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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 254 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 52)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Ancient West & East     Full-text available via subscription  
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access  
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archéopages : Archéologie et société     Open Access  
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archipel     Open Access  
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Berkala Arkeologi     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín de Arqueología Experimental     Open Access  
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conimbriga     Open Access  
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cuadernos de Arqueología de la Universidad de Navarra     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern Christian Art     Full-text available via subscription  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [65 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The transition from lead transparent to tin-opacified glaze productions in
           the western Islamic lands: al-Andalus, c. 875–929 CE
    • Authors: Elena Salinas; Trinitat Pradell
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 94
      Author(s): Elena Salinas, Trinitat Pradell
      The earliest glazed ware in al-Andalus is dated to the Emiral period (c. 850–875 CE) and is not until the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031 CE) that a distinctive polychrome tin glaze started being produced. A short transition period (c. 875–925 CE) in which elaborate monochrome and bichrome transparent glazes wares coexist with polychrome transparent and tin opaque glazed wares has been identified. The existence of a polychrome lead transparent glaze production in al-Andalus wares is demonstrated; it has distinctive composition and methods of production from monochrome and bichrome wares, and shares a distinctive absence of foot and overglaze application of the decorations with the tin-opacified wares. With regard to the possible routes of the introduction of the polychrome lead and tin glazes into the western Mediterranean the Tunisian connection seems completely discarded. Moreover, and although some similarities between the Cordoba and the Abbasid productions such as similar tin glaze recipe and decorative patterns and use of lead glazes, can be traced, the dissimilarities, such as, the use of overglaze decorations, absence of alkali transparent glazes, variances in the tableware shapes and absence of foot, are still more important, and do not support a clear link between them.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2018)
       
  • New osteological criteria for the identification of domestic horses,
           donkeys and their hybrids in archaeological contexts
    • Authors: Pauline Hanot; Corentin Bochaton
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 94
      Author(s): Pauline Hanot, Corentin Bochaton
      The identification of domestic equid remains is a recurrent issue and an intense subject of discussion in zooarchaeological studies. Indeed, despite historical sources describing the key role of equids in numerous past societies, their accurate identification on archaeological sites is still problematic, and only few methods have been developed in order to distinguish the bones of horses, donkeys and their hybrids. Moreover, some of the extant published visual macroscopic criteria are considered as possibly unreliable, partly because of the absence of preliminary test on a large sample of modern specimens. In this work, we try to solve these issues by testing a set of macroscopic visual criteria, collected in the literature or newly described, on a comparative sample of 107 modern skeletons of domestic equids. We quantified the reliability of these criteria and found evidence of 26 osteological characters allowing for the identification of between 90% and 100% of the horses and donkeys of our comparative sample. A method to identify the complete or sub-complete skeletons of hybrids is also proposed using combinations of characters observed on several bones. Finally, the defined osteological criteria are observed on a set of archaeological skeletons, coming from antique to modern sites, in order to demonstrate the applicability of our approach to archaeological remains. The use of our methodology on zooarchaeological samples could allow for a better assessment of the presence of donkeys and hybrids in archaeological sites, and thus, could help improve the knowledge of their respective importance and use by human past societies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2018)
       
  • Potential dietary, non-metabolic accumulation of arsenic (As) in
           seaweed-eating sheep's teeth: Implications for archaeological studies
    • Authors: Magdalena Blanz; Kate Britton; Karen Grant; Jörg Feldmann
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 94
      Author(s): Magdalena Blanz, Kate Britton, Karen Grant, Jörg Feldmann
      Evaluating the extent of an individual's exposure to arsenic, (potentially) indicative of proximity to smelting activities, poisoning, or dietary history, has proven difficult in archaeological contexts due to uncertainties surrounding how arsenic biogenically accumulates in the tissues commonly found at archaeological sites such as bone and tooth, in addition to issues of diagenesis. In this study, teeth of modern sheep naturally exposed to high amounts of arsenic by means of seaweed in their diet are compared to the teeth of a less exposed ‘control group’ of modern sheep consuming predominantly grass. Through analysis of total arsenic and other element concentrations in samples of enamel, cementum and dentine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS), as well as by bioimaging of radial tooth sections of sheep molars by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), this research demonstrates that in teeth of sheep exposed to dietary arsenic, arsenic predominantly accumulates in the infundibulum and occlusal dentine. The major route of uptake of arsenic in these teeth is therefore likely not by ingestion and metabolisation during growth of the tooth, as is thought to be the case for lead and barium, but rather due to direct surface contact, potentially even occurring during mastication. The implications of this type of in vivo chemical alteration of teeth for archaeological trace element studies are explored.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2018)
       
  • Taphonomy and negative results: An integrated approach to ceramic-bound
           protein residue analysis
    • Authors: Andrew Barker; Jonathan Dombrosky; Barney Venables; Steve Wolverton
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 94
      Author(s): Andrew Barker, Jonathan Dombrosky, Barney Venables, Steve Wolverton
      Despite the growing body of evidence demonstrating that proteins can survive for thousands to even millions of years in selected contexts, there are relatively few examples of the successful recovery and identification of archaeological protein residues from ceramic artifacts. Claims of positive results are sometimes contentious and frequently challenged. One source of confusion in the debate is a general lack of consideration for the taphonomic histories of ceramic-bound proteins. To gain insight into this issue, we conducted an integrated, mass spectrometry-based study examining ceramic-bound protein that was experimentally aged over the course of 12 months. Results demonstrate the rapid degradation of proteins, raise questions about the degree to which ceramic-bound proteins can be expected to survive over time, and reveal some of the limitations of non-targeted mass spectrometry-based analyses. Further, by comparing results from our experimentally-aged samples to the those we obtained from a multi-pronged study of archaeological ceramics from the American Southwest, we are able to draw more confident conclusions regarding our lack of meaningful matches in the archaeological samples.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 94 (2018)
       
  • Ancient tin production: Slags from the Iron Age Carvalhelhos hillfort (NW
           Iberian Peninsula)
    • Authors: Elin Figueiredo; João Fonte; Alexandre Lima; João Pedro Veiga; Rui J.C. Silva; José Mirão
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Elin Figueiredo, João Fonte, Alexandre Lima, João Pedro Veiga, Rui J.C. Silva, José Mirão
      Provenance and production of tin in the Ancient World has since long been a major topic of discussion among archaeologists. In Western Europe, where significant tin ore (cassiterite) deposits are known, only a few remains of ancient tin production, such as tin slags, have been detected. In the present work, elemental and microstructural analyses by WDXRF, SEM-EDS and XRD were performed on recently recognised tin slags from the Iron Age Carvalhelhos hillfort located in NW Iberia, a territory that represents the largest extension with tin mineralisation in Western Europe. Elemental and microstructural characterisation of cassiterite collected in a pilot field survey in the region of the hillfort are presented and discussed, as well as two ceramic fragments that could be part of a smelting structure and an iron slag from the settlement. Results show that the tin slags have variable but high contents in Sn, similarly to Pre-Medieval tin slags found in other Western European areas, but also high contents of Ta and Nb, which specifically distinguish them from other tin slags, such as those found in SW Britain. Tin ores from the hillfort region frequently have Ta and Nb in cassiterite solid solution or as inclusions of columbite group minerals, relating well with the Carvalhelhos tin slags. Up to present, the Carvalhelhos slags are amongst the very few ancient tin slags known in Western Europe, and their study can contribute to a better knowledge on ancient tin sources and trade routes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Dendroarchaeological evidence of early medieval water mill technology
    • Authors: Bernhard Muigg; Willy Tegel; Pascal Rohmer; Uwe Eduard Schmidt; Ulf Büntgen
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Bernhard Muigg, Willy Tegel, Pascal Rohmer, Uwe Eduard Schmidt, Ulf Büntgen
      The use of hydropower provides an important technical advancement over hand-operated grain mills, which steadily increased over large parts of Europe from the early Middle Ages onwards. Since written information on the technical design of early medieval water mills is generally missing, archaeological evidence may provide unique insights into their evolution. Well-preserved wooden finds from continental Europe are, however, extremely rare. Here we present dendroarchaeological results from an exceptional number of structural elements of the Audun-le-Tiche water mill in northern France. Taxonomical identification, tree-ring dating and observations of technical features provide a detailed picture of milling technology as early as the Carolingian period in the mid-9th century. A well-preserved waterwheel segment allows the reconstruction of an undershot start-and-float wheel. Numerous wooden paddles reveal a technological evolution from one-piece paddles to composite forms. Placing our results in the context of other early medieval mills, suggests a rather uniform consruction design within, though different beyond the Frankish Empire. This study provides a detailed description of early medieval water milling technology that possibly contributed to the success of agriculture as well as cultural and economic growth of the Carolingian Empire.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Interactive relighting, digital image enhancement and inclusive
           diagrammatic representations for the analysis of rock art superimposition:
           The main Pleito cave (CA, USA)
    • Authors: E. Kotoula; D.W. Robinson; C. Bedford
      Pages: 26 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): E. Kotoula, D.W. Robinson, C. Bedford
      This paper deals with the documentation, and virtual visual analysis of pictographs using interactive relighting, digital image enhancement techniques and diagrammatic representations. It discusses areas of interest for the analysis of low surface detail, large and geometrically complex superimposed pictographs. The synergy of reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) and decorrelation stretch (DS) aimed to improve the study of superimposition via the enhanced visualization of the surface morphology, dominant features, paint characteristics and layering. Additionally, diagrammatic representations of the results of the image-based analysis provided a valuable tool for interpretation and integration of the diverse dataset from the ongoing research in the Pleito Cave in California. This method allows revisiting unresolved hypotheses concerning the site by unpacking chemical and visual data in superimposed sequences.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Inferring fishing intensity from contemporary and archaeological
           size-frequency data
    • Authors: Michael J. Plank; Melinda S. Allen; Reno Nims; Thegn N. Ladefoged
      Pages: 42 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Michael J. Plank, Melinda S. Allen, Reno Nims, Thegn N. Ladefoged
      Establishing whether pre-industrial societies caused significant harvesting impacts on fish stocks is often hindered by the paucity of historic evidence. Some archaeological assemblages contain information on the sizes and/or species of individuals in the catch, but this does not provide any direct evidence on the absolute size of the catch or comparative metrics. We develop a method for using size-frequency data to infer the intensity of fishing and the size-selectivity of the fishing gear in use. The model allows quantitative estimates to be made for the depletion of snapper populations relative to the unexploited pre-human biomass. We evaluate this method using six modern and five archaeological datasets from northern New Zealand for a key commercial and artisanal species, Australasian snapper or silver seabream (Pagrus auratus). Our method uses two models for the size selectivity of fishing: one S-shaped, representing mobile fishing gear such as trawls or seines, and one dome-shaped, representing static fishing gear, such as hooks, longlines, or gillnets. The results show that the estimated fishing intensity is lower, and the size of fish being caught is larger, in the archaeological datasets than in the modern datasets, as might be expected. Nevertheless, some of the archaeological datasets show evidence that is consistent with substantial resource depression and depletion of the largest fish in the population, while others suggest only light exploitation. The method allows the five archaeological cases to be rank ordered in terms of exploitation pressures and the relative orderings are further assessed using independent information on site chronology, stratigraphy, and recovery procedures (i.e., screen size). Other factors that can affect size-frequency data are briefly considered, but require additional environmental and taphonomic data that are not currently available. The results provided by our new method support the hypothesis that the depletion of large fish and capture of progressively smaller ones occurred in the pre-European era, albeit in spatially localized areas and at a much less severe level than in modern times. The model results also help identify potential biases in the archaeological assemblages and directions for further research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Reaching the human scale: A spatial and temporal downscaling approach to
           the archaeological implications of paleoclimate data
    • Authors: Daniel Contreras; Joel Guiot; Romain Suarez; Alan Kirman
      Pages: 54 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Daniel Contreras, Joel Guiot, Romain Suarez, Alan Kirman
      Assessing the implications of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data at temporal and spatial scales that would have directly intersected with human decision-making and activity is a fundamental archaeological challenge. This paper addresses this challenge by presenting a spatial and temporal downscaling method that can provide quantitative high-spatio-temporal-resolution estimates of the local consequences of climatic change. Using a case study in Provence (France) we demonstrate that a centennial-scale Mediterranean-wide model of Holocene climate, in conjunction with modern geospatial and climate data, can be used to generate explicit and solidly-grounded monthly estimates of temperature, precipitation, and cloudiness at landscape scales and with annual resolution, enabling consideration of climate variability at human scales and meeting the data requirements of socioecological models focused on human activity. While the results are not reconstructions – that is, particular values are single realizations, consistent with the coarse-grained data but not individually empirically derived nor unique solutions – they provide a more suitable basis for assessing the human consequences of climate change than can coarse-grained data.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Nitrogen content variation in archaeological bone and its implications for
           stable isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating
    • Authors: Eileen Jacob; Diletta Querci; Miguel Caparros; Cecilio Barroso Ruiz; Thomas Higham; Thibaut Devièse
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Eileen Jacob, Diletta Querci, Miguel Caparros, Cecilio Barroso Ruiz, Thomas Higham, Thibaut Devièse
      The collagen component of ancient bones is routinely isolated for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope studies. However, it is impossible to tell the state of collagen preservation from visual inspection of bones. At the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU), the percent nitrogen by weight (%N) of a ∼5 mg sample of bone powder is measured on a mass spectrometer and used as a proxy for protein content. A previous study showed that samples with %N > 0.76 are considered likely to produce sufficient collagen for radiocarbon dating (Brock et al., 2010b). However, the extent of variation between bone %N and collagen yield is unclear, as is the intra-bone variation in %N. Here, we report a series of tests performed on Palaeolithic bones known to have variable collagen preservation. This new study shows significant variation in %N within the same bone and that there is sometimes a lack of correlation between %N and collagen yield. These results suggest that for bone samples from difficult environments or from Pleistocene contexts, it may be worth sub-sampling for %N in different locations of the bone (if possible) and then attempting to extract collagen from marginally preserved bones (%N around 0.2–0.7%), as they may still yield sufficient collagen for isotope and dating studies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Towards the detection of dietary cereal processing through absorbed lipid
           biomarkers in archaeological pottery
    • Authors: Simon Hammann; Lucy J.E. Cramp
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Simon Hammann, Lucy J.E. Cramp
      The uptake of cereal agriculture in the Neolithic is one of the most important processes in later human prehistory. However, in many parts of Europe, early evidence from pollen or macrofossils is scarce or inconclusive, and there are considerable ambiguities about timing, intensity and the mode of transition to agriculture in these regions. An alternative approach is organic residue analysis, a technique that targets lipids preserved in the walls of unglazed ceramic pots used for storage and processing of foodstuffs. By analysing the molecular and isotopic composition of absorbed lipid residues, many different food items and processing techniques can be detected and distinguished. However, this approach is by-and-large limited to animal-based food sources, and despite their importance, many plant-based food items including cereals are currently not accessible with this approach. For a better understanding of the behaviour of cereal lipids, cooking experiments were conducted and the uptake of cereal-specific compounds such as alkylresorcinols and plant sterols into the ceramic matrix was investigated using a new sensitive method based on GC-Q-ToF-MS. Furthermore, changes in the lipid composition through post-burial degradation was assessed by incubation of potsherds dosed with cereal lipids at 35 °C in compost. The cooking experiments showed that only small quantities of cereal lipids are liberated, but additional lipid sources (meat) can increase the transfer of cereal biomarkers into the ceramic matrix. Anoxic degradation conditions allowed for twentyfold higher levels of alkylresorcinols and twofold higher levels of plant sterols after 20 weeks compared to oxic conditions. Therefore, samples from anoxic burial environments should be targeted and high sensitivity methods are a necessity to detect the trace amounts of cereal-specific biomarkers. To test the applicability of these biomarkers for archaeological pottery, organic residues from ten coarse ware vessels from an anoxic burial context at Vindolanda were analysed. Plant sterols and stanols were detected in three sherds, and two of the sherds also contained traces of alkylresorcinols.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Innovation in bone technology and artefact types in the late Upper
           Palaeolithic of China: Insights from Shuidonggou Locality 12
    • Authors: Shuangquan Zhang; Luc Doyon; Yue Zhang; Xing Gao; Fuyou Chen; Ying Guan; Francesco d’Errico
      Pages: 82 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Shuangquan Zhang, Luc Doyon, Yue Zhang, Xing Gao, Fuyou Chen, Ying Guan, Francesco d’Errico
      Information on Palaeolithic bone technology from China is sparse. Here we present the results of a techno-functional analysis of a bone tool assemblage recovered from Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG12), layer 11, Northern China, dated to c. 12-11 cal ka BP. Six bone tool artefact types are identified: wedges, awls, spear points, a knife handle, a possible sewing implement, and a notched carpal. Two other artefacts could not be attributed to a specific type. The artefacts are made of Procapra przewalsikii, Lepus sp., Sus sp., Equus przewalskii, and unidentifiable bone fragments from medium/large size mammals. At least three methods are used to extract blanks: percussion of altered limb bones, longitudinal splitting of Sus sp. canine and large rib, and probably, the groove-and-splinter technique. Grinding and scraping are the dominant shaping techniques together with grooving, notching, polishing, drilling, flaking, and retouching. Tool type variability and function fit the hypothesis according to which the SDG12 and similar sites would be residential camps in which hunter-gatherers produced artefacts enabling them to cope with cold environmental conditions. Our results, however, indicate that not all bone tools match the expectations associated with a serial specialist production. Expedient wedges and awls may have been produced by any member of the group, and whenever the need arose. The SDG12 bone tool assemblage provides a significant contribution to our knowledge about hunter-gatherer adaptations to the Tardiglacial environments of Northern China.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Pica 8: Refining dietary reconstruction through amino acid δ13C analysis
           of tendon collagen and hair keratin
    • Authors: Alice Mora; Aryel Pacheco; Charlotte Roberts; Colin Smith
      Pages: 94 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Alice Mora, Aryel Pacheco, Charlotte Roberts, Colin Smith
      Stable isotope analysis of archaeological human remains is routinely applied to explore dietary habits and mobility patterns. The isotope information pertaining to the period prior to death may help in identifying locals and non-locals, especially when investigating individuals from the same funerary context but believed to have been highly mobile across the landscape. Based on the variety of the funerary goods in graves and what it is believed their diets comprised, it is thought that both local and non-local individuals were buried at the inland funerary site of Pica 8 (northern Chile, Late Intermediate Period, ∼1050–500 BP); however, uncertainties over the dietary intakes and mobility histories of these individuals still persist. The aim of this study is to refine the dietary characterization of a subset of Pica 8 individuals by increasing the temporal resolution of their dietary reconstructions, specifically throughout the last period of their life, and by identifying the multiple sources of food in their overall diets. This is achieved by analysing the amino acid carbon isotope composition of hair keratin and, for the first time, that of tendon collagen. This study proposes a new method for identifying the predominant food source (terrestrial or marine) in a mixed diet using phenylalanine, valine and leucine δ 13C values measured in collagenous tissues. Herein, tendon is proven to be an ideal tissue for isotopically characterising the final year of an individual's life. Our results show that individuals previously identified as non-locals, based on long-term food consumption, had in reality abandoned their original dietary habits typical of distant regions many months before death, and hence had presumably relocated to the locality of Pica.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • The role of pottery in Middle Neolithic societies of western Mediterranean
           (Sardinia, Italy, 4500-4000 cal BC) revealed through an integrated
           morphometric, use-wear, biomolecular and isotopic approach
    • Authors: Laura Fanti; Léa Drieu; Arnaud Mazuy; Thierry Blasco; Carlo Lugliè; Martine Regert
      Pages: 110 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Laura Fanti, Léa Drieu, Arnaud Mazuy, Thierry Blasco, Carlo Lugliè, Martine Regert
      The use of pottery in the Early Neolithic communities of Western Mediterranean has begun to be addressed by recent studies concerning the residues of dietary commodities in potsherds. In order to contribute to a broader perspective on the issue of pottery function, we investigate pottery assemblages through an integrated methodology, combining the study of vessel morphology and morphometry, use-wear analysis, biomolecular and compound-specific carbon isotopic analysis of residues. We focus on the use of pottery containers by advanced Middle Neolithic societies of Sardinia (Italy, 4500-4000 cal BC), protagonists of significant technical, economic and cultural changes in the completion of Neolithisation in this island. The aims are to elucidate the role of whole pottery assemblages in technical and socioeconomic systems of Middle Neolithic communities and to provide data on the exploitation of animal and plant resources during this phase. Based on the integrated combination of data, six categories of vessel use are identified. The results reveal a differential integration of vessels in activities related to the exploitation of distinct kinds of resources (ruminant adipose/dairy fats and plant foods vs. non-ruminant and aquatic products) and highlight specific behaviours of Middle Neolithic societies in selecting pottery morphotypes for different uses, notably in processing products with heating.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • An evaluation of fecal stanols as indicators of population change at
           Cahokia, Illinois
    • Authors: A.J. White; Lora R. Stevens; Varenka Lorenzi; Samuel E. Munoz; Carl P. Lipo; Sissel Schroeder
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): A.J. White, Lora R. Stevens, Varenka Lorenzi, Samuel E. Munoz, Carl P. Lipo, Sissel Schroeder
      Fecal stanols deposited in sediment provide evidence of trace human waste products and have been proposed as a proxy for measuring population change. Despite its potential to contribute to paleodemographic studies, the method has not been evaluated against conventional archaeological population reconstructions to determine its fidelity in identifying changes in ancient populations nor has it been applied in an environmental setting outside of the Arctic, where low temperatures enhance stanol preservation. We studied sediment cores recovered from a lake adjacent to Cahokia, the largest and most well-studied prehistoric mound center in North America. We found fecal stanol data closely track independently established population reconstructions from multiple sources, confirming the utility of the method and demonstrating its viability in temperate climates.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Using stable isotopes and functional weed ecology to explore social
           differences in early urban contexts: The case of Lattara in mediterranean
           France
    • Authors: Rudolph Alagich; Armelle Gardeisen; Natàlia Alonso; Núria Rovira; Amy Bogaard
      Pages: 135 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 93
      Author(s): Rudolph Alagich, Armelle Gardeisen, Natàlia Alonso, Núria Rovira, Amy Bogaard
      Integrated stable isotope investigation of plant and animal ecology can shed new light on the practicalities and politics of land management. Ecological analysis of archaeobotanical weed flora offers a complementary approach to arable growing conditions. Here we introduce the first combined study of stable isotope compositions (carbon and nitrogen) of plant and faunal remains and functional weed ecology from mediterranean France in order to investigate agricultural strategies under urbanisation and their social implications. Animal bones and charred crops and weeds are investigated from two archaeologically distinct residential areas from 5th century BCE Lattara, zones 1 and 27, during a period characterised by significant urban expansion in the region. Plant carbon and nitrogen isotope composition and functional weed ecology suggest some differences in growing conditions between crops found in the two zones, zone 27 being associated with more intensively cultivated crops than zone 1, where extensive cultivation, which can achieve much greater surplus, was dominant. These findings coincide with archaeological evidence of a ‘richer’ variety of material culture and foodstuffs in zone 1. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of animal bone collagen suggest that the main domesticates from both zones consumed a similar diet; however, rabbits exhibit a difference, with those from zone 1 having significantly higher δ15N, implying that the two zones sourced this species differently.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • A techno-functional perspective on quartz micro-notches in Sibudu's
           Howiesons Poort indicates the use of barbs in hunting technology
    • Authors: P. de la Peña; N. Taipale; L. Wadley; V. Rots
      Pages: 166 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): P. de la Peña, N. Taipale, L. Wadley, V. Rots
      In this paper we present the results of a use-wear study of quartz micro-notches identified during a technological analysis of lithics from the Howiesons Poort layers of Sibudu Cave. Building on the technological analysis and preliminary functional screening of the archaeological material, a series of experiments was designed to evaluate different hypotheses for notch formation (blank production, intentional notching, hafting, projectile use, and trampling). The experimental reference collection was compared with archaeological micro-notches and a large sample of other archaeological quartz pieces (including bladelets, bipolar blanks, flakes and retouched pieces). This allowed us to evaluate the causes of micro-notch formation in the studied assemblage. Results indicate two novelties in the Howiesons Poort hunting technology at Sibudu: the use of quartz barbs and non-retouched quartz blanks. It seems that in addition to backed pieces (segments, obliquely backed points, etc.), unretouched pieces were mounted as elements in hunting weapons during the Howiesons Poort techno-tradition. Seven probable and 29 tentative barbs were identified. We thus present one of the strongest and oldest bodies of evidence for the use of barbs as projectile elements.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Fish and resilience among Early Holocene foragers of southern Scandinavia:
           A fusion of stable isotopes and zooarchaeology through Bayesian mixing
           modelling
    • Authors: Adam Boethius; Torbjörn Ahlström
      Pages: 196 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Adam Boethius, Torbjörn Ahlström
      This study highlights the importance of different protein sources in the diet of Early and Middle Mesolithic humans in southern Scandinavia, and illustrates variation and change in protein consumption patterns during the Early Holocene. By combining previously published stable isotope data with new analyses of human and animal bone remains, a Bayesian mixing model was used to reveal that fishing was more important than previously anticipated in the foraging economy. Incorporating the zooarchaeological record as a prior to guide the Bayesian model enabled further study of Early Holocene foraging in the region. Although primarily a study of human diet, because the results indicate that aquatic systems were more important than previously acknowledged, it is possible to discuss the implications for understanding Early Holocene subsistence strategies and mobility. Furthermore, by incorporating both zooarchaeological data and human stable isotope analysis, the methodology can advance palaeodietary studies, by generating dietary protein estimations that can be used to investigate subsistence strategies across a diverse set of human societies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • On the use of copper isotope signatures in archaeometallurgy: A comment
           on Powell et al. (2017, J. Arch. Sci. 88)
    • Authors: Moritz Jansen
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Moritz Jansen
      Cu isotope characterization of copper-based artifacts is a powerful tool used in recent decades to investigate the types of ore smelted in ancient metal production. Within a larger sample set, Powell et al. (2017) have identified a shift from positive δ65Cu values obtained for Eneolithic artifacts in the Balkans (5000–3600 BC) to more moderate and negative δ65Cu values of Bronze Age artifacts (2500–1000 BC), with a so-called “copper hiatus” between these two periods. Powell et al. concluded that accessible oxidized ore sources in this region were totally exhausted by the end of the Eneolithic period, directly leading to a “hiatus” in copper production. After the “hiatus”, starting with the Early Bronze Age, they proposed that sulfide ores were smelted using the Mitterberg process. The current paper addresses some weaknesses of the arguments put forth by Powell et al. and instead argues that Cu isotope ratios must be jointly considered with additional archaeometallurgical and archaeological investigations. Selective changes in preference for metal alloys likely affected the Cu isotope composition. Metallurgical operations using distinct Cu isotope reservoirs can alter the univariate Cu isotope ratio (65Cu/63Cu). Key points that must be considered are the transition from pure copper in the Eneolithic to arsenical copper in the Bronze Age, the co-smelting of distinct ore types, and the co-melting of metals derived from multiple smelting operations or from re-used metal artifacts. Moreover, there is no archaeological evidence for the Mitterberg smelting process in the Balkans during the Early Bronze Age.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Copper isotopes as a means of determining regional metallurgical practices
           in European prehistory: A reply to Jansen (2018, J. Arch. Sci. 89)
    • Authors: W. Powell; R. Mathur; A.H. Bankoff; J. John; O. Chvojka; M. Tisucká; A. Bulatović; V. Filipović
      Pages: 216 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): W. Powell, R. Mathur, A.H. Bankoff, J. John, O. Chvojka, M. Tisucká, A. Bulatović, V. Filipović
      We present a detailed response to the critique by Mr. Jansen of the paper “Digging Deeper: Insights into Metallurgical Transitions in European Prehistory through Copper Isotopes”. When we consider Cu isotope ratios of European Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts in the context of their local geological settings, climates, and archaeological contexts, Mr. Jansen's hypothesis that 63Cu enrichment results from the adoption of fahlore ores is untenable. In both Serbia and Central Europe, the earliest copper production is associated with 65Cu-enriched ores and subsequently produced artifacts yield lower ranges δ65Cu. This shift in Cu isotopic composition correlates with the initial use of predominantly hypogene ores, not with variations in their trace element content. Essentially the expanded dataset supports the conclusions that were presented in the original paper—Cu isotopes are an effective means of delineating the transition from oxide-based smelting to methodologically more complex smelting of sulphide ores in prehistoric Europe with its relatively limited production and trade. Mixing did not mask the critical Cu isotope signatures in this setting. Therefore, Cu isotope compositions of artifacts can be used to interpret the mineralogical character of the ores from which they were produced, regardless of their provenance, as long as trade networks remained within a region of similar climatic history.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2018)
       
  • Joint health in free-ranging and confined small bovids - Implications for
           early stage caprine management
    • Authors: Michaela I. Zimmermann; Nadja Pöllath; Mihriban Özbaşaran; Joris Peters
      Pages: 13 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Michaela I. Zimmermann, Nadja Pöllath, Mihriban Özbaşaran, Joris Peters
      Human interference with the life cycle of wild ruminant species in the 10th-9th millennia BCE was essential to the ‘Neolithic Revolution’ in the Near East. Being a process of learning by doing, initial ruminant management must have been challenging to both founder flocks and people, but information about potential problems is hitherto lacking in the archaeological record. Here we report on a skeletal condition affecting joint health in small bovids. Detailed examination of the bone surfaces of astragalus of modern and Goitered gazelles as well as wild and domestic sheep revealed circumscribed mesoscopic lesions that we classified into five stages based on their size and properties. Our study demonstrates that intra-articular bone damage is significantly more pronounced in animals living confined to enclosures. Similar non-physiologic conditions have been evidenced in juvenile and adult sheep from early Neolithic contexts throughout Anatolia and interpreted as evidence for locomotor stress due to restricted mobility and stabling on-site. Still in the course of the early Neolithic, joint health improved significantly, implying a better mastering of sheep management over the centuries. In conclusion, pathologic profiling yields the potential for tracing initial management of captive ruminants. Apart from Southwest Asia, the methodological approach presented here seems appropriate for detecting similar developments in the human-animal relationship of behaviorally comparable medium- and large-sized herbivore taxa in other parts of the Old and New Worlds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Predictive modeling for archaeological site locations: Comparing logistic
           regression and maximal entropy in north Israel and north-east China
    • Authors: Ido Wachtel; Royi Zidon; Shimon Garti; Gideon Shelach-Lavi
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Ido Wachtel, Royi Zidon, Shimon Garti, Gideon Shelach-Lavi
      Archaeological predictive modeling is a tool that helps assess the likelihood of archaeological sites being present at different locations in the landscape. Such models are used for research purposes, as an analytical tool to better explain settlement patterns and past human behavior. They are also an important tool for the preservation of archaeological sites, as they can help planners avoid areas where sites are likely to exist. In this study we compare two methods of predictive modeling for archaeological site locations using two independent case studies. The more commonly used method of logistic regression is compared with a newer method of maximal entropy (MaxEnt). We examine the effectiveness of both models on two independent datasets collected from the Upper Galilee (northern Israel) and the Fuxin area (northeast China). While both methods have proven useful, in both cases the MaxEnt models produced much better results, which were much more efficient, than those of the logistic regression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • The ecology of Roman trade. Reconstructing provincial connectivity with
           similarity measures
    • Authors: Xavier Rubio-Campillo; Jean-Marc Montanier; Guillem Rull; Juan Manuel Bermúdez Lorenzo; Juan Moros Díaz; Jordi Pérez González; José Remesal Rodríguez
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Xavier Rubio-Campillo, Jean-Marc Montanier, Guillem Rull, Juan Manuel Bermúdez Lorenzo, Juan Moros Díaz, Jordi Pérez González, José Remesal Rodríguez
      The creation of the Roman Empire promoted the connectivity of a vast area around the Mediterranean sea. Mobility and trade flourished over the Roman provinces as massive amounts of goods were shipped over thousands of kilometres through sea, rivers and road networks. Several works have explored these dynamics of interaction in specific case studies but there is still no consensus on the intensity of this connectivity beyond local trade. We argue here that the debate on the degree of large-scale connectivity across the empire is caused by a lack of appropriate methods and proxies of economic activity. The last years have seen an improvement on the availability of evidence as a growing amount of datasets is collected and published. However, data does not equal knowledge and the methods used to analyse this evidence have not advanced at the same pace. A new framework of connectivity analysis has been applied here to reveal the existence of distinctive trade routes through the provinces of the Western region of Rome. The amphora stamps collected over more than a thousand sites have been analysed using quantitative measures of similarity. The patterns that emerge from the analysis highlight the intense connectivity derived from factors such as the spatial closeness, presence of military units and the relevance of the Atlantic sea as a main shipping route.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Fish and salt: The successful recipe of White Nile Mesolithic
           hunter-gatherer-fishers
    • Authors: Lara Maritan; Paola Iacumin; Andrea Zerboni; Giampiero Venturelli; Gregorio Dal Sasso; Veerle Linseele; Sahra Talamo; Sandro Salvatori; Donatella Usai
      Pages: 48 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Lara Maritan, Paola Iacumin, Andrea Zerboni, Giampiero Venturelli, Gregorio Dal Sasso, Veerle Linseele, Sahra Talamo, Sandro Salvatori, Donatella Usai
      In prehistoric hunter-gatherer-fisher communities, demographic growth and a more sedentary life-style are usually associated with locally concentrated food resources. Technologies believed to have been employed for preserving excess food resources include, among many others, salting, smoking, and/or sun-drying of fish and meat. However, direct proof of salting is often lacking, as salt is highly soluble. We present here the first robust evidence of the earliest known examples of fish salting from Middle Mesolithic structures at an archaeological site in Central Sudan (7th millennium BC). A multidisciplinary approach was applied, including a contextual geoarchaeological study (field analysis; micromorphological and scanning electron microscopy), a mineralogical-microstructural analysis of salt crystallization (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy), and a chemical analysis of salt concentration (ionic chromatography) in the soil in which salted fish bones have been found. The results indicate that salting fish with the aim of preserving it was common at the site of Al Khiday since the Middle Mesolithic and this habit cannot be related to post-depositional precipitation due to aridification of the area. A clear-cut emphasis on fishing characterized the economy of the human population of the time. This foraging system, together with salting and storing fish seems to be closely connected with its nearly sedentary status.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Social networks and similarity of site assemblages
    • Authors: Habiba; Jan C. Athenstädt; Barbara J. Mills; Ulrik Brandes
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Habiba, Jan C. Athenstädt, Barbara J. Mills, Ulrik Brandes
      There have been a number of similarity measures developed in a variety of research domains. Generally, these measures are developed for a specific context and later reused in other contexts and applications, depending on their ease of use and perceived applicability. While there might be statistical reasons to use a particular similarity index, the results of other measures should be taken into account as well, as various similarity measures do not necessarily have similar contextual meaning. Two entities can be similar with respect to a certain similarity criterion but may be distinct in terms of another. Thus, an understanding of the mathematical logic behind a method is crucial to the interpretation of the resulting network of similarities. We review a number of methods from the literature, for constructing similarity networks among disparate entities, regarding their applicability on data from archaeological sites. Formally, given an N X p matrix of N entities with p distinct classes of attributes, how are the entities comparable to each other with respect to the kinds of attributes they share' We distinguish three qualitatively different families of similarity measures for deducing relationships among entities that may meaningfully map onto various distinct social phenomena, such as migration, material acquisition, and movement of goods and skills, among others. Entities can be compared based on: (a) non{uniform weighting of attributes, (b) asymmetric dominance relationships, and (c) rank correlations. We ground the significance and distinction of these classes of measures by giving comparative and contextual examples of selected methods on a case study of archaeological collections pertaining to 1200–1500 CE from the US Southwest region. We attempt to elucidate the differences in outcomes and their meanings when choosing various similarity methods for comparing disparate entities.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Tin isotope fractionation during experimental cassiterite smelting and its
           implication for tracing the tin sources of prehistoric metal artefacts
    • Authors: Daniel Berger; Elin Figueiredo; Gerhard Brügmann; Ernst Pernicka
      Pages: 73 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Daniel Berger, Elin Figueiredo, Gerhard Brügmann, Ernst Pernicka
      Provenance studies of metal artefacts are well-established in the interdisciplinary field of science-based archaeology primarily using the chemical and isotopic composition. In the last decades, tin isotopes became gradually more important as a fingerprinting tool for the provenance of tin, but many questions especially regarding the behaviour of tin isotopes during pyrometallurgical processes are still not satisfactorily answered. This paper is a contribution to the understanding of tin isotope fractionation on tin ore smelting under prehistoric conditions and discusses the consequences for tin provenance studies. It presents the results of smelting experiments that were carried out with cassiterite in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Besides chemical characterisation with XRF, SEM-EDX and Q-ICP-MS, tin isotope composition of tin ores and smelting products (tin metal, tin vapour, slag) were determined using solution MC-ICP-MS. Although tin recovery on smelting in the field was low (20–30%) due to tin losses to fuming and slag formation, the results indicate that the tin isotope composition is less affected than anticipated from theoretical considerations (Rayleigh fractionation). If cassiterite is completely reduced during the smelting reaction the tin metal becomes enriched in heavy tin isotopes with a fractionation of Δ124Sn = 0.09–0.18‰ (0.02–0.05‰ u−1) relative to the original cassiterite. An estimate of the provenance of the original cassiterite and the potential ore source would still be possible because the variability of tin isotope ratios in tin ore provinces is much larger. If the cassiterite becomes incompletely reduced, however, then fractionation increases significantly up to Δ124Sn = 0.88‰ (0.22‰ u−1) and conclusions on tin sources are limited. Similarly, condensed tin vapours (Δ124Sn = 1.13‰ (0.28‰ u−1)) and slags (Δ124Sn = 0.42–1.32‰ (0.11–0.33‰ u−1)) that are by-products of the smelting process show large fractionation with respect to the original tin ore as well, which makes them unsuitable for provenance studies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • The gold of the Carambolo Treasure: New data on its origin by elemental
           (LA-ICP-MS) and lead isotope (MC-ICP-MS) analysis
    • Authors: F. Nocete; R. Sáez; A.D. Navarro; C. San Martin; J.I. Gil-Ibarguchi
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): F. Nocete, R. Sáez, A.D. Navarro, C. San Martin, J.I. Gil-Ibarguchi
      The Carambolo Treasure (Seville, Spain), is a key collection of materials from the 1st Millennium BC Mediterranean. Besides the uniqueness, technical complexity and beauty of this assemblage of gold associated with the mythical name of Tartessos, the treasure has been at the epicentre of debates over the last 50 years regarding the Phoenician presence in the west and the origin of the first great western civilization. However, the absence of a precise archaeological context and systematic analyses aimed at identifying the source of the supply of gold have led to diverse and conflicting interpretations in terms of its functionality (ritual from a Phoenician temple versus ostentation of a palatial royalty), and origin (Atlantic vs Eastern Mediterranean). New chemical (by LA-ICP-MS) and isotopic data (Pb by MC-ICP-MS) are presented in this work, which provide an alternative interpretation. The results suggest that the origins of the gold may not be thousands of kilometres away, in the Atlantic or the Mediterranean, but rather in the same region. We highlight geochemical similarities with the gold of the preceding 3rd Millennium BC civilization, with its main political and economic hub at Valencina de la Concepción, located just 2000 m from the Carambolo itself.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Family graves' The genetics of collective burials in early medieval
           southern Germany on trial
    • Authors: Andreas Rott; Bernd Päffgen; Brigitte Haas-Gebhard; Joris Peters; Michaela Harbeck
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Andreas Rott, Bernd Päffgen, Brigitte Haas-Gebhard, Joris Peters, Michaela Harbeck
      Simultaneous collective burials appear quite regularly in early medieval linear cemeteries. Despite their relatively regular occurrence, they are seen as extraordinary as the interred individuals’ right to be buried in a single grave was ignored for certain reasons. Here, we present a study examining the possible familial relationship of early medieval individuals buried in this way by using aDNA analysis of mitochondrial HVR-I, Y-STRs, and autosomal miniSTRs. We can show that biological relatedness may have been an additional reason for breaking the usual burial custom besides a common cause of death, such as the Plague, which is a precondition for a simultaneous burial. Finally, with our sample set, we also see that signs of interaction between individuals such as holding hands which are often interpreted by archeologists as signs of biological or social relatedness, do not always reflect true genetic kin relationships.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Natural mummies from Predynastic Egypt reveal the world's earliest figural
           tattoos
    • Authors: Renée Friedman; Daniel Antoine; Sahra Talamo; Paula J. Reimer; John H. Taylor; Barbara Wills; Marcello A. Mannino
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 92
      Author(s): Renée Friedman, Daniel Antoine, Sahra Talamo, Paula J. Reimer, John H. Taylor, Barbara Wills, Marcello A. Mannino
      The application of tattoos to the human body has enjoyed a long and diverse history in many ancient cultures. At present, the oldest surviving examples are the mainly geometric tattoos on the individual known as Ötzi, dating to the late 4th millennium BCE, whose skin was preserved by the ice of the Tyrolean Alps. In the Egyptian Nile valley, the arid climate has also promoted extensive soft tissue preservation. Here we report on the tattoos found during the examination of two of the best preserved naturally mummified bodies from Egypt's Predynastic (c. 4000-3100 BCE) period, making them the earliest extant examples from the Nile Valley. Figural tattoos that mirror motifs found in Predynastic art were observed on the right arm of one male and the right arm and shoulder of one female, demonstrating conclusively that tattooing was practiced in prehistoric Egypt. These findings overturn the circumstantial evidence of the artistic record that previously suggested only females were tattooed for fertility or even erotic reasons. Radiocarbon testing and datable iconographic parallels for the motifs indicate that these tattooed individuals are nearly contemporaneous with the Iceman, positioning them amongst the bearers of some of the oldest preserved tattoos in the world. At over five thousand years of age, they push back the evidence for tattooing in Africa by a millennium and provide new insights into the range of potential uses of tattoos in pre-literate societies by both sexes, revealing new contexts for exploring the visual language of prehistoric times.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 92 (2018)
       
  • Editorial: JAS on the move
    • Authors: Robin Torrence; Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Robin Torrence, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      On his retirement as Editor of Journal of Archaeological Science (JAS) at the end of 2017, we celebrate Thilo Rehren's contributions to the growth of the journal over the past 13 years and, consequently, his impacts in shaping archaeological science as a discipline. Since Rehren was an architect of the new consortium of journals comprising JAS and JAS Reports, on this occasion it is also appropriate to consider the future of publishing in the constantly evolving field of archaeological science.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Early stage blunting causes rapid reductions in stone tool performance
    • Authors: Alastair Key; Michael R. Fisch; Metin I. Eren
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Alastair Key, Michael R. Fisch, Metin I. Eren
      Palaeolithic stone technologies have never been investigated in terms of how sharpness influences their ability to cut. In turn, there is little understanding of how quickly stone cutting edges blunt, how past populations responded to any consequent changes in performance, or how these factors influenced the Palaeolithic archaeological record. Presented here is experimental data quantitatively detailing how variation in edge sharpness influences stone tool cutting performance. Significant increases in force (N) and material displacement (mm) requirements occur rapidly within early stages of blunting, with a single abrasive cutting stroke causing, on average, a 38% increase in the force needed to initiate a cut. In energetic terms, this equates to a 70% increase in work (J). Subsequent to early stages of blunting we identify a substantial drop in the impact of additional edge abrasion. We also demonstrate how edge (included) angle significantly influences cutting force and energy requirements and how it co-varies with sharpness. Amongst other conclusions, we suggest that rapid reductions in performance due to blunting may account for the abundance of lithic artefacts at some archaeological sites, the speed that resharpening behaviours altered tool forms, and the lack of microscopic wear traces on many lithic implements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • An insight into the burial practices of the late pre-Hispanic Los
           Amarillos community (northwestern Argentina) through the study of ancient
           DNA
    • Authors: Fanny Mendisco; Christine Keyser; Veronica Seldes; Axel E. Nielsen; María Gabriela Russo; Eric Crubézy; Bertrand Ludes
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fanny Mendisco, Christine Keyser, Veronica Seldes, Axel E. Nielsen, María Gabriela Russo, Eric Crubézy, Bertrand Ludes
      A palaeogenetic analysis has been undertaken on the pre-Hispanic settlement of Los Amarillos (Regional Development Period, Jujuy Province, Argentina) to reconstruct kin relationship between individuals buried in two domestic areas. The aim of this study was first to genetically characterize the relationships between the individuals buried within the same funerary structure and, secondly, to correlate these genetic data with archaeo-anthropological data to discuss the burial practices and social organization of the Los Amarillos community. An analysis of both uniparental (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) and biparental (autosomal STRs) genetic markers was conducted on eighteen individuals recovered from three different burial structures. The very good DNA preservation contributed to characterize 13 mitochondrial haplotypes, 5 Y-chromosomal haplotypes and 11 complete autosomal STR profiles. The kinship analysis revealed that the domestic areas were used as family graves. Furthermore, they reveal that a maternal lineage is shared by a majority of the studied individuals from different sectors, suggesting matrilocal practices.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Breaking down the bullion. The compliance of bullion-currencies with
           official weight-systems in a case-study from the ancient Near East
    • Authors: Nicola Ialongo; Agnese Vacca; Luca Peyronel
      Pages: 20 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Nicola Ialongo, Agnese Vacca, Luca Peyronel
      In this paper we provide an analytical insight on a specific form of bullion-currency. Through the comparison of the statistical properties of different samples of hacksilver and balance weights from various contexts of the Near Eastern Bronze Age, the study attempts to assess whether the weight values of bullion-currencies can be expected to comply with existing weight-standards. The results of the statistical analyses on a silver hoard from Ebla (Syria) strongly suggest that hacksilver in the Bronze Age Near East was shaped and/or fragmented in order to comply with the weight-systems that were in use in the trade networks where it circulated. The results also show the possibility to quantify the level of affinity between different weight-systems. The study is intended to provide a starting point for future research, aimed at the identification of different forms of bullion-currencies in pre- and protohistoric economies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • A citation network analysis of lithic microwear research
    • Authors: Christopher J. Dunmore; Ben Pateman; Alastair Key
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Christopher J. Dunmore, Ben Pateman, Alastair Key
      The introduction of lithic microwear research into the wider archaeological community by Keeley (1980) was concurrent with the development of the processual paradigm and the adoption of the scientific method. Subsequently, lithic microwear research has benefited from over 35 years of innovation, including the introduction of novel methodological and analytical procedures. The present study employs a citation network to objectively analyse the development of microwear research. Given developments in technology, as well as the institutional isolation of early microwear research, the present analysis considers the citation network that stems from Keeley's seminal 1980 volume. The 363 papers identified as having cited Keeley (1980) in the subsequent 35 years were treated as individual nodes within the citation network. Before analysis, nodes were assigned attributes, including the type of research published and whether they were supportive of three key aspects of Keeley's experimental program: the ability to determine the function of the tool and to ascertain the type of worked material from microwear, as well as the use of high-powered microscopy techniques. Emergent properties of the papers, including closeness centrality, indegree and betweenness centrality, are used to test for significant differences between paper attributes. Similarly a clustering algorithm is used to objectively define distinct clusters of important papers within the discipline. Results indicate that a small number of nodes in the network maintain statistically significant influence on the form of the citation network. These important nodes and the distinct ‘schools of thought’ identified are discussed in the context of Keeley's initial contribution to the sub-field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Scientific preparations of archaeological ceramics status, value and long
           term future
    • Authors: Patrick Sean Quinn
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Patrick Sean Quinn
      Thin sections, resin blocks, pressed pellets, fused beads, milled powders, solutions and digested residues are several key sample formats used in the invasive scientific analysis of ancient ceramics. They are crucial tools that enable researchers to characterise the mineralogical, geochemical, molecular and microstructural composition of pottery and other ceramic artefacts, in order to interpret their raw materials, manufacturing technology, production locations and functions. Despite the importance of such preparations, key issues about their status, such as whether they are still artefacts or not, who owns them and where they should reside after analysis, are rarely addressed in the archaeological or archaeometric literature. These questions have implications for the long-term future of thin sections, resin blocks and other sample formats, as well as their accessibility for future research. The present paper highlights the above problem and assess the roles, perspectives and needs of ceramic analysts, field archaeologists, commercial units, curators, policy makers, professional bodies, special interest groups and funding agencies. Finally, guidelines are put forward that can be taken into account when deciding on the value and research potential of scientific specimens of archaeological ceramics, as well as strategies for their curation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Microflint in archaeological sediments from Boker Tachtit, Israel: A new
           method for quantifying concentrations of small flint fragments
    • Authors: Zane Stepka; Omry Barzilai; Steve Weiner; Elisabetta Boaretto
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zane Stepka, Omry Barzilai, Steve Weiner, Elisabetta Boaretto
      Flint is one of the most common rock types used for producing stone tools. During flint knapping huge amounts of microscopic sized flint particles are produced. Thus the presence of high concentrations of microflint in a sedimentary layer, could be a good indication that flint was knapped at that location. We have developed and tested a method for quantification of microflint concentrations in sediments. The method involves concentrating the microflints in specific density fractions, and then counting a representative proportion of the flint fragments using a polarized light microscope. We show that the method successfully identifies a knapping layer in an Initial Upper Palaeolithic level at the site of Boker Tachtit, Israel. This level also contains macroscopic flint debitage, including refitted artifacts. Microflint quantification can aid in identifying knapping areas and be useful for better understanding site formation processes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Experimental construction of hunter-gatherer residential features,
           mobility, and the costs of occupying “persistent places”
    • Authors: Christopher Morgan; Dallin Webb; Kari Sprengeler; Marielle (Pedro) Black; Nicole George
      Pages: 65 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Christopher Morgan, Dallin Webb, Kari Sprengeler, Marielle (Pedro) Black, Nicole George
      Temporal and caloric costs associated with building common hunter-gatherer residential features – housefloors, housepits, storage pits, rock rings, and various types of wickiups – are presented based on experimental construction of these types of features. For subsurface features, excavation rates and associated labor costs are consistent regardless of feature type, soil type, or feature size. Labor costs for surface features are largely dependent on feature size, complexity, and availability of raw materials. In total, the per-family costs of building a single-family hunter-gatherer residential base are just under one 8-h day and approximately 2500 kcal per person. Combined, these data indicate relatively low costs are associated with hunter-gatherer investments in persistent places and in residential facilities made from locally-available resources. Implied by the study is that initial use of a place might reduce the costs of and thus encourage subsequent reoccupations and that raw material availability may have played as much of a role in decisions about when to move as density and distribution of subsistence resources.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Tracing grog and pots to reveal neolithic Corded Ware Culture contacts in
           the Baltic Sea region (SEM-EDS, PIXE)
    • Authors: Elisabeth Holmqvist; Åsa M. Larsson; Aivar Kriiska; Vesa Palonen; Petro Pesonen; Kenichiro Mizohata; Paula Kouki; Jyrki Räisänen
      Pages: 77 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Elisabeth Holmqvist, Åsa M. Larsson, Aivar Kriiska, Vesa Palonen, Petro Pesonen, Kenichiro Mizohata, Paula Kouki, Jyrki Räisänen
      The Neolithic Corded Ware Culture (CWC) complex spread across the Baltic Sea region ca. 2900/2800–2300/2000 BCE. Whether this cultural adaptation was driven by migration or diffusion remains widely debated. To gather evidence for contact and movement in the CWC material culture, grog-tempered CWC pots from 24 archaeological sites in southern Baltoscandia (Estonia and the southern regions of Finland and Sweden) were sampled for geochemical and micro-structural analyses. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were used for geochemical discrimination of the ceramic fabrics to identify regional CWC pottery-manufacturing traditions and ceramic exchange. Major and minor element concentrations in the ceramic body matrices of 163 individual vessels and grog temper (crushed pottery) present in the ceramic fabrics were measured by SEM-EDS. Furthermore, the high-sensitivity PIXE technique was applied for group confirmation. The combined pot and grog matrix data reveal eight geochemical clusters. At least five geochemical groups appeared to be associated with specific find locations and regional manufacturing traditions. The results indicated complex inter-site and cross-Baltic Sea pottery exchange patterns, which became more defined through the grog data, i.e., the previous generations of pots. The CWC pottery exhibited high technological standards at these latitudes, which, together with the identified exchange patterns and the existing evidence of mobility based on human remains elsewhere in the CWC complex, is indicative of the relocation of skilled potters, possibly through exogamy. An analytical protocol for the geochemical discrimination of grog-tempered pottery, and its challenges and possibilities, is presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Testing the validity of stable isotope analyses of dental calculus as a
           proxy in paleodietary studies
    • Authors: Samantha D.R. Price; Anne Keenleyside; Henry P. Schwarcz
      Pages: 92 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 91
      Author(s): Samantha D.R. Price, Anne Keenleyside, Henry P. Schwarcz
      Stable isotopic analyses (δ13C, δ15N) of dental calculus have been suggested as a proxy for the study of diet of ancient populations but questions about their validity have been raised. Here we test this question, introducing significant improvements in the analysis of δ13C and comparing our results for δ13C and δ15N of calculus with corresponding analyses of associated well-preserved bone which are widely believed to provide reliable paleodiet values. The content of organic material in calculus is decreased by ∼75% compared with modern calculus, resulting in diagenetic changes to δ13C and δ15N of organic matter. Neither δ13C nor δ15N analyses of the organic component of calculus provide accurate estimates of paleodiet. Although δ15N values of dental calculus are correlated with δ15N values of bone collagen from the same individual, it is clear that they have been greatly affected by diagenesis, as shown by a correlation between C/N ratio and δ15N. The inorganic (mineral-bound) carbon component of calculus, analyzed separately from the organic component, gave δ13C values slightly offset from δ13C values of CO3 in bone mineral. Thus it alone appears to have potential as a dietary proxy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:58:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
       
  • Ceramic studies using portable XRF: From experimental tempered ceramics to
           imports and imitations at Tell Mozan, Syria
    • Authors: Ellery Frahm
      Pages: 12 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Ellery Frahm
      Studies of Northern Mesopotamian complex societies have long been predicated on ceramic wares, whereby ceramic variation is thought to reflect cultural variation. There is, however, an increasing appreciation for the role of imitation, itinerancy, and other phenomena in the distribution of ceramic styles. Much of this newfound nuance is due to chemical studies. Increasingly ceramics have been studied using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). The utility of pXRF in ceramic research relies on being able to interpret the data in behaviorally meaningful ways. Thus, one approach to considering the efficacy of pXRF for ceramic studies proceeds from understanding the ways in which clays and tempers act as variables and influence the data in ways that reflect past behaviors. First, this study uses experimental replicas to exert systematic control over individual parameters (e.g., temper size, volume), allowing a better understanding of their influence. Second, this study considers Bronze Age wares at Tell Mozan in northeastern Syria. The experimental ceramics and Tell Mozan sherds are technological products that retain chemical evidence of choices made during their production. In the experimental ceramic set, a predicted phenomenon (e.g., the “dilution” effect from temper) occurred as expected, and elemental data differentiated clays and tempers selected for their manufacture. In the archaeological assemblage, elemental approaches established that distinctions between imports and locally made imitations are not always apparent by conventional means, and the use of pXRF is one way to overcome current shortcomings as well as contribute new insights.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
       
  • Raw material impact strength and flaked stone projectile point performance
    • Authors: Chris Loendorf; Lowell Blikre; William D. Bryce; Theodore J. Oliver; Allen Denoyer; Greg Wermers
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Chris Loendorf, Lowell Blikre, William D. Bryce, Theodore J. Oliver, Allen Denoyer, Greg Wermers
      Archaeologists have previously proposed several different measures of flaked stone raw material “quality”, but this variable has proven difficult to quantify, and the precise characteristics that improve performance remain unclear. This paper presents the results of controlled experiments that were designed to test projectile points made from stones with varying impact strength. By comparing an independent measure of strength with projectile point experimental data, our research suggests that this variable can be objectively measured, and it is a good predictor of some aspects of projectile tip function. Our results show that highly homogenous fine-grained materials with low impact strength (e.g., obsidian) perform well when penetrating elastic materials such as skin and muscle. These same materials, however, function poorly when penetrating more inelastic materials like rawhide, and they are substantially less durable.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
       
  • Rethinking the dental morphological differences between domestic equids
    • Authors: Richard Chuang; Vincent Bonhomme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Richard Chuang, Vincent Bonhomme
      Dental morphological differences in the first two mandibular molars of domestic equids have been claimed to possess unique species characteristics and are commonly used to identify archaeological equids to a species level. However, the intraspecific and intra-teeth variability of this morphological trait seems to be largely underestimated and the effects of inter-observer variations are rarely discussed. Therefore, the reliability of such morphological trait is poorly understood. Geometric morphometric (GM) methods can be used to evaluate the level of diversity between different dental morphology and, thus, is a more quantitative and objective approach than visual qualitative observation. This paper aims to examine the intraspecific and intra-teeth variability of lower molar morphology by applying GM analysis on molars from archaeological horses and purported mules as well as modern specimens of known species. The results suggest that other than possible inter-observer variations, the large intraspecific variability deems the dental morphology in lower molars to be unreliable for species identification.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T22:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.020
       
  • A new look at an old dog: Bonn-Oberkassel reconsidered
    • Authors: Luc Janssens; Liane Giemsch; Ralf Schmitz; Martin Street; Stefan Van Dongen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Luc Janssens, Liane Giemsch, Ralf Schmitz, Martin Street, Stefan Van Dongen
      The Bonn-Oberkassel dog remains (Upper Pleistocene and 14223 +- 58 years old) have been reported more than 100 years ago. Recent re-examination revealed the tooth of another older and smaller dog, making this domestic dog burial not only the oldest known, but also the only one with remains of two dogs. This observation brings the total known Magdalenian dogs to nine. Domestication of dogs during the final Palaeolithic has important implications for understanding pre-Holocene hunter-gatherers. Most proposed hunter-gatherer motivations for domesticating dogs have been utilitarian. However, remains of the Bonn-Oberkassel dogs may offer another view. The Bonn-Oberkassel dog was a late juvenile when it was buried at approximately age 27–28 weeks, with two adult humans and grave goods. Oral cavity lesions indicate a gravely ill dog that likely suffered a morbillivirus (canine distemper) infection. A dental line of suggestive enamel hypoplasia appears at the 19-week developmental stage. Two additional enamel hypoplasia lines, on the canine only, document further disease episodes at weeks 21 and 23. Pathological changes also include severe periodontal disease that may have been facilitated by immunodeficiency. Since canine distemper has a three-week disease course with very high mortality, the dog must have been perniciously ill during the three disease bouts and between ages 19 and 23 weeks. Survival without intensive human assistance would have been unlikely. Before and during this period, the dog cannot have held any utilitarian use to humans. We suggest that at least some Late Pleistocene humans regarded dogs not just materialistically, but may have developed emotional and caring bonds for their dogs, as reflected by the survival of this dog, quite possibly through human care.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.004
       
  • Wound ballistics: The prey specific implications of penetrating trauma
           injuries from osseous, flaked stone, and composite inset microblade
           projectiles during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, Alaska U.S.A.
    • Authors: Janice Wood; Ben Fitzhugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Janice Wood, Ben Fitzhugh
      Research in the field of wound ballistics has identified three major types of penetrating trauma injuries that will affect wound severity of a projectile point into hard or soft tissues: puncture, incised, and lacerated. In this study, we report on dual ballistics experiments conducted to better understand the wounding mechanisms of three prehistoric projectile point classes made respectfully of polished bone, bifacially flaked stone, and composite antler inset with microblades. Each class of projectiles was launched into ballistics gelatin and into the carcass of a reindeer to explore the relative performance characteristics of each class in terms of tool durability and wound infliction. Our methods of evaluation included a detailed measurement of projectile attributes before and after penetration of both gelatin and carcass that were then compared using tip-metrics, penetration depth, and total interior wound area. Our results strongly suggest that the wounding potential differed significantly between projectile point classes and in turn, strongly influenced wound severity. We suggest that point mechanics may implicate a “prey specific” hunting strategy and propose that such analyses can help us better understand prehistoric hunter-gather behavior and technological variability.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:27:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.006
       
  • ‘Illuminating’ the interior of Kukulkan's Pyramid, Chichén Itzá,
           Mexico, by means of a non-conventional ERT geophysical survey
    • Authors: Andrés Tejero-Andrade; Denisse L. Argote-Espino; Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava; Esteban Hernández-Quintero; René E. Chávez; Alejandro García-Serrano
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 90
      Author(s): Andrés Tejero-Andrade, Denisse L. Argote-Espino, Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava, Esteban Hernández-Quintero, René E. Chávez, Alejandro García-Serrano
      Chichén Itzá, located in the north-central portion of the Yucatán Peninsula, is one of the major pre-Hispanic cities established in the southern lowlands of Mexico. The main objective of this investigation was to “unveil” the interior of the pyramid of El Castillo, also known as the Temple of Kukulkan, an emblematic structure in this archaeological site. To that end, 828 flat electrodes were deployed around each of the 9 bodies that compose the pyramid, including the base of the structure. A dataset consisting of 37,548 observations was obtained. A precise topographic control for each electrode was carried out and introduced in the inversion model. The mathematical process to compute a final 3D model was made possible by taking 9 observation levels (33,169 measurements) into account, due to computational limitations. The results showed the existence of two older pyramids within the main Mayan building and provided important information regarding our understanding of this Mayan civilization. Future archaeological studies in the older substructure could reveal information about early settlement on this site, its evolution in time and its cultural influences.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:41:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2017)
       
 
 
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