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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 177 journals)
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Archaeological Practice : A Journal of the Society for American Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Antiquity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 29)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access  
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antiquaries Journal, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access  
Apeiron     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription  
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Partially Free  
Arkeos     Open Access  
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access  
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access  
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chiron     Full-text available via subscription  
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Complutum     Open Access  
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
digitAR - Revista Digital de Arqueologia, Arquitectura e Artes     Open Access  
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access  
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Etruscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Germanistik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hesperia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Internet Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [144 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2565 journals]   [SJR: 1.373]   [H-I: 57]
  • Optimal foraging, dietary change, and site use during the Paleolithic at
           Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Britt M. Starkovich
      This paper evaluates a long sequence of zooarchaeological remains from Klissoura Cave 1 (southern Greece) within the paradigm of evolutionary ecology. The prey choice, central place foraging, and patch choice models are applied to the dataset in order to understand subsistence shifts related to local resource depression and changes in the intensity of site use from the Middle Paleolithic through Mesolithic. Major trends in prey choice indicate that Middle Paleolithic hominins tended to focus on high-ranked large game resources, while Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic occupants shifted to lower-ranked small game, fast-moving animals in particular. Overarching shifts in prey use do not correspond to environmental change, so they likely reflect human impacts on local prey populations. Reconstructions of body part profiles indicate that hunters exploited large game animals locally, possibly as they passed through the gorge or drank at a nearby stream. Occupation intensity at the site was highest at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which is reflected by an increase in material culture such as lithics and hearth features, as well as different subsistence strategies. Specifically, bone marrow processing is more important, evidenced by ungulate transport decisions that focus on marrow-rich elements, and an overall increase in marrow processing intensity. Environmental data indicate that conditions in southern Greece were particularly favorable at the beginning of the Aurignacian, which supported rich ungulate faunas and larger populations of their hominin predators in the area. In general, faunal data from Klissoura Cave 1 fit within larger trends found in the Mediterranean over the course of the Late Pleistocene, which indicate that human hunting pressures were on the rise. However, many aspects of prey use are specific to Klissoura Cave 1, reflecting unique environmental and cultural circumstances of southern Greece at various phases in the occupation of the site.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Estimating original flake mass on blades using 3D platform area: problems
           and prospects
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antoine Muller , Chris Clarkson
      This study tests how well the ITMC (Initial-/Terminal-Mass Comparison) method of Clarkson and Hiscock (2011) measures reduction specifically on blades, a largely overlooked flake type in reduction measures. We demonstrate the utility of using platform area to model the extent of reduction on retouched blades. The platform areas of 124 blades were accurately measured in three dimensions using a digital scanner. A positive relationship was observed between 3D platform area and blade mass, with greater platform areas being associated with greater masses. Multivariate regression was used to strengthen the relationship between platform area and initial mass by isolating the variables of platform, termination and indentor type as well as external platform angle. As was proposed by Clarkson and Hiscock (2011), reduction intensity can be estimated by predicting initial blade mass from the relationship between platform area and mass, and comparing this to the observed mass of a retouched blade. Our analysis returned some surprising results that raise questions about the operation of fracture mechanics, particularly for punch blades and those with focalised platforms, and the suitability of the ITMC as a holistic method of flake reduction analysis.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Electrochemical reconstruction of a heavily corroded Tarentum hemiobolus
           silver coin: a study based on microfocus X-ray computed microtomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Benedetto Bozzini , Alessandra Gianoncelli , Claudio Mele , Aldo Siciliano , Lucia Mancini
      In this paper we report on the electrochemical reconstruction of a Tarentum hemiobolus Ag coin, severely corroded in marine environment. As assessed by conventional analytical tools, most of the initially metallic Ag coin had been converted to AgCl by exposure to the aggressive coastal burial conditions. X-ray computed microtomography proved that only small portions of the artefact had preserved their metallic nature. Since the engraving was preserved partly in the corrosion product bulk and partly in the metallic rests, electrodeposition of Ag from the AgCl layer, under controlled conditions ensuring shape preservation, resulted in the reconstruction of the coin surface with full recovery of the original engraving. Such optimal electrodeposition conditions were identified by a combination of electrochemical and quasi-in situ X-ray microtomography experiments, carried out with artificially corrored engraved Ag wires. Microtomography of the reconstructed coin confirmed the compaction of the external Ag layer and disclosed that the central core of the coin still contains unconverted AgCl. The presence of such a mineralised core does not however impact the numismatic use of the coin and the safeguard of the original engraving.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Coastal paleogeography of the California–Oregon–Washington and
           Bering Sea continental shelves during the latest Pleistocene and Holocene:
           implications for the archaeological record
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jorie Clark , Jerry X. Mitrovica , Jay Alder
      Sea-level rise during the last deglaciation and through the Holocene was influenced by deformational, gravitational, and rotational effects (henceforth glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) that led to regional departures from eustasy. Deglacial sea-level rise was particularly variable spatially in areas adjacent to the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets. Such regional variability in sea level due to GIA is important to identify when investigating potential coastal migration pathways used by early Americans. An improved understanding of regional sea-level rise may also be used for predictive modeling of potential archaeological sites that are now submerged. Here we compute relative sea-level change across the California–Oregon–Washington and Bering Sea continental shelves since the Last Glacial Maximum using an ice-age sea-level theory that accurately incorporates time-varying shoreline geometry. The corresponding non-uniform sea-level rise across these continental shelves reveals significant departures from eustasy, which has important implications for improved understanding of potential coastal migration routes and predictive modeling of the location of now-submerged archaeological sites.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • LA-ICP-MS analysis of Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Charles A. Speer
      A key tenet of Clovis period hunter–gatherer mobility is the utilization of large ranges based on the appearance of exotic raw materials, particularly chert, in Clovis assemblages. The identification of the sources of chert in Clovis period assemblages is problematic as it has relied on macroscopic properties. Macroscopic characteristics of chert can be highly variable in a single outcrop, occur across very large areas, and have correlates in unrelated and far removed contexts. An instrumental geochemical approach was utilized that potentially offers advances in the capacity to link chert artifacts to their sources. Trace element data was recovered from 33 Clovis period projectile points from the Gault Site (41BL323) using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This data was compared to trace element data recovered from 224 primary geologic samples of chert from multiple primary sources across the Edwards Plateau in Texas. The Clovis points were compared to the geologic sources using canonical discriminant analysis to establish group membership at three spatial scales: macro-regional (greater than 500 km), regional (between 30 and 500 km), and local (between 1 and 30 km). It was found at the macro-regional scale that 21 of the 33 Clovis points were to be geochemically similar to Edwards Plateau sources. At the regional scale, 15 of the 21 identified Edwards Plateau Clovis points could be attributed to a particular source. Lastly, only two Clovis points could be identified to particular sources at the local scale.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Intra- and inter-individual variation in δ13C and δ15N in human
           dental calculus and comparison to bone collagen and apatite isotopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Jelmer W. Eerkens , Alex de Voogt , Tosha L. Dupras , Samuel C. Rose , Eric J. Bartelink , Vincent Francigny
      There are mixed opinions on the suitability of dental calculus for paleodietary reconstruction using stable isotope analysis. We examine δ13C and δ15N values of calculus samples from two regions, central California in the USA and Sai Island in the Sudan. When atomic C/N ratios are less than 12 in calculus, results show positive correlations at both the regional and individual level between stable isotopes of bone collagen and calculus, suggesting these materials track similar dietary behaviors. Correlations are still positive but lower between δ13C values of calculus and bone apatite. Stable isotope ratios of calculus show between 30% and 50% greater variation than bone, are typically enriched in 15N (mean = 2.1‰ higher), and are depleted in 13C relative to bone collagen (mean = 0.8‰ lower) and apatite (mean = 6.4‰ lower). Calculus from multiple teeth was analyzed separately for seven individuals to examine intra-individual variation. Results show that within an individual δ13C varies up to 1.8‰, and δ15N up to 2.1‰, which may explain some of the weak bone-calculus correlations previously reported in the literature. When atomic C/N ratios are greater than 12, calculus correlates more poorly with bone collagen, suggesting these samples should be treated with caution.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Variability in late Holocene shellfish assemblages: the significance of
           large shore barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) in South African
           West Coast sites
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonieta Jerardino
      The archaeological significance of barnacles has been documented in several places around the world, but this remains to be realised for South Africa. In the absence of local ethnographic observations, it was proposed that large barnacles (Austromegabalanus cylindricus) were taken to campsites attached to large black mussels (Choromytilus meridionalis) as part of scavenged beach-stranded fauna. Basic observations available until recently for South African West Coast shell middens showed that the presence of large shore barnacles is chronologically patterned. Some hints regarding transport decisions were also apparent. This paper examines the variability in large barnacle abundance through time and space using mollusc and crustacean shell samples from eight late Holocene sites situated at different distances from rocky shorelines. Modern knowledge on the ecology of collected species is used to interpret inter-assemblage variability. This study shows that barnacle abundance depends on at least three aspects, namely: the degree of wave exposure from which barnacles and other shellfish were collected, possible shifts in the main season of shellfish collection in the last 1700 years, and field processing before transporting shellfish loads to camps.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Assessing heavy metal exposure in Renaissance Europe using synchrotron
           microbeam techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Antonio Lanzirotti , Raffaella Bianucci , Racquel LeGeros , Timothy G. Bromage , Valentina Giuffra , Ezio Ferroglio , Gino Fornaciari , Otto Appenzeller
      A number of archaeological studies have used chemical analysis of preserved, human biological tissues to assess the potential exposure of historic figures and ancient populations to heavy metals. Accurately assessing historic levels of heavy-metal body burden for these individuals based on analysis of remnant soft-tissue, hair and bone collected from preserved human remains is often complicated by the potential for post-mortem chemical modifications and contamination of the body and burial site. This study employs high-resolution, synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, tomography and absorption spectroscopy of human remains collected in an archaeological context in an effort to discriminate between heavy metals such as mercury and lead that may have been incorporated through either endogenous or exogenous processes. These methods were used to analyze bone and hair samples from Ferrante II of Aragon, King of Naples (1469–1496) and Isabella of Aragon, Duchess of Milan (1470–1524). These individuals are likely to have been exposed to generally similar levels of heavy metals in their lifetime, would have been embalmed using similar methods and the post-mortem exposure to contaminants is likely to have been similar. Although the remains from both Ferrante II of Aragon and Isabella of Aragon contain high amounts of mercury and lead, the high-resolution and –sensitivity synchrotron microprobe techniques employed in this study provide insight in to the likelihood these metals were incorporated pre-mortem rather than as ante-mortem contaminants. Although synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping and tomography are generally consistent with measured mercury from Isabella hair samples being endogenous in nature, the high levels of mercury seen in Ferrante II's remains are most likely related to post-mortem embalming of the corpse. However, application of microfocused X-ray fluorescence compositional mapping and lead L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to bone samples collected from Ferrante II show that the measured lead is likely endogenous and the result of in-life exposure to this heavy metal.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Occurrence of lungfish in the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia dates
           back to 3850 yr BP
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Anne Kemp , Leon Huynen
      Bone fragments collected from the Platypus RockShelter in southeast Queensland, on the banks of the Brisbane River, can be compared with bone from the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and suggest that this species, which was widely distributed in Queensland in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits, was also found in the Brisbane River as recently as 3850 years before the present, based on current 14C dates. The fragments have dimensions and morphology consistent with parts of lungfish jaws and palatal bones, and differ from the bones of teleost fish of comparable size that live in the Brisbane River. Unfortunately, attempts to extract mitochondrial DNA from the bones have not been successful due to very low levels of endogenous DNA. The presence of morphologically identifiable lungfish bones suggests that the Brisbane River has, and always did have, a population of lungfish that belong in this river and were not translocated. The Brisbane River is separated from the Mary and Burnett Rivers by mountain ranges, and the Rockshelter is 90 km away from the nearest tributary of the Mary River. Using a morphological analysis of carbon-dated midden site skeletal material, we show that lungfish were present in the Brisbane River over three thousand years ago, and may always have been there, despite attempts to translocate lungfish to this habitat. This finding is significant because lungfish are now seriously at risk in all of their present habitats from human interference in the environment and the resulting loss of biodiversity. Confirmation that the Brisbane River contains a population of lungfish, and always has done, increases the need for protection of this endangered species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The alleged Early Palaeolithic artefacts are in reality geofacts: a
           revision of the site of Kończyce Wielkie 4 in the Moravian Gate,
           South Poland
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Andrzej Wiśniewski , Janusz Badura , Tomasz Salamon , Józef Lewandowski
      In this paper we show that a site Kończyce Wielkie 4 (SW Poland) published in JAS (2010a) by Foltyn et al. can no longer be accepted as a reliable evidence for the oldest presence of humans in the northern part of Carpathians and Sudetes Mountains (Matuyama-Brunhes). Unfortunately, in the light of conducted analysis among others with Peacock's method, it seems that the lithics from Kończyce Wielkie appear to be much more similar to geofacts rather than to artefacts. As a background for comparison Lower Paleolithic artefacts from two German sites Wallendorf and Wangen were used. Moreover, the petrological determination of the finds from Kończyce Wielkie is also dubious issue. Foltyn et al. suggested a long distance transport of lithics from several sources. As it has been demonstrated in the paper, local glacial sediments consist of rocks that are analogous to published lithic spectrum. Finally, the geological data shown by Foltyn et al. seem to be incorrect.
      Authors did not take into account the results concerning the regional geology that indicate clearly much younger age of layers dated by Foltyn et al. (2010a) at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Taphonomy of Verreaux's Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) prey accumulations from
           the Cape Floral Region, South Africa: implications for archaeological
           interpretations
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Aaron Armstrong , Graham Avery
      We conducted a taphonomic analysis of modern prey accumulations of Verreaux's Eagle (VE; Aquila verreauxii) from the Cape Floral Region of South Africa. VE nest in or around cliffs and rocky outcrops, places that also attract other bone accumulators, including humans. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize the signatures of VE bone accumulation with as much precision as possible in order to differentiate between the prey remains of other bone accumulators, especially in relation to fossil assemblages that originate in and around cliffs, rock shelters, and caves. Towards this end, we describe the taxonomic composition, skeletal-part representation, bone breakage patterns, and bone surface modifications of mammal bones as well as the range of variability within those signatures. Based on the frequency of bone modifications we determine that VE modify the bones of their prey more often than do other eagle species. We suggest that taphonomic patterns derived from predation by other eagle taxa are not the most appropriate means to identify VE predation in faunal assemblages. In addition, we conclude that there is patterned variability in the ways that VE accumulate and modify the bones of their prey. There are two distinct skeletal-parts preservation, bone breakage, and bone surface modification patterns among the prey in our sample: one that characterizes hyraxes, mole-rats, and carnivores, and another that characterizes hares and bovids. Faunal analysts investigating the potential role of VE at fossil sites should be aware of 1) these taphonomic patterns and differences and 2) that there is no singular pattern of accumulation. We define patterns of preservation, breakage, and bone modification that can be employed on a taxon-specific basis to distinguish VE prey remains from other bone accumulators.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Using LiDAR data to locate a Middle Woodland enclosure and associated
           mounds, Louisa County, Iowa
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Melanie A. Riley , Joseph A. Tiffany
      LiDAR data is used to locate an enclosure reported at the McKinney site (13LA1) as well as destroyed mounds associated with the Toolesboro mound group National Historic Landmark (13LA29). Using various geo-visualization and interpolation techniques, one of us (Riley) located the earthwork enclosure, eight mounds, and possibly a ninth or an excavation spoil pile. An anomaly north of 13LA1 and within the detected enclosure area were also identified. There is no modern survey relating to these two anomalies. Our results support historic accounts regarding the location and shape of the McKinney enclosure and its relationship to the Toolesboro mound group. All features found by LiDAR will be ground truthed in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • A combined approach: using NAA and petrography to examine ceramic
           production and exchange in the American southwest
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Mary F. Ownby , Deborah L. Huntley , Matthew A. Peeples
      Over the past few decades, ceramic provenance research has seen the increased use of both chemical and mineralogical analyses. However, the success of each method is dependent both on the geological environment and the behavioral processes that created the pottery under study. The combination of bulk chemical and petrographic datasets may assist in overcoming the shortcomings of each method and improve the assignment of ceramics to specific production locations. Our research uses a mixed mode approach based on dissimilarity matrices and multidimensional scaling. The resulting combined dataset helps us assess the geographic extent of production and distribution of Maverick Mountain Series and Roosevelt Red Ware pottery found in the Upper Gila and Mimbres valleys of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. These pottery types have been connected to northern migrants arriving in these areas during the 13th century AD and subsequent regional scale social changes. This research provides a case study in the advantages of using complementary analytical techniques and combining their results to answer behavioral questions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Shine like metal: an experimental approach to understand prehistoric
           graphite coated pottery technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Attila Kreiter , Szabolcs Czifra , Zsolt Bendő , Jánosné Egri Imre , Péter Pánczél , Gábor Váczi
      In the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, so-called graphite-coated vessels were ubiquitous in the Carpathian Basin. Studies on graphite-coated vessels are usually carried out from a typological point of view, describing the shape and decoration of such wares and assessing the effects that co-existing cultural groups may have had on each other. Even though the practice of graphite coating had been present in East-Central Europe for several centuries, the way graphite coating was produced has never been investigated systematically. Technological study of graphite coating can, however, highlight interesting details about this practice and the high skill and knowledge of potters that was necessary for this type of ceramic production. In this study, a methodology of making graphite coated vessels, and in turn achieving a metallic luster, is presented through a range of experiments. The results are compared with graphite coating found on archaeological ceramics from a Late Bronze Age site. The experiments point out that graphite coating can be achieved in several different ways; however, only a limited number of technological choices would result in highly metallic luster. During the experiments different graphite coating techniques were tried which elucidate the possible ways prehistoric potters utilized graphite, surface treatments and firing conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • The utilisation of carnivore scavenging evidence in the interpretation of
           a protohistoric French pit burial
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Thomas Colard , Yann Delannoy , Stephan Naji , Stéphane Rottier , Joël Blondiaux
      Scavenging is one of the main taphonomic changes that bone assemblages undergo. This paper presents specific taphonomic data on bone modification by canids from the French archaeological site of Duisans ‘La Sèche-Epée,’ dating from the ‘La Tène A' period (500–400 BC). Anthropological description and analysis of two incomplete male skeletons found in a pit allows us to document the postmortem alteration of bodies by canid scavengers and poses several questions about the nature of the deposit. The morphology of these marks, which are sometimes similar to antemortem lesions, and the disarticulation and dispersal of anatomical parts are crucial elements that need to be accurately described and accounted for in archaeological or forensic contexts. The evidence of violent death and the secondary treatment of the cadavers can be interpreted as either an opportunistic votive burial, an actual sacrifice with a specific ritual pattern, or more traditionally, a deviant deposit in which the individuals were deprived of funerals and exposed to scavengers.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Characterising native plant resins from Australian Aboriginal artefacts
           using ATR-FTIR and GC/MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): C.D. Matheson , A.J. McCollum
      Resin use by Australian Aborigines has been documented in ethnographic accounts across the continent and is also evident from archaeological and anthropological artefacts. This research assesses the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the identification of native plant resins on museum artefacts. A collection of thirteen museum artefacts were analysed using light microscopy and characterised using both ATR-FTIR and GC/MS. The resins were identified to the plant genus and one to the species level, as spinifex (Triodia spp. R.Br.), ironwood (Erythrophleum chlorostachys (F. Muell.) Baill.) and grass tree (Xanthorrhoea spp. Sm.) by comparison to a reference collection of modern exudates from 34 Australian plant species. The two analytical methods used, produced a significant agreement in results but one has practical advantages. On eight of the artefacts, ATR-FTIR was able to be performed on the residue in situ, without removal, presenting a non-destructive analytical method for the identification of resins which is applicable to rare and delicate artefacts from museum collections. Permission to remove the residue off the artefact is not always granted or feasible, so ATR-FTIR has a significant advantage over GC/MS and other methods which require chemical treatment or even destruction of the archaeological sample. Both of the methods examined are demonstrated to accurately infer the botanical origin of archaeological and anthropological resins, providing insight on the use, preparation and trading of resins, with the consequent contribution to an understanding of the development and use of hafted tools and other aspects of cultural development.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • Developing a low cost 3D imaging solution for inscribed stone surface
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Adam P. Spring , Caradoc Peters
      The article uses a 3D imaging based solution where surface shading is determined by surface geometry. It is applied to inscribed stone surfaces in order to examine lettering and other carvings dated to the 5th - 9th centuries AD. Mid-range terrestrial laser scanning and structure from motion (SfM) based photogrammetry were cross-examined in order to create a low cost, but nevertheless highly accurate solution to 3D imaging that requires a computer, a camera, open source software like CloudCompare and a SfM based service called Photo located at ReCap360.autodesk.com. Ambient occlusion (AO) shading was used to show improvements made to the SfM data, which was achieved by adding known parameters to all photographs used. It simulates the direct light components of a light source so that exposed areas appear lightened and enclosed areas (like crevices and incisions) appear darkened. In the case study, AO was used to differentiate lettering in the inscription from damage and weathering on the granite surface of the Tristan Stone, as well as picking up a previously unnoticed wheel-head cross. This particular inscribed stone is located near Fowey in Cornwall, UK, and was known as the Long Stone before its name was changed on British Ordnance Survey (OS) Maps in 1951. The Tristan Stone was the first artefact to be scanned by the FARO Focus3D laser scanner after its release in 2010.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • High potential of calcareous tufas for integrative multidisciplinary
           studies and prospects for archaeology in Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Julie Dabkowski
      Calcareous tufas are continental carbonates from open-air conditions, specific to wet and warm periods. They contain abundant remains of fauna and flora fossilised in situ and may accumulate regularly over thousands of years offering high stratigraphic resolution for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. As they are mainly comprised of calcite, tufas allow direct and precise dating as well as geochemical reconstructions of past climates. Additionally, recent investigations have highlighted their strong potential for archaeology as several studied sequences provided high quality record of in situ prehistoric levels. Tufas are thus a unique archive in continental areas for development of synergic multidisciplinary investigations of past human societies and associated environmental and climate evolution. We emphasise that calcareous tufa are key-deposits to investigate human–environment–climate interactions during interglacial periods, from Lower Palaeolithic to Antiquity, in Europe.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • New ways to extract archaeological information from hyperspectral pixels
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 52
      Author(s): Michael Doneus , Geert Verhoeven , Clement Atzberger , Michael Wess , Michal Ruš
      Airborne remote sensing for archaeology is the discipline that encompasses the study of archaeological remains using data collected from an airborne platform by means of digital or film-based aerial photography, airborne laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging etc. So far, airborne hyperspectral scanning or – more accurately – airborne imaging spectroscopy (AIS) has occupied only a very small niche in the field of archaeological remote sensing: besides reasons of cost, the common archaeologically-insufficient ground-sampling distance can be considered the main limiting factor. Moreover, the technical processing of these data sets with a high level of potential redundancy needs specialized software. Typically, calculation of band ratios and a principal component analysis are applied. As a result, the few practical applications of archaeological AIS have not been entirely convincing so far. The aim of this paper is to present new approaches for analysing archaeological AIS data. The imagery under study has a ground-sampling distance of 40 cm and covers the Roman town of Carnuntum (Austria). Using two algorithms embedded in a specifically developed MATLAB® toolbox, it will be shown how the extracted archaeological information can be enhanced from high-resolution hyperspectral images. A comparison with simultaneously acquired vertical photographs will indicate the specific advantages of high-resolution AIS data and the gain one can obtain when exploiting its potential using any of the newly presented methods.


      PubDate: 2014-09-19T00:29:07Z
       
  • A question of timing: spatio-temporal structure and mechanisms of early
           agriculture expansion in West Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Sylvain Ozainne , Laurent Lespez , Aline Garnier , Aziz Ballouche , Katharina Neumann , Olivier Pays , Eric Huysecom
      Although understanding the emergence of agriculture in West Africa has recently benefited from major advances, the reasons for its fast diffusion south of the Sahara remain to be explained. We propose here a reconstruction of African agriculture expansion built from a spatialization of available archaeological data and associated radiocarbon dates. With this approach, we can show that the initial spread of food production occurred with some specific rhythms. From this structure, we discuss the potential underlying processes. Our work suggests that the spread of agriculture in West Africa cannot be explained by a simple response to an abrupt environmental change at the beginning of the Late Holocene, but rather by a combined climate-culture mechanism. In addition, cord-wrapped roulette-impressed pottery appears to be a good indicator of the expansion of agro-pastoralist populations in Sub-Saharan regions. Our results are also consistent with the assumption of a monophyletic origin of domestic pearl millet in south-western Sahara and strengthen the idea that the first cultivators were Saharan pastoralists.


      PubDate: 2014-08-16T21:15:01Z
       
  • Macroscopic, petrographic and XRD analysis of Middle Neolithic figulina
           pottery from central Dalmatia
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Melissa L. Teoh , Sarah B. McClure , Emil Podrug
      This article focuses on macroscopic, petrographic and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses of figulina pottery from Middle Neolithic (c. 5500–4900 cal BC) villages on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia. Samples were collected from four sites: Smilčić (Zadar), Krivače and Danilo Bitinj (Šibenik) and Pokrovnik (Drniš) to characterize the degree of variation in figulina production between sites and assess if figulina was produced locally or at a single locale in the region. Figulina is of particular interest because it represents a departure from other Neolithic ceramic technologies in pastes, firing, and decoration. This ware is found in small numbers at Middle Neolithic villages, but has parallels in the northern and western Adriatic. Our analyses suggest that this ware was produced within villages with little exchange between sites. Similarities to other regions (Istria, Italy) may indicate a special function or role of this pottery style within Middle Neolithic societies.


      PubDate: 2014-08-16T21:15:01Z
       
  • Size matters. An evaluation of descriptive and metric criteria for
           identifying cut marks made by unmodified rocks during butchery
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Gilliane F. Monnier , Emily Bischoff
      One of the key concerns in human evolution studies is tracing the development of stone tool use by early hominins to acquire meat. It has been suggested that the earliest tools used for this purpose might have been unmodified, naturally sharp rocks. However, it has proven challenging to distinguish marks on bones made by hominins using humanly unmodified rocks (HURs) for butchery, from marks made by natural processes. Here we present the results of a study aimed at comparing marks made by HURs during butchery, versus marks made by the same HURs through simulated natural processes, specifically, the fluvial tumbling of bones with naturally sharp rocks (replicated here using a rock tumbler). The results of this study, in which the lithological effector is held constant while the actor is varied, confirm earlier studies suggesting that many existing categorical attributes do not effectively distinguish between marks made by HURs versus those made by other tools or trampling. However, we also present a novel way of measuring mark depths which shows that marks made by the human actor are much deeper and longer than those made by natural processes. The size of marks, therefore, matters. This knowledge may help us assess the likelihood that marks on bone surfaces may have been produced by natural forces, as opposed to by humans using unmodified rocks for butchery.


      PubDate: 2014-08-16T21:15:01Z
       
  • The colours of rock art. Analysis of colour recording and communication
           systems in rock art research
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Juan F. Ruiz , José Pereira
      Colour recording is a crucial aspect of rock art documentation. In this paper, we evaluate different systems to record the colour of rock art and propose a system to describe and communicate it in a reproducible and non-subjective way. Recording and communication of colour in rock art studies, and in general in archaeology, has been treated as dissociated dimensions. Colour rendition charts incorporated into photographic scenes have been used for recording. This process tries to preserve pictures with colours as close as possible to reality. In addition, the use of subjective terms for description and communication of colour has been replaced by the use of standard colour charts (Pantone, Munsell) that are still based on the naked eye observation of the researcher. During recent years, other systems, such as spectroradiometers, colourimeters or mobile platform apps for recording of colour, have been seen as alternatives. Some of these procedures lack internal corroboration or are useful only for recording or only for communication but not for both purposes. That limitation is a contradiction to the basis of colourimetry, the science of colour. The system proposed in this paper contends with the recording and communication of colour in rock art in a comprehensive, reliable and reproducible way, from digital photographic recording to the final communication of colour in publications.


      PubDate: 2014-08-16T21:15:01Z
       
  • A multi-proxy reconstruction from Lutomiersk–Koziówki, Central
           Poland, in the context of early modern hemp and flax processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Piotr Kittel , Błażej Muzolf , Mateusz Płóciennik , Scott Elias , Stephen J. Brooks , Monika Lutyńska , Dominik Pawłowski , Renata Stachowicz-Rybka , Agnieszka Wacnik , Daniel Okupny , Zbigniew Głąb , Aldona Mueller-Bieniek
      During an archaeological investigation at Lutomiersk–Koziówki in central Poland, deposits indicative of an old rettery from the 16th–17th century AD were discovered. The artifacts found in the lacustrine deposits, together with historical sources and radiocarbon dates of organic matter, show that the pond at a local mill was present from ca. AD 1525 to at least AD 1620. The high content of Cannabis and Linum subfossil macro- and micro-remains in the sediment indicate that the pond was most probably used as a rettery for hemp and flax fibre production. Pollen analysis revealed strong deforestation of the local landscape at the beginning of the pond history. Despite high pollution caused by plant retting, species-rich chironomid, cladoceran and diatom communities occupied the pond. Our investigations reveal that the rettery was situated on the artificial channel of a local stream. High abundance of yellow flatsedge (Cyperus flavescens) fruit remains and coprophile beetle subfossils indicate that pond was also used as a watering place for cattle. Decline in the concentration of aquatic invertebrate subfossils, diatoms, aquatic and cultivated plant macrofossils, reveals rapid abandonment of the rettery in the mid-17th century AD. For some time after the basin was a telmatic ecosystem overgrown by sedges and bulrush. The basin was finally filled by a high-energy overbank deposition not later than in the beginning of 19th century AD.


      PubDate: 2014-08-16T21:15:01Z
       
  • Glassy faience from the Hallstatt C period in Poland: a chemico-physical
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Tomasz Purowski , Barbara Wagner , Ewa Bulska , Olga Syta , Piotr Dzierżanowski
      Beads and pin heads made of glassy faience, often decorated with true glass, discovered at seven different cemetery sites in Poland and dated chiefly to the Hallstatt C period (c. 750/700–600 BC), were examined by the LA-ICPMS and EPMA methods. The analysis involved 48 samples from 39 objects. The main objectives were: (i) to characterize the glassy faience in terms of the physical structure and chemical composition of the glass; (ii) to evaluate differences in the chemical composition of the glass forming the glassy faience; (iii) to examine the chemical composition of the true glass in the decoration on objects made of glassy faience. Glassy faience was found to be made of glass and numerous quartz grains, inclusions and gas bubbles. Manifest in the true glass of the decoration were numerous minor inclusions of the colorant, represented mostly by a compound of lead and antimony. Two groups of glass forming glassy faience were distinguished based on the differences in chemical composition: LMMK and LMGGF. The first is characterized by a moderate concentration of K2O (average 2.7%), high Al2O3, Fe2O3 and some trace elements (e.g. B and Ti). The second has a generally lower content, compared to LMMK, of K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3 and TiO2, but higher PbO and Sb2O5. True glass LMG contained little K2O, Al2O3, B2O3 and TiO2, but a large amount of PbO and Sb2O5. All of the glasses had a low content of CaO and MgO. LMMK glass was melted using sand and a flux that could not be easily identified (plant ash?), whereas LMGGF and LMG glass used sand and natron. The glassy faience is usually blue and was colored with cobalt compounds. The yellow glass of the decoration was colored with lead antimonate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:53:36Z
       
  • Sourcing sandstone cobble grinding tools in southern California using
           petrography, U–Pb geochronology, and Hf isotope geochemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Margie M. Burton , Adolfo A. Muniz , Patrick L. Abbott , David L. Kimbrough , Peter J. Haproff , George E. Gehrels , Mark Pecha
      Procurement strategies for grinding tool lithic material among mobile societies are thought to rely on opportunistic selection of resources locally available at habitation sites and along migratory routes. In San Diego County, California, non-local appearing quartzarenite cobble handstones were identified in the ground stone assemblages of some hunter-gatherer archaeological sites dating from ca. 7000 years ago. Due to the nature of the cobble material, both natural and cultural processes may have played a role in the spatial distribution of the artifacts recovered by archaeologists. In this study we employ three techniques to investigate the geological origins and source location(s) of the quartzarenite cobbles: thin section petrography, U–Pb geochronology, and Hf isotope geochemistry. Results confirm the Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic age of the cobbles, while metamorphism of southern California basement rocks of similar age indicates that the cobbles must have been transported into the area, probably during Eocene times. People collected the cobbles from source locations and carried them at least 4–10 km and possibly farther. We consider the diagnostic value of the three techniques for characterizing resource distributions of sedimentary cobble material and related procurement strategies, and more broadly, their global applicability for sourcing other archaeological materials made of sedimentary and metasedimentary rock.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:53:36Z
       
  • Combining image analysis and modular neural networks for classification of
           mineral inclusions and pores in archaeological potsherds
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Anna Aprile , Giovanna Castellano , Giacomo Eramo
      The approach combining image analysis techniques and artificial neural networks is proposed here for automatic classification of mineral inclusions and pores in archaeological potsherds using optical digital images. Particularly, the automatic identification of quartz, calcareous aggregates and secondary porosity is considered. A collection of both plane and cross polarised light images acquired via a digital camera connected to optical microscopy in transmitted light is used. Images concern Holocene potsherds (8900–4200 years BP) from Takarkori rock shelter archaeological site (SW Libya, Central Sahara). The adopted methodology involves different phases. Firstly, image segmentation is carried out to isolate regions corresponding to the interested mineral inclusions and pores. A segmentation procedure based on mathematical operators is customized for each type of inclusions and for pores. Secondly, numerical features are extracted from each segmented region, thus collecting data to perform automatic classification. A modular classifier is considered for classification, which is based on a combination of three two-layer feed-forward neural networks that are trained separately to recognise each class. Experimental results show that the created modular classifier provides high classification accuracy for both inclusions and pores. The classifier was finally applied absent the image analysis phase on new samples to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:53:36Z
       
  • Goldwork in Ancient Egypt: workshop practices at Qurneh in the 2nd
           Intermediate Period
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Lore G. Troalen , Jim Tate , Maria Filomena Guerra
      Described by Petrie as ‘the largest group of goldwork that had left Egypt’, the jewellery from the intact burial of an adult and child discovered at Qurneh in 1908 is the most important group of gold objects excavated in Egypt dating from the 2nd Intermediate Period (c. 1800–1550 BC). This unique collection has been studied using several non-invasive analytical techniques (μPIXE, PIGE, XRF, and SEM-EDS), while calculation of the effective penetration depth values allowed the degree of surface enrichment to be assessed. The most recent results in respect of gold-working techniques are discussed and related to published work on the techniques used in Egypt in the same era and the subsequent era. The data showed, the coexistence, in a single grave, of jewellery with different levels of wear and colours of gold. The extensive use of hard soldering by the addition of copper to the gold-based alloys was also revealed. All the objects presented PGE inclusions implying the use of alluvial gold and/or recycling of ancient alloys made with this type of gold.


      PubDate: 2014-08-06T20:18:59Z
       
  • An archaeometric contribution to the study of ancient millstones from the
           Mulargia area (Sardinia, Italy) through new analytical data on volcanic
           raw material and archaeological items from Hellenistic and Roman North
           Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Fabrizio Antonelli , Stefano Columbu , Mariette de Vos Raaijmakers , Martina Andreoli
      The main quarrying area of the Mulargia ignimbrite, used mainly to produce rotary millstones during the Hellenistic and Roman age, has been identified and sampled in order to update and complete the petrographic and geochemical database by employing standard analytical methods (optical microscopy and ICP-AES/MS spectrometry). The combination of petrographic and geochemical data concerning the Tertiary rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites outcropping in central west Sardinia, previously very poor, form a helpful tool for future work on this important typology of volcanic millstones. The data bank obtained has been used to verify the geological source of eight millstones discovered in different rural settlements of Hellenistic Numidia and Roman Africa Proconsularis supposed by archaeologists to be made of ignimbrite from Mulargia. The results of the petro-archaeometric study confirmed a Sardinian origin for these millstones and represent one of the very few analytical proofs of their effective export to North Africa.


      PubDate: 2014-08-06T20:18:59Z
       
  • Radiocarbon dating of burials from the Teouma Lapita cemetery, Efate,
           Vanuatu
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Fiona Petchey , Matthew Spriggs , Stuart Bedford , Frédérique Valentin , Hallie Buckley
      The discovery of a cemetery at Teouma on the island of Efate in Vanuatu dated to c. 3000 years ago increased the number of early Pacific human remains available for study by nearly an order of magnitude and provided for the first time the ability to study the population dynamics of these early colonizers. The cemetery also provided an opportunity to investigate the chronological development of such a unique site. Although identified short-lived plant materials are favoured for dating archaeological sites, the reality of research in the Pacific region is that such materials are often rare, difficult to identify to species because of an absence of suitable reference collections, and dates on other materials often have greater potential to refine and focus 14C chronologies that deal with specific research questions. At Teouma, dates on the burial remains themselves are the best means to answer questions about the age and duration of the burial ground. Human bone, however, is one of the most complicated materials to date reliably because of dietary 14C offsets and bone preservation. One commonly used methodology for calibrating dates on human bone from Pacific human skeletal remains, based on linear interpolation between δ13C endpoints and δ15N values, is complicated by the wide range of foods available (marine, reef, C4 and C3), and remains largely untested in Pacific contexts. Radiocarbon dating of the Teouma site, including 36 Lapita-age burials, 5 dates on Conus sp. ring artefacts, and dates from the associated midden deposit, has enabled further evaluation of 14C dietary offsets and the reliability of calibrated radiocarbon ages on human bone. Bayesian evaluation of the 14C dates suggests the burial ground was in regular use by c. 2940–2880 cal BP, with the last interments occurring c. 2770–2710 cal BP. A number of burials could indicate possible earlier use, perhaps as early as 3110–2930 cal BP as indicated by the calibrated age range of Burial 57. This cannot be independently substantiated using other radiocarbon dates or context at the present time. Overall, these results suggest the burial ground was in use over a possible 150–240 years during the formative phase of Lapita expansion into Remote Oceania.


      PubDate: 2014-08-06T20:18:59Z
       
  • Reconstructing the impact of human activities in a NW Iberian Roman mining
           landscape for the last 2500 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Lourdes López-Merino , Antonio Martínez Cortizas , Guillermo S. Reher , José A. López-Sáez , Tim M. Mighall , Richard Bindler
      Little is known about the impact of human activities during Roman times on NW Iberian mining landscapes beyond the geomorphological transformations brought about by the use of hydraulic power for gold extraction. We present the high-resolution pollen record of La Molina mire, located in an area intensely used for gold mining (Asturias, NW Spain), combined with other proxy data from the same peat core to identify different human activities, evaluate the strategies followed for the management of the resources and describe the landscape response to human disturbances. We reconstructed the timing and synchronicity of landscape changes of varying intensity and form occurred before, during and after Roman times. An open landscape was prevalent during the local Late Iron Age, a period of relatively environmental stability. During the Early Roman Empire more significant vegetation shifts took place, reflected by changes in both forest (Corylus and Quercus) and heathland cover, as mining/metallurgy peaked and grazing and cultivation increased. In the Late Roman Empire, the influence of mining/metallurgy on landscape change started to disappear. This decoupling was further consolidated in the Germanic period (i.e., Visigothic and Sueve domination of the region), with a sharp decrease in mining/metallurgy but continued grazing. Although human impact was intense in some periods, mostly during the Early Roman Empire, forest regeneration occurred afterwards: clearances were local and short-lived. However, the Roman mining landscape turned into an agrarian one at the onset of the Middle Ages, characterized by a profound deforestation at a regional level due to a myriad of human activities that resulted in an irreversible openness of the landscape.


      PubDate: 2014-08-06T20:18:59Z
       
  • Chemical analysis of cacao residues in archaeological ceramics from North
           America: considerations of contamination, sample size and systematic
           controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Dorothy K. Washburn , William N. Washburn , Petia A. Shipkova , Mary Ann Pelleymounter
      We address the issue of contamination in sampling and storage procedures and the requirements of sample size and controls necessary to assay ceramic vessels for absorbed chemical residues. We focus our discussion on the detection and quantification of the three methylxanthines – caffeine, theobromine and theophylline as a means to infer whether Mississippian and Southwestern vessels had been used for the consumption of a stimulating drink made from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, a tree that grows in the Mesoamerican tropics. Our research detected two statistically differentiated concentration levels of methylxanthines on objects in museum storage: vessels with low levels of methylxanthines from airborne particulates that we attribute to environmental contamination, and vessels with significant higher levels of the methylxanthines that we attribute to the archaeological record reflecting prehistoric cacao consumption. We propose that cacao was imported into the American Midwest/Southeast during the Mississippian platform mound tradition AD 1000–1300 and into the American Southwest during the Chaco Great House tradition AD 900–1200 and the Hohokam platform mound tradition AD 1300–1400.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • Integrated RS, GIS and GPS approaches to archaeological prospecting in the
           Hexi Corridor, NW China: a case study of the royal road to ancient
           Dunhuang
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Lei Luo , Xinyuan Wang , Chuansheng Liu , Huadong Guo , Xiaocui Du
      According to historic records, the wasteland northeast of modern Dunhuang oasis contains remarkable, undiscovered monuments of medieval courier stations. In this study, statistical analysis of historic records and census data, image processing and interpretation of satellite remote sensing images, GIS analysis, and field surveys were carried out to contribute to the discovery of courier stations and the reconstruction of the medieval royal road system from Guazhou to Shazhou. Firstly, in order to obtain the existence regions of courier stations, historic records and census data were abstracted and digitized, for generating preliminary regions of interest by using GIS tools. Secondly, dried river channels and traces of the Great Wall were extracted from the remote sensing images, and GIS buffer and overlay analyses were applied to the creation of prospective sub-areas. Thirdly, prospective sub-areas were mapped from very high resolution WorldView-2 images, and suspected sites were found based on the human-computer interactive interpretation. Fourthly, suspected sites were investigated on the GPS-based archaeological survey, and were confirmed as two courier stations based on the remains of Han-Tang period observed at sites' surface. Lastly, the royal road to ancient Dunhuang, one of the most important sections of the royal road system in the Hexi Corridor, was discussed and reconstructed with the combined application of remote sensing imagery and ground-truthing.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • Temporal trends in millet consumption in northern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Pia Atahan , John Dodson , Xiaoqiang Li , Xinying Zhou , Liang Chen , Linda Barry , Fiona Bertuch
      Temporal trends in prehistoric millet consumption are investigated in two regions of northern China, in the Wei River valley and a northern zone that encompasses north-eastern Shaanxi, western Shanxi and south-central Inner Mongolia. By directly radiocarbon dating each sample investigated, inferences about the timing of dietary shifts inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions can be made with a high degree of precision. Evidence presented here indicates that humans living around 4000 years ago in both the Wei River valley and the northern zone were heavily dependent on millet for their subsistence. By ca. 2500 cal. yr BP, a major diversification of diet had occurred in the Wei River valley, with some consuming much larger proportions of C3 foods than previously. These C3 foods may have included the western-derived cereals – wheat, barley and oats – and also rice.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • An Approximate Bayesian Computation approach for inferring patterns of
           cultural evolutionary change
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): E.R. Crema , K. Edinborough , T. Kerig , S.J. Shennan
      A wide range of theories and methods inspired from evolutionary biology have recently been used to investigate temporal changes in the frequency of archaeological material. Here we follow this research agenda and present a novel approach based on Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), which enables the evaluation of multiple competing evolutionary models formulated as computer simulations. This approach offers the opportunity to: 1) flexibly integrate archaeological biases derived from sampling and time averaging; 2) estimate model parameters in a probabilistic fashion, taking into account both prior knowledge and empirical data; and 3) shift from an hypothesis-testing to a model selection approach. We applied ABC to a chronologically fine-grained Western European Neolithic armature assemblage, comparing three possible candidate models of evolutionary change: 1) unbiased transmission; 2) conformist bias; and 3) anti-conformist bias. Results showed that unbiased and anti-conformist transmission models provide equally good explanatory models for the observed data, suggesting high levels of equifinality. We also examined whether the appearance of the Bell Beaker culture was correlated with marked changes in the frequency of different armature types. Comparisons between the empirical data and expectations generated from the simulation model did not show any evidence in support of this hypothesis and instead indicated lower than expected dissimilarity between assemblages dated before and after the emergence of the Bell Beaker culture.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • A preliminary study on the influence of cooking on the C and N isotopic
           composition of multiple organic fractions of fish (mackerel and haddock)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Ricardo Fernandes , John Meadows , Alexander Dreves , Marie-Josée Nadeau , Pieter Grootes
      Stable isotope analysis represents the principal scientific technique used in the reconstruction of ancient human diet. Characterisation of human diet requires that the isotopic baseline is established, i.e. the isotopic signals of consumed food groups. However, cooking may alter the bulk isotopic signal of food groups through the selective loss of macronutrients or biochemical components with different isotopic signals. In this study, we investigate the influence of cooking on the stable isotope values of raw flesh of two fish species (mackerel, with a high fat content, and haddock, having a low fat content) using three potential prehistoric cooking methods. The fish were boiled in a pot, grilled beside an open fire, and steamed in hot sand. Cooking times and temperatures were monitored. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were measured on multiple fractions (bulk flesh, lipids, lipid-extracted flesh, water-extracted flesh, water-soluble compounds, and fish-bone collagen) before and after cooking. The results show that, for some fractions, cooking modified the composition, but changes in isotopic values relative to raw fish were in general <1‰. The results also show that isotopic signals of fish-bone collagen were not significantly altered during cooking, and confirm previous findings that showed significant isotopic offsets between fish-bone collagen and edible fish fractions.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • Matching sherds to vessels through ceramic petrography: an Early Neolithic
           Iberian case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Antonio Blanco-González , Attila Kreiter , Kamal Badreshany , John Chapman , Péter Pánczél
      Ceramic re-fitting has traditionally focused on linking sherds to vessels using their formal features or decoration. This paper presents an innovative procedure designed to test such associations using ceramic thin section analysis. An assemblage of the earliest hand-made ceramics from central Iberia dated to the second half of the 6th millennium BC was used as a test case. First, the whole ceramic assemblage was subjected to macroscopic morphological sorting, taphonomic evaluation and a re-fitting operation. These tasks led to the recognition of both secure physical joins and probable matches. 16 sherds, representing 8 pairs, were selected from among those probable matches. These samples were investigated by thin section petrography and the photomicrographs processed using digital image analyses to produce qualitative mineralogical and quantitative textural data for assessing the likelihood of each pair belonging to the same vessel. The results show the potential of this strategy for matching sherds to vessels, as well as its reliability and wide applicability.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T19:52:48Z
       
  • Trampling versus cut marks on chemically altered surfaces: an experimental
           approach and archaeological application at the Barranc de la Boella site
           (la Canonja, Tarragona, Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Antonio Pineda , Palmira Saladié , Josep Maria Vergès , Rosa Huguet , Isabel Cáceres , Josep Vallverdú
      Several studies have attempted to identify diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between evidence of trampling and cut marks, two common modifications at archaeological sites. These studies have brought to light, with relative precision, the features that identify and differentiate the two types of modifications. However, few studies differentiate these modifications after they have been affected by other factors. Chemical alteration, related to lixiviated sediments, is documented in a relatively high number of archaeological sites. Following the criteria established by Domínguez-Rodrigo et al. (2009), the aim of this paper is to know if diagnostic criteria that would allow modifications resulting from trampling to be differentiated from cut mark modifications are preserved, after undergoing chemical alterations. The results have been applied to unidentified marks located on faunal skeletal remains from the La Mina site, at the Barranc de la Boella (Tarragona, Spain), the surfaces of which have been heavily modified by the lixiviation of the sediments. The data suggest that chemically altered marks lose the diagnostic criteria necessary for correct identification. The unidentified marks discovered on remains from la Boella could not be verified as cut or trampling marks and therefore cannot be considered in future zooarchaeological and taphonomical studies.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Functional analysis of prismatic blades and bladelets from Pinson Mounds,
           Tennessee
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Marvin Kay , Robert C. Mainfort Jr.
      Hopewell prismatic blade industries are a standardized technology but not a specialized one. Exactly why they are ubiquitous and synonymous with Hopewell is a puzzle. That Hopewell prismatic blade technology satisfied basic tool needs concurrent with efficient usage of toolstone are beyond dispute. Prismatic blades from Pinson Mounds and other Hopewell sites in the Midwest and Southeast United States were simple, easily repaired, modular tool forms of variable usage. This functional evaluation of 125 artifacts documents far distant preferential exploitation of prismatic blade toolstone sources within the Ohio River valley and its tributaries, reveals statistically significant differences among seven technological types, explicates a production chain model for burins, and argues that prismatic blade technology had an equal or greater social meaning and identity as a quintessential symbol of the Hopewell Interaction Sphere.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Multicomponent analyses of a hydatid cyst from an Early Neolithic
           hunter–fisher–gatherer from Lake Baikal, Siberia
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Andrea L. Waters-Rist , Kathleen Faccia , Angela Lieverse , Vladimir I. Bazaliiskii , M. Anne Katzenberg , Robert J. Losey
      Calcified biological objects are occasionally found at archaeological sites and can be challenging to identify. This paper undertakes the differential diagnosis of what we suggest is an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst from an 8000-year-old mortuary site called Shamanka II in the Lake Baikal region of Siberia. Echinococcus is a parasitic tapeworm that needs two hosts to complete its life cycle: herbivores and humans are intermediate hosts, and carnivores such as dogs, wolves, and foxes are definitive hosts. In the intermediate host the Echinococcus egg hatches in the digestive system, penetrates the intestine, and is carried via the bloodstream to an organ, where it settles and turns into an ovoid calcified structure called a hydatid cyst. For this object, identification was based on macroscopic, radiographic, and stable isotope analysis. High-resolution computed tomography scanning was used to visualize the interior structure of the object, which is morphologically consistent with the E. granulosus species (called cystic Echinococcus). Stable isotope analysis of the extracted mineral and protein components of the object narrowed down the range of species from which it could come. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of the object's protein, and stable carbon isotope ratio of the mineral, closely match those of the likely human host. Additionally, the δ13C protein-to-mineral spacing is very low, which fits expectations for a parasitic organism. To our knowledge this is the first isotopic characterization of a hydatid cyst and this method may be useful for future studies. The hydatid cyst most likely came from a probable female adult. Two additional hydatid cysts were found in a young adult female from a contemporaneous mortuary site in the same region, Lokomotiv. This manuscript ends with a brief discussion the importance of domesticated dogs in the disease's occurrence and the health implication of echinococcal infection for these Early Neolithic hunter–fisher–gatherers.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Pastoral land-use of the Indus Civilization in Gujarat: faunal analyses
           and biogenic isotopes at Bagasra
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Brad Chase , David Meiggs , P. Ajithprasad , Philip A. Slater
      The Indus Civilization (2600–1900 BC) in Gujarat is characterized by a series of small yet monumentally walled settlements located along trade and travel corridors. The manufacture and use of typically Harappan material culture at these settlements demonstrates that many residents of these sites participated in exchange and interaction networks that linked them to distant Indus cities. Less is known, however, regarding the ways in which the residents of these sites were situated into their local landscapes. Here we combine previously published faunal analyses from the small walled settlement of Bagasra in the Indian state of Gujarat, with a preliminary investigation of intra- and inter-individual variation in the ratios of biogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), carbon (δ13C), and oxygen (δ18O) in the tooth enamel of domestic animals consumed at the site. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit little intra- or inter-individual variation suggesting that most were raised locally while greater inter-individual variation in the teeth of cattle suggesting that nearly half of these animals were either raised further afield or were supplied with fodder raised elsewhere. δ13C values from these same samples in the teeth of sheep and goats exhibit considerable intra-individual variation suggesting of a seasonally variable diet incorporating significant wild forage while uniformly higher values in the teeth of cattle suggest that they consumed mostly agricultural produce throughout the year. δ18O values in the teeth of both sets of domestic livestock exhibit considerable intra-individual variation commensurate with the seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall characteristic of the region while variation between taxa is consistent with observed dietary differences. Taken together, our findings provide new information regarding the ways in which the domestic animals consumed at Bagasra were raised and obtained while establishing an empirical baseline necessary for further exploration of the land-use changes that may have accompanied the emergence and decline of South Asia's first urban civilization.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Morphometrics of Second Iron Age ceramics – strengths, weaknesses,
           and comparison with traditional typology
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): J. Wilczek , F. Monna , P. Barral , L. Burlet , C. Chateau , N. Navarro
      Although the potential of geometric morphometrics for the study of archaeological artefacts is recognised, quantitative evaluations of the concordance between such methods and traditional typology are rare. The present work seeks to fill this gap, using as a case study a corpus of 154 complete ceramic vessels from the Bibracte oppidum (France), the capital of the Celtic tribe Aedui from the Second Iron Age. Two outline-based approaches were selected: the Elliptic Fourier Analysis and the Discrete Cosine Transform. They were combined with numerous methods of standardisation/normalisation. Although standardisations may use either perimeter or surface, the resulting morphospaces remain comparable, and, interestingly, are also comparable with the morphospace built from traditional typology. Geometric morphometrics also present the advantage of being easily implemented and automated for large sets of artefacts. The method is reproducible and provides quantitative estimates, such as mean shape, and shape diversity of ceramic assemblages, allowing objective inferences to be statistically tested. The approach can easily be generalised and adopted for other kinds of artefacts, to study the level of production standardisation and the evolution of shape over space and time, and to provide information about material and cultural exchanges.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Characterization and comparison of the copper-base metallurgy of the
           Harappan sites at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Jang-Sik Park , Vasant Shinde
      Copper-base metallic artifacts excavated from two Indus settlements at Farmana in Haryana and Kuntasi in Gujarat, India, were examined for their microstructure and chemical composition. The two sites were approximately contemporaneous and belong to the mature Harappan phase of the Indus Civilization, spanning the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. The microstructural data revealed that almost every object examined was substantially worked during fabrication. The composition data showed that arsenic served as the single alloying element in about 60% of the Farmana artifacts, with the rest of them made of either unalloyed copper or brass. Tin was not added deliberately in any of the Farmana artifacts. In the Kuntasi assemblage, however, tin as well as arsenic played a key role and most artifacts were alloyed with either arsenic or tin or both. Nevertheless, the two Harappan sites seem to have established a similar technology based on forging as the key fabrication method and circulation of product intermediaries as the primary means for metal acquisition. This article will present a detailed account of the mentioned results to characterize the technological status achieved by the two Indus communities. The results will then be compared with those of other Indus sites to gain insight into factors representing the general Indus bronze tradition.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Digital image enhancement for recording rupestrian engravings:
           applications to an alpine rockshelter
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Claudia Defrasne
      Image processing software, such as the DStretch plug-in for ImageJ or Photoshop, are currently used to make faint rupestrian pictographs more legible. During the ongoing study of an Alpine rockshelter, these software proved to be equally useful for the visualization of linear engravings and scratchings. This unexpected function of DStretch, created for the study of rupestrian paintings, made it possible to clarify and correct the previous recordings of an incised Iron Age warrior and to facilitate the digital tracing of a modern maritime scene. Even if such convincing results are determined by particular local geological conditions in this case, this function could facilitate the study of engravings in other contexts where the lithology of smooth rock surfaces produces a sharp contrast with incised images.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Characterising the use of urban space: a geochemical case study from
           Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK) Insula IX during the late
           first/early second century AD
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Samantha R. Cook , Amanda S. Clarke , Michael G. Fulford , Jochen Voss
      The geochemical analysis of soil samples from the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK) has been undertaken in order to enhance our understanding of urban occupation during the late first/early second century AD. Samples taken from a variety of occupation deposits within several, contemporary timber buildings, including associated hearths, have been analysed using laboratory-based x-ray fluorescence for a suite of elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, P and Ca). The patterns of elemental enrichment seen across the site have allowed us to compare and contrast the buildings that were occupied during this time in an attempt to distinguish different uses, such as between domestic and work-space. Two of the buildings stand out as having high concentrations of elements which suggest that they were dirtier work spaces, whilst other buildings appear to be have lower chemical loadings suggesting they were cleaner.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • A new multistage construction chronology for the Great Serpent Mound, USA
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Edward W. Herrmann , G. William Monaghan , William F. Romain , Timothy M. Schilling , Jarrod Burks , Karen L. Leone , Matthew P. Purtill , Alan C. Tonetti
      Effigy mounds occur across the midcontinent of North America but their cultural purposes and construction chronologies are rarely known and often controversial. Determining the age and construction history of monuments is important to relate religious symbolism, scientific knowledge, and cultural continuity to groups within a region. Based mainly on circumstantial evidence, researchers have long held that Serpent Mound in Ohio, USA, was constructed 2000–3000 years ago during the Early Woodland (Adena) or Middle Woodland (Hopewell) periods. Excavations in 1991 recovered charcoal buried at shallow depths (35–45 cm) in fill units of the mound and the 14C ages from two of these units indicated that Serpent Mound was built ∼900 years ago, during the Late Prehistoric (Fort Ancient) period, much later than originally thought. Our recent multidisciplinary work provides a more complex, robust construction history of Serpent Mound. We used geophysics to map the mound, and solid-earth cores to provide accurate stratigraphy and organic samples for 14C age estimates from the base of the mound. Bayesian statistical analyses of the seven 14C ages from Serpent Mound suggest that it was first constructed ∼2300 years ago during the Early Woodland (Adena) period but was renovated 1400 years later during the Late Prehistoric (Fort Ancient) period, probably to repair eroded portions of the mound. Modification of the mound is also indicated by a possible abandoned coil that is located near the head of the Serpent and visible only in the magnetometer survey.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • High-precision dating and ancient DNA profiling of moa (Aves:
           Dinornithiformes) eggshell documents a complex feature at Wairau Bar and
           refines the chronology of New Zealand settlement by Polynesians
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Chris Jacomb , Richard N. Holdaway , Morten E. Allentoft , Michael Bunce , Charlotte L. Oskam , Richard Walter , Emma Brooks
      Wairau Bar, New Zealand, is one of the few prehistoric sites in the world that could lay claim to being a site of first human intrusion into a pristine environment. It is certainly one of the best places to study human impact on a hitherto unoccupied land. Its potential status as a colonization phase settlement for New Zealand's Maori population raises questions that require fine-grained chronological resolution. Unfortunately, the simple stratigraphy of the Wairau Bar site has offered little opportunity for the development of high-resolution chronologies. This situation changed recently when new excavations exposed a complex, midden-rich feature which contained a wide range of dateable material, including hundreds of fragments of eggshell of the extinct megaherbivorous moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The thick eggshell, with its minimal inbuilt age and high resistance to contamination, is an ideal material for radiocarbon dating. Its refractory properties also allow high-quality preservation of DNA. The moa eggshell yielded radiocarbon that facilitated reconstruction of the chronology of deposition at a fine resolution. Ancient DNA profiling of eggshell fragments was used to ensure that dated fragments were from different individuals. Bayesian analysis of the dated fragments showed that the midden was laid down over a brief period in the early decades of the 14th century CE. This improved chronology provides a benchmark for understanding the duration of site occupation and revises current interpretations of the timing of Polynesian settlement of New Zealand.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Investigating inherent differences in isotopic composition between human
           bone and enamel bioapatite: implications for reconstructing residential
           histories
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Emily C. Webb , Christine D. White , Fred J. Longstaffe
      In archaeological research, human bone and enamel bioapatite isotopic compositions are commonly used to reconstruct residential and dietary histories. In doing so, enamel and bone bioapatite are implicitly treated as isotopically equivalent, but recent research has determined that carbonate–carbon and –oxygen isotopic compositions of these two tissues may be offset by several per mil. Here, we compare the isotopic compositions of co-forming bone and enamel from juvenile humans. We also assess the impact of a standard pre-treatment procedure for the removal of organic matter and exogenous carbonates on carbon- and oxygen-isotope compositions and on bioapatite crystallinity and carbonate content. Pre-treatment procedures had minimal effect on both enamel and bone carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions (±0.4–±0.9‰) and bioapatite crystallinity, and effectively removed exogenous carbonates. The offset between enamel and bone phosphate–oxygen isotopic compositions is relatively small (±0.7 ± 0.5‰). The offsets for carbonate–oxygen (+1.4 ± 1.0‰) and –carbon (+4.3 ± 1.2‰) are larger, and enamel is consistently 18O- and 13C-enriched relative to bone. Interpreted conservatively, phosphate–oxygen isotopic data from paired enamel and bone remain suitable for determining residential history, whereas the isotopic compositions of carbonate–oxygen and –carbon from enamel and bone bioapatite are inherently different and cannot be compared uncritically.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Response: ‘The Discovery of New Zealand's oldest shipwreck’
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Diederick Wildeman
      Based on the outcome of carbon dating wreck timbers found in New Zealand the article ‘The Discovery of New Zealand's oldest shipwreck-possible evidence of further Dutch exploration of the South Pacific’ in Volume 42 of the Journal of Archeological Science pp. 435–441 argues that the finds could be from an unknown early eighteenth century Dutch vessel sailing from the Dutch colonies in South–East Asia toward New Zealand. This response tries to explain why such a claim conflicts with the historical scholarship and therefore makes this attribution highly unlikely.


      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
  • Unveiling the prehistoric landscape at Stonehenge through multi-receiver
           EMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50
      Author(s): Philippe De Smedt , Marc Van Meirvenne , Timothy Saey , Eamonn Baldwin , Chris Gaffney , Vince Gaffney
      Archaeological research at Stonehenge (UK) is increasingly aimed at understanding the dynamic of the wider archaeological landscape. Through the application of state-of-the-art geophysical techniques, unprecedented insight is being gathered into the buried archaeological features of the area. However, applied survey techniques have rarely targeted natural soil variation, and the detailed knowledge of the palaeotopography is consequently less complete. In addition, metallic topsoil debris, scattered over different parts of the Stonehenge landscape, often impacts the interpretation of geophysical datasets. The research presented here demonstrates how a single multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) survey, conducted over a 22 ha area within the Stonehenge landscape, offers detailed insight into natural and anthropogenic soil variation at Stonehenge. The soil variations that were detected through recording the electrical and magnetic soil variability, shed light on the genesis of the landscape, and allow for a better definition of potential palaeoenvironmental and archaeological sampling locations. Based on the multi-layered dataset, a procedure was developed to remove the influence of topsoil metal from the survey data, which enabled a more straightforward identification of the detected archaeology. The results provide a robust basis for further geoarchaeological research, while potential to differentiate between modern soil disturbances and the underlying sub-surface variations can help in solving conservation and management issues. Through expanding this approach over the wider area, we aim at a fuller understanding of the human–landscape interactions that have shaped the Stonehenge landscape.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-28T19:23:10Z
       
 
 
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