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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 230 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 41)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription  
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 108)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Historica Cracoviensia     Open Access  
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription  
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Kadmos     Hybrid Journal  
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access  
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal  
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [48 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Assessing 3D metric data of digital surface models for extracting
           archaeological data from archive stereo-aerial photographs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Heather Papworth, Andrew Ford, Kate Welham, David Thackray
      Archaeological remains are under increasing threat of attrition from natural processes and the continued mechanisation of anthropogenic activities. This research analyses the ability of digital photogrammetry software to reconstruct extant, damaged, and destroyed archaeological earthworks from archive stereo-aerial photographs. Case studies of Flower’s Barrow and Eggardon hillforts, both situated in Dorset, UK, are examined using a range of imagery dating from the 1940s to 2010. Specialist photogrammetric software SocetGXP® is used to extract digital surface models, and the results compared with airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data to assess their accuracy. Global summary statistics and spatial autocorrelation techniques are used to examine error scales and distributions. Extracted earthwork profiles are compared to both current and historical surveys of each study site. The results demonstrate that metric information relating to earthwork form can be successfully obtained from archival photography. In some instances, these data out-perform airborne laser scanning in the provision of digital surface models with minimal error. The role of archival photography in regaining metric data from upstanding archaeology and the consequent place for this approach to impact heritage management strategies is demonstrated.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Geoarchaeology of urban space in tropical island environments: Songo
           Mnara, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Federica Sulas, Jeffrey Fleisher, Stephanie Wynne-Jones
      Past urban settlements in tropical island environments offer particularly challenging sites for mainstream archaeology. Often associated with shallow stratigraphic sequences, archaeological sediments and soils in these sites are strongly influenced by local geology and seawater. This study discusses the advantages and challenges of developing an integrated geoarchaeological programme to examine the use of space at the Swahili stonetown of Songo Mnara Island, Tanzania. This exceptionally well preserved site, occupied for less than two centuries (C14th–16th AD), comprises a complex urban layout with stone-built houses, wattle-and-daub structures, funerary complexes, activity areas such as wells, and open areas. The programme has combined geoarchaeological (soil macro- and micromorphology, ICP-AES, pH, EC), geophysical (magnetic susceptibility) and archaeological (large excavations, test trenches, artefact distribution mapping) techniques to investigate the use of space across different contexts. Initial geoarchaeological prospection and opportunistic soil sampling have allowed framing of the island’s environmental settings and archaeological deposits as well as outlining open spaces in between buildings. Subsequent research applied a systematic sampling strategy to map geochemical and artefact distributions in conjunction with context-specific soil micromorphology. The results provide a means to map out the impact of occupation across the site as well as to differentiate between open, roofed and unroofed spaces. ICP-AES results, for example, demonstrate that measurements of Ca, Mg, P, S and Sr levels can help discriminate occupation/activity areas in tropical island environments. They also indicate that the depletion of certain elements (e.g. Na, K, and Ni) should be considered as a means of differentiating between roofed and unroofed spaces. The combination of different methodologies demonstrates the importance of addressing discrepancies as well as correlations between multiple datasets for deciphering features within urban spaces in tropical environments and interpreting ancient activities that occurred within them.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Marco Gonzalez, Ambergris Caye, Belize: A geoarchaeological record of
           ground raising associated with surface soil formation and the presence of
           a Dark Earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Richard I. Macphail, Elizabeth Graham, John Crowther, Simon Turner
      Marco Gonzalez, on the south-west end of the island of Ambergris Caye, Belize, has well-preserved Maya archaeological stratigraphy dating from Preclassic times (ca. 300 B.C.) to the Late Classic period (ca. A.D. 550/600 to 700/760). Although later occupations are recorded by house platforms and inhumations (Terminal Classic to Early Postclassic), and use of the site continued until the 16th century A.D., intact stratigraphy is rare in these cases owing to a greater degree of disturbance. Nonetheless, understanding site formation entails accounting for all processes, including disturbance. The site’s depositional sequence—as revealed through soil micromorphology and chemistry and detailed here—has yielded critical information in two spheres of research. As regards archaeology and the elucidation of Maya activities on the caye over time, soil micromorphology has contributed beyond measure to what we have been able to distinguish as material remains of cultural activity. Detailed descriptions of the nature of the material remains has in turn helped us to clarify or alter interpretations based on artefacts that have been identified or sediments characterised according to traditional recovery techniques. The other major sphere in which soil micromorphology and chemistry play a critical role is in assessment of the environmental impact of human activity, which enables us to construct and test hypotheses concerning how the site formed over time; what materials and elements contributed to the character of the sediments, especially in the formation of a specific Maya Dark Earth type that is developed from carbonate rich deposits; and how the modern surface soils acquired the appearance of a Dark Earth, but essentially differ from them. In terms of agricultural soil sustainability, the Marco Gonzalez surface soil is neo-formed by a woodland vegetation drawing upon the nutrients and constituents present in both the Dark Earth and underlying better preserved stratified deposits.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T17:03:55Z
       
  • Statistically robust representation and comparison of mortality profiles
           in archaeozoology
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Pascale Gerbault, Rosalind Gillis, Jean-Denis Vigne, Anne Tresset, Stéphanie Bréhard, Mark G. Thomas
      Archaeozoological mortality profiles have been used to infer site-specific subsistence strategies. There is however no common agreement on the best way to present these profiles and confidence intervals around age class proportions. In order to deal with these issues, we propose the use of the Dirichlet distribution and present a new approach to perform age-at-death multivariate graphical comparisons. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach using domestic sheep/goat dental remains from 10 Cardial sites (Early Neolithic) located in South France and the Iberian Peninsula. We show that the Dirichlet distribution in age-at-death analysis can be used: (i) to generate Bayesian credible intervals around each age class of a mortality profile, even when not all age classes are observed; and (ii) to create 95% kernel density contours around each age-at-death frequency distribution when multiple sites are compared using correspondence analysis. The statistical procedure we present is applicable to the analysis of any categorical count data and particularly well-suited to archaeological data (e.g. potsherds, arrow heads) where sample sizes are typically small.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • The limits and potential of paleogenomic techniques for reconstructing
           grapevine domestication
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Nathan Wales, Jazmín Ramos Madrigal, Enrico Cappellini, Aldo Carmona Baez, José Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, J. Alberto Romero-Navarro, Christian Carøe, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Fernando Peñaloza, J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Boris Gasparyan, Diana Zardaryan, Tamara Bagoyan, Alexia Smith, Ron Pinhasi, Giovanna Bosi, Girolamo Fiorentino, Anna Maria Grasso, Alessandra Celant, Guy Bar-Oz, Yotam Tepper, Allan Hall, Simone Scalabrin, Mara Miculan, Michele Morgante, Gabriele Di Gaspero, M. Thomas P. Gilbert
      In ancient DNA (aDNA) research, evolutionary and archaeological questions are often investigated using the genomic sequences of organelles: mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. Organellar genomes are found in multiple copies per living cell, increasing their chance of recovery from archaeological samples, and are inherited from one parent without genetic recombination, simplifying analyses. While mitochondrial genomes have played a key role in many mammalian aDNA projects, including research focused on prehistoric humans and extinct hominins, it is unclear how useful plant chloroplast genomes (plastomes) may be at elucidating questions related to plant evolution, crop domestication, and the prehistoric movement of botanical products through trade and migration. Such analyses are particularly challenging for plant species whose genomes have highly repetitive sequences and that undergo frequent genomic reorganization, notably species with high retrotransposon activity. To address this question, we explored the research potential of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plastome using targeted-enrichment methods and high-throughput DNA sequencing on a collection of archaeological grape pip and vine specimens from sites across Eurasia dating ca. 4000 BCE–1500 CE. We demonstrate that due to unprecedented numbers of sequence insertions into the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the grape plastome provides limited intraspecific phylogenetic resolution. Nonetheless, we were able to assign archaeological specimens in the Italian peninsula, Sardinia, UK, and Armenia from pre-Roman to medieval times as belonging to all three major chlorotypes A, C, and D found in modern varieties of Western Europe. Analysis of nuclear genomic DNA from these samples reveals a much greater potential for understanding ancient viticulture, including domestication events, genetic introgression from local wild populations, and the origins and histories of varietal lineages.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Procurement strategies of Neolithic colouring materials: Territoriality
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jean-Victor Pradeau, Didier Binder, Chrystèle Vérati, Jean-Marc Lardeaux, Stéphan Dubernet, Yannick Lefrais, Martine Regert
      In the N.-W. Mediterranean area, the development of the Neolithic way of life during the 6th millennium cal. BCE is related to the spread of sailing pioneer groups. In the course of the 5th millennium cal. BCE, more stable agro-pastoral settlements expand their hold on the hinterland and exchange networks increase in complexity (obsidian, flints, clastic rocks). Although previous research showed high variability in the N.W. Mediterranean Neolithic diffusion modalities, the place of colouring materials, naturally abundant in this area, has received scant attention despite their technical and symbolic value. With the aim of assessing the place of these materials in the initial Neolithic package and within the development of the neolithisation process, we investigated series of more than 2000 blocks of colouring materials from two key-sites (Pendimoun and Giribaldi) recently excavated by one of us (DB), with dates ranging from 5750 to 3650 cal. BCE. This study was implemented by geological surveys that allowed the establishment of cartography of putative sources of raw colouring materials and the determination of their nature and composition. Combining petrographic examination and physico-chemical-characterisation (SEM-EDS, XRD), we determined a wide range of raw materials: psammitic sandstone, allochthonous and parallochthonous bauxite, oolithic ironstone, oxidised marcasite and ferruginous rocks derived from weathered glauconitic limestones. Comparing archaeological series to this frame of reference highlights two contrasting economic systems: one based on exploitation of local sources from the Early to the Middle Neolithic, the other one founded on a dual use of both close geomaterials and exogenous rocks during Middle Neolithic.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Long-term rhythms in the development of Hawaiian social stratification
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Thomas S. Dye
      The tempo plot, a statistical graphic designed for the archaeological study of rhythms of the long term that embodies a theory of archaeological evidence for the occurrence of events, is introduced. The graphic summarizes the tempo of change in the occurrence of archaeological events using the model states generated by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine at the heart of Bayesian calibration software. Tempo plots are applied to the archaeological record of Hawai‘i to expose rhythms of i) tradition in taro pond-field construction, ii) innovation in temple construction, and iii) fashion in the harvest of branch coral for use as a religious offering. Rhythms of the long term identify a hitherto unrecognized transformation of religious practice in Hawai‘i, establish temporal coincidence in temple construction in leeward sections of Maui and Hawai‘i Islands previously described as regionally idiosyncratic, suggest shallow temporal limits to the use of the direct historical approach in Hawai‘i, and disclose processes at work in the political economy recorded at the time of western Contact.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Secrets of the Anglo-Saxon goldsmiths: Analysis of gold objects from the
           Staffordshire Hoard
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Eleanor Blakelock, Susan La Niece, Chris Fern
      The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest ever find of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork. The collection comprises many hundreds of objects, in approximately 3900 fragments. Most objects are fittings from swords, but there are also fragments from at least one helmet, and a small but significant collection of Christian objects. An initial study of 16 gold objects from the collection suggested that some form of deliberately induced depletion gilding had taken place to remove both silver and copper from the surface of the metal (Blakelock, In press). Subsequently, both surface and quantitative core alloy SEM-EDX analysis was undertaken on a further 114 Hoard objects. Over 222 individual components (i.e. different parts of objects) were analysed during this study. This is the largest quantitative survey of Anglo-Saxon gold and, contrary to expectations, no reliable relationship was found between the fineness of alloy used and object date, although the low copper content is consistent with the use of recycled coinage as a source of gold. However, over 100 components were judged to be deliberately depleted in silver at their surface which, it is argued, was the result of a deliberate and probably widespread Anglo-Saxon workshop practice. Previously unrecognised, this involved the depletion gilding of sheet gold to create contrast between decorative components, as well as to enhance colour. Furthermore, in the light of the identification of this systematic surface enrichment, similar approaches should be considered to investigate goldsmithing practices in other cultures and time frames.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Early Bronze Age copper production systems in the northern Arabah Valley:
           New insights from archaeomagnetic study of slag deposits in Jordan and
           Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): E. Ben-Yosef, A. Gidding, L. Tauxe, U. Davidovich, M. Najjar, T.E. Levy
      This paper presents results of an archaeomagnetic study of slag from four Early Bronze (EB) Age copper production sites in the Faynan Copper Ore District and the northern Arabah Valley (modern Israel and Jordan). The results provide age constraints for metallurgical activities at these sites. Together with previously published data, they indicate copper production around ca. 2900 cal. BCE (EB II-III transition) and between ca. 2600-1950 cal. BCE, spanning the later part of the EB III and the entire EB IV period. These data strongly suggest a direct link between Faynan and the Old Kingdom of Egypt, which is reflected in the most significant phase of copper production and trade in the northern Arabah prior to the Iron Age, and in a settlement wave in the Negev Highlands. In addition, the results indicate that during the late EB II copper was smelted up to 40 km away from the mines. This is evident at the unique cultic site of Ashalim, located on the main road between Faynan, southeast of the Dead Sea, and the settled areas in the core of Canaan.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • The Sima de los Huesos Crania: Analysis of the cranial breakage patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Nohemi Sala, Ana Pantoja-Pérez, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Adrián Pablos, Ignacio Martínez
      The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site has provided the largest collection of hominin crania in the fossil record, offering an unprecedented opportunity to perform a complete Forensic-Taphonomic study on a population from the Middle Pleistocene. The fractures found in seventeen crania from SH display a postmortem fracturation pattern, which occurred in the dry bone stage and is compatible with collective burial assemblages. Nevertheless, in addition to the postmortem fractures, eight crania also display some typical perimortem traumas. By using CT images we analyzed these fractures in detail. Interpersonal violence as a cause for the perimortem fractures can be confirmed for one of the skulls, Cranium 17 and also probable for Cranium 5 and Cranium 11. For the rest of the crania, although other causes cannot be absolutely ruled out, the violence-related traumas are the most plausible scenario for the perimortem fractures. If this hypothesis is confirmed, we could interpret that interpersonal violence was a recurrent behavior in this population from the Middle Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Documenting the initial appearance of domestic cattle in the Eastern
           Fertile Crescent (northern Iraq and western Iran)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Max D. Price, Hitomi Hongo, Banu Öksüz
      In this paper we address the timing of and mechanisms for the appearance of domestic cattle in the Eastern Fertile Crescent (EFC) region of SW Asia through the analysis of new and previously published species abundance and biometric data from 86 archaeofaunal assemblages. We find that Bos exploitation was a minor component of animal economies in the EFC in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene but increased dramatically in the sixth millennium BC. Moreover, biometric data indicate that small-sized Bos, likely representing domesticates, appear suddenly in the region without any transitional forms in the early to mid sixth millennium BC. This suggests that domestic cattle were imported into the EFC, possibly associated with the spread of the Halaf archaeological culture, several millennia after they first appear in the neighboring northern Levant.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Bell Beaker and the evolution of resource management strategies in the
           southwest of the Iberian Peninsula
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 72
      Author(s): Daniel García Rivero, Jesús María Jurado Núñez, Ruth Taylor
      This paper addresses the plain common pottery associated with Beaker contexts in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The detailed systematic study focuses on the pottery assemblage provided by one of the region’s most important settlements, San Blas (Badajoz, Spain), while comparisons are made with other important sites in the study area. By means of the stratigraphic, typological and statistical analysis of the data, the main patterns of change in this material culture throughout the temporal sequence are identified and the historical explanatory factors are inferred. Specifically, during the second half of the 3rd millennium cal BC, an important change took place in the management of economic risk, which is materialised by a significant reduction in food storage and by the more immediate direct or indirect consumption of resources. We suggest that these patterns reflect a shift towards a short-term projection of the future, in a context with strong evidence of instability.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Cave stratigraphies and cave breccias: Implications for sediment
           accumulation and removal models and interpreting the record of human
           occupation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Sue O’Connor, Anthony Barham, Ken Aplin, Tim Maloney
      Many of the key debates in archaeology hinge on the chronology and interpretation of data gathered from cave and rockshelter stratigraphies, especially those in karstic limestone environments which are selectively targeted by archaeologists because of their superior preservation characteristics. It has long been recognized that such sites often contain a variety of cemented deposits including cave breccias and that some breccias contain anthropogenic inclusions such as stone artefacts, shell and burnt animal bones. Cementation enhances the survival through time of such brecciated deposits. This can result in chrono-stratigraphic intervals surviving on cave walls and speleothems that are no longer represented in the stratigraphy of cave floors. This has important implications for understanding apparent presence/absence of human occupation and cultural continuity as seen in archaeo-stratigraphy in caves and rockshelters, especially in relation to human migration in the humid tropics in SE Asia and the Pacific, and over Pleistocene to Holocene timescales. Here we discuss localized breccia formation, the erosional processes that leave remnant deposits adhering to walls and speleothems at heights well above current cave floors, and the possible significance of local and regional processes, especially changing base levels, in triggering gutting out phases impacting cave floor sediment architectures. Equally significant in terms of chronological completeness, representativeness and bias is the contribution made by cultural materials encased in older breccias as they erode and are (re-)incorporated into younger accumulating cultural deposits. Case studies from cave sites in Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste are used to illustrate these issues.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Toward disentangling stages in mixed assemblages of flake debris from
           biface reduction: An experimental approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Michael J. Shott, Desale Habtzghi
      Their abundance in the archaeological record makes assemblages of lithic debris popular subjects of analysis. Archaeologists study them to identify both kinds and stages of reduction, using approaches that range in scale from attribute analysis to typology and size distributions. Experiments demonstrate meaningful pattern in flake assemblages by both kind and stage. Yet empirical assemblages often are mixtures of flake debris from various reduction kinds and stages. Mixing confounds the patterns often found in controlled experimental data. To address this problem, we use Stahle and Dunn's (1982) data and a similar constrained-regression method, QUADPROG in R, to allocate hypothetical mixed assemblages of biface-reduction stages to their constituent stages. In combining their Stages 2 and 3, a measure that Stahle and Dunn themselves advocated, QUADPROG improves their allocation results. Methods like these deserve further testing on a wider range of flake assemblages to address the challenge that mixing poses.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Mesopotamian glass from Late Bronze Age Egypt, Romania, Germany, and
           Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jeanette Varberg, Bernard Gratuze, Flemming Kaul, Anne Haslund Hansen, Mihai Rotea, Mihai Wittenberger
      This article presents new evidence of the wide dispersion of Mesopotamian glass, 1400–1100 BCE. The chemical analyses of glass material from Amarna, Egypt, demonstrate that glass of Mesopotamian origin reached Egypt. The recently obtained physical evidence substantiates the words of the Amarna letters, referring to glass trade between Syria and Egypt. Furthermore, the chemical analyses of glass beads from Romania, Northern Germany and Denmark demonstrate that they were made of Mesopotamian glass. The current results presented here contribute to our understanding of the long distance exchange networks between the Mediterranean and the Nordic Bronze Age cultures. Finally, on the background of the analysis results it is proposed that the chemical composition of some of the beads in question indicates a mixture of glass of Mesopotamian and Egyptian origin. Probably, the mixture of the glass material took place at secondary workshops in the Mycenaean world.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Prehistoric wine-making at Dikili Tash (Northern Greece): Integrating
           residue analysis and archaeobotany
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Nicolas Garnier, Soultana Maria Valamoti
      A new two-step analytical protocol has permitted the reliable structural identification of red wine thanks to the presence of dark grape (tartaric, malic, syringic acids) and fermentation markers (succinic and pyruvic acids) in a smashed, large, coarse jar and a jug excavated inside a Neolithic house destroyed by fire around 4300 BCE at the site of Dikili Tash in northern Greece. This new method, which has also been tested successfully on other vessels, exploits the chemical break-down of the clay and the simultaneous liberation and derivatization of biomarkers. Since aldaric acids are not extracted by a simple solvent extraction, but only when submitted to the second acido-catalyzed extraction, their detection in the second extract indicates organic residues are more deeply impregnated and bound to the clay structure than previously thought. Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry leads to the very sensitive detection (<10 ng/g sherd for tartaric acid, i.e. < 10−6 mL of wine/g sherd) and reliable identification of fermented grape biomarkers. Their identification in a Neolithic jar from Dikili Tash corroborates the finding of pressed grapes consisting of loose pips, skins, and pips still enclosed by skin in association with this jar. Our results demonstrate Neolithic wine-making in the northern Aegean, and provide the earliest solid evidence for the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe. This new method could be more widely used for detecting wine traces in all sorts of archaeological artefacts or structures. It constitutes an essential tool for a better understanding of wine-making and of contexts of consumption in ancient civilizations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Glass and gold: Analyses of 4th–12th centuries Levantine mosaic
           tesserae. A contribution to technological and chronological knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Elisabetta Neri, Marco Verità, Isabelle Biron, Maria Filomena Guerra
      Fifty-eight gold leaf tesserae from eight archaeological sites situated in the Byzantine Empire and two Early Islamic (one in medieval Palestine), covering the period that goes from the 4th c. to the 12th c., were analysed by EPMA, SEM-EDS and PIXE-PIGE to determine the composition of both the glass and the gold leaves. The good match until the 6th c. between circulating monetary alloys and the gold leaf compositions together with the type of glass used, provided criteria that can be used to date the tesserae fabrication. The data obtained allow newly produced tesserae to be distinguished from re-used ones. Because after the 7th c. the circulation of gold in the Byzantine Empire was less controlled, the same relationship is harder to establish. The results suggest the existence of workshops in the Eastern and Western part of the Mediterranean and a more advanced technology to manufacture a palette of glass colours for gold leaf tesserae in the Eastern region.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Geo-ethnoarchaeology in action
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): David E. Friesem
      For over half of a century, ethnoarchaeology has served as an important analytical tool in the development of archaeological theory and the interpretation of human culture. In recent years, with the growth of geoarchaeology as a subdiscipline of archaeological research, scholars have begun to examine contemporary and recent contexts by applying analytical methods from the field of geosciences (e.g., soil micromorphology, mineralogical, elemental, phytolith and isotope analysis) in order to better understand site formation processes and depositional and post-depositional processes. First, this paper explores, as contributions to archaeological sciences, the concept of ethnoarchaeology in general and the emergence of geo-ethnoarchaeology in particular. Second, through examination and synthesis of several key case studies, this paper emphasizes the usefulness of a broad range of laboratory-based analytical methods in linking the archaeological record and human activity. Third, this paper brings together data from recent geo-ethnoarchaeological studies conducted in Africa, South and Central America, Europe and South and West Asia that analyze floor deposits, hearths, degradation of mud houses, use of space, use of plants, animal husbandry and cooking installations. A wealth of information is assembled here to form a reference framework crucial to any study of archaeological materials and sites and for the interpretation of archaeological site formation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Evidence of Eurasian metal alloys on the Alaskan coast in prehistory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): H. Kory Cooper, Owen K. Mason, Victor Mair, John F. Hoffecker, Robert J. Speakman
      Six metal and composite metal artifacts were excavated from a late prehistoric archaeological context at Cape Espenberg on the northern coast of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. X-ray fluorescence identified two of these artifacts as smelted industrial alloys with large proportions of tin and lead. The presence of smelted alloys in a prehistoric Inuit context in northwest Alaska is demonstrated here for the first time and indicates the movement of Eurasian metal across the Bering Strait into North America before sustained contact with Europeans.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Airborne laser scanning as a method for exploring long-term
           socio-ecological dynamics in Cambodia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Damian Evans
      Early Khmer societies developed extensive settlement complexes that were largely made of non-durable materials. These fragile urban areas perished many centuries ago, and thus a century and a half of scholarly research has focussed on the more durable components of Khmer culture, in particular the famous temples and the texts and works of art that are normally found within them. In recent years however there has been a considerable effort to broaden the perspective beyond conventional approaches to Khmer history and archaeology. Remarkable advances have been made in the domain of remote sensing and archaeological mapping, including the application of advanced geospatial techniques such as airborne laser scanning within studies of heritage landscapes at Angkor and beyond. This article describes the most recent applications of the technology in Cambodia, including the results of a newly-completed campaign of airborne laser scanning in 2015—the most extensive acquisition ever undertaken by an archaeological project—and underscores the importance of using these methods as part of a problem-oriented research program that speaks to broader issues within history and archaeology.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • Ferrous metallurgy from the Bir Massouda metallurgical precinct at
           Phoenician and Punic Carthage and the beginning of the North African Iron
           Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 71
      Author(s): Brett Kaufman, Roald Docter, Christian Fischer, Fethi Chelbi, Boutheina Maraoui Telmini
      Excavations of the Phoenician and Punic layers at the site of Bir Massouda in Carthage have provided evidence for ferrous metallurgical activity spanning several centuries. Archaeometallurgical analyses of slagged tuyères, slag, and alloys using optical microscopy, portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (VPSEM-EDS) show that Carthaginian smiths were conducting primary smithing and forging of wrought iron and steel. Although the majority of slag specimens are remnant from ferrous production, a few select finds are from bronze recycling. The corpus represents the earliest known ferrous metallurgy in North Africa. As a Phoenician colony then later as an independent imperial metropolis, Carthage specialized in centrally organized ferrous technology at the fringes of the settlement in areas such as Bir Massouda and the Byrsa Hill from before 700 to 146 BC.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T17:59:59Z
       
  • New methods for investigating slag heaps: Integrating geoprospection,
           excavation and quantitative methods at Meroe, Sudan
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Jane Humphris, Chris Carey
      This paper describes a multifaceted approach to the investigation of iron slag heaps, focusing on one of the slag heaps at the Royal City of Meroe in Sudan. This study marries together geoprospection data (gradiometry and electrical resistivity transects), topographic data and quantitative excavation data, to provide an analysis and comparison of the total volume, slag component and slag composition of a slag-heap. Significantly, the results demonstrate the limitations of using a topographic only model, but also demonstrate how volumetric modelling must be integrated within quantitative characterisation of slag-heap composition. In this case, quantitative sampling of the slag deposits revealed the composition of the slag assemblage was dominated by a newly defined category of slag which has major implications for reconstructing iron technologies in the Meroitic civilisation. This research highlights the dangers of applying simplistic models and basic investigative strategies to iron slag heaps and furthers the debate on applying volumetric modelling and excavation sampling to unexcavated areas of the finite and important resource of archaeometallurgical deposit sequences.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • From radiocarbon analysis to interpretation: A comment on “Phytolith
           Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case
           Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the
           Previous Dating Evidence”, Journal of Archaeological Science (2015),
           doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2015.06.002.” by Dolores R. Piperno
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Guaciara M. Santos, Anne Alexandre, Christine A. Prior
      The paper “Phytolith Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the Previous Dating Evidence” by Dolores R. Piperno presents radiocarbon analysis of phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants collected between 1964 and 2013. The analyses presented were intended to rebut the emerging hypothesis that invokes root-plant uptake, transport and reallocation of soil organic carbon into phytoliths that has been recently put forward as an explanation for the anomalous radiocarbon (14C) ages (of hundreds to thousands of years old) reported for modern grass phytoliths in Santos et al., 2010a,b, 2012a. We believe that the results presented in Piperno (2006) lack methodological rigor, mostly due to the absence of any procedural blank assessment, and that the attempts to disprove the hypothesis of uptake of soil organic matter (SOM) by phytoliths in Santos et al. (2012a) are not supported by a careful analysis. Rather than supporting the position that 100% of the carbon in phytoliths is of photosynthetic origin, which allows the use of phytolith carbon (or phytC) as a dating tool, the analysis of 14C in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in the study shows that the 14C ages are strongly affected by other sources of carbon. In this comment, we carefully reassess the 14C results in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in Piperno (2006) in the context of the 14C bomb-pulse methodology, SOM ages and turnover rates, and offer an alternative interpretation of the experimental results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • Carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in bone collagen during the
           Neolithic period: Influence of environmental factorsand diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Gwenaëlle Goude, Michel Fontugne
      Studies on Holocene periods in France and Liguria over the past 15 years provide an important isotopic database (δ13C and δ15N) on human and animal bone collagen during the Neolithic period (ca. 5500–3100 BC cal.; n = 573). The distribution of archaeological sites (n = 30) along a latitudinal transect from the Mediterranean to the Channel offers a broad data base reflecting a variety of environments and potential cultural practices. We propose a new insight into δ13C and δ15N data to understand the variability in both environment and human diet at the onset of farming. Statistical comparisons highlight significant geographical variation in both δ13C and δ15N ratios in most of the examined species and particularly in wild herbivores (Δ13C = 3.8‰; Δ15N = 8.5‰). Higher δ15N and lower δ13C ratios are found in samples from northern France. Conversely, lower nitrogen and higher carbon isotopic ratios are present in samples from the Mediterranean area. Results indicate the probable strong influence of natural factors impacting soil and plant isotopic ratios and passing this variation further on into the whole food chain. Our data indicate that the isotopic baseline depends on the local environmental particularities which must be taken into account in reconstructing human palaeodiets.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • Isotopic study of geographic origins and diet of enslaved Africans buried
           in two Brazilian cemeteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Murilo Q.R. Bastos, Ricardo V. Santos, Sheila M.F. M. de Souza, Claudia Rodrigues-Carvalho, Robert H. Tykot, Della C. Cook, Roberto V. Santos
      Brazil was the main destination of enslaved Africans during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the New World. We have analyzed isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and strontium in the enamel and dentin of teeth derived from remains of 41 enslaved Africans excavated in Pretos Novos cemetery (Rio de Janeiro) and Sé de Salvador cathedral (Salvador) in order to investigate aspects related to the geographical origins and dietary habits in Africa in these two groups with differing histories. Strontium isotope results indicate a wide range of geographical origin for the analyzed individuals of both cemeteries, being significantly wider in Pretos Novos. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes results suggest that the diet of most individuals was based on plants. Only 26% probably had access to a significant amount of animal protein. The results also show that while some individuals were consuming C3 plants such as yams and manioc, others had a diet based more on C4 plants such as sorghum, millet and maize. Interpreted in conjunction with archaeological and historical evidence, the findings of this study, including the high variability of 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ15N values, contribute to the process of reconstructing the dramatic history of slavery in Brazil and in the Americas.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • The technology of the earliest European cave paintings: El Castillo Cave,
           Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Francesco d'Errico, Laure Dayet Bouillot, Marcos García-Diez, Africa Pitarch Martí, Daniel Garrido Pimentel, João Zilhão
      The red disks from El Castillo Cave are among the earliest known cave paintings. Here, we combine the morphometric and technological study of red disks from two areas located at the end of the cave with the microscopic, elemental, and mineralogical analysis of the pigment and compare the results obtained with observations derived from experimental replication. Ergonomic constraints imply that a number of disks were made by adults, and the differences in pigment texture and composition suggest that they correspond to an accumulation through time of panels made by different persons who shared neither the same technical know-how nor, very possibly, the same symbolic system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Testing the endurance of prehistoric adornments: Raw materials from the
           aquatic environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Monica Mărgărit
      Raw materials deriving from the aquatic environment were systematically used for personal ornamentation by modern humans throughout their entire history. In this study we analyse three types of raw materials: Lithoglyphus sp. shells, Unio sp. valves and Cyprinus carpio opercular bones. The central purpose of this paper is to initiate a database of the way in which wear develops according to the system of attachment and the longevity of use. In order to identify the costs invested in the manufacturing of these types of items, both from the point of view of time and effort, an experimental programme has been developed, which permits the recording of all the variables (means of gathering the raw material, technological stages, time recorded for each operation, and tools used). Furthermore, it was set the task of wearing the beads experimentally processed, as adornments, for two years, and of periodically evaluating the perforation and the surface of the pieces under a microscope. Moreover, observations made on archaeological specimens were compared to experimental replicas. The archaeological assemblages from the Romanian Neolithic were used as a case study to illustrate the relevance of the results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Copying error, evolution, and phylogenetic signal in artifactual
           traditions: An experimental approach using “model artifacts”
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kerstin Schillinger, Alex Mesoudi, Stephen J. Lycett
      Spatio-temporal patterns of artifactual variation are increasingly being studied via the explicit application of cultural evolutionary theory and methods. Such broad-scale (macroevolutionary) patterns are mediated, however, by a series of small-scale (microevolutionary) processes that occur at the level of individual artifacts, and individual artifact users and producers. Within experimental biology, “model organisms” have played a crucial role in understanding the role of fundamental microevolutionary processes, such as mutation and the inheritance of variation, in respect to macroevolutionary patterns. There has, however, been little equivalent laboratory work to better understand how microevolutionary processes influence macroevolutionary patterns in artifacts and their analysis. Here, we adopt a “model artifact” approach to experimentally study the issues of copy error (mutation) and resultant phylogenetic signal in artifact traditions. We used morphometric procedures to examine shape copying error rates in our “model artifacts.” We first established experimentally that statistically different rates of copying error (mutation) could be induced when participants used two different types of shaping tool to produce copies of foam “artifacts.” Using this as a baseline, we then tested whether these differing mutation rates led to differing phylogenetic signal and accuracy in two separate experimental transmission chains (lineages), involving participants copying the previous participant's artifact. The analysis demonstrated that phylogenetic reconstruction is more accurate in artifactual lineages where copying error is demonstrably lower. Such results demonstrate how fidelity of transmission impacts directly on the evolution of technological traditions and their empirical analysis. In particular, these results highlight that differing contexts of cultural transmission relating to fidelity might lead to differing patterns of resolution within reconstructed evolutionary sequences. Overall, these analyses demonstrate the importance of a “model artifact” approach in discussions of cultural evolution, equivalent in importance to the use of model organisms in evolutionary biology in order to better understand fundamental microevolutionary processes of direct relevance to macroevolutionary archaeological patterns.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Distinguishing offshore bird hunting from beach scavenging in
           archaeological contexts: The value of modern beach surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kristine M. Bovy, Jessica E. Watson, Jane Dolliver, Julia K. Parrish
      Determining whether seabirds recovered from coastal shell middens were obtained via active hunting or scavenging of beached carcasses is a challenge for archaeologists. Traditional methods have included analyzing skeletal part frequencies, abundance, age profiles, and contextual evidence. The assumption has been made, based on limited biological data, that an assemblage of carcasses scavenged from the beach will have more wing elements, and fewer legs and heads. Few studies, however, have embraced modern beaching data to verify this assumption and assess the potential faunal resources available for scavenging. We analyze the skeletal part representation of modern beached birds observed by the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST), comparing the COASST dataset to two idealized hypotheses used by archaeologists: the human scavenging hypothesis (wings only are recovered, while heads and legs are absent) and the human hunting hypothesis (all body parts are found in equal proportions). Finally, we apply these results to analysis of the bird remains from the Minard site (45-GH-15), a late Holocene coastal site in Grays Harbor, Washington. We find that contemporary beached bird data are closer to replicating the human hunting hypothesis as compared to the human scavenging hypothesis, as >75% of the 19,599 carcasses in the COASST dataset had a combination of head, wings and legs. This result, and the similarity in taxonomic distribution between our contemporary beached bird data and Minard assemblage, suggests that indigenous peoples may have used scavenging as a viable means of resource acquisition in the past. Use of contemporaneous beached bird data may provide zooarchaeology with a statistically defensible baseline of information on the phenology, abundance and condition of bird carcasses.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Standard evaluations of bomb curves and age calibrations along with
           consideration of environmental and biological variability show the rigor
           of phytolith dates on modern neotropical plants: Review of comment by
           Santos, Alexandre, and Prior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno
      Santos et al. claim that a recent phytolith 14C study by Piperno of Neotropical plants that grew during the post-bomb era provided anomalously old ages due to 14C depletion. They argue the depletion source is likely old carbon in soils transported into plants via root uptake. Here I show: 1) their claims for anomalous 14C depletions in phytoliths are unfounded because they fail to consider uncertainties created in the bomb curve from local and regional environmental variability and other factors shown to lead to bomb curve offsets in post-bomb 14C study, 2) they error by not calibrating the phytolith dates, a standard procedure with post-bomb 14C determinations, 3) they inexplicably consider an ancient (1640 14Cyr B.P) age for one of the dated samples to be accurate when (a) it is known the sample was treated with substances made from fossil fuels that were not removed with the extraction process, and (b) the amount of radiocarbon dead carbon required to generate the ancient age from SOM is unreasonable, and 4) their theory that old soil carbon from root uptake is sequestered in phytoliths causing significant skews to phytolith ages is not supported by accumulated evidence from ancient, and now modern Neotropical contexts.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Improvement of laser ablation in situ micro-analysis to identify
           diagenetic alteration and measure strontium isotope ratios in fossil human
           teeth
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): M. Willmes, L. Kinsley, M.-H. Moncel, R.A. Armstrong, M. Aubert, S. Eggins, R. Grün
      Strontium isotope ratios measured in fossil human teeth are a powerful tool to investigate past mobility patterns. In order to apply this method, the sample needs to be investigated for possible diagenetic alteration and a least destructive analytical technique needs to be employed for the isotopic analysis. We tested the useability of U, Th, and Zn distribution maps to identify zones of diagenetic overprint in human teeth. Areas with elevated U concentrations in enamel were directly associated with diagenetic alterations in the Sr isotopic composition. Once suitable domains within the tooth are identified, strontium isotope ratios can be determined either with micro-drilling followed by TIMS analysis or in situ LA-MC-ICP-MS. Obtaining accurate 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios from LA-MC-ICP-MS is complicated by the potential occurrence of a significant direct interference on mass 87 from a polyatomic compound. We found that this polyatomic compound is present in our analytical setup but is Ar rather than Ca based, as was previously suggested. The effect of this interference can be significantly reduced by tuning the instrument for reduced oxide levels. We applied this improved analytical protocol to a range of human and animal teeth and compared the results with micro-drilling strontium isotopic analysis using TIMS. Tuning for reduced oxide levels allowed the measurement of accurate strontium isotope ratios from human and animal tooth enamel and dentine, even at low Sr concentrations. The average offset between laser ablation and solution analysis using the improved analytical protocol is 38 ± 394 ppm (n = 21, 2σ). LA-MC-ICP-MS thus provides a powerful alternative to micro-drilling TIMS for the analysis of fossil human teeth. This method can be used to untangle diagenetic overprint from the intra-tooth isotopic variability, which results from genuine changes in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios related to changes in food source, and by extension mobility.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Geostatistical modelling of chemical residues on archaeological floors in
           the presence of barriers
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Joan Negre, Facundo Muñoz, Carla Lancelotti
      Maps representing the distribution of chemical residues over anthropogenic floors are the main diagnostic tools used by archaeologists for addressing the identification of geochemical signatures of past actions. Geostatistics allows producing these maps from a sample of locations by modelling the spatial autocorrelation structure of these kind of phenomena. However, the homogeneity of the prediction regions is a strong assumption in the model. The presence of barriers, such as the inner walls of domestic units, introduces discontinuities in prediction areas. In this paper, we investigate how to incorporate information of a geographical nature into the process of geostatistical prediction. We propose the use of cost-based distances to quantify the correlation between locations, a solution which has proved to be a practical alternative approach for archaeological intrasite analysis. The cost-based approach produces more reliable results avoiding the unrealistic assumption of the homogeneity of the study area. As a working example, a case study of the distribution of two specific chemical signatures in domestic floors is presented within a controlled ethnographical context in Northern Gujarat (India). On a broad disciplinary scale, the benefits of using our approach include improved estimates in regions with complex geometry and lower uncertainty in the kriging predictions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Experimental smelting of iron ores from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy):
           Results and implications for the reconstruction of ancient metallurgical
           processes and iron provenance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): M. Benvenuti, A. Orlando, D. Borrini, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, C. Mazzotta, V. Rimondi
      Iron deposits from Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago) were extensively exploited since the 1st millennium BC: both raw iron ore and smelted blooms were extensively traded through the Mediterranean region. Within the frame of the multidisciplinary research Project “AITHALE” (from the Greek name for Elba Island), we have performed a series of archaeometallurgical experiments primarily to investigate the traceability of Elban iron ores during the various steps of the chaîne opératoire of bloomery iron production. Results of experiments performed both in the field (reconstruction of a bloomery furnace) and in the laboratory (smelting experiments carried out in a gas mixing furnace) are discussed in the text. Slags produced by smelting of W-Sn-rich iron (hematite) ores, like those from Elba island, show the presence of these elements in phases of their own, either relic (scheelite, ferberite, cassiterite) and/or newly formed (iron-tin alloys). Iron bloom obtained from this kind of iron ore could also bear evidence of the peculiar geochemistry of smelted ore, with tungsten preferentially associated with slag inclusions and tin eventually enriched in the metallic phase.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Xiongnu burial complex: A study of ancient textiles from the 22nd Noin-Ula
           barrow (Mongolia, first century AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Elena Karpova, Vladimir Vasiliev, Victor Mamatyuk, Natalia Polosmak, Lyudmila Kundo
      The collection of textiles from Xiongnu burial was obtained in the recent years as a result of research of the Russian-Mongolian expedition led by N. Polosmak. This collection is a unique source of the different types of information. Xiongnu throughout their long history controlled the Central Asia regions of the Silk Road, by which many and varied products, including textiles and wool, were brought to China from the west. The woolen fabrics and textiles of high quality were found in the Xiongnu noble burials located in the mountains of Mongolia. An analysis of their dyes composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the woolen fabrics were dyed with plant and insect dyestuffs. Each sample analyzed was dyed with a set of dyestuffs that indicates that dyers had not only the necessary and various dyes, but possessed highly developed craftsmanship of dyeing. Based on the results of this research it can be proposed that the dyeing of the woolen textiles found in the graves of the Xiongnu nobility was carried out in the manufactories of the Mediterranean, known for their fabrics dyeing culture. Numerous Chinese-made silk fabrics were dyed with traditional Han epoch plant dyes - indigo and Indian madder. Dyes composition of the silk textile fundamentally differs from dyes of the woolen fabrics by the absence of dyestuffs of insect origin.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Reconstructing projectile technology during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in
           the Levant: An integrated approach to large tanged points from Halula
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Ferran Borrell, Denis Štefanisko
      Large tanged points made on bidirectional blades constitute the most characteristic tool type during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in the Levant. Studies on projectile typology and on bidirectional technology have revealed important stylistic differences reflecting chronological and geographical patterning, contributing significantly to the understanding of early farming communities in the Near East. However, the reconstruction of the weapons these large tanged points were part of has not received the same attention. This investigation aims to fully characterize stone point production at Halula, a PPNB settlement in the middle Euphrates valley, and reconstruct the type of weapons and delivery mechanisms used. Our study also includes the analysis of various ballistic attributes using a series of recent morpho-metric methods and comparison with ethnographic and experimental data about projectiles of known use. Results indicate that Byblos points might have been used as dart-points propelled with the help of spear-throwers, indicating a shift –from bow to spear-thrower– in projectile technology associated with the appearance and expansion of bidirectional blade technology during the PPNB in the Levant and synchronous with the consolidation of agricultural systems in the region.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Chemical analysis of Late Classic Maya polychrome pottery paints and
           pastes from Central Petén, Guatemala
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christina T. Halperin, Ronald L. Bishop
      This paper examines political-economic relationships among Late Classic (ca. 600–900 CE) political centers in the Petén Lakes region, Guatemala, through the chemical analysis of red paints and pastes of polychrome vessels. Chemical analysis of red paints was conducted using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and chemical analysis of vessel pastes was conducted using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). These analyses indicate that a number of political centers along the western shore of Lake Petén Itzá, namely Motul de San José, Tayasal, and Flores, had access to different polychrome pottery production communities. Nonetheless, inhabitants of these Petén Lakes sites moved between, gifted, or exchanged polychrome pottery with each other, indicating that western Petén Lakes region centers closely interacted with each other. We suggest that these sites may have been part of or allied with the epigraphically known Ik’ polity. As such, we find that one of the strengths of ‘second-tier’ polities, such as the Ik’ polity, did not depend on an individual site's size or monumental expression, but on the relationships they forged with other centers.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Modelling distribution of archaeological settlement evidence based on
           heterogeneous spatial and temporal data
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Peter Demján, Dagmar Dreslerová
      We analyse variations in prehistoric agricultural settlement behaviour both in space and time to detect main turning points and shifts in settlement patterns in Bohemia, western Czech Republic. We propose a theoretical framework to address our research question and a new evidence density estimation (EDE) method combining and extending existing approaches to produce probabilistic maps and temporal frequency distribution (TFD) curves. This method takes into account heterogeneous spatial and temporal accuracy of archaeological data, and it models settlement structure where respective sites have a specific area and a given interval of duration. We determined minimal sampling densities of archaeological data enabling the method to predict prehistoric settlement at a statistically significant level. The EDE method is universally applicable for all datasets with sampling densities of more than 0.05 archaeological actions per km2 for chrono-typologically dated evidence and 0.035 actions per km2 for radiocarbon or similar dates. The results show that changes in spatial extent, density and clustering of settlement activities occur repeatedly throughout the whole agricultural prehistory and shed new light on settlement behaviour of past populations.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): A.H. Mason, W.G. Powell, H.A. Bankoff, R. Mathur, A. Bulatović, V. Filipović, J. Ruiz
      Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for δ124Sn, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for δ120Sn (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher δSn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Kruševac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Automated feature extraction for prospection and analysis of monumental
           earthworks from aerial LiDAR in the Kingdom of Tonga
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Travis Freeland, Brandon Heung, David V. Burley, Geoffrey Clark, Anders Knudby
      Recent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey in Tonga has documented a dense and complex archaeological landscape, particularly on the principal island of Tongatapu. Among the features revealed by the LiDAR are a profusion of earthen mounds, most of which are associated with residence, sporting, or burial in the period 1000–1850 CE. For identification and mapping of the mounds we use and evaluate two automated feature extraction (AFE) techniques, object-based image analysis and an inverted pit-filling algorithm (“iMound”). Accuracy of these methods was measured using an F1-score (harmonic mean of precision and recall). Variable AFE results indicate that continual and iterative fine-tuning is required. Successful mapping of some 10,000 mounds on Tongatapu reveals a distinct spatial structure that relates to traditional land division and tenure.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Grapevine carpological remains revealed the existence of a Neolithic
           domesticated Vitis vinifera L. specimen containing ancient DNA partially
           preserved in modern ecotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Angelo Gismondi, Gabriele Di Marco, Fabio Martini, Lucia Sarti, Manna Crespan, Cristina Martínez-Labarga, Olga Rickards, Antonella Canini
      Thirty-four carpological remains, found in the Neolithic layers of Grotta della Serratura (Southern Italy), were subjected to morphological analysis in order to identify their botanical origin. The phenotype of these samples and the measurement of morphometrical indices clearly revealed that they were Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa seeds, suggesting the existence of this plant species in that specific context. Molecular investigations detected the presence of ancient DNA inside the pips. The principal plastidial Barcoding genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with the accessions of GenBank nucleotide database, to confirm the taxonomic identity of the specimens and to individuate all the genetic changes that occurred in these selected regions of the grapevine genome during the evolution, since Neolithic until today. Then, ten microsatellite loci were successfully typified, starting from the ancient DNA. The genetic profile was compared to the CRA-VIT molecular database of Conegliano and to the Italian Vitis Database. The results showed a high conservation rate of the antique allelic variants in modern grapevine accessions and the existence of possible evolutionary relationships with current Vitis vinifera ecotypes. All these data improved the knowledge about grapevine cultivation, diffusion and use in Southern Italy by Neolithic human civilization. Moreover, they also gave new information for reconstruction and interpretation of past natural environments.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Machine learning-based approaches for predicting stature from
           archaeological skeletal remains using long bone lengths
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Gabriela Czibula, Vlad-Sebastian Ionescu, Diana-Lucia Miholca, Ioan-Gabriel Mircea
      This paper approaches, from a computational perspective, the problem of predicting the stature of human skeletal remains from bone measurements. There are traditional methods for constructing models that give good results for stature estimation. In this paper, we aim to investigate the usefulness of using machine learning-based models to approximate stature. Assuming that the stature of an individual is indirectly related to bone measurement values, we can derive methods that learn from archaeological data and construct models that give good estimates of the stature. Two novel machine learning-based regression models for stature estimation are proposed in this paper. Experiments using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were performed on samples from the Terry Collection Postcranial Osteometric Database, and the obtained results are discussed and compared with the results from other similar studies. The experimental evaluations indicate that the machine learning-based regression models are efficient for the stature estimation of archaeological remains and highlight the potential of our proposal.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Structural collapse in kaolinite, montmorilonite and illite clay and its
           role in the ceramic rehydroxylation dating of low-fired earthenware
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christopher M. Stevenson, Mary Gurnick
      The rehydroxylation dating of ancient pottery estimates the age of ceramic manufacture based upon the total hydroxyl (OH) accumulation since initial firing. The diffusion of OH is impacted by the structural porosity of the ceramic that becomes progressively, or suddenly, closed with increasing temperature as the clay structure collapses. Changes in ceramic mineral structure along the temperature continuum occur at certain thermal set points. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of heat-treated kaolin, illite, and montmorillonite reveals that shifts in the Si-O band correlate with the extent of structural collapse occurring between 600 and 1000 °C. Accelerated rehydroxylation experiments reveal that the activation energy of rehydroxylation decreases with greater structural collapse and indicates that the rate of rehydroxylation will be faster for ceramics fired at more elevated temperatures.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T15:30:28Z
       
  • Sr and Pb isotopic investigation of mammal introductions: Pre-Columbian
           zoogeographic records from the Lesser Antilles, West Indies
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christina M. Giovas, George D. Kamenov, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, John Krigbaum
      Recent efforts to reconstruct the anthropogenic paleozoogeography of introduced Neotropical mammals in the West Indies provide new analytical foundations for evaluating island and continental human interaction, exchange, colonization, and animal management. Key questions in these investigations concern the timing, source, population viability, and environmental impact of continental faunal translocations in the pre-Columbian insular Caribbean. To investigate these issues we analyzed 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb isotope ratios from environmental samples and agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) and opossum (Didelphis cf. marsupialis) remains from Ceramic Age (500 BC – AD 1500) archaeological deposits on the islands of Nevis, Carriacou, and Mustique in the Lesser Antilles. This study was undertaken to assess the suitability of agouti and opossum tooth enamel for isotopic analysis, characterize local bioavailable Sr and Pb isotope ratios, and distinguish possible local and non-local agouti and opossum individuals. We demonstrate large intra-island variability in bioavailable Sr across multiple islands giving rise to potential equifinality in identifying taxa of non-local origin. We argue, consequently, for the necessity of comprehensive environmental sampling at the island scale to better define the range and mean of bioavailable Sr for a given locale. Our results further show that Pb isotope analysis of sampled taxa is problematized to varying degrees by modern anthropogenic lead contamination, even for well-preserved ‘clean’ tooth enamel from intact archaeological specimens and raise questions about the utility of this method for evaluating past animal translocations and the use of small mammals for establishing local bioavailable Pb. Despite these results, Sr data are sound and, in combination with vetted Pb ratios, indicate that agouti and opossum were established as living populations on Carriacou and Nevis as early as ca. AD 600/800, and possibly earlier. These results establish baseline data for evaluating exchange networks involving living animals or their parts, potential captive management of agouti and opossum, and the ecological impact of exotic species during the Pre-Columbian era in the West Indies.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T19:49:04Z
       
  • The effects of demineralisation and sampling point variability on the
           measurement of glutamine deamidation in type I collagen extracted from
           bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): J.P. Simpson, K.E.H. Penkman, B. Demarchi, H. Koon, M.J. Collins, J. Thomas-Oates, B. Shapiro, M. Stark, J. Wilson
      The level of glutamine (Gln) deamidation in bone collagen provides information on the diagenetic history of bone but, in order to accurately assess the extent of Gln deamidation, it is important to minimise the conditions that may induce deamidation during the sample preparation. Here we report the results of a preliminary investigation of the variability in glutamine deamidation levels in an archaeological bone due to: a) sampling location within a bone; b) localised diagenesis; and c) sample preparation methods. We then investigate the effects of pre-treatment on three bone samples: one modern, one Medieval and one Pleistocene. The treatment of bone with acidic solutions was found to both induce deamidation and break down the collagen fibril structure. This is particularly evident in the Pleistocene material (∼80,000 years BP) considered in this study. We show that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), when used as an alternative to hydrochloric acid (HCl) demineralisation, induces minimal levels of deamidation and maintains the collagen fibril structure. Areas of bone exhibiting localised degradation are shown to be correlated with an increase in the levels of Gln deamidation. This indicates that the extent of Gln deamidation could provide a marker for diagenesis but that sampling is important, and that, whenever possible, subsamples should be taken from areas of the bone that are visually representative of the bone as a whole. Although validation of our observations will require analysis of a larger sample set, deamidation measurements could be a valuable screening tool to evaluate the suitability of bone for further destructive collagen analyses such as isotopic or DNA analysis, as well as assessing the overall preservation of bone material at a site. The measure of bone preservation may be useful to help conservators identify bones that may require special long-term storage conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T19:49:04Z
       
  • Let the dead speak…comments on Dibble et al.'s reply to
           “Evidence supporting an intentional burial at La
           Chapelle-aux-Saints”
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): William Rendu, Cédric Beauval, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Priscilla Bayle, Antoine Balzeau, Thierry Bismuth, Laurence Bourguignon, Géraldine Delfour, Jean-Philippe Faivre, François Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, Xavier Muth, Sylvain Pasty, Patrick Semal, Carlotta Tavormina, Dominique Todisco, Alain Turq, Bruno Maureille
      In a reply to our paper presenting new evidence supporting an intentional Neanderthal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints (Corrèze, France), Dibble et al. (2014) reviewed our data in relation to the original Bouyssonie publications. They conclude that alternative hypotheses can account for the preservation of the human remains within a pit. Here we present new data from our recent excavations and highlight several misinterpretations of the Bouyssonie publications, which, when taken together refute most of their arguments. Moreover, we show that the different hypotheses proposed by Dibble et al. cannot work together and fail to provide a credible explanation for the deposit, reinforcing our demonstration that the burial hypothesis remains the most parsimonious explanation for the preservation of the Neanderthal skeletal material at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • High-resolution serial sampling for nitrogen stable isotope analysis of
           archaeological mammal teeth
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Eric J. Guiry, Joseph C. Hepburn, Michael P. Richards
      We present the results of an archaeological application of a rapid method for high-resolution stable nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements of time-series samples of tooth dentine. Over 250 analyses of samples of untreated dentine powder taken at continuous millimeter intervals along the growth axis of archaeological pig tusks were compared to results from a subset of tandem δ15N measurements of extracted and purified tooth collagen from the same teeth. Samples were also taken at 0.25 mm depth intervals to test the effect of depth with respect to temporal resolution of diet. Results show that δ15N measurements of untreated dentine powder from well-preserved archaeological teeth provide: 1) broadly comparable δ 15N values to extracted and purified collagen, and 2) a rapid method of assessing dietary change over much shorter time intervals than is possible using extracted collagen. Analyses also show that large changes in δ 15N values can occur across the thickness of a tooth due to the inclusion of multiple growth layers and/or secondary dentine, which results in a significant time−averaging lag in dietary representation, as demonstrated by samples that analyze collagen from the full width of the tooth wall. This method will also be useful for initial prescreening of samples to select for specimens of interest before undertaking further, more rigorous, sample pre−treatment and measurement.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • The Early Bronze Age/Middle Bronze Age transition and the aquifer
           geography in the Near East
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Konstantin Pustovoytov, Simone Riehl
      Groundwater often remains a neglected natural resource in archaeological studies in the Near East. Here we examine the potential role of aquifers in transitional phenomena in the eastern Mediterranean at the Early Bronze Age (EBA) – Middle Bronze Age (MBA) boundary using geographic relations between aquifers and archaeological settlements. As a basis for this analysis, the aquifer areas within buffers zones of 5, 10 and 20 km around the sites were used. For comparison, the total watercourse lengths within the same zones were calculated. Although no substantial changes in watercourse lengths could be found, the aquifer geography around EBA and MBA sites did show regional differences. The proportion of settlements with aquifers in upper Mesopotamia and the northern Levant doubled during the transition from EBA to MBA, whereas in the southern Levant this proportion decreased. We propose several explanatory models for these results: environmental (desiccation regional trend around 4.2 ka BP), non-environmental (changes in strategic importance, subsistence economy or hygienic requirements) and combined (human-induced transformation in the vegetation, changes in soil properties or changes in human perception of the environment followed by changes in behavioral attitudes). This study further emphasizes the potential of GIS-based spatial analysis applications in archaeology.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
 
 
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