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        1 2     

  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 183 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice : A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 31)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access  
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
   [168 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2571 journals]   [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
  • On the variable relationship between NISP and NTAXA in bird remains and in
           mammal remains
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): R. Lee Lyman
      It has long been recognized that the minimum number of individuals (MNI) and the number of taxa identified (NTAXA) are both often tightly related to the number of identified specimens (NISP) in a collection. The relationship between NISP and NTAXA has been suggested to vary between bird remains and mammal remains for three reasons that concern the rate at which identifiable skeletal parts of each are input to the zooarchaeological record. Rigorous testing of the relationship using 59 pairs of assemblages of bird and mammal remains confirms that the NTAXA of birds increases more rapidly per NISP than does the NTAXA of mammals per NISP. Data also indicate that two of the three proposed reasons (bird taxa outnumber mammal taxa on the landscape; each mammalian individual contributes more NISP than each avian individual) are the likely causes for intertaxonomic variability in the relationship between NISP and NTAXA. The third reason (fragmentation reduces identifiability of bird remains more rapidly than it does mammal remains) has yet to be empirically evaluated but is logical.


      PubDate: 2014-11-19T06:03:12Z
       
  • Ancient DNA unravels the truth behind the controversial GUS Greenlandic
           Norse fur samples: the bison was a horse, and the muskox and bears were
           goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding , Jette Arneborg , Georg Nyegaard , M. Thomas P. Gilbert
      The Norse Greenlandic archaeological site known as ‘the Farm Beneath the Sand’ (GUS) has sourced many well-preserved and unique archaeological artefacts. Some of the most controversial finds are tufts of hair, which previous morphological-based examination concluded derive from bison, black bear, brown bear and muskox, all species whose natural presence in South Greenland is unlikely. If true, the consequences are potentially significant, as they could imply Viking trading with, or hunting within, North America. To validate these previous findings, we genetically profiled the samples, through mitochondrial 16S DNA analysis. The results revealed that the putative bison was, in fact horse, while the bears and muskox were goat. The results demonstrate the importance of using genetic analyses to validate results derived from morphological analyses on hair, in particular where such studies lead to sensational claims.


      PubDate: 2014-11-19T06:03:12Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Publication/Copyright Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52




      PubDate: 2014-11-15T06:18:34Z
       
  • Individual dietary patterns during childhood: an archaeological
           application of a stable isotope microsampling method for tooth dentin
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Nicole M. Burt
      Diet from the late medieval Fishergate House cemetery site (York, UK) is reconstructed using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratio analysis from tooth dentin. Deciduous teeth from 42 subadult individuals (fetal to 5–6 years) were used to reconstruct weaning practices at a population and an individual level. This is the first archaeological use of this microsampling method (dentin ≥.3 mg). This method allows an individual's changing diet to be reconstructed from the fetal period through weaning. The fetal signals show a complicated relationship with adult female ratios, having higher δ15N values than expected. At this site, there is an unusual decoupling between peak mortality (4–6 years) and weaning (2 years). The mean δ15N ratios for weaned children were enriched when compared to the adult females (12.4‰ ± 1.29 and 11.4‰ ± 1.1; statistically significant to p < .05). Early childhood diet is surprisingly high in marine fish and/or pork given the low socioeconomic class of the sample. This is a departure in weaned diet from contemporary communities and may be responsible for the unusual disconnect between peak mortality and weaning. When the individual dietary reconstructions were combined with each individual's rib reconstruction the presence of a true child specific diet was clear starting at approximately 2 years of age. Some individuals diverge from the population norm and have an extended breastfeeding period linked to poor health. The increased resolution of microsampling allows bioarchaeologists to test detailed time depended questions about early childhood diet and health.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T06:18:34Z
       
  • Reconstructing depositional histories through bone taphonomy: extending
           the potential of faunal data
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Richard Madgwick , Jacqui Mulville
      Reconstructing the sequences of deposition of archaeological material is central to the interpretation of archaeological sites and provides the foundations for how site chronology is understood. Generally stratigraphy provides the most direct evidence for understanding depositional histories. However, in certain instances stratigraphic relationships may be obscured or unobservable and therefore other sources of evidence must be drawn upon for defining deposits and reconstructing sequences of deposition. This is a particular problem at dark earth sites, which are homogeneous in terms of the colour and texture of deposits, and also in artefact-rich samples, which have little sedimentary matrix. This paper explores the potential of a new approach to the analysis of bone taphonomic data for the purposes of deciphering depositional histories when stratigraphy is unobservable. Integral to this method is rigorous statistical analysis of modification data combined with an assessment of the taxonomic and anatomical composition of deposits, in terms of their susceptibility to modification. This facilitates more confident interpretation of modification patterns, as deposit composition can be discounted from responsibility for significant differences. The approach is tested on a sample area of the later prehistoric midden of Potterne, Wiltshire, UK. Through detailed recording and statistical analysis of bone modifications (weathering, gnawing and trampling), this research demonstrates that bone taphonomy is not only useful for identifying distinct depositional events in apparently homogeneous strata, but can also provide detail on the nature of processes responsible for the formation of the deposit.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T06:18:34Z
       
  • Freshwater reservoir effect and the radiocarbon chronology of the cemetery
           in Ząbie, Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Łukasz Pospieszny
      In the 3rd millennium BC an island on the Łańskie Lake in north-eastern Poland was seasonally settled by a group of people practicing a syncretic burial ritual, exhibiting indigenous and foreign patterns. They left behind a small cemetery consisting of at least six graves. 14C dates made for samples of human bones until 2009 did not coincide with the expected age of the graves. Under a new pilot program in 2010–2013, a series of radiocarbon measurements was made for the human bones and an artefact of red deer antler, along with analyses of the stable isotopes ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in the collagen. The results indicate a significant proportion of freshwater food in the diet, which caused the radiocarbon dates to be too old due to the freshwater reservoir effect (FRE). Based on the dating of the antler, unaffected by FRE, and comparative analysis, the reservoir offset for one of the graves was estimated to 740 radiocarbon years. The results, although limited by a low number of investigated humans and animals, indicate indirectly a specialization in the exploitation of local water resources. Such an economic strategy seems to be characteristic for the societies inhabiting the coasts of the Baltic Sea and littoral zones of large lakes in the Final Neolithic and at the beginning of the Early Bronze Age.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T06:18:34Z
       
  • Geometric documentation of historical pavements using automated digital
           photogrammetry and high-density reconstruction algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Santiago Martínez , Juan Ortiz , MªLuz Gil
      Historical pavements are intrinsic elements of cultural heritage and require the same protection as monuments. Documenting their geometry is necessary for various reasons beyond heritage and historical considerations. Technicians need accurate data from every paving stone because each is unique. The shape any replacement stones must preserve the original slope to ensure that the runoff to sewers is not modified. This process requires much time and meticulous field measurements. Close-range photogrammetry and automatic image correlation, in particular, automatic digital photogrammetry and 3D reconstruction algorithms, make it possible to retrieve precise metric data on irregular surfaces with a high degree of automation. This paper describes the implementation of the structure from motion based photogrammetry methodology applied to the geometric documentation of historical pavements. Technicians and professionals can improve the protocols for historical pavement analysis and conservation. A case study is presented based on a representative section of a street (Travesía das Dúas Portas) in Santiago de Compostela, Spain.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • An assessment of procedures to remove exogenous Sr before 87Sr/86Sr
           analysis of wet archaeological wool textiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): I.C.C. von Holstein , L. Font , E.E. Peacock , M.J. Collins , G.R. Davies
      Strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) has been employed as a provenancing tool for archaeological wool textiles. To date, the effect of post-depositional (soil burial environment) contamination on keratin samples, which contain ∼ppm concentrations of Sr, has not been rigorously investigated. We compared published methods for removing exogenous Sr from keratinous textiles, using either: (1) compressed N2 gas, (2) HF(aq) solution (with and without a strong oxidising agent to remove dyestuff) or (3) organic solvents. 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr contents were determined in undyed and madder-dyed/alum-mordanted moieties of the same wool textile, buried for up to three years in contrasting environments (marine sediment/fenland bog), and two archaeological textiles recovered in Iceland (one typical and one atypical of local manufacture). Undyed experimental samples had low Sr contents (0.07–0.29 ppm) that were increased by both dyeing (0.14–8.92 ppm) and soil burial (0.11–15.01 ppm). The efficacy of Sr removal was: HF(aq) + oxidising agent > organic solvents > HF(aq) > compressed N2. Unburied samples showed little variation in 87Sr/86Sr ratio between cleaning methods (0.00006–0.00035); buried samples showed greater variation (0.00257–0.00713). Archaeological samples showed Sr contents greater than experimental soil burials (1–118 ppm), and 87Sr/86Sr values consistent with Icelandic groundwater (0.70357–0.70540). No cleaning methods retrieved original (unburied and undyed) 87Sr/86Sr ratios except treatment with compressed N2 in undyed samples. Exogenous Sr from the short term soil burial environment is probably mostly present as particulates. We conclude that 87Sr/86Sr ratios of archaeological wool textiles recovered from wet burial environments do not accurately reflect wool provenance even after cleaning with the methods investigated.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Plant-food preparation on two consecutive floors at Upper Paleolithic
           Ohalo II, Israel
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Ainit Snir , Dani Nadel , Ehud Weiss
      The Ohalo II Upper Paleolithic site was inundated for ca. 23,000 years. A unique and diverse assemblage of seeds and fruit was thus excellently preserved on its brush huts floors. Three successive floors were identified in Brush Hut 1; about 55,000 seeds and fruits were found on its lower floor, Floor III. Food preparation features were found on two of these floors: a hearth in the center of Floor III and a grinding stone in the north of Floor II. Here we analyze the spatial distribution of fourteen prominent plant taxa recovered from Floor III, and compare the results with previously published spatial distribution of the same taxa on Floor II. We describe here the plant remains' distribution around food preparation features – grinding stone (floor II) and a central hearth (floor III), and the groups of taxa which appear on both floors. The similarity in taxa as well as their concentrations on both floors indicates similar activities. We also raise the possibility that the two floors represent two different seasons of occupation – Floor III in winter and Floor II in summer.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Slag remains from the Na Slupi site (Prague, Czech Republic): evidence for
           early medieval non-ferrous metal smelting
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Vojtěch Ettler , Zdenek Johan , Jan Zavřel , Michaela Selmi Wallisová , Martin Mihaljevič , Ondřej Šebek
      Archaeological investigation of the Na Slupi site in the central part of Prague (the capital of the Czech Republic) and located in the vicinity of Vyšehrad Castle has demonstrated the presence of early medieval (12th century) large-scale smelting of non-ferrous metals. This study is focused on the investigation of smelting remains (Pb-rich red and black slags) using a combination of geochemical and mineralogical methods in order to understand the technologies and processes used at this site. Glassy red slags are composed of high-temperature Ca-, K- and Pb-rich silicates (wollastonite, larnite, kalsilite, melilite) and Pb-bearing glass, and are associated with less abundant litharge fragments/red-slag-impregnated furnace walls composed of litharge/massicot (PbO) and Cu2PbO2. They indicate that the cupellation process in small furnaces, rather than in crucibles (open-vessels) was used for Ag refining at the studied site. The black slags, found in much lower quantity at this site, are composed of maghemite, fayalite, clinopyroxene, melilite and glass and are S-poor. We believe that they correspond to waste products from the first stage of Ag purification (prior to final cupellation), where slagging additives such as Fe-rich material, silica sand or ashes could be added to remove impurities. The Pb isotopic composition of both types of slags is similar to the isotopic signature of Pb–Zn ores from the vicinity of Cracow (Poland) and supports the hypothesis that Pb was probably traded between Prague and Poland in the 12th century and used for refining precious metals in metallurgical workshops.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • The age of the olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Mauro Bernabei
      The olive trees (Olea europaea) in the Garden of Gethsemane were radiocarbon-dated with a view to providing an estimate of their ages and in order to determine whether they are even-aged or were planted at different times. All the tree trunks are hollow inside so that the central, older wood is missing. Furthermore, in several trees, a large void in the trunk's centre has led to its breaking-up into different stumps, which makes it very difficult to reconstruct the shape of each stem's basal area. In the end, only three from a total of eight olive trees could be successfully dated. They are of the same age, having started life all through the 12th century, when, during the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusaders were committing themselves to the restoration of Christian memories in the Holy Land. The dated ancient olive trees do, however, not allow any hypothesis to be made with regard to the age of the remaining five giant olives. Nonetheless, the dated olive trees of Gethsemane are a typical example of trees being cultivated in order to emphasize a cultural identity.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Study on production techniques and provenance of faience beads excavated
           in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Yong Lei , Yin Xia
      Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), about 20 faience beads from several cemeteries discovered since 1970 in China were studied chronologically and typologically. Faience beads excavated in China can be classified into two groups, chemically by composition, and by periods and provenance as: soda-enriched made somewhere on the route from Egypt to central China (11–10th century BCE); and potash-enriched made in China (middle Western Zhou to Eastern Zhou). According to the continuous matrix of inter particle glass (IP glass) and inner micro-structure, the difference between soda- and potash-enriched faience beads was identified, even though the IP glass was badly preserved. The faience beads with potash-enriched glaze and high copper content were in a better state of preservation than those with soda-enriched glaze because of their tight inner structure.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • The evolution of Roman urban environments through the archaeobotanical
           remains in Modena – Northern Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Giovanna Bosi , Anna Maria Mercuri , Marta Bandini Mazzanti , Assunta Florenzano , Maria Chiara Montecchi , Paola Torri , Donato Labate , Rossella Rinaldi
      The paper reports on the urban archaeobotany of Modena, a town that lies on the southern Po Plain of the Emilia Romagna region, Northern Italy. Founded in 183 BC, it was an important Roman colony known as Mutina. The integrated study of micro- and macro-remains, the interdisciplinary archaeological and botanical approach, and the comparison of on-site/off-site records allow the reconstruction of an urban environment of the past. Pollen and macroremains from four archaeological sites located in and around the ancient walls, along with pollen from an off-site trench, were studied with an integrated approach, aimed at reconstructing the main floristic, vegetational and palaeoecological features of the town and its surroundings between the 6th century BC and the 10th century AD. During the Roman age, the natural plant landscape was characterised by wetlands, thinly scattered mixed oak woods, cereal fields, gardens and other human environments; during the Late Roman and Early Medieval age, the woodlands increased. Some currently rare, or locally extinct, species lived in the area. The fragmentation of the landscape has been evident since the Roman times because pieces of the natural environments have survived near lands strongly modified by inhabitants.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Technological tradition of the Mongol Empire as inferred from bloomery and
           cast iron objects excavated in Karakorum
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Jang-Sik Park , Susanne Reichert
      Iron objects from Karakorum, the former capital of the Mongol Empire, were metallographically examined. Most were forged out of bloomery iron, particularly those requiring superior functional properties. By contrast, approximately one third were made from cast iron, with carbon levels approximating either cast iron or ultrahigh carbon steel. The carbon concentration of the bloomery products was controlled either by a carburization treatment directed at the functional parts or by the welding of a pre-carburized steel plate to a low carbon body. By comparison, cast iron-based steelmaking was achieved by subjecting pieces of solid cast iron to a combined thermal and mechanical treatment aimed at accelerating decarburization. Some anonymous cast objects were circulated as a feedstock for this unique process, naturally taking the form of thin plates. Also, the cast products examined were contaminated with substantial amounts of sulfur and silicon, suggesting that they originated from liquid iron smelted at relatively high temperatures using fossil fuel instead of charcoal. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the Mongol Empire took advantage of an effective multi-faceted iron tradition, which combined bloomery-based and cast iron-based iron technologies. It is important to note, however, that the former still remained the key technological tradition dominating the local contemporary iron industry.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • A method for calculating soil pressure overlying human burials
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Glenys McGowan , Jonathan Prangnell
      While damage to the human skeleton due to vertical pressure exerted by overlying soil is a common observation at archaeological excavations, comparatively few studies have attempted to quantify the magnitude of this pressure. As part of a suite of taphonomic studies of a nineteenth-century cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, a soil loading calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering is used to calculate soil vertical pressure at various depths for both child and adult graves. This cemetery was characterised by extreme vertical compression of coffin burials to the extent that human remains were sandwiched between the coffin base and lid to a thickness of just a few centimetres. Calculations determined that, because of their narrower grave shafts, the burials of children experienced between 40% (1.83 m depth) and 27% (0.91 m depth) less vertical soil pressure than those of adults buried at similar depths. Further calculations for different soil types showed that coarser grained soils such as gravel and sand exerted less vertical pressure than a similar volume of saturated clay due to the amount of air trapped between the coarser grains. It is anticipated that the equation utilised in this study could find widespread applications in the fields of archaeology, physical anthropology, forensic archaeology and cultural heritage management.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Modeling vegetation dynamics in the Southern Levant through the Bronze Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Mariela Soto-Berelov , Patricia L. Fall , Steven E. Falconer , Elizabeth Ridder
      We integrate modern spatial distributions of plant geographical regions with paleoclimatic trends to model vegetation change in the Southern Levant over the course of the mid-Holocene. This timespan witnessed the rise, collapse and redevelopment of urbanized society and settlement during the Bronze Age. This study applies GIS and statistical modeling tools (MAXENT) to vegetation data from 1696 historical and modern observation points across the region to chart potential vegetation for the present and at 100-year intervals between 5500 and 3000 calibrated years BP. A macrophysical climate model is used to create vegetation maps based on regional temperature and precipitation data. Environmental dynamics tracked over this time period, including past vegetation, temperature and precipitation, are applied to the interpretation of Bronze Age settlement and social change. Our results reveal a general trend of Mediterranean forest contraction through the Bronze Age. The “4.2 event” (ca. 4200 calibrated years BP) potentially links regional desiccation and urban collapse, and constitutes the last element in a trajectory of reduced potential forest vegetation through the Early Bronze Age. Rapid woodland expansion correlates with abrupt cooling and reurbanization at the outset of the Middle Bronze Age. Modeled vegetation shows minimum forest and maximum desert coverage consistent with a Late Bronze Age “crisis” ca. 3000 calibrated years BP. In comparison to the Bronze Age, modern potential vegetation includes the broadest extent of steppe.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Writing, painting and sketching at Dunhuang: assessing the materiality and
           function of early Tibetan manuscripts and ritual items
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Sam van Schaik , Agnieszka Helman-Ważny , Renate Nöller
      The paintings and manuscripts discovered in the sealed ‘library cave’ in Dunhuang, Western China, contain the earliest surviving examples of Tibetan artistic and scribal practice (9th–10th centuries AD). Despite their importance, their material characteristics have not previously been studied. The present paper discusses the results of the analysis of paper and pigments in a selection of items across a variety of forms and functions: (i) Buddhist manuscripts, (ii) official letters, (iii) hung paintings, (iv) ritual items, (v) banners, and (vi) stencils and preliminary sketches. The material analysis of these items is presented in historical context, to address three research questions. First, whether there is a correspondence between the materials used in the creation of these objects and their geographical origin. Second, in terms of the choices made in the available materials and techniques, whether there is a detectable correlation between materials chosen and the intended function of the objects. Third, whether the characteristics of the objects analysed here be considered to be part of a broader Central Asian artistic and scribal culture. The authors conclude that a local culture of paper and pigment production can be detected in these results, though further research is needed especially on the geographical origin of raw materials for pigments. The results show that artists and scribes made technological choices in paper and pigments depending on the function of the objects they were creating. Finally, understanding of the broader Central Asian context of these results will depend on future analysis of material from other archaeological sites, and comparison with the results of this study.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Through a filter, darkly: population size estimation, systematic error,
           and random error in radiocarbon-supported demographic temporal frequency
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): William A. Brown
      Archaeologists are increasingly concerned that the non-linear relationship between the calendric and radiocarbon timelines may introduce anomalous structures into radiocarbon-supported temporal frequency distributions (tfds) – time series data describing temporal fluctuations in the frequency of archaeological, paleontological, or other geological deposits. This concern emphasizes a need for improved middle range theory on tfd formation, addressing the interaction between several stochastic processes. This paper outlines a Monte Carlo simulation designed to explore the influence of several variables on tfd morphology, including the nonlinear calendric-to-radiocarbon age relationship. The results indicate that this non-linear relationship entails greater variance between identically generated tfds over some temporal intervals than others but does not predictably lead to tfd peaks over these intervals as previously suggested. Additional variance between identically generated tfds results from small sample sizes and high values in the underlying TFD. Smoothing the tfd is a solution not only to calibration curve interference but also to sample size-dependent sampling error.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Proteomic identification of adhesive on a bone sculpture-inlaid wooden
           artifact from the Xiaohe Cemetery, Xinjiang, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Huiyun Rao , Yimin Yang , Idelisi Abuduresule , Wenying Li , Xingjun Hu , Changsui Wang
      With the emergence and progress of composite tools in the Middle Stone Age, the adhesive became one of the most widely used materials by early human societies. However, the precise composition identification of adhesive in archaeological remains is a real analytical challenge, because the adhesive mainly consists of organic materials that are susceptible to decay during burial process. Of particular interest is to know which animal/plant species were being exploited for glue manufacturing other than for food. The arid climate of the Xiaohe Cemetery, located in Taklamakan Desert, northwestern China, provides favorable conditions for the preservation of organic residues. A bone sculpture-inlaid wooden artifact was collected from the Xiaohe Cemetery, with some semi-transparent yellowish adhesive exposed due to the detachment of an inlaid bone sculpture. In this paper, micro samples of the adhesive were scraped for FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, primary examination) and subsequent proteomic analysis to determine the proteinous component(s) and precise origin(s). The identified tryptic peptides match most closely to known bovine collagen markers, suggesting that this adhesive was an animal glue made from cattle. These results reveal the diverse utilizations of cattle in the Xiaohe Cemetery, which provided not only meat, milk, hides, sinews and dung, but also leftover parts for manufacturing adhesive. This is the earliest evidence of adhesive identified in China up to our knowledge, which sheds light on adhesive development around 3500 years ago.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Observed methods of cuneiform tablet reconstruction in virtual and real
           world environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Andrew Lewis , Sandra Woolley , Eugene Ch'ng , Erlend Gehlken
      The reconstruction of fragmented artefacts is a tedious process that consumes many valuable work hours of scholars' time. We believe that such work can be made more efficient via new techniques in interactive virtual environments. The purpose of this research is to explore approaches to the reconstruction of cuneiform tablets in the real and virtual environment, and to address the potential barriers to virtual reconstruction of fragments. In this paper we present the results of an experiment exploring the reconstruction strategies employed by individual users working with tablet fragments in real and virtual environments. Our findings have identified physical factors that users find important to the reconstruction process and further explored the subjective usefulness of stereoscopic 3D in the reconstruction process. Our results, presented as dynamic graphs of interaction, compare the precise order of movement and rotation interactions, and the frequency of interaction achieved by successful and unsuccessful participants with some surprising insights. We present evidence that certain interaction styles and behaviours characterise success in the reconstruction process.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Precise chronology of Polynesian temple construction and use for
           southeastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands determined by 230Th dating of corals
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Patrick V. Kirch , Regina Mertz-Kraus , Warren D. Sharp
      Emergent archaic states in pre-contact Hawai'i used a ritual control hierarchy implemented through a system of temples to manage production, extract tribute, and reinforce the legitimacy of the ruling elites. Based on a limited sample of precise 230Th dates from coral offerings on Maui Island temples it had been hypothesized that this temple system rapidly expanded during the period from A.D. 1580–1640. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining an expanded sample of 39 new 230Th coral dates from temples in Kahikinui District, and one sample from the summit of a cinder cone that likely had ritual significance. Combined with seven coral dates previously obtained, this yields a suite of 46 230Th coral dates from 26 temples in the district. Dates from both surface offerings and corals in architecturally integral contexts (placed in situ during temple construction) strongly agree in documenting a major phase of temple construction in Kahikinui beginning ca. A.D. 1550 and continuing until ca. A.D. 1700. The precise chronology afforded by 230Th coral dating clearly resolves the timing and tempo of temple construction, shows that it corresponded closely with the reigns of Maui rulers credited in Hawaiian traditions with establishing and strengthening the first island-wide polity, and underscores the importance of monumental ritual architecture in the emergence of archaic states in ancient Hawai'i.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Artifact preservation and post-depositional site-formation processes in an
           urban setting: a geoarchaeological study of a 19th century neighborhood in
           Detroit, Michigan, USA
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Jeffrey L. Howard , Krysta Ryzewski , Brian R. Dubay , Thomas W. Killion
      A geoarchaeological study was carried out to assess levels of artifact deterioration occurring in a historic-period urban soil during the 20th century. The study site is a former house-lot in a park created in 1919 by demolition of a residential community in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The results show that despite nearly a century of burial in an urban soil impacted heavily by pollution and other anthropogenic activity, many 19th century artifacts are remarkably well preserved. The observed weathering stability sequence of glass > bone > mortar > plaster > paint is consistent with decreasing solubility product values of the corresponding principal mineral constituent (glass < apatite < portlandite < gypsum < cerrusite). Even severely weathered 19th century nails and mortar can often be distinguished using optical petrographic and SEM-EDAX methods. The excellent state of artifact preservation is attributed to a calcareous soil microenvironment, and artificial compaction which limited the weathering effects of water and oxygen. Artifact preservation was further enhanced by burial beneath a thick biomantle created by the casting activity of an invasive species of earthworm. However, Lumbricus terrestris may now pose the greatest threat to artifact preservation because casting and burrowing activities are decreasing bulk density, and promoting the diffusion of air and water into the soil. Early excavation is recommended to recover artifacts in soils impacted by the combined effects of urban pollution and earthworm burrowing. Anthropogenic microparticles smaller than those normally classified as microartifacts were found to be useful indicators of human occupation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Consolidation or initial design? Radiocarbon dating of ancient iron
           alloys sheds light on the reinforcements of French Gothic Cathedrals
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Stéphanie Leroy , Maxime L'Héritier , Emmanuelle Delqué-Kolic , Jean-Pascal Dumoulin , Christophe Moreau , Philippe Dillmann
      Large quantities of iron reinforcements, found in most Gothic monuments, are a data source for the interpretation of medieval architecture however their role both in contemporary engineering theory and the technical reality of construction yards has not yet been specified due to the difficulty of directly dating them. We present here an original radiocarbon dating methodology to date metal itself. Radiocarbon dates were measured for iron reinforcements used in specific parts of Bourges and Beauvais cathedrals, two iconic buildings in the development of French gothic architecture. Coupled with archaeometric and archaeological data, the new chronological results illuminate the major and active roles played by iron in the strategy of the building yards. At Bourges, iron was assimilated into the cathedral's construction strategy, whereas at Beauvais iron was integrated from the initial design, added to the monument following the vicissitudes of the building yard, and still used during the modern period. Thus, through decisive advances in radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts, the evolution of medieval architectural and engineering thought and action has been more reliably reconstructed.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Demise of a harbor: a geochemical chronicle from Ephesus
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Hugo Delile , Janne Blichert-Toft , Jean-Philippe Goiran , Friederike Stock , Florent Arnaud-Godet , Jean-Paul Bravard , Helmut Brückner , Francis Albarède
      At the end of the first century BC, Ephesus became the Roman capital of Asia Minor and the most important commercial, religious, and cultural center of the region. In order to evaluate the status of anthropogenic fluxes in the port of Ephesus, a 12 m long sediment core drilled in the Roman basin was investigated to shed light on the paleo-environmental evolution of the harbor using grain size distribution analysis, 14C ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Pb isotope compositions. With the help of complementary sedimentological data and Principal Component Analysis, five distinct units were identified which, together, reflect the different stages of water history in the harbor. Among the major disruptive events affecting the port were earthquakes and military events, both of which were particularly effective at destroying the water distribution system. Seasonal floods of the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) were the major source of the silt that progressively infilled the harbor. Silting in was further enhanced by the westward migration of the river mouth. A single major disruptive event located at 550 cm core depth and heralding the development of anoxia in the harbor marks the end of the dynamic regime that otherwise controlled the harbor water throughout the Roman Empire period. This remarkable event may correspond to a major disruption of the aqueduct system or to a brutal avulsion of the Cayster River bed. It clearly represents a major disturbance in the history of life at Ephesus. It is poorly dated, but probably occurred during the reign of Augustus or shortly after. Lead isotope and trace metal evidence suggest that in the four bottom units pollution was subdued with respect to other Pb metal inputs, presumably those from aqueducts and natural karstic springs. Near the top of the core, which coincides with harbor abandonment and the more recent period, anthropogenic Pb contamination is clearly visible in both Pb abundances and isotopic compositions.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Archaeobotanical and isotopic evidence of Early Bronze Age farming
           activities and diet in the mountainous environment of the South Caucasus:
           a pilot study of Chobareti site (Samtskhe–Javakheti region)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Erwan Messager , Estelle Herrscher , Lucie Martin , Eliso Kvavadze , Inga Martkoplishvili , Claire Delhon , Kakha Kakhiani , Giorgi Bedianashvili , Antonio Sagona , Liana Bitadze , Modwene Poulmarc'h , André Guy , David Lordkipanidze
      Recent excavation at the site of Chobareti (1615 m a.s.l., South Caucasus Mountains) reveals an important Kura-Araxes settlement and eleven burials so far, for which a first multi-proxies approach was conducted to understand both exploitation of plants and human dietary practices in this mountainous area. Thanks to the excavation of several pits, in 2011, a well-reasoned sampling for archaeobotanical analysis, including phytoliths, pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, seeds and other plant macroremains was undertaken. In parallel, human, animal bones and wheat seeds were recovered in order to perform stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N). Results show the strong presence of cereals (especially naked wheat, as a hexaploid form, and emmer), highlighting the role played by cereal growing in the Kura-Araxes farming activities. Plant macroremains, but also phytoliths recovered in pits, reflect processing activities on the site. While animal dung seems to have been used to enhance cereal yields, different herding practices can be suggested by δ15N values. Whereas δ13C values and archaeobotanical data agree for a consumption of C3 plants, with no significant input in wheat for both animals and humans, a homogeneous mixed diet, with a great contribution of animal protein source (meat, secondary products) has been observed.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Prehistoric earth oven facilities and the pathoecology of Chagas disease
           in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Karl J. Reinhard , Adauto Araújo
      Understanding the endemic region of a disease is part of developing a concept of the disease's natural history and its threat to human health in both ancient and modern times. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and has recently been identified as an emergent disease in North America. Ancient endemicity and reemergence has been demonstrated by an examination of a mummy found on the border between Coahuila, Mexico and Texas, USA. This mummified man, who died over 1000 years ago, exhibits the gross pathology of megacolon, which is consistent with Chagas disease. We are now exploring the human behavior that resulted in this parasitic infection. T. cruzi infection exists in a sylvatic cycle involving woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and triatomine insects (Triatoma spp.) in the lower Lower Pecos Canyonlands. The Archaic subsistence strategy may have impacted this life cycle directly through predation on woodrats and through the construction of baking pits. This would have expanded the habitat suitable for both woodrats and triatomine insects. We are proposing that archaeologists develop field methods to test this hypothesis.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Assessing measurement error in paleozoological osteometrics with bison
           remains
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Ryan P. Breslawski , David A. Byers
      Paleozoologists seldom consider how measurement error affects their osteometric data. This error may vary between measured dimensions or with degrees of physical deterioration. We investigate this problem with a paleontological sample of five bison radii displaying different levels of physical deterioration. We instructed twelve students to repeatedly measure two dimensions on each radius. The measurement data reveal between dimension variability in how well students repeat their own measurements and variability in how well they reproduce each other's measurements. Further, for one dimension, physical deterioration affects measurement repeatability and reproducibility. Our results suggest that analysts should exercise more care in selecting which bones they include in metric studies of fossil bison. Further, in paleozoological studies generally, analysts should calculate measurement errors using the most weathered and error prone specimens that they wish to include in a measured sample. When possible, these errors should be a product of repeated measurements by multiple analysts to ensure reproducibility.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Imperial timber? Dendrochronological evidence for large-scale road
           building along the Roman limes in the Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 53
      Author(s): Ronald M. Visser
      During the Roman period various military structures were build along the limes in the Lower Rhine Region. These military structures were connected with a road. This road has been excavated at various locations. One construction phase of the limes road and related structures was dendrochronologically dated to the autumn or winter of AD 124–125. This phase is probably related to a visit of emperor Hadrian to the region. The dendrochronological material of all contexts from this period shows a striking similarity of the tree ring patterns. This indicates that the wood came from a single region. This region is thought to have been located on the coarse soils between Xanten and Venlo. The timber was thus transported over a distance of approximately one hundred kilometres, making this the earliest example of large-scale long distance timber transport in the Lower Rhine region. The scale of the project justifies the assumption that the Roman state and army were involved. The oaks were most likely transported over water using barges. It should be noted that local wood was also used, indicating that the local woodlands were not yet depleted, but for this large-scale project the Roman army also had to look elsewhere for resources.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T05:57:46Z
       
  • Development of a metric technique for identification of rib number
           (position) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): an initial
           attempt
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Heather L. Ramsay , R. Lee Lyman
      Zooarchaeologists have traditionally largely ignored ungulate ribs because they are seldom identifiable to genus or species, and they cannot be sorted as to which rib is represented (first, seventh, twelfth). Measurements of six dimensions of 287 ribs from 15 individual white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) reveal that four dimensions do not differentiate ribs as to position. The ratio of costal facet height to costal facet width, however, gives a >90 percent chance of correctly categorizing proximal ribs as either anterior (ribs 1–6) or posterior (ribs 9–13). Future research should incorporate frequencies of anterior and posterior ribs into studies of skeletal part frequencies. The metric technique of rib seriation could be applicable to other ungulate taxa.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • In the footsteps of Pliny: tracing the sources of Garamantian carnelian
           from Fazzan, south-west Libya
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): E. Gliozzo , D.J. Mattingly , F. Cole , G. Artioli
      References in the ancient sources indicate that the Libyan desert was a source of ‘carbunculi’: semi-precious red stones and gemstones variously interpreted as ruby, garnet and spinel, amongst others. While gemstones are not attested in the geological strata of Fazzan (south-west Libya), a range of silica-based stones including chert, chalcedony, agate and carnelian are known to originate in this area, linked to an early civilisation known as the Garamantes. It has been long proposed that the geochemical signature and the variations in the relative proportions of quartz:moganite phases can be used to distinguish between groups of stones of different origin. The proposed methodology was tested on a number of archaeological samples from the Garamantian sites of Jarma (ancient Garama) and Saniat Jibril, in Fazzan. Fragments of chert, carnelian and amazonite found at the two sites have been identified as raw materials associated with beadmaking. Trace elemental data obtained by LA-ICP-MS were combined with mineralogical data obtained by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on the same samples and a group of reference samples. The dataset has been compared with the available literature and data from other localities around the world. To this purpose a preliminary database of silica-based materials was established for provenance work. Based on the scarce data available in the literature, the importation of these stones from Eastern localities such as India may be ruled out. The measured data on archaeological samples and debitage allow us to define a reliable reference group of parameters for materials from Fazzan, which are likely to be derived from a unique geological source. The methodology should be extended and compared with cherts and carnelians from a range of Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan sites. This characterisation work is a tool of high potential utility for a new investigation of ancient contact and trade across the Trans-Saharan zone.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • No Man is an island: evidence of pre-Viking Age migration to the Isle of
           Man
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): K.A. Hemer , J.A. Evans , C.A. Chenery , A.L. Lamb
      The Isle of Man occupies a central position in the Irish Sea, in close proximity to the coasts of Ireland, north Wales, northwest England and southwest Scotland. The island's location means it presents an ideal stopping point for seafarers navigating the Irish Sea ‘trade highway’, and consequently, during the early medieval period, the island was the focus of power struggles between British and Irish elites, and eventually became the target of attack and subsequent settlement of people from Scandinavia during the Viking Age. It is the Viking-Age evidence that has been central to the discussion of migration to the Isle of Man to date, whilst less consideration has been given to population mobility to the island prior to the 10th century. This paper seeks to address this by presenting strontium and oxygen isotope data for a sample (n = 12) of two pre-10th century cemetery populations from the Isle of Man: Balladoole and Peel Castle. This study highlights evidence for mobility to the island prior to the advent of Viking-Age migrations, and consideration is given to the possible motivations for this early medieval mobility.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:50:08Z
       
  • Optimal foraging, dietary change, and site use during the Paleolithic at
           Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Britt M. Starkovich
      This paper evaluates a long sequence of zooarchaeological remains from Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece) within the paradigm of evolutionary ecology. The prey choice, central place foraging, and patch choice models are applied to the dataset in order to understand subsistence shifts related to local resource depression and changes in the intensity of site use from the Middle Paleolithic through Mesolithic. Major trends in prey choice indicate that Middle Paleolithic hominins tended to focus on high-ranked large game resources, while Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic occupants shifted to lower-ranked small game, fast-moving animals in particular. Overarching shifts in prey use do not correspond to environmental change, so they likely reflect human impacts on local prey populations. Reconstructions of body part profiles indicate that hunters exploited large game animals locally, possibly as they passed through the gorge or drank at a nearby stream. Occupation intensity at the site was highest at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which is reflected by an increase in material culture such as lithics and hearth features, as well as different subsistence strategies. Specifically, bone marrow processing is more important, evidenced by ungulate transport decisions that focus on marrow-rich elements, and an overall increase in marrow processing intensity. Environmental data indicate that conditions in southern Greece were particularly favorable at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which supported rich ungulate faunas and larger populations of their hominin predators in the area. In general, faunal data from Klissoura Cave 1 fit within larger trends found in the Mediterranean over the course of the Late Pleistocene, which indicate that human hunting pressures were on the rise. However, many aspects of prey use are specific to Klissoura Cave 1, reflecting unique environmental and cultural circumstances of southern Greece at various phases in the occupation of the site.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Estimating original flake mass on blades using 3D platform area: problems
           and prospects
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antoine Muller , Chris Clarkson
      This study tests how well the ITMC (Initial-/Terminal-Mass Comparison) method of Clarkson and Hiscock (2011) measures reduction specifically on blades, a largely overlooked flake type in reduction measures. We demonstrate the utility of using platform area to model the extent of reduction on retouched blades. The platform areas of 124 blades were accurately measured in three dimensions using a digital scanner. A positive relationship was observed between 3D platform area and blade mass, with greater platform areas being associated with greater masses. Multivariate regression was used to strengthen the relationship between platform area and initial mass by isolating the variables of platform, termination and indentor type as well as external platform angle. As was proposed by Clarkson and Hiscock (2011), reduction intensity can be estimated by predicting initial blade mass from the relationship between platform area and mass, and comparing this to the observed mass of a retouched blade. Our analysis returned some surprising results that raise questions about the operation of fracture mechanics, particularly for punch blades and those with focalised platforms, and the suitability of the ITMC as a holistic method of flake reduction analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Electrochemical reconstruction of a heavily corroded Tarentum hemiobolus
           silver coin: a study based on microfocus X-ray computed microtomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Benedetto Bozzini , Alessandra Gianoncelli , Claudio Mele , Aldo Siciliano , Lucia Mancini
      In this paper we report on the electrochemical reconstruction of a Tarentum hemiobolus Ag coin, severely corroded in marine environment. As assessed by conventional analytical tools, most of the initially metallic Ag coin had been converted to AgCl by exposure to the aggressive coastal burial conditions. X-ray computed microtomography proved that only small portions of the artefact had preserved their metallic nature. Since the engraving was preserved partly in the corrosion product bulk and partly in the metallic rests, electrodeposition of Ag from the AgCl layer, under controlled conditions ensuring shape preservation, resulted in the reconstruction of the coin surface with full recovery of the original engraving. Such optimal electrodeposition conditions were identified by a combination of electrochemical and quasi-in situ X-ray microtomography experiments, carried out with artificially corrored engraved Ag wires. Microtomography of the reconstructed coin confirmed the compaction of the external Ag layer and disclosed that the central core of the coin still contains unconverted AgCl. The presence of such a mineralised core does not however impact the numismatic use of the coin and the safeguard of the original engraving.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Coastal paleogeography of the California–Oregon–Washington and
           Bering Sea continental shelves during the latest Pleistocene and Holocene:
           implications for the archaeological record
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jorie Clark , Jerry X. Mitrovica , Jay Alder
      Sea-level rise during the last deglaciation and through the Holocene was influenced by deformational, gravitational, and rotational effects (henceforth glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) that led to regional departures from eustasy. Deglacial sea-level rise was particularly variable spatially in areas adjacent to the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets. Such regional variability in sea level due to GIA is important to identify when investigating potential coastal migration pathways used by early Americans. An improved understanding of regional sea-level rise may also be used for predictive modeling of potential archaeological sites that are now submerged. Here we compute relative sea-level change across the California–Oregon–Washington and Bering Sea continental shelves since the Last Glacial Maximum using an ice-age sea-level theory that accurately incorporates time-varying shoreline geometry. The corresponding non-uniform sea-level rise across these continental shelves reveals significant departures from eustasy, which has important implications for improved understanding of potential coastal migration routes and predictive modeling of the location of now-submerged archaeological sites.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • LA-ICP-MS analysis of Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Charles A. Speer
      A key tenet of Clovis period hunter–gatherer mobility is the utilization of large ranges based on the appearance of exotic raw materials, particularly chert, in Clovis assemblages. The identification of the sources of chert in Clovis period assemblages is problematic as it has relied on macroscopic properties. Macroscopic characteristics of chert can be highly variable in a single outcrop, occur across very large areas, and have correlates in unrelated and far removed contexts. An instrumental geochemical approach was utilized that potentially offers advances in the capacity to link chert artifacts to their sources. Trace element data was recovered from 33 Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site (41BL323) using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This data was compared to trace element data recovered from 224 primary geologic samples of chert from multiple primary sources across the Edwards Plateau in Texas. The Clovis points were compared to the geologic sources using canonical discriminant analysis to establish group membership at three spatial scales: macro-regional (greater than 500 km), regional (between 30 and 500 km), and local (between 1 and 30 km). It was found at the macro-regional scale that 21 of the 33 Clovis points were to be geochemically similar to Edwards Plateau sources. At the regional scale, 15 of the 21 identified Edwards Plateau Clovis points could be attributed to a particular source. Lastly, only two Clovis points could be identified to particular sources at the local scale.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Intra- and inter-individual variation in δ13C and δ15N in human
           dental calculus and comparison to bone collagen and apatite isotopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jelmer W. Eerkens , Alex de Voogt , Tosha L. Dupras , Samuel C. Rose , Eric J. Bartelink , Vincent Francigny
      There are mixed opinions on the suitability of dental calculus for paleodietary reconstruction using stable isotope analysis. We examine δ13C and δ15N values of calculus samples from two regions, central California in the USA and Sai Island in the Sudan. When atomic C/N ratios are less than 12 in calculus, results show positive correlations at both the regional and individual level between stable isotopes of bone collagen and calculus, suggesting these materials track similar dietary behaviors. Correlations are still positive but lower between δ13C values of calculus and bone apatite. Stable isotope ratios of calculus show between 30% and 50% greater variation than bone, are typically enriched in 15N (mean = 2.1‰ higher), and are depleted in 13C relative to bone collagen (mean = 0.8‰ lower) and apatite (mean = 6.4‰ lower). Calculus from multiple teeth was analyzed separately for seven individuals to examine intra-individual variation. Results show that within an individual δ13C varies up to 1.8‰, and δ15N up to 2.1‰, which may explain some of the weak bone-calculus correlations previously reported in the literature. When atomic C/N ratios are greater than 12, calculus correlates more poorly with bone collagen, suggesting these samples should be treated with caution.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Variability in late Holocene shellfish assemblages: the significance of
           large shore barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) in South African
           West Coast sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonieta Jerardino
      The archaeological significance of barnacles has been documented in several places around the world, but this remains to be realised for South Africa. In the absence of local ethnographic observations, it was proposed that large barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) were taken to campsites attached to large black mussels (Choromytilus meridionalis) as part of scavenged beach-stranded fauna. Basic observations available until recently for South African West Coast shell middens showed that the presence of large shore barnacles is chronologically patterned. Some hints regarding transport decisions were also apparent. This paper examines the variability in large barnacle abundance through time and space using mollusc and crustacean shell samples from eight late Holocene sites situated at different distances from rocky shorelines. Modern knowledge on the ecology of collected species is used to interpret inter-assemblage variability. This study shows that barnacle abundance depends on at least three aspects, namely: the degree of wave exposure from which barnacles and other shellfish were collected, possible shifts in the main season of shellfish collection in the last 1700 years, and field processing before transporting shellfish loads to camps.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Assessing heavy metal exposure in Renaissance Europe using synchrotron
           microbeam techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonio Lanzirotti , Raffaella Bianucci , Racquel LeGeros , Timothy G. Bromage , Valentina Giuffra , Ezio Ferroglio , Gino Fornaciari , Otto Appenzeller
      A number of archaeological studies have used chemical analysis of preserved, human biological tissues to assess the potential exposure of historic figures and ancient populations to heavy metals. Accurately assessing historic levels of heavy-metal body burden for these individuals based on analysis of remnant soft-tissue, hair and bone collected from preserved human remains is often complicated by the potential for post-mortem chemical modifications and contamination of the body and burial site. This study employs high-resolution, synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, tomography and absorption spectroscopy of human remains collected in an archaeological context in an effort to discriminate between heavy metals such as mercury and lead that may have been incorporated through either endogenous or exogenous processes. These methods were used to analyze bone and hair samples from Ferrante II of Aragon, King of Naples (1469–1496) and Isabella of Aragon, Duchess of Milan (1470–1524). These individuals are likely to have been exposed to generally similar levels of heavy metals in their lifetime, would have been embalmed using similar methods and the post-mortem exposure to contaminants is likely to have been similar. Although the remains from both Ferrante II of Aragon and Isabella of Aragon contain high amounts of mercury and lead, the high-resolution and –sensitivity synchrotron microprobe techniques employed in this study provide insight in to the likelihood these metals were incorporated pre-mortem rather than as ante-mortem contaminants. Although synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping and tomography are generally consistent with measured mercury from Isabella hair samples being endogenous in nature, the high levels of mercury seen in Ferrante II's remains are most likely related to post-mortem embalming of the corpse. However, application of microfocused X-ray fluorescence compositional mapping and lead L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to bone samples collected from Ferrante II show that the measured lead is likely endogenous and the result of in-life exposure to this heavy metal.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Occurrence of lungfish in the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia dates
           back to 3850 yr BP
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Anne Kemp , Leon Huynen
      Bone fragments collected from the Platypus RockShelter in southeast Queensland, on the banks of the Brisbane River, can be compared with bone from the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and suggest that this species, which was widely distributed in Queensland in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits, was also found in the Brisbane River as recently as 3850 years before the present, based on current 14C dates. The fragments have dimensions and morphology consistent with parts of lungfish jaws and palatal bones, and differ from the bones of teleost fish of comparable size that live in the Brisbane River. Unfortunately, attempts to extract mitochondrial DNA from the bones have not been successful due to very low levels of endogenous DNA. The presence of morphologically identifiable lungfish bones suggests that the Brisbane River has, and always did have, a population of lungfish that belong in this river and were not translocated. The Brisbane River is separated from the Mary and Burnett Rivers by mountain ranges, and the Rockshelter is 90 km away from the nearest tributary of the Mary River. Using a morphological analysis of carbon-dated midden site skeletal material, we show that lungfish were present in the Brisbane River over three thousand years ago, and may always have been there, despite attempts to translocate lungfish to this habitat. This finding is significant because lungfish are now seriously at risk in all of their present habitats from human interference in the environment and the resulting loss of biodiversity. Confirmation that the Brisbane River contains a population of lungfish, and always has done, increases the need for protection of this endangered species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The alleged Early Palaeolithic artefacts are in reality geofacts: a
           revision of the site of Kończyce Wielkie 4 in the Moravian Gate,
           South Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Andrzej Wiśniewski , Janusz Badura , Tomasz Salamon , Józef Lewandowski
      In this paper we show that a site Kończyce Wielkie 4 (SW Poland) published in JAS (2010a) by Foltyn et al. can no longer be accepted as a reliable evidence for the oldest presence of humans in the northern part of Carpathians and Sudetes Mountains (Matuyama-Brunhes). Unfortunately, in the light of conducted analysis among others with Peacock's method, it seems that the lithics from Kończyce Wielkie appear to be much more similar to geofacts rather than to artefacts. As a background for comparison Lower Paleolithic artefacts from two German sites Wallendorf and Wangen were used. Moreover, the petrological determination of the finds from Kończyce Wielkie is also dubious issue. Foltyn et al. suggested a long distance transport of lithics from several sources. As it has been demonstrated in the paper, local glacial sediments consist of rocks that are analogous to published lithic spectrum. Finally, the geological data shown by Foltyn et al. seem to be incorrect.
      Authors did not take into account the results concerning the regional geology that indicate clearly much younger age of layers dated by Foltyn et al. (2010a) at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Taphonomy of Verreaux's Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) prey accumulations from
           the Cape Floral Region, South Africa: implications for archaeological
           interpretations
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Aaron Armstrong , Graham Avery
      We conducted a taphonomic analysis of modern prey accumulations of Verreaux's Eagle (VE; Aquila verreauxii) from the Cape Floral Region of South Africa. VE nest in or around cliffs and rocky outcrops, places that also attract other bone accumulators, including humans. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the signatures of VE bone accumulation with as much precision as possible in order to differentiate between the prey remains of other bone accumulators, especially in relation to fossil assemblages that originate in and around cliffs, rock shelters, and caves. Towards this end, we describe the taxonomic composition, skeletal-part representation, bone breakage patterns, and bone surface modifications of mammal bones as well as the range of variability within those signatures. Based on the frequency of bone modifications we determine that VE modify the bones of their prey more often than do other eagle species. We suggest that taphonomic patterns derived from predation by other eagle taxa are not the most appropriate means to identify VE predation in faunal assemblages. In addition, we conclude that there is patterned variability in the ways that VE accumulate and modify the bones of their prey. There are two distinct skeletal-parts preservation, bone breakage, and bone surface modification patterns among the prey in our sample: one that characterizes hyraxes, mole-rats, and carnivores, and another that characterizes hares and bovids. Faunal analysts investigating the potential role of VE at fossil sites should be aware of 1) these taphonomic patterns and differences and 2) that there is no singular pattern of accumulation. We define patterns of preservation, breakage, and bone modification that can be employed on a taxon-specific basis to distinguish VE prey remains from other bone accumulators.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Using LiDAR data to locate a Middle Woodland enclosure and associated
           mounds, Louisa County, Iowa
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Melanie A. Riley , Joseph A. Tiffany
      LiDAR data is used to locate an enclosure reported at the McKinney site (13LA1) as well as destroyed mounds associated with the Toolesboro mound group National Historic Landmark (13LA29). Using various geo-visualization and interpolation techniques, one of us (Riley) located the earthwork enclosure, eight mounds, and possibly a ninth or an excavation spoil pile. An anomaly north of 13LA1 and within the detected enclosure area were also identified. There is no modern survey relating to these two anomalies. Our results support historic accounts regarding the location and shape of the McKinney enclosure and its relationship to the Toolesboro mound group. All features found by LiDAR will be ground truthed in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • A combined approach: using NAA and petrography to examine ceramic
           production and exchange in the American southwest
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Mary F. Ownby , Deborah L. Huntley , Matthew A. Peeples
      Over the past few decades, ceramic provenance research has seen the increased use of both chemical and mineralogical analyses. However, the success of each method is dependent both on the geological environment and the behavioral processes that created the pottery under study. The combination of bulk chemical and petrographic datasets may assist in overcoming the shortcomings of each method and improve the assignment of ceramics to specific production locations. Our research uses a mixed mode approach based on dissimilarity matrices and multidimensional scaling. The resulting combined dataset helps us assess the geographic extent of production and distribution of Maverick Mountain Series and Roosevelt Red Ware pottery found in the Upper Gila and Mimbres valleys of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. These pottery types have been connected to northern migrants arriving in these areas during the 13th century AD and subsequent regional scale social changes. This research provides a case study in the advantages of using complementary analytical techniques and combining their results to answer behavioral questions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Shine like metal: an experimental approach to understand prehistoric
           graphite coated pottery technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Attila Kreiter , Szabolcs Czifra , Zsolt Bendő , Jánosné Egri Imre , Péter Pánczél , Gábor Váczi
      In the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, so-called graphite-coated vessels were ubiquitous in the Carpathian Basin. Studies on graphite-coated vessels are usually carried out from a typological point of view, describing the shape and decoration of such wares and assessing the effects that co-existing cultural groups may have had on each other. Even though the practice of graphite coating had been present in East-Central Europe for several centuries, the way graphite coating was produced has never been investigated systematically. Technological study of graphite coating can, however, highlight interesting details about this practice and the high skill and knowledge of potters that was necessary for this type of ceramic production. In this study, a methodology of making graphite coated vessels, and in turn achieving a metallic luster, is presented through a range of experiments. The results are compared with graphite coating found on archaeological ceramics from a Late Bronze Age site. The experiments point out that graphite coating can be achieved in several different ways; however, only a limited number of technological choices would result in highly metallic luster. During the experiments different graphite coating techniques were tried which elucidate the possible ways prehistoric potters utilized graphite, surface treatments and firing conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The utilisation of carnivore scavenging evidence in the interpretation of
           a protohistoric French pit burial
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Thomas Colard , Yann Delannoy , Stephan Naji , Stéphane Rottier , Joël Blondiaux
      Scavenging is one of the main taphonomic changes that bone assemblages undergo. This paper presents specific taphonomic data on bone modification by canids from the French archaeological site of Duisans ‘La Sèche-Epée,’ dating from the ‘La Tène A' period (500–400 BC). Anthropological description and analysis of two incomplete male skeletons found in a pit allows us to document the postmortem alteration of bodies by canid scavengers and poses several questions about the nature of the deposit. The morphology of these marks, which are sometimes similar to antemortem lesions, and the disarticulation and dispersal of anatomical parts are crucial elements that need to be accurately described and accounted for in archaeological or forensic contexts. The evidence of violent death and the secondary treatment of the cadavers can be interpreted as either an opportunistic votive burial, an actual sacrifice with a specific ritual pattern, or more traditionally, a deviant deposit in which the individuals were deprived of funerals and exposed to scavengers.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Characterising native plant resins from Australian Aboriginal artefacts
           using ATR-FTIR and GC/MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): C.D. Matheson , A.J. McCollum
      Resin use by Australian Aborigines has been documented in ethnographic accounts across the continent and is also evident from archaeological and anthropological artefacts. This research assesses the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the identification of native plant resins on museum artefacts. A collection of thirteen museum artefacts were analysed using light microscopy and characterised using both ATR-FTIR and GC/MS. The resins were identified to the plant genus and one to the species level, as spinifex (Triodia spp. R.Br.), ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys (F. Muell.) Baill.) and grass tree (Xanthorrhoea spp. Sm.) by comparison to a reference collection of modern exudates from 34 Australian plant species. The two analytical methods used, produced a significant agreement in results but one has practical advantages. On eight of the artefacts, ATR-FTIR was able to be performed on the residue in situ, without removal, presenting a non-destructive analytical method for the identification of resins which is applicable to rare and delicate artefacts from museum collections. Permission to remove the residue off the artefact is not always granted or feasible, so ATR-FTIR has a significant advantage over GC/MS and other methods which require chemical treatment or even destruction of the archaeological sample. Both of the methods examined are demonstrated to accurately infer the botanical origin of archaeological and anthropological resins, providing insight on the use, preparation and trading of resins, with the consequent contribution to an understanding of the development and use of hafted tools and other aspects of cultural development.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Developing a low cost 3D imaging solution for inscribed stone surface
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Adam P. Spring , Caradoc Peters
      The article uses a 3D imaging based solution where surface shading is determined by surface geometry. It is applied to inscribed stone surfaces in order to examine lettering and other carvings dated to the 5th - 9th centuries AD. Mid-range terrestrial laser scanning and structure from motion (SfM) based photogrammetry were cross-examined in order to create a low cost, but nevertheless highly accurate solution to 3D imaging that requires a computer, a camera, open source software like CloudCompare and a SfM based service called Photo located at ReCap360.autodesk.com. Ambient occlusion (AO) shading was used to show improvements made to the SfM data, which was achieved by adding known parameters to all photographs used. It simulates the direct light components of a light source so that exposed areas appear lightened and enclosed areas (like crevices and incisions) appear darkened. In the case study, AO was used to differentiate lettering in the inscription from damage and weathering on the granite surface of the Tristan Stone, as well as picking up a previously unnoticed wheel-head cross. This particular inscribed stone is located near Fowey in Cornwall, UK, and was known as the Long Stone before its name was changed on British Ordnance Survey (OS) Maps in 1951. The Tristan Stone was the first artefact to be scanned by the FARO Focus3D laser scanner after its release in 2010.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • High potential of calcareous tufas for integrative multidisciplinary
           studies and prospects for archaeology in Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Julie Dabkowski
      Calcareous tufas are continental carbonates from open-air conditions, specific to wet and warm periods. They contain abundant remains of fauna and flora fossilised in situ and may accumulate regularly over thousands of years offering high stratigraphic resolution for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. As they are mainly comprised of calcite, tufas allow direct and precise dating as well as geochemical reconstructions of past climates. Additionally, recent investigations have highlighted their strong potential for archaeology as several studied sequences provided high quality record of in situ prehistoric levels. Tufas are thus a unique archive in continental areas for development of synergic multidisciplinary investigations of past human societies and associated environmental and climate evolution. We emphasise that calcareous tufa are key-deposits to investigate human–environment–climate interactions during interglacial periods, from Lower Palaeolithic to Antiquity, in Europe.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • New ways to extract archaeological information from hyperspectral pixels
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Michael Doneus , Geert Verhoeven , Clement Atzberger , Michael Wess , Michal Ruš
      Airborne remote sensing for archaeology is the discipline that encompasses the study of archaeological remains using data collected from an airborne platform by means of digital or film-based aerial photography, airborne laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging etc. So far, airborne hyperspectral scanning or – more accurately – airborne imaging spectroscopy (AIS) has occupied only a very small niche in the field of archaeological remote sensing: besides reasons of cost, the common archaeologically-insufficient ground-sampling distance can be considered the main limiting factor. Moreover, the technical processing of these data sets with a high level of potential redundancy needs specialized software. Typically, calculation of band ratios and a principal component analysis are applied. As a result, the few practical applications of archaeological AIS have not been entirely convincing so far. The aim of this paper is to present new approaches for analysing archaeological AIS data. The imagery under study has a ground-sampling distance of 40 cm and covers the Roman town of Carnuntum (Austria). Using two algorithms embedded in a specifically developed MATLAB® toolbox, it will be shown how the extracted archaeological information can be enhanced from high-resolution hyperspectral images. A comparison with simultaneously acquired vertical photographs will indicate the specific advantages of high-resolution AIS data and the gain one can obtain when exploiting its potential using any of the newly presented methods.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
 
 
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