maximum extent of population size. While our focus is on population histories for large Classic period (A.D. 1350–1598) pueblos in the American Southwest, the model and method may be applied to a variety of archaeological contexts worldwide and is not limited to building material, site size, or construction technique.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • An experimental approach to distinguishing different stone artefact
           transport patterns from debitage assemblages
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Kane Ditchfield
      This paper experimentally demonstrates the ability of a set of indices to distinguish between different stone artefact transport patterns represented in debitage assemblages. Stone artefacts were transported extensively in the past and this is an important component of technological organisation. However, most stone artefacts occur as part of debitage assemblages. From these assemblages, where mostly non-transported artefacts remain, it can be challenging to identify what artefacts, if any, were transported in anticipation of future use. A series of indices; the cortex ratio, volume ratio, flake to core ratio, non-cortical to cortical flake ratio and flake/core diminution tests are presented to meet this challenge. These are tested on an experimental assemblage where three different transport scenarios are simulated. Results suggest that the indices are sensitive to artefact transport and are capable of empirically distinguishing between the three transport scenarios, even when raw material form varies. The results also indicate that artefact transport is capable of exerting a significant influence on stone artefact assemblage formation.


      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • Ma'anshan cave and the origin of bone tool technology in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 65
      Author(s): Shuangquan Zhang, Francesco d'Errico, Lucinda R. Backwell, Yue Zhang, Fuyou Chen, Xing Gao
      Here we present the results of a techno-functional analysis of 17 bone tools recovered from strata 6, 5 and 3 of the Palaeolithic site of Ma'anshan Cave, Guizhou Province, southern China. Stratum 6, dated to c. 35 cal kyr BP, has yielded three sharp awls. From Stratum 5, dated to c. 34 cal kyr BP, come six probable spear points, awls and a cutting tool. Separated from these layers by a sterile horizon, Stratum 3, dated 23 cal kyr BP to 18 cal kyr BP, has yielded barbed points of two types. Bone tools were shaped by scraping, grinding, and in strata 5 and 3, finished by polishing. Ma'anshan Cave records the oldest formal bone tools from China, and amongst the oldest known evidence of indisputable barbed point manufacture outside Africa. Change in the hunting toolkit between strata 5 and 3 may indicate a shift in prey preference from medium to small size mammals and fish, which needs to be verified by supplementary analyses. The significance of this evidence is discussed in the context of what is known about the origin of bone tool technology in Africa and Eurasia.


      PubDate: 2015-11-24T03:27:08Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63




      PubDate: 2015-11-19T03:19:06Z
       
  • Metalcraft within the Nordic Bronze Age: Combined metallographic and
           superficial imaging reveals the technical repertoire in crafting bronze
           ornaments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Heide Wrobel Nørgaard
      The study presents two major approaches in the analysis of metal working techniques in the Nordic Bronze Age; a comparison of experimentally-crafted ornaments as a means of defining characteristic traces of known crafting techniques, and a scientific analysis (metallographic imaging) used to explain recognisable superficial crafting traces. This analysis results in a definitive explanation of superficial crafting traces through their specific microstructure and will thus be of significant interest for further research concerning prehistoric crafting. The metallographic investigation of 24 artefacts, which date to the early period of the Middle Bronze Age (around 1470–1290 BC) and originate in the central Lower Saxony region, revealed a much more varied technical repertoire in metalcraft than has previously been presumed. Superficial traces related to the crafting process and tested on experimentally-crafted bronzes indicated a mixture of cast technology and cold working. Thus, several samples indicated that the lost-wax technique was favoured within the Lüneburg group but, in addition, that intensive post-casting reworking was common. The high skill of Bronze Age metalworkers can be highlighted through the assessment of localized techniques applied to the artefacts, such as annealing or intensive cold working, without causing damage to the object. This knowledge of the technical possibilities of metalcraft in the Nordic Bronze Age allows for further research to concentrate on regional peculiarities using the traces of the crafting process presented here as a facilitating tool.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-11-07T15:42:36Z
       
  • Photogrammetric re-discovery of the hidden long-term landscapes of western
           Thessaly, central Greece
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): H.A. Orengo, A. Krahtopoulou, A. Garcia-Molsosa, K. Palaiochoritis, A. Stamati
      This paper introduces a novel workflow for the reconstruction of nowadays disappeared cultural landscapes based on the extraction of morphological information from historic aerial photographs. This methodology has been applied for the first time for the detection, classification and characterisation of upstanding, flattened and buried archaeological sites and various off-site ancient landscape features in the plain of Karditsa, western Thessaly. Although Thessaly has been the focus of prehistoric, and especially Neolithic, research in Greece, since the beginning of the 20th century, western Thessaly has not received as much archaeological attention and its archaeological record remains rather scanty. Moreover, an extensive land reclamation project implemented in the western Thessalian plain during the early 1970s resulted in the flattening of habitation tells and funerary sites of all periods. Thus, recognition of archaeological sites and relict landscape features becomes extremely difficult, whereas standard landscape analysis and application of mainstream Remote Sensing (RS) techniques based on multispectral satellite images are problematic. Digital photogrammetric reconstruction techniques and the subsequent GIS-based treatment of the results allowed overcoming these challenging limitations: the combined use of pre-1970s aerial photographs with later imagery provided a powerful means to reconstruct the landscape before the land reclamation process, using a workflow designed to highlight photogrammetry-derived topographic differences and multi-temporal imagery analysis. Hundreds of previously unknown mounded archaeological sites, as well as other ancient landscape traits such as roads, city grids and field systems were detected. More importantly, invaluable insights into the type and character of these archaeological features were gained, which would have been impossible to obtain by conventional RS techniques.


      PubDate: 2015-11-03T11:06:37Z
       
  • Geospatial landscape permeability modeling for archaeology: A case study
           of food storage in northern Michigan
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Meghan C.L. Howey
      As archaeologists continue to be interested in understanding how people encountered and engaged with past landscapes, layering them with social knowledge, it is important to harness geospatial techniques that are not tethered analytically to discrete points and can represent the flow of processes across a whole landscape. This paper explores landscape permeability modeling as one such geospatial approach. Applied archaeologically, permeability modeling examines the degree to which a given landscape, with a specific mix of physical and social variables, was conducive to the movement of people and the flow of social, economic, political, and/or ideological processes. An archaeological case study is presented that uses a resistant-kernel permeability model to examine food storage suitability in an inland lake landscape in northern Michigan during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1100/1200 – 1600) and how people in their intimate, day-to-day, encounters with this landscape understood the storage potential(s) of this matrix. While a specific case is detailed in this paper, the procedures employed are adaptable to other archaeological landscapes.


      PubDate: 2015-10-30T12:30:43Z
       
  • Identifying sheep (Ovis aries) fetal remains in archaeological contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 64
      Author(s): Patricia Martín, Ricardo García-González
      Studies on the identification of fetal sheep remains in archaeological sites are scarce in comparison to the abundant literature addressing methods for postnatal age determination. However, perinatal studies can provide important information about sheep flock management in the Neolithic period. Motivated by the extensive fetal and neonatal assemblages recovered in the Neolithic and Bronze Age levels of El Mirador cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), we have identified and distinguished the remains using morphological criteria complemented by osteometric criteria. Skeletal development during the fetal period is less affected by the agents that can influence postnatal skeletal development (genetic, environmental, etc.). A priori, this makes age determination using actualistic data in fetal remains more reliable than in postnatal remains. Starting from these premises, the perinatal remains from El Mirador cave were analyzed using the osteological collection of fetal and neonatal individuals of the Rasa Aragonesa breed from the IPE (Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Jaca, Spain). Veterinary studies based on bone center ontogenesis and fetal age identification methods using metric criteria were also employed. The identification of age and the distinction of fetal and neonatal remains in the El Mirador cave assemblages based on qualitative anatomical criteria were consistent with the results obtained from osteometric data, specifically from the diaphyseal length measurement. In addition, the large number of specimen in the El Mirador assemblages made it possible to distinguish different fetal phases in accordance with skeletal developmental phenomena.


      PubDate: 2015-10-30T12:30:43Z
       
  • Postclassic petén maya bow-and-arrow use as revealed by immunological
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Nathan J. Meissner, Prudence M. Rice
      The bow-and-arrow was a widely used weapon in the Postclassic and Contact periods in the Maya lowlands. A sample of 108 arrow points from varied archaeological contexts in the lakes region of central Petén, northern Guatemala, was submitted for cross-over immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) analysis. Analysis resulted in 25 positive matches to available antisera for a wide range of local and introduced fauna, from small and large land mammals to avians. These findings indicate possible uses in subsistence and ritual, as well as the first immunological identification of human proteins from projectile weaponry in Mesoamerica. This study did not reveal strong correlations between targeted fauna and point morphology, although larger points were likely used for larger game.


      PubDate: 2015-10-21T05:10:23Z
       
  • Tracing Pottery Use and the Emergence of Secondary Product Exploitation
           through Lipid Residue Analysis at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad (Syria)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Olivier P. Nieuwenhuyse, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Richard P. Evershed, Peter M.M.G. Akkermans, Anna Russell
      Late Neolithic settlements dating to around 7000 cal. BC are widespread in Upper Mesopotamia, however, the site of Tell Sabi Abyad is unique in the scale and quality of excavation, revealing an extensive architecture, huge numbers of domesticated animal bones, stone tools and potsherds. A previous study reported lipid residues in nearly 300 potsherds as part of a wider investigation of the origins of dairying in the Near East and Southeastern Europe. The aim of this paper is to interpret the organic residue findings in more detail, addressing such factors as the association of lipids in pottery with particular phases, ware types, and the faunal record. Overall, the recovery rate of lipids in sherds is low (14 % of the sherds investigated in this study yielded detectable lipids) and the mean lipid concentration for sherds containing lipids is ca. 82 μg g-1. These results are typical of sites from this period and general region (southern Mediterranean and Near East). Our interpretations indicate: (i) the use of specific ceramic categories of vessel for “cooking”, (ii) clear evidence of the extensive heating of vessels is deduced from the presence of ketones, formed from the condensation of fatty acids, in some vessels, (iii) strong differences in recovery rates possibly reflecting differences in use between different pottery types, (iv) in particular the Dark Faced Burnished Ware (DFBW) contained the highest frequency of residues (46 % yielded detectable lipids), (v) degraded animal fats were detectable, as evidenced by fatty acids with C18:0 in high abundance and in few cases tri-, di- and monoacylglycerols, (vi) the presence of abundant carcass fats is consistent with interpretations based on faunal assemblage of extensive meat exploitation, and (vii) four vessels dated to 6,400 to 5,900 cal BC yielded milk fat residues.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T02:24:29Z
       
  • Oxygen isotope composition of Sparidae (sea bream) tooth enamel from
           well-dated archaeological site as an environmental proxy in the East
           Mediterranean: A case study from Tel Dor, Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): G. Sisma-Ventura, I. Zohar, A. Sarkar, K. Bhattacharyya, A. Zidane, A. Gilboa, G. Bar-Oz, D. Sivan
      This paper examines the potential of oxygen stable isotope composition of Sparidae (sea-bream) tooth enamel phosphate (δ18OP) as an indicator of the habitat in which the fish were captured. The isotopic compositions of Sparidae molariform teeth recovered from the coastal site of Tel Dor (northern coast of Israel), from a sequence dated to the 12th–7th centuries BCE and from modern samples were studied. The δ18OP values of the archaeological specimens exhibited a wide range of values, varying between 21.3 and 25.2±0.2‰. While δ18OP values from the teeth dated to the 12th–9th centuries BCE resembled typical East Mediterranean coastal water, some of the later teeth, dated to the 9th–7th centuries BCE, exhibited higher values. The later values indicate tooth enamel deposition in a hyper-saline environment similar to δ18OP values of Sparidae observed at Bardawil Lagoon (Southeastern Mediterranean coast, east of the Suez Canal, Egypt). Prior to this study all Sparidae fish recovered at Tel Dor were regarded as evidence of local fishing activity. The current results exhibit, for the first time, that some of the Sparids may have been exported from the Bardawil Lagoon. We discuss, however, an alternative scenario, namely, the possible existence of saline lagoons near Tel Dor in antiquity.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T02:24:29Z
       
  • Experimental dissolution of lead from bronze vessels and the lead content
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ying Qin, Haomiao Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Huang Huang, Ya Qin, Yaoting Xie
      Human skeletal lead content has been demonstrated to be related to socioeconomic status, occupation and other social and environmental factors. However, there is minimal research into the lead content found in ancient Chinese human remains. A series of dissolving lead experiments on ancient bronze vessels containing lead revealed that lead contamination occurred when ancient people used lead-rich alloy vessels for cooking, heating and storing food and wine. 65 ancient bone and teeth samples (from occupants of tombs and sacrificed people and dogs of different tombs) excavated from a Western Zhou Period (B.C.1046∼B.C.771) burial area in Hengbei, Jiangxian of Shanxi Provinces were analysed using ICP-MS to determine their lead content. The lead content of teeth and bones from the remains of high-status individuals differs from those of the slaves and servants within the same tombs. In addition, it is observable that differences of bone lead contents are clearly related to social ranks.


      PubDate: 2015-10-03T21:00:36Z
       
  • Iron Age Migration on the island of Öland: Apportionment of Strontium
           by Means of Bayesian Mixing Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Helene Wilhelmson, Torbjörn Ahlström
      Migration is a complex subject to approach in archeology and the new materials and methods available, such as isotope analysis and DNA, make it possible, and necessary, to ask new questions. The objective of this paper is to highlight the possibilities with using a new approach to migration on a population level by applying Bayesian mixing analysis of strontium isotopes. The selected case, the island of Öland in the Baltic, was based on 109 human samples dated to the Early (500 BC-AD 400,n=71) and Late (AD 400-1050, n=38) periods. The results from both periods demonstrate that the distribution of Strontium (Sr) is multimodal with several peaks not associated with the local variation. Our results show a large immigration to Öland from other geological areas, with 32% of the population in the Early period and 47% in the Late period being nonlocal. In order to unravel these distributions, we use a Bayesian mixing analysis. The Bayesian mixing analysis provides us with a mean to disentangle the distribution of Sr that is not uninformed. The gravity model, however simplistic, is relevant for explaining the strontium variation in the population in Öland both in the Early and Late period. Our results indicate a significant internal migration in Scandinavia that is increasing in the Late Iron Age at the same time as the Viking expansions (the more well studied external migration), which is usually the only migration discussed. We argue that the method proposed and tested on the case of Öland adds new perspectives for approaching migration patterns in general on a population level, a perspective that is hitherto lacking in archaeology.


      PubDate: 2015-09-28T21:41:26Z
       
  • Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and spatial analysis of
           geometric lines in the Northern Arabian Desert
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): C.D. Athanassas, G.O. Rollefson, A. Kadereit, D. Kennedy, K. Theodorakopoulou, Y.M. Rowan, A. Wasse
      In this paper we generate chronological constraints through optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on extensive prehistoric stone structures that stretch out in the Arabian Desert and appear as geometric lines, known as the "Works of the Old Men". Two major types of the "Works" that are common throughout the Arabian Desert are the "wheels" and the more intensively investigated "desert kites". Here, OSL dating was applied to "wheels" in the Wadi Wisad area, in the eastern badia of Jordan. OSL dating generated ages that fall into the Late Neolithic to Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. This chronological spectrum is consistent with the well-documented prehistoric activities at the archaeological site of Wisad Pools, also located in the Wadi Wisad area. Spatial analyses of the "Works" in Wadi Wisad and in the Azraq Oasis revealed that: 1) the wheels are organized in clusters, 2) the spatial distribution of the wheels is predetermined by the kites, 3) the kites were most probably created earlier than the wheels in the study areas and 4) a cluster of wheels nearby the Azraq Oasis tentatively demonstrates ranking and, perhaps, tendency for alignment, although this is not the case for the other wheel-clusters studied. Despite the progress toward understanding the chronological and spatial aspects of the wheels, a great deal of research remains to resolve the actual nature of these enigmatic stone structures.


      PubDate: 2015-09-24T20:01:11Z
       
  • New Approaches to Modeling the Volume of Earthen Archaeological Features:
           A Case-Study from the Hopewell Culture Mounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Matthew Magnani, Whittaker Schroder
      Raised archaeological features form an abundant part of the prehistoric record, and come in many forms, from earthen mounds to shell mounds. To calculate the volume of these features, archaeologists have relied on multiple strategies from simple geometric formulae to the use of aerial photogrammetry, typically to create energetic estimates of construction. No matter the technique, an undeveloped application of such volume estimates has the potential to inform our understanding of erosional processes and feature degradation. The largest of these earthen structures are typically best mapped and studied, leaving a paucity of data on the smaller, ubiquitous and often peripheral earthworks presently understudied at major archaeological sites. These smaller mounds are significantly threatened to disappear completely from the record simply because of their lesser volume. Using case studies from the Hopewell and Newark mounds of the United States, we compare traditional methods of calculating mound volume for the purposes of ascertaining erosional processes with new photogrammetric protocols. Prior to this, the methodology is checked using artificially constructed earthworks of known volume, which are modified in controlled ways. The results presented here have implications not only for understanding prehistoric energetics more accurately in commonly overlooked portions of archaeological sites, but can also be used in the protection and potential reconstruction of archaeological mound features. While these sites are often afforded better protection than they have been in the past, they are still exposed to natural and man-made erosional processes which warrants their detailed recording.


      PubDate: 2015-09-12T07:18:20Z
       
  • Diet and herding strategies in a changing environment: Stable isotope
           analysis of Bronze Age and Late Antique skeletal remains from
           Ya'amūn, Jordan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Michela Sandias, Gundula Müldner
      Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of 45 human and 23 faunal bone collagen samples were measured to study human diet and the management of domestic herbivores in past Jordan, contrasting skeletal remains from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and the Late Roman and Byzantine periods from the site of Ya'amūn near Irbid. The isotope data demonstrate that the management of the sheep and goats changed over time, with the earlier animals consuming more plants from semi-arid habitats, possibly because of transhumant herding strategies. The isotope data for fish presented here are the first from archaeological contexts from the Southern Levant. Although fish of diverse provenance was available at the site, human diet was predominately based on terrestrial resources and there was little dietary variability within each time-period. Isotopic variation between humans from different time-periods can mostly be explained by ‘baseline shifts’ in the available food sources; however, it is suggested that legumes may have played a more significant role in Middle and Late Bronze Age diet than later on.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
       
  • Communities of identity, communities of practice: Understanding Santa Fe
           black-on-white pottery in the Española Basin of new Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Suzanne L. Eckert, Kari L. Schleher, William D. James
      The research presented here focuses on Santa Fe Black-on-white pottery produced during the Late Coalition/Early Classic Transition (AD 1250–1350) in the northern Rio Grande region, New Mexico. We combine design data with compositional analyses to gain a greater understanding of ceramic production and circulation in this region and to evaluate the communities of practice and communities of identity reflected in pottery. We combine mineralogical and INAA chemical compositional datasets to argue for at least three production provenances; we further argue that nine potential petrofacies represent different resource procurement zones within the production provenances. We argue that these data, combined, represent a minimum of three different communities of practice. Despite multiple communities of practice, similar designs were being used as decoration that reflects a single community of identity. We argue that during this transitional time period examined here, producers of Santa Fe Black-on-white were intentionally practicing a form of identity maintenance across all of the villages in which it was produced.


      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
       
  • Backed point experiments for identifying mechanically-delivered armatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Katsuhiro Sano, Masayoshi Oba
      The emergence of mechanically-delivered armatures was a crucial event in human evolution, indicating technological and cognitive advances. Morphometric analysis has been the most commonly employed method to explore this subject. While a morphometric analysis can demonstrate a potential capability as a projectile, it is inevitable that the analyzed sample includes artifacts that were not used as hunting weapons. Furthermore, proxies derived from ethnographic references might be dependent on spatio-temporal contexts. Thus, a reliable identification of spearthrower darts and arrowheads in archaeological assemblages requires new indicators. Here we present results of controlled experiments, using backed point replicas, designed to test a correlation between impact velocities and impact trace patterns. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of experimental replicas indicated that complex fracture formation, including large numbers and dimensions of spin-offs as well as distinctive microscopic linear impact traces (MLITs), provide useful markers for determining mechanically-delivered backed points.


      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
       
  • Cooking fish and drinking milk? Patterns in pottery use in the
           southeastern Baltic, 3300–2400 cal BC
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 63
      Author(s): Carl Heron, Oliver E. Craig, Alexandre Luquin, Valerie J. Steele, Anu Thompson, Gytis Piličiauskas
      A study of pottery vessel contents and use was undertaken in order to obtain information on food processed in Subneolithic and Neolithic vessels from Nida and Šventoji (3300–2400 cal BC). The aim is to assess pottery use during major changes in the coastal environment and in material culture. Bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope, lipid biomarker and compound specific carbon isotope analysis was undertaken on ‘foodcrusts’, charred deposits adhering to vessel surfaces, and absorbed residues from different vessel types. In addition, three archaeological seal bones were analysed for bulk collagen and compound specific carbon isotope analysis to establish collagen-lipid offsets to inform interpretation of the data. The results show that the majority of the vessels were used for processing aquatic products. At Nida the data suggest exploitation of freshwater resources and, in the later stages of occupation, dairying. Analysis of a small number of Subneolithic vessels from Šventoji produced results that are also consistent with processing of aquatic products. Other substances identified include Pinaceae sp. resin or tar and beeswax. These data demonstrate that identifying patterns in pottery use contributes to understanding Neolithisation processes.


      PubDate: 2015-08-25T01:56:13Z
       
 
 
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