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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 230 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Archaeological Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 41)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arkeos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Folia Historica Cracoviensia     Open Access  
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription  
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lithic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access  
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Roman Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Kadmos     Hybrid Journal  
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Latin American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access  
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal  
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Papers of the British School at Rome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.311]   [H-I: 64]   [48 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • New methods for investigating slag heaps: Integrating geoprospection,
           excavation and quantitative methods at Meroe, Sudan
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Jane Humphris, Chris Carey
      This paper describes a multifaceted approach to the investigation of iron slag heaps, focusing on one of the slag heaps at the Royal City of Meroe in Sudan. This study marries together geoprospection data (gradiometry and electrical resistivity transects), topographic data and quantitative excavation data, to provide an analysis and comparison of the total volume, slag component and slag composition of a slag-heap. Significantly, the results demonstrate the limitations of using a topographic only model, but also demonstrate how volumetric modelling must be integrated within quantitative characterisation of slag-heap composition. In this case, quantitative sampling of the slag deposits revealed the composition of the slag assemblage was dominated by a newly defined category of slag which has major implications for reconstructing iron technologies in the Meroitic civilisation. This research highlights the dangers of applying simplistic models and basic investigative strategies to iron slag heaps and furthers the debate on applying volumetric modelling and excavation sampling to unexcavated areas of the finite and important resource of archaeometallurgical deposit sequences.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • From radiocarbon analysis to interpretation: A comment on “Phytolith
           Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case
           Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the
           Previous Dating Evidence”, Journal of Archaeological Science (2015),
           doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2015.06.002.” by Dolores R. Piperno
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Guaciara M. Santos, Anne Alexandre, Christine A. Prior
      The paper “Phytolith Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeological and Paleoecological Research: A Case Study of Phytoliths from Modern Neotropical Plants and a Review of the Previous Dating Evidence” by Dolores R. Piperno presents radiocarbon analysis of phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants collected between 1964 and 2013. The analyses presented were intended to rebut the emerging hypothesis that invokes root-plant uptake, transport and reallocation of soil organic carbon into phytoliths that has been recently put forward as an explanation for the anomalous radiocarbon (14C) ages (of hundreds to thousands of years old) reported for modern grass phytoliths in Santos et al., 2010a,b, 2012a. We believe that the results presented in Piperno (2006) lack methodological rigor, mostly due to the absence of any procedural blank assessment, and that the attempts to disprove the hypothesis of uptake of soil organic matter (SOM) by phytoliths in Santos et al. (2012a) are not supported by a careful analysis. Rather than supporting the position that 100% of the carbon in phytoliths is of photosynthetic origin, which allows the use of phytolith carbon (or phytC) as a dating tool, the analysis of 14C in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in the study shows that the 14C ages are strongly affected by other sources of carbon. In this comment, we carefully reassess the 14C results in phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants presented in Piperno (2006) in the context of the 14C bomb-pulse methodology, SOM ages and turnover rates, and offer an alternative interpretation of the experimental results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • Carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in bone collagen during the
           Neolithic period: Influence of environmental factorsand diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Gwenaëlle Goude, Michel Fontugne
      Studies on Holocene periods in France and Liguria over the past 15 years provide an important isotopic database (δ13C and δ15N) on human and animal bone collagen during the Neolithic period (ca. 5500–3100 BC cal.; n = 573). The distribution of archaeological sites (n = 30) along a latitudinal transect from the Mediterranean to the Channel offers a broad data base reflecting a variety of environments and potential cultural practices. We propose a new insight into δ13C and δ15N data to understand the variability in both environment and human diet at the onset of farming. Statistical comparisons highlight significant geographical variation in both δ13C and δ15N ratios in most of the examined species and particularly in wild herbivores (Δ13C = 3.8‰; Δ15N = 8.5‰). Higher δ15N and lower δ13C ratios are found in samples from northern France. Conversely, lower nitrogen and higher carbon isotopic ratios are present in samples from the Mediterranean area. Results indicate the probable strong influence of natural factors impacting soil and plant isotopic ratios and passing this variation further on into the whole food chain. Our data indicate that the isotopic baseline depends on the local environmental particularities which must be taken into account in reconstructing human palaeodiets.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T15:43:04Z
       
  • Isotopic study of geographic origins and diet of enslaved Africans buried
           in two Brazilian cemeteries
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Murilo Q.R. Bastos, Ricardo V. Santos, Sheila M.F. M. de Souza, Claudia Rodrigues-Carvalho, Robert H. Tykot, Della C. Cook, Roberto V. Santos
      Brazil was the main destination of enslaved Africans during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the New World. We have analyzed isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and strontium in the enamel and dentin of teeth derived from remains of 41 enslaved Africans excavated in Pretos Novos cemetery (Rio de Janeiro) and Sé de Salvador cathedral (Salvador) in order to investigate aspects related to the geographical origins and dietary habits in Africa in these two groups with differing histories. Strontium isotope results indicate a wide range of geographical origin for the analyzed individuals of both cemeteries, being significantly wider in Pretos Novos. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes results suggest that the diet of most individuals was based on plants. Only 26% probably had access to a significant amount of animal protein. The results also show that while some individuals were consuming C3 plants such as yams and manioc, others had a diet based more on C4 plants such as sorghum, millet and maize. Interpreted in conjunction with archaeological and historical evidence, the findings of this study, including the high variability of 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ15N values, contribute to the process of reconstructing the dramatic history of slavery in Brazil and in the Americas.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • The technology of the earliest European cave paintings: El Castillo Cave,
           Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Francesco d'Errico, Laure Dayet Bouillot, Marcos García-Diez, Africa Pitarch Martí, Daniel Garrido Pimentel, João Zilhão
      The red disks from El Castillo Cave are among the earliest known cave paintings. Here, we combine the morphometric and technological study of red disks from two areas located at the end of the cave with the microscopic, elemental, and mineralogical analysis of the pigment and compare the results obtained with observations derived from experimental replication. Ergonomic constraints imply that a number of disks were made by adults, and the differences in pigment texture and composition suggest that they correspond to an accumulation through time of panels made by different persons who shared neither the same technical know-how nor, very possibly, the same symbolic system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Testing the endurance of prehistoric adornments: Raw materials from the
           aquatic environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Monica Mărgărit
      Raw materials deriving from the aquatic environment were systematically used for personal ornamentation by modern humans throughout their entire history. In this study we analyse three types of raw materials: Lithoglyphus sp. shells, Unio sp. valves and Cyprinus carpio opercular bones. The central purpose of this paper is to initiate a database of the way in which wear develops according to the system of attachment and the longevity of use. In order to identify the costs invested in the manufacturing of these types of items, both from the point of view of time and effort, an experimental programme has been developed, which permits the recording of all the variables (means of gathering the raw material, technological stages, time recorded for each operation, and tools used). Furthermore, it was set the task of wearing the beads experimentally processed, as adornments, for two years, and of periodically evaluating the perforation and the surface of the pieces under a microscope. Moreover, observations made on archaeological specimens were compared to experimental replicas. The archaeological assemblages from the Romanian Neolithic were used as a case study to illustrate the relevance of the results.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Copying error, evolution, and phylogenetic signal in artifactual
           traditions: An experimental approach using “model artifacts”
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kerstin Schillinger, Alex Mesoudi, Stephen J. Lycett
      Spatio-temporal patterns of artifactual variation are increasingly being studied via the explicit application of cultural evolutionary theory and methods. Such broad-scale (macroevolutionary) patterns are mediated, however, by a series of small-scale (microevolutionary) processes that occur at the level of individual artifacts, and individual artifact users and producers. Within experimental biology, “model organisms” have played a crucial role in understanding the role of fundamental microevolutionary processes, such as mutation and the inheritance of variation, in respect to macroevolutionary patterns. There has, however, been little equivalent laboratory work to better understand how microevolutionary processes influence macroevolutionary patterns in artifacts and their analysis. Here, we adopt a “model artifact” approach to experimentally study the issues of copy error (mutation) and resultant phylogenetic signal in artifact traditions. We used morphometric procedures to examine shape copying error rates in our “model artifacts.” We first established experimentally that statistically different rates of copying error (mutation) could be induced when participants used two different types of shaping tool to produce copies of foam “artifacts.” Using this as a baseline, we then tested whether these differing mutation rates led to differing phylogenetic signal and accuracy in two separate experimental transmission chains (lineages), involving participants copying the previous participant's artifact. The analysis demonstrated that phylogenetic reconstruction is more accurate in artifactual lineages where copying error is demonstrably lower. Such results demonstrate how fidelity of transmission impacts directly on the evolution of technological traditions and their empirical analysis. In particular, these results highlight that differing contexts of cultural transmission relating to fidelity might lead to differing patterns of resolution within reconstructed evolutionary sequences. Overall, these analyses demonstrate the importance of a “model artifact” approach in discussions of cultural evolution, equivalent in importance to the use of model organisms in evolutionary biology in order to better understand fundamental microevolutionary processes of direct relevance to macroevolutionary archaeological patterns.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Distinguishing offshore bird hunting from beach scavenging in
           archaeological contexts: The value of modern beach surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Kristine M. Bovy, Jessica E. Watson, Jane Dolliver, Julia K. Parrish
      Determining whether seabirds recovered from coastal shell middens were obtained via active hunting or scavenging of beached carcasses is a challenge for archaeologists. Traditional methods have included analyzing skeletal part frequencies, abundance, age profiles, and contextual evidence. The assumption has been made, based on limited biological data, that an assemblage of carcasses scavenged from the beach will have more wing elements, and fewer legs and heads. Few studies, however, have embraced modern beaching data to verify this assumption and assess the potential faunal resources available for scavenging. We analyze the skeletal part representation of modern beached birds observed by the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST), comparing the COASST dataset to two idealized hypotheses used by archaeologists: the human scavenging hypothesis (wings only are recovered, while heads and legs are absent) and the human hunting hypothesis (all body parts are found in equal proportions). Finally, we apply these results to analysis of the bird remains from the Minard site (45-GH-15), a late Holocene coastal site in Grays Harbor, Washington. We find that contemporary beached bird data are closer to replicating the human hunting hypothesis as compared to the human scavenging hypothesis, as >75% of the 19,599 carcasses in the COASST dataset had a combination of head, wings and legs. This result, and the similarity in taxonomic distribution between our contemporary beached bird data and Minard assemblage, suggests that indigenous peoples may have used scavenging as a viable means of resource acquisition in the past. Use of contemporaneous beached bird data may provide zooarchaeology with a statistically defensible baseline of information on the phenology, abundance and condition of bird carcasses.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Standard evaluations of bomb curves and age calibrations along with
           consideration of environmental and biological variability show the rigor
           of phytolith dates on modern neotropical plants: Review of comment by
           Santos, Alexandre, and Prior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno
      Santos et al. claim that a recent phytolith 14C study by Piperno of Neotropical plants that grew during the post-bomb era provided anomalously old ages due to 14C depletion. They argue the depletion source is likely old carbon in soils transported into plants via root uptake. Here I show: 1) their claims for anomalous 14C depletions in phytoliths are unfounded because they fail to consider uncertainties created in the bomb curve from local and regional environmental variability and other factors shown to lead to bomb curve offsets in post-bomb 14C study, 2) they error by not calibrating the phytolith dates, a standard procedure with post-bomb 14C determinations, 3) they inexplicably consider an ancient (1640 14Cyr B.P) age for one of the dated samples to be accurate when (a) it is known the sample was treated with substances made from fossil fuels that were not removed with the extraction process, and (b) the amount of radiocarbon dead carbon required to generate the ancient age from SOM is unreasonable, and 4) their theory that old soil carbon from root uptake is sequestered in phytoliths causing significant skews to phytolith ages is not supported by accumulated evidence from ancient, and now modern Neotropical contexts.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Improvement of laser ablation in situ micro-analysis to identify
           diagenetic alteration and measure strontium isotope ratios in fossil human
           teeth
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): M. Willmes, L. Kinsley, M.-H. Moncel, R.A. Armstrong, M. Aubert, S. Eggins, R. Grün
      Strontium isotope ratios measured in fossil human teeth are a powerful tool to investigate past mobility patterns. In order to apply this method, the sample needs to be investigated for possible diagenetic alteration and a least destructive analytical technique needs to be employed for the isotopic analysis. We tested the useability of U, Th, and Zn distribution maps to identify zones of diagenetic overprint in human teeth. Areas with elevated U concentrations in enamel were directly associated with diagenetic alterations in the Sr isotopic composition. Once suitable domains within the tooth are identified, strontium isotope ratios can be determined either with micro-drilling followed by TIMS analysis or in situ LA-MC-ICP-MS. Obtaining accurate 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios from LA-MC-ICP-MS is complicated by the potential occurrence of a significant direct interference on mass 87 from a polyatomic compound. We found that this polyatomic compound is present in our analytical setup but is Ar rather than Ca based, as was previously suggested. The effect of this interference can be significantly reduced by tuning the instrument for reduced oxide levels. We applied this improved analytical protocol to a range of human and animal teeth and compared the results with micro-drilling strontium isotopic analysis using TIMS. Tuning for reduced oxide levels allowed the measurement of accurate strontium isotope ratios from human and animal tooth enamel and dentine, even at low Sr concentrations. The average offset between laser ablation and solution analysis using the improved analytical protocol is 38 ± 394 ppm (n = 21, 2σ). LA-MC-ICP-MS thus provides a powerful alternative to micro-drilling TIMS for the analysis of fossil human teeth. This method can be used to untangle diagenetic overprint from the intra-tooth isotopic variability, which results from genuine changes in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios related to changes in food source, and by extension mobility.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Geostatistical modelling of chemical residues on archaeological floors in
           the presence of barriers
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Joan Negre, Facundo Muñoz, Carla Lancelotti
      Maps representing the distribution of chemical residues over anthropogenic floors are the main diagnostic tools used by archaeologists for addressing the identification of geochemical signatures of past actions. Geostatistics allows producing these maps from a sample of locations by modelling the spatial autocorrelation structure of these kind of phenomena. However, the homogeneity of the prediction regions is a strong assumption in the model. The presence of barriers, such as the inner walls of domestic units, introduces discontinuities in prediction areas. In this paper, we investigate how to incorporate information of a geographical nature into the process of geostatistical prediction. We propose the use of cost-based distances to quantify the correlation between locations, a solution which has proved to be a practical alternative approach for archaeological intrasite analysis. The cost-based approach produces more reliable results avoiding the unrealistic assumption of the homogeneity of the study area. As a working example, a case study of the distribution of two specific chemical signatures in domestic floors is presented within a controlled ethnographical context in Northern Gujarat (India). On a broad disciplinary scale, the benefits of using our approach include improved estimates in regions with complex geometry and lower uncertainty in the kriging predictions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-03T10:44:27Z
       
  • Morphometric analysis of phytoliths: recommendations towards
           standardization from the International Committee for Phytolith
           Morphometrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Terry B. Ball, AnnaLisa Davis, Rand R. Evett, Jammi L. Ladwig, Monica Tromp, Welmoed A. Out, Marta Portillo
      Morphometric analysis (measurements of size and shape) has become a significant research tool in phytolith studies. The International Phytolith Society (IPS) appointed the International Committee for Phytolith Morphometrics (ICPM) to establish methodological standards for the discipline. This paper presents current recommendations of the ICPM. It discusses the role of morphometric analysis in phytolith studies and recommends a paradigm for its application, criteria for data collection and publication, definitions for basic measurements and software for computer-assisted image analysis.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • PhytCore ODB: A new tool to improve efficiency in the management and
           exchange of information on phytoliths
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Rosa M. Albert, Jose A. Ruíz, Andreu Sans
      Online databases (ODB's) ensure access to comparative phytolith keys to facilitate phytolith identification in plants. But, can they be improved in a more efficient way? This paper presents PhytCore version 2.0 (www.phytcore.org), which has been adapted from a searchable database to a multi-user work tool. The ODB includes digital images, and related information, of phytoliths from modern plant material, modern soils, paleosoils and archaeological material. It includes as well quantitative data related to the percentage presence of phytolith morphotypes in each given sample and it is structured to manage phytolith data and the retrieving of information through one or various simultaneous queries. PhytCore 2.0 is a multiplatform with a responsive design interface that enables access through desktop computers, mobile and tablet devices. PhytCore 2.0 is also and interactive platform opened to discussions and to the participation of other research groups who would like to share their own data while keeping copyright. Our aim is to offer the fruits of this research worldwide to facilitate international data sharing and optimize the available resources.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68




      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Phytoliths as a tool for investigations of agricultural origins and
           dispersals around the world
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Terry Ball, Karol Chandler-Ezell, Ruth Dickau, Neil Duncan, Thomas C. Hart, Jose Iriarte, Carol Lentfer, Amanda Logan, Houyuan Lu, Marco Madella, Deborah M. Pearsall, Dolores R. Piperno, Arlene M. Rosen, Luc Vrydaghs, Alison Weisskopf, Jianping Zhang
      Agricultural origins and dispersals are subjects of fundamental importance to archaeology as well as many other scholarly disciplines. These investigations are world-wide in scope and require significant amounts of paleobotanical data attesting to the exploitation of wild progenitors of crop plants and subsequent domestication and spread. Accordingly, for the past few decades the development of methods for identifying the remains of wild and domesticated plant species has been a focus of paleo-ethnobotany. Phytolith analysis has increasingly taken its place as an important independent contributor of data in all areas of the globe, and the volume of literature on the subject is now both very substantial and disseminated in a range of international journals. In this paper, experts who have carried out the hands-on work review the utility and importance of phytolith analysis in documenting the domestication and dispersals of crop plants around the world. It will serve as an important resource both to paleo-ethnobotanists and other scholars interested in the development and spread of agriculture.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • The Phytoliths in the Flora of Ecuador project: Perspectives on phytolith
           classification, identification, and establishing regional phytolith
           databases
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Deborah M. Pearsall
      The Phytoliths in the Flora of Ecuador project was undertaken to establish diagnostic phytolith types and phytolith vegetation signatures to enhance archaeological and paleoenvironmental phytolith applications in the region. In this paper I discuss the “products” of this research, and provide links to on-line resources. Among the lessons learned from this project: the importance of systematic phytolith naming and classification, documentation, and having a strong regional research focus.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Beyond redundancy and multiplicity. Integrating phytolith analysis and
           micromorphology to the study of Brussels Dark Earth
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Luc Vrydaghs, Terry B. Ball, Yannick Devos
      Multiplicity, when different phytolith morphotypes are produced within a taxon, and redundancy, when the same phytolith morphotypes are produced by different taxa, are persistent challenges in phytolith analysis. This article discusses and demonstrates how micromorphological and phytolith analyses of soil thin sections can be integrated to address issues of redundancy and multiplicity, as well as depositional history when studying archaeological soils and sediments. Opal phytoliths are created by the accumulation and precipitation of monosilicic acid (Si(OH)4) within plant tissues. Usually the process produces a variety of phytolith morphotypes with specific anatomical distribution within the plant tissues. When deposited in soil, phytoliths from decomposed plant tissue become microfossils of the plants in which they were produced. Decomposition or decay of plant tissue can take place either before or after it is incorporated into the soil matrix. When decay takes place after plant tissue is incorporated into a soil matrix, the anatomical distribution of the phytoliths within the tissue is often preserved, if the soil has not been affected by post-burial disturbances. Typically, analysis of phytoliths in soil begins with removing the phytoliths from the soil using techniques such as heavy liquid floatation, thereby destroying much of the distribution pattern of the phytoliths within the matrix and losing potentially important data. Analysing phytoliths within soil thin sections is becoming a more frequently applied alternative to analysing phytoliths extracted from the soil. Thin sections preserve the distribution patterns of phytoliths within an archaeological deposit or soil and as such can help researchers answer questions concerning redundancy, multiplicity and depositional history. In this study we demonstrate how the integration of phytolith analysis with micromorphological analysis of a series of thin sections made from Brussels urban archaeological deposits that have complex and multiphase formation histories can be used to differentiate phytoliths with different histories. The potential for improved botanical identification of the different groups of phytoliths is also discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • A conceptual framework for a computer-assisted, morphometric-based
           phytolith analysis and classification system
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Rand R. Evett, Rob Q. Cuthrell
      Although automated approaches to shape analysis and object classification have been widely applied in the biological sciences, technical and time considerations have limited their use in phytolith research. As advanced microscopy systems become more affordable and accessible and digital imaging software provides a wider range of sophisticated analytical tools, there is increased potential for effective use of machine-vision and automation in phytolith research. In this paper, we describe technical limitations of phytolith imaging and identify several techniques that might improve results. Drawing on examples of software developed for related disciplines, we then describe a conceptual framework for development and integration of automated phytolith analysis software for: separating phytoliths from non-phytolith material in digital images; segmentation of phytolith boundaries; quantitative phytolith feature extraction, including a discussion of potentially more powerful, non-traditional parameters of phytolith shape and texture; phytolith classification and identification; and phytolith database image retrieval. While recognizing the difficulty of implementing this framework and the need for extensive empirical testing of suggested approaches on phytoliths, we examine the possibility of aggregating quantitative phytolith data collected in studies worldwide to construct a cloud-based database of phytolith images with associated morphotype data.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • The development of phytoliths in plants and its influence on their
           chemistry and isotopic composition. Implications for palaeoecology and
           archaeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Martin J. Hodson
      Relatively little is known about how phytoliths develop and form in the plant. We will consider the development of phytoliths where silica is deposited in the cell wall and those where it is deposited in the cell lumen. The cellular environment in which phytoliths develop affects their chemistry. In cell wall phytoliths, silica is deposited onto a carbohydrate matrix which gives the silica some order. Lumen phytoliths would be expected to contain more lipids, proteins and possibly nucleic acids than cell wall phytoliths. The chemical structure of the silica in phytoliths, other elements within their structure (calcium, aluminium, carbon, nitrogen), and isotopes of silicon, oxygen, and carbon may all give information beyond the more usual morphological analysis. There is increasing interest in using these features as proxies in palaeoecological and archaeological research.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Phytoliths as a method of identification for three genera of woody bamboos
           (Bambusoideae) in tropical southwest China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Yansheng Gu, Hongye Liu, Hanlin Wang, Rencheng Li, Jianxin Yu
      In order to explore the relation between phytolith morphology and plant taxonomy, we conducted a comparative research on the morphological features of phytoliths from 26 woody bamboo species within 3 genera of Bambusoideae in tropical southwest China. All morphological parameters were measured at 500× magnification using an Olympus BX51 light microscope. Three-dimensional scattered plots and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed using SPSS 13.0 software. The leaves of woody bamboos contain a great diversity of phytolith types including short cells, long cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, mesophyll and vascular tissues, of which cuneiform bulliform cells and oblong concave saddles were significant in clarifying the position of controversial Dendrocalamopsis group. Detailed research on phytolith morphology demonstrated that most of the overlap within this group occurs among long cells, bilobates, parallepipedal bulliform cells, hair cells, mesophyll and vascular tissues at the genus level. Oblong concave saddles exhibited taxonomical value both at the subfamily and genus levels. Comparative research on the morphological parameters of cuneiform bulliform cells and oblong concave saddles indicated Dendrocalamopsis has a separate partition from Bambusa and Dendrocalamus, which might provide strong evidence that Dendrocalamopsis should be an independent genus within Bambusoideae. Hierarchical cluster analysis on the cuneiform bulliform cells and oblong concave saddles indicated that Dendrocalamopsis is more closely related to Bambusa than Dendrocalamus. At the genus level, cuneiform bulliform cells and oblong concave saddles together exhibit taxonomical value.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Phytolith radiocarbon dating in archaeological and paleoecological
           research: a case study of phytoliths from modern Neotropical plants and a
           review of the previous dating evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Dolores R. Piperno
      Recent carbon-14 studies of phytoliths from modern plants collected from extra-tropical regions of the world have yielded dates that are too old by several hundred to thousands of years. These findings have prompted questions about the suitability of phytolith-derived carbon for dating in archaeological and paleo-environmental research. In this paper, phytolith 14C ages are determined from a number of modern Neotropical plant taxa collected between 1964 and 2013. The specimens studied are maize (Zea mays L.), two squash species (Cucurbita ecuadorensis H.C.Cutler & Whitaker and C. ficifolia Bouche), and two trees common in Neotropical forest, Hirtella americana L. and Socratea durissima (Oersted) H. Uendl. They represent families, genera, and species that are well-represented in Neotropical archaeological and paleoecological sediments. Every phytolith sample returned a post-bomb 14C phytolith age reflecting collection after 1955, with the exception of a herbarium specimen that was treated with chemicals containing radiocarbon-dead carbon. The phytolith dates do not indicate a source of extraneous old or young carbon occurring on the surfaces or inside of phytoliths that bias their ages. Such findings are also reflected by previous phytolith 14C studies of ancient Neotropical sites. Possible reasons for the differences in results between these and other studies and varying interpretations of soil and sediment phytolith 14C analyses by different investigators are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Experimental smelting of iron ores from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy):
           Results and implications for the reconstruction of ancient metallurgical
           processes and iron provenance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): M. Benvenuti, A. Orlando, D. Borrini, L. Chiarantini, P. Costagliola, C. Mazzotta, V. Rimondi
      Iron deposits from Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago) were extensively exploited since the 1st millennium BC: both raw iron ore and smelted blooms were extensively traded through the Mediterranean region. Within the frame of the multidisciplinary research Project “AITHALE” (from the Greek name for Elba Island), we have performed a series of archaeometallurgical experiments primarily to investigate the traceability of Elban iron ores during the various steps of the chaîne opératoire of bloomery iron production. Results of experiments performed both in the field (reconstruction of a bloomery furnace) and in the laboratory (smelting experiments carried out in a gas mixing furnace) are discussed in the text. Slags produced by smelting of W-Sn-rich iron (hematite) ores, like those from Elba island, show the presence of these elements in phases of their own, either relic (scheelite, ferberite, cassiterite) and/or newly formed (iron-tin alloys). Iron bloom obtained from this kind of iron ore could also bear evidence of the peculiar geochemistry of smelted ore, with tungsten preferentially associated with slag inclusions and tin eventually enriched in the metallic phase.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Xiongnu burial complex: A study of ancient textiles from the 22nd Noin-Ula
           barrow (Mongolia, first century AD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 70
      Author(s): Elena Karpova, Vladimir Vasiliev, Victor Mamatyuk, Natalia Polosmak, Lyudmila Kundo
      The collection of textiles from Xiongnu burial was obtained in the recent years as a result of research of the Russian-Mongolian expedition led by N. Polosmak. This collection is a unique source of the different types of information. Xiongnu throughout their long history controlled the Central Asia regions of the Silk Road, by which many and varied products, including textiles and wool, were brought to China from the west. The woolen fabrics and textiles of high quality were found in the Xiongnu noble burials located in the mountains of Mongolia. An analysis of their dyes composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the woolen fabrics were dyed with plant and insect dyestuffs. Each sample analyzed was dyed with a set of dyestuffs that indicates that dyers had not only the necessary and various dyes, but possessed highly developed craftsmanship of dyeing. Based on the results of this research it can be proposed that the dyeing of the woolen textiles found in the graves of the Xiongnu nobility was carried out in the manufactories of the Mediterranean, known for their fabrics dyeing culture. Numerous Chinese-made silk fabrics were dyed with traditional Han epoch plant dyes - indigo and Indian madder. Dyes composition of the silk textile fundamentally differs from dyes of the woolen fabrics by the absence of dyestuffs of insect origin.


      PubDate: 2016-04-27T16:15:01Z
       
  • Reconstructing projectile technology during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in
           the Levant: An integrated approach to large tanged points from Halula
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Ferran Borrell, Denis Štefanisko
      Large tanged points made on bidirectional blades constitute the most characteristic tool type during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in the Levant. Studies on projectile typology and on bidirectional technology have revealed important stylistic differences reflecting chronological and geographical patterning, contributing significantly to the understanding of early farming communities in the Near East. However, the reconstruction of the weapons these large tanged points were part of has not received the same attention. This investigation aims to fully characterize stone point production at Halula, a PPNB settlement in the middle Euphrates valley, and reconstruct the type of weapons and delivery mechanisms used. Our study also includes the analysis of various ballistic attributes using a series of recent morpho-metric methods and comparison with ethnographic and experimental data about projectiles of known use. Results indicate that Byblos points might have been used as dart-points propelled with the help of spear-throwers, indicating a shift –from bow to spear-thrower– in projectile technology associated with the appearance and expansion of bidirectional blade technology during the PPNB in the Levant and synchronous with the consolidation of agricultural systems in the region.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Chemical analysis of Late Classic Maya polychrome pottery paints and
           pastes from Central Petén, Guatemala
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christina T. Halperin, Ronald L. Bishop
      This paper examines political-economic relationships among Late Classic (ca. 600–900 CE) political centers in the Petén Lakes region, Guatemala, through the chemical analysis of red paints and pastes of polychrome vessels. Chemical analysis of red paints was conducted using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and chemical analysis of vessel pastes was conducted using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). These analyses indicate that a number of political centers along the western shore of Lake Petén Itzá, namely Motul de San José, Tayasal, and Flores, had access to different polychrome pottery production communities. Nonetheless, inhabitants of these Petén Lakes sites moved between, gifted, or exchanged polychrome pottery with each other, indicating that western Petén Lakes region centers closely interacted with each other. We suggest that these sites may have been part of or allied with the epigraphically known Ik’ polity. As such, we find that one of the strengths of ‘second-tier’ polities, such as the Ik’ polity, did not depend on an individual site's size or monumental expression, but on the relationships they forged with other centers.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Modelling distribution of archaeological settlement evidence based on
           heterogeneous spatial and temporal data
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Peter Demján, Dagmar Dreslerová
      We analyse variations in prehistoric agricultural settlement behaviour both in space and time to detect main turning points and shifts in settlement patterns in Bohemia, western Czech Republic. We propose a theoretical framework to address our research question and a new evidence density estimation (EDE) method combining and extending existing approaches to produce probabilistic maps and temporal frequency distribution (TFD) curves. This method takes into account heterogeneous spatial and temporal accuracy of archaeological data, and it models settlement structure where respective sites have a specific area and a given interval of duration. We determined minimal sampling densities of archaeological data enabling the method to predict prehistoric settlement at a statistically significant level. The EDE method is universally applicable for all datasets with sampling densities of more than 0.05 archaeological actions per km2 for chrono-typologically dated evidence and 0.035 actions per km2 for radiocarbon or similar dates. The results show that changes in spatial extent, density and clustering of settlement activities occur repeatedly throughout the whole agricultural prehistory and shed new light on settlement behaviour of past populations.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Tin isotope characterization of bronze artifacts of the central Balkans
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): A.H. Mason, W.G. Powell, H.A. Bankoff, R. Mathur, A. Bulatović, V. Filipović, J. Ruiz
      Isotopic analysis has proved to be an effective approach to determine the provenance of copper ore sources for the production of bronze artifacts. More recently, methods for Sn isotopic analysis of bronze have been developed. However, the viability of tin isotopes as a means to define groupings that may be attributed to varying ore sources, production methods, or recycling is still in question. In part, this is due to the numerically and/or geographically limited nature of published datasets. This study reports on the Sn isotopic composition of 52 artifacts from the later Bronze Age (1500-1100 BCE) from Serbia and western Romania. The majority of samples cluster between 0.4 and 0.8 per mil for δ124Sn, and 0.2 and 0.4 per mil for δ120Sn (relative to NIST SRM 3161A), and this isotopic grouping of bronze artifacts occurs across Serbia. However, groupings of isotopically heavier and lighter artifacts are evident, and each corresponds to a more limited geographic range. Artifacts associated with higher δSn values are limited to the Vojvodina region of northern Serbia, whereas a cluster of bronzes with lower Sn-isotopic signatures are constrained to the Banat along the Serbia-Romania border, and Transylvania. One low-value outlier corresponds to an uncontextualized find near Kruševac at the southern extent of the study area. Geographic correlation of the low-value cluster with known tin mineralization in Transylvania, and the moderate-value cluster with placer tin deposits of western Serbia, suggests that these distinct bronze Sn-isotopic signatures might reflect exploitation of different tin ores. The small cluster of high Sn-isotopic values from bronzes from the Vojvodina region might reflect bronze recycling in this area that lies furthest from both known tin ore sources.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Automated feature extraction for prospection and analysis of monumental
           earthworks from aerial LiDAR in the Kingdom of Tonga
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Travis Freeland, Brandon Heung, David V. Burley, Geoffrey Clark, Anders Knudby
      Recent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey in Tonga has documented a dense and complex archaeological landscape, particularly on the principal island of Tongatapu. Among the features revealed by the LiDAR are a profusion of earthen mounds, most of which are associated with residence, sporting, or burial in the period 1000–1850 CE. For identification and mapping of the mounds we use and evaluate two automated feature extraction (AFE) techniques, object-based image analysis and an inverted pit-filling algorithm (“iMound”). Accuracy of these methods was measured using an F1-score (harmonic mean of precision and recall). Variable AFE results indicate that continual and iterative fine-tuning is required. Successful mapping of some 10,000 mounds on Tongatapu reveals a distinct spatial structure that relates to traditional land division and tenure.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Grapevine carpological remains revealed the existence of a Neolithic
           domesticated Vitis vinifera L. specimen containing ancient DNA partially
           preserved in modern ecotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Angelo Gismondi, Gabriele Di Marco, Fabio Martini, Lucia Sarti, Manna Crespan, Cristina Martínez-Labarga, Olga Rickards, Antonella Canini
      Thirty-four carpological remains, found in the Neolithic layers of Grotta della Serratura (Southern Italy), were subjected to morphological analysis in order to identify their botanical origin. The phenotype of these samples and the measurement of morphometrical indices clearly revealed that they were Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa seeds, suggesting the existence of this plant species in that specific context. Molecular investigations detected the presence of ancient DNA inside the pips. The principal plastidial Barcoding genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with the accessions of GenBank nucleotide database, to confirm the taxonomic identity of the specimens and to individuate all the genetic changes that occurred in these selected regions of the grapevine genome during the evolution, since Neolithic until today. Then, ten microsatellite loci were successfully typified, starting from the ancient DNA. The genetic profile was compared to the CRA-VIT molecular database of Conegliano and to the Italian Vitis Database. The results showed a high conservation rate of the antique allelic variants in modern grapevine accessions and the existence of possible evolutionary relationships with current Vitis vinifera ecotypes. All these data improved the knowledge about grapevine cultivation, diffusion and use in Southern Italy by Neolithic human civilization. Moreover, they also gave new information for reconstruction and interpretation of past natural environments.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Machine learning-based approaches for predicting stature from
           archaeological skeletal remains using long bone lengths
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Gabriela Czibula, Vlad-Sebastian Ionescu, Diana-Lucia Miholca, Ioan-Gabriel Mircea
      This paper approaches, from a computational perspective, the problem of predicting the stature of human skeletal remains from bone measurements. There are traditional methods for constructing models that give good results for stature estimation. In this paper, we aim to investigate the usefulness of using machine learning-based models to approximate stature. Assuming that the stature of an individual is indirectly related to bone measurement values, we can derive methods that learn from archaeological data and construct models that give good estimates of the stature. Two novel machine learning-based regression models for stature estimation are proposed in this paper. Experiments using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were performed on samples from the Terry Collection Postcranial Osteometric Database, and the obtained results are discussed and compared with the results from other similar studies. The experimental evaluations indicate that the machine learning-based regression models are efficient for the stature estimation of archaeological remains and highlight the potential of our proposal.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T02:51:20Z
       
  • Platinum group placer minerals in ancient gold artifacts –
           Geochemistry and osmium isotopes of inclusions in Early Bronze Age gold
           from Ur/Mesopotamia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Moritz Jansen, Sonja Aulbach, Andreas Hauptmann, Heidi E. Höfer, Sabine Klein, Michael Krüger, Richard L. Zettler
      One of the most significant characteristics of the gold artifacts from the Early Dynastic Royal Tombs of Ur, Mesopotamia are numerous inclusions consisting of the platinum group elements (PGE) osmium–iridium–ruthenium. In nature, minerals of PGE (PGM) are enriched along with gold and other heavy minerals in placer deposits. During metallurgical gold extraction from placer material and subsequent production of artifacts, PGMs were incorporated in the gold artifacts due to their refractoriness almost unmodified. In order to evaluate their potential for provenance studies of gold, the PGE inclusions were analyzed for their chemical and Os-isotope compositions. They contain highly variable concentrations of Os (26–70 wt.%), Ir (14–62 wt.%) and Ru (0.4–45 wt.%). 187Os/188Os isotope ratios vary between 0.118 und 0.178. Due to the high Ru content of the alloys, the chemical composition point to a geological context of ophiolite complexes. Os isotope ratios are a powerful tool to narrow down the potential ore sources for the gold. However, the interpretation of calculated model ages is difficult due to the unknown genesis of the parental magma. Calculated ages (290–610 Ma) for measured 187Os/188Os of 0.125 using different reference values could indicate placers close to Paleozoic ophiolites like Samti (Takhar) in Northern Afghanistan and Zarshouran (Western Azerbaijan) in Iran, but need to be confirmed by additional measurements of their Os isotope signature in the future. Other archaeological relevant sources of PGM and gold could be excluded by direct comparison of their Os isotope data: 1.) old Neoproterozoic ophiolites from the Eastern Desert type (750–800 Ma), Egypt, 2.) young Mesozoic ophiolites from the Samail complex (96 Ma) in Oman. Thus, in combination with other tracers the Os isotope ratio is a valuable source for provenance studies.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T15:30:28Z
       
  • Structural collapse in kaolinite, montmorilonite and illite clay and its
           role in the ceramic rehydroxylation dating of low-fired earthenware
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christopher M. Stevenson, Mary Gurnick
      The rehydroxylation dating of ancient pottery estimates the age of ceramic manufacture based upon the total hydroxyl (OH) accumulation since initial firing. The diffusion of OH is impacted by the structural porosity of the ceramic that becomes progressively, or suddenly, closed with increasing temperature as the clay structure collapses. Changes in ceramic mineral structure along the temperature continuum occur at certain thermal set points. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of heat-treated kaolin, illite, and montmorillonite reveals that shifts in the Si-O band correlate with the extent of structural collapse occurring between 600 and 1000 °C. Accelerated rehydroxylation experiments reveal that the activation energy of rehydroxylation decreases with greater structural collapse and indicates that the rate of rehydroxylation will be faster for ceramics fired at more elevated temperatures.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T15:30:28Z
       
  • Sr and Pb isotopic investigation of mammal introductions: Pre-Columbian
           zoogeographic records from the Lesser Antilles, West Indies
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Christina M. Giovas, George D. Kamenov, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, John Krigbaum
      Recent efforts to reconstruct the anthropogenic paleozoogeography of introduced Neotropical mammals in the West Indies provide new analytical foundations for evaluating island and continental human interaction, exchange, colonization, and animal management. Key questions in these investigations concern the timing, source, population viability, and environmental impact of continental faunal translocations in the pre-Columbian insular Caribbean. To investigate these issues we analyzed 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb isotope ratios from environmental samples and agouti (Dasyprocta sp.) and opossum (Didelphis cf. marsupialis) remains from Ceramic Age (500 BC – AD 1500) archaeological deposits on the islands of Nevis, Carriacou, and Mustique in the Lesser Antilles. This study was undertaken to assess the suitability of agouti and opossum tooth enamel for isotopic analysis, characterize local bioavailable Sr and Pb isotope ratios, and distinguish possible local and non-local agouti and opossum individuals. We demonstrate large intra-island variability in bioavailable Sr across multiple islands giving rise to potential equifinality in identifying taxa of non-local origin. We argue, consequently, for the necessity of comprehensive environmental sampling at the island scale to better define the range and mean of bioavailable Sr for a given locale. Our results further show that Pb isotope analysis of sampled taxa is problematized to varying degrees by modern anthropogenic lead contamination, even for well-preserved ‘clean’ tooth enamel from intact archaeological specimens and raise questions about the utility of this method for evaluating past animal translocations and the use of small mammals for establishing local bioavailable Pb. Despite these results, Sr data are sound and, in combination with vetted Pb ratios, indicate that agouti and opossum were established as living populations on Carriacou and Nevis as early as ca. AD 600/800, and possibly earlier. These results establish baseline data for evaluating exchange networks involving living animals or their parts, potential captive management of agouti and opossum, and the ecological impact of exotic species during the Pre-Columbian era in the West Indies.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T19:49:04Z
       
  • The effects of demineralisation and sampling point variability on the
           measurement of glutamine deamidation in type I collagen extracted from
           bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): J.P. Simpson, K.E.H. Penkman, B. Demarchi, H. Koon, M.J. Collins, J. Thomas-Oates, B. Shapiro, M. Stark, J. Wilson
      The level of glutamine (Gln) deamidation in bone collagen provides information on the diagenetic history of bone but, in order to accurately assess the extent of Gln deamidation, it is important to minimise the conditions that may induce deamidation during the sample preparation. Here we report the results of a preliminary investigation of the variability in glutamine deamidation levels in an archaeological bone due to: a) sampling location within a bone; b) localised diagenesis; and c) sample preparation methods. We then investigate the effects of pre-treatment on three bone samples: one modern, one Medieval and one Pleistocene. The treatment of bone with acidic solutions was found to both induce deamidation and break down the collagen fibril structure. This is particularly evident in the Pleistocene material (∼80,000 years BP) considered in this study. We show that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), when used as an alternative to hydrochloric acid (HCl) demineralisation, induces minimal levels of deamidation and maintains the collagen fibril structure. Areas of bone exhibiting localised degradation are shown to be correlated with an increase in the levels of Gln deamidation. This indicates that the extent of Gln deamidation could provide a marker for diagenesis but that sampling is important, and that, whenever possible, subsamples should be taken from areas of the bone that are visually representative of the bone as a whole. Although validation of our observations will require analysis of a larger sample set, deamidation measurements could be a valuable screening tool to evaluate the suitability of bone for further destructive collagen analyses such as isotopic or DNA analysis, as well as assessing the overall preservation of bone material at a site. The measure of bone preservation may be useful to help conservators identify bones that may require special long-term storage conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T19:49:04Z
       
  • Issues and directions in phytolith analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Thomas C. Hart
      This special issue examines new trends in phytolith scholarship and assesses the future direction of this field of research. The papers presented represent a broader shift in phytolith research into a new phase called the “Period of Expanding Applications”. It is characterized by 1) a rapid increase in the number of phytolith publications; 2) a diversification of research topics; 3) a reassessment of the use of radiocarbon and other isotopes in phytoliths; 4) the development of digital technologies for refining and sharing phytolith identifications; 5) renewed efforts for standardization of phytolith nomenclature and laboratory protocol; and 6) the development of the field of applied phytolith research. This paper argues that interdisciplinary collaborations and a continued effort to understand the basics of phytolith production patterns are essential for the growth of the discipline and its application in archaeological studies.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • Let the dead speak…comments on Dibble et al.'s reply to
           “Evidence supporting an intentional burial at La
           Chapelle-aux-Saints”
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): William Rendu, Cédric Beauval, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Priscilla Bayle, Antoine Balzeau, Thierry Bismuth, Laurence Bourguignon, Géraldine Delfour, Jean-Philippe Faivre, François Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, Xavier Muth, Sylvain Pasty, Patrick Semal, Carlotta Tavormina, Dominique Todisco, Alain Turq, Bruno Maureille
      In a reply to our paper presenting new evidence supporting an intentional Neanderthal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints (Corrèze, France), Dibble et al. (2014) reviewed our data in relation to the original Bouyssonie publications. They conclude that alternative hypotheses can account for the preservation of the human remains within a pit. Here we present new data from our recent excavations and highlight several misinterpretations of the Bouyssonie publications, which, when taken together refute most of their arguments. Moreover, we show that the different hypotheses proposed by Dibble et al. cannot work together and fail to provide a credible explanation for the deposit, reinforcing our demonstration that the burial hypothesis remains the most parsimonious explanation for the preservation of the Neanderthal skeletal material at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • High-resolution serial sampling for nitrogen stable isotope analysis of
           archaeological mammal teeth
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Eric J. Guiry, Joseph C. Hepburn, Michael P. Richards
      We present the results of an archaeological application of a rapid method for high-resolution stable nitrogen isotope (δ15N) measurements of time-series samples of tooth dentine. Over 250 analyses of samples of untreated dentine powder taken at continuous millimeter intervals along the growth axis of archaeological pig tusks were compared to results from a subset of tandem δ15N measurements of extracted and purified tooth collagen from the same teeth. Samples were also taken at 0.25 mm depth intervals to test the effect of depth with respect to temporal resolution of diet. Results show that δ15N measurements of untreated dentine powder from well-preserved archaeological teeth provide: 1) broadly comparable δ 15N values to extracted and purified collagen, and 2) a rapid method of assessing dietary change over much shorter time intervals than is possible using extracted collagen. Analyses also show that large changes in δ 15N values can occur across the thickness of a tooth due to the inclusion of multiple growth layers and/or secondary dentine, which results in a significant time−averaging lag in dietary representation, as demonstrated by samples that analyze collagen from the full width of the tooth wall. This method will also be useful for initial prescreening of samples to select for specimens of interest before undertaking further, more rigorous, sample pre−treatment and measurement.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • The Early Bronze Age/Middle Bronze Age transition and the aquifer
           geography in the Near East
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 69
      Author(s): Konstantin Pustovoytov, Simone Riehl
      Groundwater often remains a neglected natural resource in archaeological studies in the Near East. Here we examine the potential role of aquifers in transitional phenomena in the eastern Mediterranean at the Early Bronze Age (EBA) – Middle Bronze Age (MBA) boundary using geographic relations between aquifers and archaeological settlements. As a basis for this analysis, the aquifer areas within buffers zones of 5, 10 and 20 km around the sites were used. For comparison, the total watercourse lengths within the same zones were calculated. Although no substantial changes in watercourse lengths could be found, the aquifer geography around EBA and MBA sites did show regional differences. The proportion of settlements with aquifers in upper Mesopotamia and the northern Levant doubled during the transition from EBA to MBA, whereas in the southern Levant this proportion decreased. We propose several explanatory models for these results: environmental (desiccation regional trend around 4.2 ka BP), non-environmental (changes in strategic importance, subsistence economy or hygienic requirements) and combined (human-induced transformation in the vegetation, changes in soil properties or changes in human perception of the environment followed by changes in behavioral attitudes). This study further emphasizes the potential of GIS-based spatial analysis applications in archaeology.


      PubDate: 2016-03-28T12:32:16Z
       
  • A wolf in dog's clothing: Initial dog domestication and Pleistocene wolf
           variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Angela Perri
      The process and timing of initial dog domestication is an important topic in human evolution and one which has inspired much recent debate. Findings of putative domesticated dogs have recently been reported from two Gravettian sites by Germonpré et al. (2015a), joining a handful of other reputed “Paleolithic dogs” dating to before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Though these findings have been challenged previously, this paper draws attention to the most significant shortcoming in claims of early domesticated dogs – a lack of data on Pleistocene wolf variation. Without comprehensive data on the range of variation within Pleistocene wolf populations, the identification of domesticated dogs from prior to the Late Upper Paleolithic cannot be conclusively accepted or rejected.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T14:09:42Z
       
  • Complications in the study of ancient tuberculosis: Presence of
           environmental bacteria in human archaeological remains
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 68
      Author(s): Romy Müller, Charlotte A. Roberts, Terence A. Brown
      There are many reports of ancient DNA from bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) being present in skeletons with and without osteological indications of tuberculosis. A possible complication in these studies is that extracts might also contain DNA from the microbiome of the individual whose remains are being analysed and/or from environmental bacteria that have colonised the skeleton after death. These contaminants might include ‘mycobacteria other than tuberculosis’ (MOTT), which are common in the environment, but which are not normally associated with clinical cases of tuberculosis. In this paper we show that MOTT of various types, as well as bacteria of related genera, are present in most if not all archaeological remains. Our results emphasise the complications inherent in the biomolecular study of archaeological human tuberculosis. The specificity of any polymerase chain reaction directed at the MTBC cannot be assumed and, to confirm that an amplification is authentic, a sequencing strategy must be applied that allows characterisation of the PCR product. Any variations from the reference MTBC sequence must then be checked against sequence data for MOTT and other species to ensure that the product does actually derive from MTBC. Our results also illustrate the challenges faced when assembling MTBC genome sequences from ancient DNA samples, as misidentification of MOTT sequence reads as MTBC would lead to errors in the assembly. Identifying such errors would be particularly difficult, if not impossible, if the MOTT DNA content is greater than that of the authentic MTBC. The difficulty in identifying and excluding MOTT sequences is exacerbated by the fact that many MOTT are still uncharacterized and hence their sequence features are unknown.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T14:09:42Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67




      PubDate: 2016-03-13T11:02:36Z
       
  • Settling in Sahul: Investigating environmental and human history
           interactions through micromorphological analyses in tropical semi-arid
           north-west Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Dorcas Vannieuwenhuyse, Sue O'Connor, Jane Balme
      The Pleistocene continent of Sahul was first settled by people who arrived by watercraft from Island South East Asia about 50,000 years ago. Some of the oldest archaeological sites in Sahul are located in the southern Kimberley, in northwest Australia. This area lies within the southern zone of influence of the tropical monsoon and thus has always been highly sensitive to changes in monsoon dynamics over time. How these climatic changes have affected the colonisation and occupation of Australia is an important research theme in Australian archaeology. This paper illustrates the contribution and challenges of micromorphology in deciphering palaeoenvironmental and anthropogenic markers in a still largely unexplored Australian context. Micromorphological analysis of two archaeological sequences in the Napier Range (Carpenters Gap 1 and 3) provides a complementary and comprehensive reconstruction of the human-climate history in this area spanning nearly 50,000 years of Australian human presence. The results demonstrate an opportunistic use of sites by people through time, surprisingly independent of local climatic variation, suggesting highly flexible subsistence strategies.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T09:45:28Z
       
  • The use of technical ceramics in early Egyptian glass-making
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): M. Smirniou, Th. Rehren
      We present a detailed description of the layered structure developing in the walls of Egyptian Late Bronze Age glass-making vessels, and in similar vessels successfully replicated in laboratory experiments. The analyses show that this layered discolouration and change in ceramic composition is due to the interaction of the glass batch with the vessel during firing. The formation of this visually striking and easy to recognise pattern is due to the chloride content of primary glass batches and does not occur in vessels used to re-melt existing glass. Thus, we argue that these discolourations can be used as a reliable and easy field guide to identify glassmaking waste among Late Bronze Age ceramic assemblages, hopefully increasing the currently very small number of identified LBA glassmaking workshops.


      PubDate: 2016-02-26T14:03:25Z
       
  • Chemical compositional changes in archaeological human bones due to
           diagenesis: Type of bone vs soil environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Olalla López-Costas, Óscar Lantes-Suárez, Antonio Martínez Cortizas
      Diagenesis in human remains is a subject of growing interest due to the increase in bone chemical studies to reconstruct pre- and post-mortem features in archaeological and forensic sciences. The efforts made during the last decades have solidified our understanding of diagenetic processes; however, their high complexity demands more research to address them empirically, specifically considering factors such as types of soil substratum and skeletal element. In this work, a geochemical study of human remains from the archaeological site of A Lanzada (NW Spain) is performed to understand diagenesis (i.e. chemical alteration) and life environmental exposure. Three types of bone (thoracic, long and cranial) from 30 skeletons of two periods (9 Roman, 21 post-Roman) were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. Bones were recovered from burials located in slightly alkaline (Haplic Arenosol (calcaric)) and acidic (Cambic Umbrisol (humic)) soils. Principal components analysis was applied to extract the main chemical signatures, and analysis of variance to determine the influence of different factors. Bone composition was characterized by four chemical signals related to: i) alteration of bone bioapatite; ii) metal sorption from the soil solution; iii) presence of fine (silt–clay) soil particles; and iv) lead incorporation. Thoracic bones were found to be more sensitive to diagenesis and the burial environment; long bones and crania presented a similar response. Skeletons buried in the acidic soil were significantly poorly preserved. Lead content was higher in bones of the Roman period, which seems to be related to pre-mortem conditions. Previous investigations on palaeopollution in NW Spain enable us to hypothesize that Roman individuals may have been subjected to a high exposure of Pb due to elevated atmospheric metal contamination.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T19:45:10Z
       
  • More on history houses at Çatalhöyük: A response to
           Carleton et al.
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Ian Hodder
      In a recent article in this journal, Carleton et al. (2013) cast doubt on a hypothesis about the social organization of the Neolithic tell site of Çatalhöyük in central Turkey. The hypothesis concerns ‘history houses’ that were continually built in the same place and in which many interments occurred. Carleton et al. argue that the history house hypothesis ‘contends that the corporate kin-group was the main form of socioeconomic organization at Çatalhöyük during the PPNB, and that the corporate kin-groups would have been maintained by the repeated rebuilding of houses in the same place and by the burial of important members under the floors of the houses’ (Carleton et al., 2013, 1821). They test the history house hypothesis by examining the relationship between continuity of houses and the percentage of houses that contain burial. The purpose of this response is to (a) clarify the hypothesis, (b) show that the claimed test does not test the hypothesis, and (c) demonstrate that poor and out-of-date data were used. Data are presented that go some way to confirm a link between ‘history houses’ and burial at Çatalhöyük and reinforce wider scholarly discussion of Neolithic history and memory making.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T17:14:58Z
       
  • Friendly fire: Engineering a fort wall in the Iron Age
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Fabian B. Wadsworth, Michael J. Heap, Donald B. Dingwell
      There is widespread evidence that the walls of Iron Age forts across Europe were set on fire, causing partial melting of the stonework followed by either recrystallization or glass formation on cooling – a process termed “vitrification”. The motivation for fort wall firing has remained speculative since its first description in 1777. Since the suggestion of MacKie (1969) that fort vitrification might destabilize fort walls, the debate as to motives has focused on combative or destructive intentions. Here, a multidisciplinary analysis of experimental fort wall samples shows that in fact vitrification results in strengthening, not weakening. The strengthening involves diffusive and viscous sintering of material aggregates and size-dependent heat transfer. These new results support a long-since-dismissed idea that Iron Age fort walls were intentionally set ablaze in order to fortify the walls.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T17:14:58Z
       
  • Dietary practices at the castle of Middelburg, Belgium: Organic residue
           analysis of 16th- to 17th-century ceramics
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Maxime Poulain, Jan Baeten, Wim De Clercq, Dirk De Vos
      Between 2002 and 2004, excavations on the castle of Middelburg (Belgium) revealed ample pottery assemblages dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of preserved surface residues on these ceramics allowed the identification of biomarkers for animal and vegetal foods, and thermal processing. This paper furthermore reinforces the methodology for examining food residues by GC–MS, particularly in pottery in which highly varied meals were prepared. For example, this study forms the first instance in which dairy signals have been identified in mid-chain ketones. Moreover, insights are gained in the multiple uses of vessel types and questions arise on the dietary and medicinal practices of the inhabitants of this particular castle site.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T17:14:58Z
       
  • New evidence for diverse secondary burial practices in Iron Age Britain: A
           histological case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Thomas J. Booth, Richard Madgwick
      Iron Age (c. 700 BC–43AD) funerary practice has long been a focus of debate in British archaeology. Formal cemeteries are rare and in central-southern Britain human remains are often unearthed in unusual configurations. They are frequently recovered as isolated fragments, partially articulated body parts or complete skeletons in atypical contexts, often storage pits. In recent years, taphonomic analysis of remains has been more frequently employed to elucidate depositional practice (e.g. Madgwick, 2008, 2010; Redfern, 2008). This has enhanced our understanding of modes of treatment and has contributed much-needed primary data to the discussion. However, only macroscopic taphonomic analysis has been undertaken and equifinality (i.e. different processes producing the same end result) remains a substantial obstacle to interpretation. This research explores the potential of novel microscopic (histological) methods of taphonomic analysis for providing greater detail on the treatment of human remains in Iron Age Britain. Twenty human bones from two Iron Age sites: Danebury and Suddern Farm, in Hampshire, central-southern Britain were examined and assessed using thin section light microscopy combined with the Oxford Histological Index (OHI). Results suggest that diverse mortuary rites were practised and that different configurations of remains were subject to prescribed, varied treatment, rather than resulting from different stages of the same process. Practices that may be responsible for these patterns include exhumation followed by selective removal of elements and sheltered exposure prior to final burial. Only one sample provided evidence for excarnation, a practice that has been widely cited as a potential majority rite in Iron Age Britain.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T17:14:58Z
       
  • Reevaluation of early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 67
      Author(s): Masaki Eda, Peng Lu, Hiroki Kikuchi, Zhipeng Li, Fan Li, Jing Yuan
      The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is the most widespread domestic animal in the world. However, the timings and locations of their domestication have remained debatable for over a century. China, and particularly northern China, has been claimed as one of the early centers for the domestication of chickens, because many chicken remains have been discovered at a number of archaeological sites. However, the identification of archaeological domestic chicken bones from early Holocene sites in China remains contentious. In this study, we analyzed 1831 bird bones, which included 429 bones previously recorded as “domestic chicken” from 18 Neolithic and early Bronze Age sites in central and northern China. Although morphological species identification criteria for the bones of 55 modern Chinese Phasianidae species, including the domestic chicken and wild red junglefowls, have not yet been fully established, upon reanalysis none of the “domestic chicken” bones were derived from chickens. In addition, bones determined to be candidate chicken bones were found at only 2 of the 18 sites, suggesting that chickens were neither widely kept nor distributed in central and northern China during the early and middle Holocene period. Further studies that combine analyses of morphology, ancient DNA, and radiocarbon dating are required to fully reveal the origin and history of the domestic chicken in northern China.


      PubDate: 2016-02-15T17:14:58Z
       
  • Directions in current and future phytolith research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Débora Zurro, Juan José García-Granero, Carla Lancelotti, Marco Madella
      The analysis of phytoliths has progressed immensely in recent years. Increases in the number of phytolith works within several disciplines has substantially extended our knowledge about these microfossils, while at the same time diversifying the approaches by which they can be used as archaeological and palaeoenvironmental proxies. The insufficient standardisation of these works, however, greatly increases the difficulty of utilising this body of research within a broader framework of powerfully integrated methodologies and models in archaeobotany and palaeoenvironmental studies. Further standardisation will facilitate the broadening of phytolith research beyond technique-oriented work, permitting greater opportunity for its application to inform on past cultures and their strategies of plant resources exploitation as well as the dynamics related to climate change and anthropic-driven environmental modifications. The aim of this paper is to drive our discipline towards a set of “best practices” that arise from current phytolith research but that are often applied in an unsystematic manner.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T11:01:21Z
       
 
 
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