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  Subjects -> ARCHAEOLOGY (Total: 228 journals)
Showing 1 - 57 of 57 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstracta Iranica     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Acta Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Archaeologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Archeologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Afrique : Archéologie & Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Akroterion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Altorientalische Forschungen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Indian Culture and Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Archaeology     Partially Free   (Followers: 55)
Anatolica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ancient Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ancient Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ancient Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annuaire du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antipoda. Revista de Antropología y Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Antiqua     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antiquite Tardive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AntropoWebzin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apeiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Archaeofauna     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archaeologiai Értesitö     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaeological Discovery     Open Access  
Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archaeological Prospection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeological Research in Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archaeologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archaeology in Oceania     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Archaeology International     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Archaeometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archäologische Informationen     Open Access  
ArcheoArte. Rivista Elettronica di Archeologia e Arte     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archeological Papers of The American Anthropological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Archeomatica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archéopages : Archéologie et société     Open Access  
ArcheoSciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archipel     Open Access  
Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archivo Español de Arqueología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arqueología de la Arquitectura     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ART-SANAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Ausgrabungen und Funde in Westfalen-Lippe     Open Access  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BABesch - Bulletin Antieke Beschaving     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bryn Mawr Classical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cadernos do LEPAARQ     Open Access  
California Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Canadian Zooarchaeology / Zooarchéologie canadienne     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cartagine. Studi e Ricerche     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Catalan Historical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chiron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronique des activités archéologiques de l'École française de Rome     Open Access  
Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Complutum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Dissertationes Archaeologicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documenta Praehistorica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Documents d’archéologie méridionale - Articles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dotawo : A Journal of Nubian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología     Open Access  
Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie II, Historia Antigua     Open Access  
Estudios Atacameños     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estudios de Cultura Maya     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnoarchaeology : Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217)
Etruscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Études océan Indien     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
European Journal of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Evolution of Science and Technology / Mokslo ir technikos raida     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Exchange     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Florentia Iliberritana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frühmittelalterliche Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geoarchaeology: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Geochronometria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Germanistik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Heritage Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hispania Epigraphica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Hortus Artium Medievalium     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Industrial Archaeology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for the History of Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Historical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Internet Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
INTRECCI d'arte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IpoTESI di Preistoria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranica Antiqua     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Ancient Near Eastern History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Archaeological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cognitive Historiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Conflict Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of East Asian Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Egyptian History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Glacial Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Islamic Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Maritime Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Near Eastern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Neolithic Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Archaeology Data     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Pacific Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Palaeogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Quaternary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Social Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of the British Archaeological Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the North Atlantic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetland Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of World Prehistory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Kadmos : Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Karthago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
LANX: Rivista della Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia     Open Access  
Layers. Archeologia Territorio Contesti     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers de l’École du Louvre     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Les Nouvelles de l'archéologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Liber Annuus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Lithic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Mélanges de l’École française de Rome - Moyen Âge     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Memorias. Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueologia desde el Caribe     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal  
Ñawpa Pacha : Journal of Andean Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
North American Archaeologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Northeast Historical Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Norwegian Archaeological Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nottingham Medieval Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Open Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Journal of Archaeometry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oxford Journal of Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Palaeoindian Archaeology     Open Access  
Palaeontologia Electronica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Paléo     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
PaleoAmerica : A Journal of Early Human Migration and Dispersal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palestine Exploration Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pallas : Revue d'études antiques     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Post-Medieval Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Praehistorische Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Préhistoires méditerranéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Present Pasts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Public Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Quaternaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Quaternary Science Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Queensland Archaeological Research     Open Access  
Radiocarbon     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Restauro Archeologico     Open Access  
Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social     Open Access  
Revista del Museo de Antropología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Memorare     Open Access  
Revue archéologique de l'Est     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue Archéologique de l’Ouest     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue archéologique du Centre de la France     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revue d Égyptologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue d'Histoire des Textes     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover Journal of Archaeological Science
  [SJR: 1.583]   [H-I: 82]   [60 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-4403 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9238
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Identifying the reworking and stratigraphic provenance of bones by
           exploring multivariate geochemical relationships with the ‘Perio-spot’
           technique
    • Authors: Rhy McMillan; Dominique Weis; Marghaleray Amini; Dominique Bonjean
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 88
      Author(s): Rhy McMillan, Dominique Weis, Marghaleray Amini, Dominique Bonjean
      Erosional processes often rework materials of different ages into the same sedimentary facies, producing time-averaged deposits. Such reworking is common at archaeological sites, and researchers must consider the resulting time-averaging effects when using natural stratigraphy to situate artifacts and remains in time. At Scladina Cave, a Neandertal site in Belgium, we developed a method for identifying reworked facies and the stratigraphic provenance of mammal bones based on their post-mortem trace element characteristics and crystallinity. We collected sixty-two faunal remains from throughout the site's sedimentary sequence and analyzed them for trace element concentrations and crystallinity with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. Our novel approach, the ‘Perio-spot’ technique, quantifies the trace element characteristics and crystallinity from the most diagenetically altered part of a bone with high spatial resolution. Trace element concentrations, rare earth element patterns, and crystallinity of ‘Perio-spots' correlate throughout the Scladina sedimentary sequence. Based on stratigraphic trends in bone chemistry and crystallinity, we subdivide the Scladina sequence into two successive periods of early diagenesis, a period of later diagenesis, and a transitional period between the early and later diagenesis periods. The period boundaries also correspond to major climatic fluctuations identified in the site's stratigraphy by other means (e.g., palynology and heavy mineralogy). The stratigraphic provenance of nine cave bear femora support the confinement of reworking to within each of the diagenetic periods; the provenance of two indeterminate faunal remains that visually resemble the taphonomic alteration of the Scladina Neandertal (taphonomic proxies) suggest that the individual may be significantly older than previously hypothesized. Evaluating the temporal integrity of exhumed assemblages and the original sedimentary context of bones with our method is thus a valuable addition to archaeological analyses, especially beyond the temporal range of radiocarbon dating or in contexts with very low preservation potential of organic materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T16:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2017)
       
  • Quantitative comparisons of the color of CuAs, CuSn, CuNi, and CuSb alloys
    • Authors: Marianne Mödlinger; Maikel H.G. Kuijpers; Dennis Braekmans; Daniel Berger
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 88
      Author(s): Marianne Mödlinger, Maikel H.G. Kuijpers, Dennis Braekmans, Daniel Berger
      The colors of copper alloys are of particular interest in archaeology and can be characterized quantitatively and systematically. The CIELAB color system can determine different color parameters such as a*, b*, and L* by means of a spectrophotometer that describes the surface color. Additional information such as C* and h values can be calculated from these parameters which allows one to build a set of color-composition diagrams that connects chromaticity and alloy composition. With such data it is possible to estimate the color of prehistoric metal artifacts with similar chemical composition. A better understanding of the association between metallurgical composition and color will aid the research of prehistoric metalwork because choices in production and use of metal were likely influenced by this particular quality of metal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T13:28:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2017)
       
  • Spatio-temporal approaches to archaeological radiocarbon dates
    • Authors: E.R. Crema; A. Bevan; S. Shennan
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): E.R. Crema, A. Bevan, S. Shennan
      Summed probability distributions of radiocarbon dates are an increasingly popular means by which to reconstruct prehistoric population dynamics, enabling more thorough cross-regional comparison and more robust hypothesis testing, for example with regard to the impact of climate change on past human demography. Here we review another use of such summed distributions – to make spatially explicit inferences about geographic variation in prehistoric populations. We argue that most of the methods proposed so far have been strongly biased by spatially varying sampling intensity, and we therefore propose a spatial permutation test that is robust to such forms of bias and able to detect both positive and negative local deviations from pan-regional rates of change in radiocarbon date density. We test our method both on some simple, simulated population trajectories and also on a large real-world dataset, and show that we can draw useful conclusions about spatio-temporal variation in population across Neolithic Europe.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Bone deep: Variation in stable isotope ratios and histomorphometric
           measurements of bone remodelling within adult humans
    • Authors: G.E. Fahy; C. Deter; R. Pitfield; J.J. Miszkiewicz; P. Mahoney
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): G.E. Fahy, C. Deter, R. Pitfield, J.J. Miszkiewicz, P. Mahoney
      Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope studies of ancient human diet increasingly sample several skeletal elements within an individual. Such studies draw upon differences in bone turnover rates to reconstruct diet during different periods of time within an individual's lifetime. Rib and femoral bone, with their respectively fast and slow remodelling rates, are the bones most often sampled to reconstruct shorter and longer term signals of diet prior to death. It is poorly understood if δ13C and δ15N vary between bone types within a single individual, or if this variation corresponds with bone turnover rate (BTR). Here, we determined δ13C and δ15N for ten different bones from ten adult human skeletons (n = 5 males; n = 5 females). Isotope values were compared to the rate that each bone remodeled, calculated from osteon population (OPD) density. Results reveal that isotope ratios varied within each skeleton (δ13C: max = −1.58‰; δ15N: max = 3.05‰). Humeri, metacarpals, and ribs had the highest rate of bone remodelling; the occipital bone had the lowest. A regression analyses revealed that higher rates of bone remodelling are significantly and negatively correlated with lower δ15N. Our results suggest that the occipital bone, with its slow rate of bone renewal, may prove useful for isotopic studies that reconstruct diet over longer periods of time within an individual's lifetime. Isotope studies that compare individual skeletal elements between populations should standardize their methodology to bones with either a slow or fast turnover rate.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Little Ice Age catastrophic storms and the destruction of a Shetland
           Island community
    • Authors: Matthew Bampton; Alice Kelley; Joseph Kelley; Michael Jones; Gerald Bigelow
      Pages: 17 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Matthew Bampton, Alice Kelley, Joseph Kelley, Michael Jones, Gerald Bigelow
      Subarctic communities are useful bellwethers of human adaptability to climate change. Previous studies have compared the socio ecological adaptations of culturally comparable but geographically separated communities such as medieval Greenland and Iceland. In the Shetland Islands during the Little Ice Age (LIA) unusual storminess in the 16th and 17th centuries deposited wind driven sand in the township of Broo, Dunrosssness, and on its surrounding estates. Documents, historical records and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dated sand layers show the history of deposition, and reveal two episodes of sand movement one from the mid 16th century, the second from the late 17th or early 18th century. Artifacts, records and stratigraphy suggest Broo's inhabitants successfully resisted the 16th century sand incursion, but were driven from their homes by the early 18th century. Adjacent communities embedded in the same socio economic culture survived the same events and remain viable settlements to the present day. Wind simulations demonstrate that storm conditions are likely to produce markedly lower wind velocities in the area around Broo than over the surrounding landscape making it singularly vulnerable to sand inundation. In this instance human ingenuity and resilience could not counter the misfortune of location. We conclude that in this marginal environment small geographical differences had profound and lasting impact on survivability during an episode of catastrophic environmental change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Canyon Creek revisited: New investigations of a late prehispanic turquoise
           mine, Arizona, USA
    • Authors: Saul L. Hedquist; Alyson M. Thibodeau; John R. Welch; David J. Killick
      Pages: 44 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Saul L. Hedquist, Alyson M. Thibodeau, John R. Welch, David J. Killick
      Turquoise has been used in the American Southwest since “time immemorial,” and remains an important material for contemporary indigenous groups of the region. Detailed studies of ancient turquoise mines are few, however, and inferences of turquoise procurement and provenance have been limited. Our intensive investigation of one mine, the Canyon Creek locale in Arizona, integrates archaeology and geochemistry to enhance understanding of the mine and its output. A detailed description of the mine's morphology and geologic setting lays foundations for interpreting an isotopic analysis of specimens from the mine's four localities. The analysis reveals extremely radiogenic Pb isotope ratios, which distinguish Canyon Creek turquoise from that of other known sources in the American Southwest. Its distinctive isotopic signature makes Canyon Creek turquoise readily identifiable in archaeological assemblages. The presence of turquoise from Canyon Creek at late prehispanic settlements in east-central Arizona helps clarify the mine's chronology of use and regional distribution. Our observations suggest the mine was larger than previously supposed, and that it provided an important source of turquoise for inhabitants of the region during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries AD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T20:36:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Comparing archaeological proxies for long-term population patterns: An
           example from central Italy
    • Authors: Alessio Palmisano; Andrew Bevan; Stephen Shennan
      Pages: 59 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Alessio Palmisano, Andrew Bevan, Stephen Shennan
      Raw counts of archaeological sites, estimates of changing settlement size and summed radiocarbon probability distributions have all become popular ways to investigate long-term regional trends in human population. Nevertheless, these three archaeological proxies have rarely been compared. This paper therefore explores the strengths and weaknesses of different kinds of archaeological evidence for population patterns, as well as how they address related issues such as taphonomic loss, chronological uncertainty and uneven sampling. Our overall substantive goal is to reconstruct demographic fluctuations in central Italy from the Late Mesolithic to the fall of the Roman Empire (7500 BC-AD 500), and with this in mind, we bring to bear an unusually detailed and extensive dataset of published central Italian archaeological surveys, consisting of some 10,971 occupation phases at 7383 different sites. The comparative results demonstrate reassuring consistency in the suggested demographic patterns, and where such patterns diverge across different proxies (e.g. Late Bronze Age/Iron Age) they often do so in useful ways that suggest changes in population structure such as site nucleation or dispersal.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Using multivariate techniques to assess the effects of raw material,
           flaking behavior and tool manufacture on assemblage variability: An
           example from the late Middle Paleolithic of the European Plain
    • Authors: Marcel Weiss; Aleksander Otcherednoy; Andrzej Wiśniewski
      Pages: 73 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Marcel Weiss, Aleksander Otcherednoy, Andrzej Wiśniewski
      The late Middle Paleolithic in central and eastern Europe is defined by the presence or absence of certain bifacial tools and blank production methods. Hence, the assemblages between MIS 5a and MIS 3 are classified as Mousterian, Taubachian, Micoquian, Micoquo-Prondnikien, Prądnik cycle and Keilmessergruppen, among others. We like to address here the questions of what do these assemblages look like when the type fossils (“fossil directeur”) are set aside and what are the main drivers of variability within and between these assemblages. Therefore, we analyzed nine assemblages of four late Middle Paleolithic open-air sites of the European Plain: Pouch and Königsaue for central Germany, Wrocław-Hallera Av. for southwestern Poland and Khotylevo I-6-2 for western Russia. Our study is based on an attribute analysis of flakes, as they are the most numerous artifact type in the lithic assemblages, bearing traces of the flaking technology in their morphology. Linear and nonlinear multivariate statistical analyses of the flake attributes show similar patterns for the assemblages and show no distinctions between Mousterian and Micoquian assemblages aside from the type fossils. Additionally, assemblage variability is, except for one case, not site specific or regional. The analysis of the factors that drive within and between assemblage variability revealed that the assemblages are influenced by site preservation, raw material size and economy, as well as similar blank production and tool manufacture methods that are present in varying degrees in each assemblage. In other words, taking into account site preservation, the overall character of these late Middle Paleolithic assemblages primarily reflects the flexible application of late Neanderthal flaking and tool production methods to the local raw material constraints. Once the type fossils are removed, these assemblages represent a range of variability that cannot be grouped readily into named archaeological entities that could represent distinct human groups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • The identification of extinct megafauna in rock art using geometric
           morphometrics: A Genyornis newtoni painting in Arnhem Land, northern
           Australia'
    • Authors: Rommy Cobden; Chris Clarkson; Gilbert J. Price; Bruno David; Jean-Michel Geneste; Jean-Jacques Delannoy; Bryce Barker; Lara Lamb; Robert G. Gunn
      Pages: 95 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Rommy Cobden, Chris Clarkson, Gilbert J. Price, Bruno David, Jean-Michel Geneste, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Bryce Barker, Lara Lamb, Robert G. Gunn
      Identifying extinct fauna in rock art is a common but difficult exercise. Here we use geometric morphometric analysis of shape to examine the oft-cited painting from Arnhem Land attributed by Gunn et al. to the long-extinct species Genyornis newtoni. We compare the shape of key anatomical features in this painting to anatomical depictions of Genyornis as well as to two other possible candidates – the emu and the magpie goose. Comparisons are also made to rock art depictions of these birds from northern Australia. We find that while the so-called ‘Genyornis’ painting does more closely resemble anatomical depictions of Genyornis than any other bird examined, all rock art images overlap in shape to such a degree that confident assignment of this image to any avian species is problematic.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Circulation of iron products in the North-Alpine area during the end of
           the first Iron Age (6th-5th c. BC): A combination of chemical and isotopic
           approaches
    • Authors: Philippe Dillmann; Roland Schwab; Sylvain Bauvais; Michael Brauns; Alexandre Disser; Stéphanie Leroy; Guntram Gassmann; Philippe Fluzin
      Pages: 108 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 87
      Author(s): Philippe Dillmann, Roland Schwab, Sylvain Bauvais, Michael Brauns, Alexandre Disser, Stéphanie Leroy, Guntram Gassmann, Philippe Fluzin
      Os isotopic ratios and trace element approaches were used to compare the signatures of ore and slag from different potential production sites located in eastern France and South-West Germany with the signature of artefacts from the end of the first Iron Age. A set of 31 artefacts was tested, consisting of bipyramidal semi-products, chariot tires, blooms and other commodities. The complementarity of the two approaches is demonstrated. Bipartite bipyramidal semi-products made by assembling two crude masses of distinct origins are evidenced suggesting the existence of intermediate producing centres assembling products from different origins. Only the provenance of blooms and wheel-tires could be established as local. Two spheres of metal circulation were evidenced: prestige and local. Bipyramidal semi-products and chariot tires belong to different long distance distribution networks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T20:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2017)
       
  • Tempered strength: A controlled experiment assessing opportunity costs of
           adding temper to clay
    • Authors: Michelle Rae Bebber
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Michelle Rae Bebber
      The addition of pottery additives (temper) provides both production-based benefits gained during the initial vessel formation phase, and performance-based benefits associated with post-firing vessel daily use. This paper presents the results of a controlled archaeological experiment designed to assess the opportunity costs associated with the addition of temper to clay during prehistoric pottery production sequences. Specifically, this study builds upon earlier research using material science methods to more broadly assess whether vessel strength is sacrificed by the addition of temper into the clay body. Standardized experimental ceramic test specimens, based directly upon petrographic analysis of archaeological samples from a regional context (South Central Ohio, USA) and produced using glacially-deposited illite-based clay, were subjected to mechanical strength tests using an Instron Series IX universal testing machine. The results demonstrate that there are indeed opportunity costs associated with temper addition: lost potential strength and reduced vessel use-life. Overall, untempered samples were significantly stronger than samples tempered with the most commonly used regional tempers—grit, limestone, and burnt shell—in terms of peak load and modulus of rupture. In other words, the results presented here suggest that prehistoric potters were losing the opportunity to create significantly stronger vessels in favor of the benefits that come with the addition of temper. Understanding of the existence, kind, and degree of opportunity costs that come with the addition of temper to clay emphasizes just how important the benefits of tempering must have been for the technology to be invented, experimented with, and ultimately so widely adopted.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T04:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Use and abuse of cut mark analyses: The Rorschach effect
    • Authors: Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo; Palmira Saladié; Isabel Cáceres; Rosa Huguet; José Yravedra; Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo; Patricia Martín; Antonio Pineda; Juan Marín; Clara Gené; Julia Aramendi; Lucia Cobo-Sánchez
      Pages: 14 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, Palmira Saladié, Isabel Cáceres, Rosa Huguet, José Yravedra, Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Patricia Martín, Antonio Pineda, Juan Marín, Clara Gené, Julia Aramendi, Lucia Cobo-Sánchez
      A series of experimental cut marks have been analyzed by eleven taphonomists with the goal of assessing if they could identify similarly 14 selected microscopic variables which would identify those marks as cut marks. The main objective was to test if variable identification could be made scientifically; that is, different researchers using the same method and criteria making the same assessment of each variable. This experiment shows that even in researchers trained in the same laboratories and following the same protocols divergences in the perception of each variable are significant. This indicates that mark perception and interpretation is a highly subjective process. If this basic analytical stage is subjective, subjectivity permeates to a greater degree the higher inferential stages leading from mark identification to reconstruction of butchering behaviors based on mark frequencies, mark anatomical distribution, actor-effector-trace processes, and statistical interpretations of the stochastic mark-imparting butchering processes. Here, we emphasize that the use of bone surface modifications for behavioral interpretations remains a non-scientific endeavor because of lack of independent replicability of criteria and processes, divergences in how variables are selected and used and epistemologically flawed analogs. This constitutes a major call to taphonomy to engage in more scientific (i.e., objective) approaches to the study of bone surface modifications for taphonomic inference elaboration.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T00:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Radiogenic and “stable” strontium isotopes in provenance studies: A
           review and first results on archaeological wood from shipwrecks
    • Authors: Fadi Hajj; Anne Poszwa; Julien Bouchez; François Guérold
      Pages: 24 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Fadi Hajj, Anne Poszwa, Julien Bouchez, François Guérold
      Different approaches are used to study wood provenance, but most of them are based on tracers in wood that are generally controlled by climatic factors. The strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr in trees and soils is related to the signature of the local bedrock. Despite being used in diverse archaeological studies, Sr isotopes have rarely been used to trace the provenance of archaeological wood and especially wood from shipwrecks. In addition, recent analytical advances have allowed the detection of mass-dependent fractionation of Sr isotopes during biogeochemical processes, as reflected in the variation of δ88/86Sr values between different environmental materials. The δ88/86Sr values could be used in conjunction with the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio to improve constraints on the sources of Sr in the archaeological materials being studied. This paper discusses the potential and limitations of using both of these Sr isotope ratios to trace the provenance of wood from shipwrecks. We review the 87Sr/86Sr and δ88/86Sr variations in rocks, waters, soils, plants and other living organisms and discuss how to determine the local Sr isotopic signature of potential sites. We also compile a list of known wood post mortem modifications in seawater. Possible implications in terms of the modification of the original Sr isotope ratios of wood during storage in seawater are illustrated through preliminary observations. This paper points out some limitations and perspectives for using Sr isotopes in provenancing wood from shipwrecks, and suggests future research to test and apply this approach for tracing the origin of archaeological wood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T00:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Cast iron-smelting furnace materials in imperial China: Macro-observation
           and microscopic study
    • Authors: Haifeng Liu; Wei Qian; Jianli Chen; Hongli Chen; Matthew L. Chastain; Michael R. Notis
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Haifeng Liu, Wei Qian, Jianli Chen, Hongli Chen, Matthew L. Chastain, Michael R. Notis
      Field investigation was carried out to study ancient cast iron smelting furnaces at 15 sites from Imperial China. Petrographic analyses were performed on furnace materials to study the development of metallurgical ceramics used on these furnaces. The results show that furnace materials developed from simple clay material to a composite structure made of stone and clay. During the period from the 4th C. BCE to the 3rd C. CE, rammed clay or stacked clay bricks were used to build the furnaces; from the 7th to the 13th C. CE, furnaces were predominantly made with a durable outer wall constructed from stone, while the refractory material that lined the inner surface of the stone wall was composed of clay, sand and gravel-sized rock fragments. In addition, this paper discusses some aspects of governmental organization, furnace and smelting technology, economics which might influence this development, and examines the relationship between ceramic technology and metallurgy in Imperial China.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T00:49:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Identification of inter- and intra-species variation in cereal grains
           through geometric morphometric analysis, and its resilience under
           experimental charring
    • Authors: Vincent Bonhomme; Emily Forster; Michael Wallace; Eleanor Stillman; Michael Charles; Glynis Jones
      Pages: 60 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Vincent Bonhomme, Emily Forster, Michael Wallace, Eleanor Stillman, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones
      The application of morphometric analysis in archaeobotany has the potential to refine quantitatively identifications of ancient plant material recovered from archaeological sites, most commonly preserved through charring due to exposure to heat. This paper uses geometric morphometrics, first, to explore variation in grain shape between three domesticated cereal species, einkorn (Triticum monococcum), emmer (Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), both before and after experimental charring at 230 and 260 °C. Results demonstrate that outline analysis reliably reflects known variations in grain shape between species and differences due to charring observed in previous experimental work, and is capable of distinguishing the species, with near-perfect results, both before and after charring. Having established this, the same method was applied to different accessions of the same species, which indicated that three different grain morphotypes of einkorn and two, possibly three, of emmer could be identified in the uncharred material, and that at least two different morphotypes for each species could be distinguished even after charring at temperatures up to 260 °C. This opens up the possibility of tracking evolutionary change in crops, both chronologically and geographically, through morphometric analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Vertical transhumance of sheep and goats identified by intra-tooth
           sequential carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic analyses: Evidence
           from Chalcolithic Köşk Höyük, central Turkey
    • Authors: Cheryl A. Makarewicz; Benjamin S. Arbuckle; Aliye Öztan
      Pages: 68 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 86
      Author(s): Cheryl A. Makarewicz, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Aliye Öztan
      Vertical transhumance is a crucial animal management strategy that provides livestock with fresh pasture on a seasonal basis while simultaneously expanding the scale of landscape usage by the pastoralist component of complex agro-pastoralist societies. Here, we explore the use of vertical transhumance in Anatolia during the Early and Middle Chalcolithic periods (6200–4500 cal BC), a time of socio-political transformation that presaged the rise of early state level societies in the region supported by a pronounced intensification in the exploitation of domesticated sheep and goats for their wool – a valuable commodity. We examine the carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) composition of sequentially sampled tooth enamel from Chalcolithic sheep and goats from Köşk Höyük. The pattern of inverse cyclical isotopic variation characterized by high summer season δ18O values coincident with low δ13C values suggests livestock were moved to moist, high elevation pastures supporting 13C-depleted graze during the summer months or supplied with 13C-enriched fodder during the winter months. Inter-individual variation in absolute δ18O values and the amplitude of intra-tooth oxygen isotopic change reflects either differences in the spatial location of pastures, differences in the relative contribution of 18O enriched leaf water to caprine body water, or a combination of both. The incorporation of pasturing strategies involving vertical transhumance into livestock management systems, in conjunction with zooarchaeological evidence for increasing pastoral specialization and wool production at Köşk Höyük, suggests an intensification of smallstock production that provided important economic support for increasingly complex political landscapes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Chemical analyses of Egyptian mummification balms and organic residues
           from storage jars dated from the Old Kingdom to the Copto-Byzantine period
           
    • Authors: Jeannette Łucejko; Jacques Connan; Sibilla Orsini; Erika Ribechini; Francesca Modugno
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jeannette Łucejko, Jacques Connan, Sibilla Orsini, Erika Ribechini, Francesca Modugno
      Twenty three samples of Egyptian organic materials, spanning from the Old Kingdom to the Copto-Byzantine Period, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The sample set was comprised of ten balm samples from human mummies, three balms from shrews, and ten samples of residues scraped from jars and amphora from storehouses. This research program was undertaken with two main goals: Firstly to provide complementary data on the mummification balms from both humans and animals with an emphasis on the occurrence of bitumen in mummification mixtures. Secondly to explore whether the jar residues were mixtures that were used for mummification purposes or whether they were pure ingredients stored for various uses including ritual practices. The analysis highlighted that the most abundant constituents of the mummification balms were: fats or oils, waxes, conifer resin, pitch, mastic resin, castor oil, and bitumen. Balms from animal mummies were not found to be significantly different from the balms from human mummies. Residues from potsherds appeared to belong to two categories: pure products (fats and castor oil) and mixtures containing fats, Pinaceae resin and pitch, mastic resin, and castor oil, i.e. the constituents also identified in mummification balms. The mixtures were thus residues of preparations for ritual practices and embalming. This study demonstrates that bitumen is underestimated by the chemical approach currently applied in most archaeometric studies of Egyptian organic residues, which are better suited for the identification of lipids and resinous materials. We thus applied a specific analytical design, targeted at bitumen. Bitumen from the Dead Sea was conclusively identified using as reference materials for comparison, i.e. the present day bitumen from the Dead Sea floating blocks, as well as several bitumens from mummification balms and bitumen lumps unearthed from the archaeological site of Tell Yarmouth near Jerusalem in Israel.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Micromorphological indicators for degradation processes in archaeological
           bone from temperate European wetland sites
    • Authors: Hans Huisman; Kristin Ismail-Meyer; Barbara M. Sageidet; Ineke Joosten
      Pages: 13 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hans Huisman, Kristin Ismail-Meyer, Barbara M. Sageidet, Ineke Joosten
      Micromorphological investigations of archaeological bones make it possible to study decay processes and the associated depositional environment in one go. A selection of micromorphological thin sections from soil samples from three wetland sites in Switzerland, The Netherlands and Norway that contained bone fragments were studied. The goal was to investigate the type and the timing of decay processes to better understand the taphonomy of bones in such sites. Using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), a range of biological decay processes and chemical/mineralogical transformations were observed. In two of the sites – Zug-Riedmatt in Switzerland and Hazendonk in The Netherlands – a relatively short exposure to adverse conditions must have occurred: Some of the bones from Zug-Riedmatt show localized collagen decay related to exposure to fresh ashes; others show cyanobacterial tunnelling related to submersion in shallow, clear water. In Hazendonk, bone fragments and fish scales apparently have first been exposed to bacterial decay related to putrefaction. Subsequently, alternations between wet and dry conditions resulted in the dissolution of some of the bone mineral and the formation of Ca, Fe(III) phosphates, probably mitridatite. Fungal decay caused extensive tunnelling of bone and fish scales as well as the secondary phosphates. These processes apparently ended when the bone-rich layer became permanently waterlogged and anoxic. In Stavanger, bone mineral is transformed into mitridatite and possibly other Ca Fe(III) phosphates. Indications that the redox conditions are variable at present suggest that these processes are still active.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Cautionary tales on the identification of caffeinated beverages in North
           America
    • Authors: Adam King; Terry G. Powis; Kong F. Cheong; Nilesh W. Gaikwad
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Adam King, Terry G. Powis, Kong F. Cheong, Nilesh W. Gaikwad
      In recent years several studies have attempted to understand the use of caffeinated beverages in North America before the coming of Europeans using absorbed residues. These studies have focused on the two key plant sources of caffeine in North America: Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Ilex vomitoria (yaupon holly). The authors initiated a study to explore the possibility that one or both plants were used at the Mississippian period (900–1600 CE) center of Etowah in northern Georgia. In the process, a series of problems with methodologies in use were revealed. Key among those were limitations on the methods used to identify ancient caffeinated beverage residues, distinguish them from modern contamination, and differentiate residues made by each plant. In this paper we explore what our data from the Etowah site reveal about methodologies currently in use and make suggestions for future studies of residues created by caffeinated beverages in North America.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • A landmark-based approach for assessing the reliability of mandibular
           tooth crowding as a marker of dog domestication
    • Authors: Carly Ameen; Ardern Hulme-Beaman; Allowen Evin; Mietje Germonpré; Kate Britton; Thomas Cucchi; Greger Larson; Keith Dobney
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Carly Ameen, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Allowen Evin, Mietje Germonpré, Kate Britton, Thomas Cucchi, Greger Larson, Keith Dobney
      Tooth crowding is one of several criteria used to infer the process of domestication in the zooarchaeological record. It has been primarily used to support claims of early animal domestication, perhaps most contentiously in claims for the existence of so-called “proto-domestic” dogs as early as the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic. Tooth crowding studies vary in their methodological approaches, and interpretation of the resulting data is constrained by the limited geographic and temporal scope of reference specimens used to construct an appropriate comparative framework. To address these key problems, we present a standardised landmark-based protocol for the measurement and quantification of mandibular tooth crowding that can be systematically applied in the context of dog domestication research. We then test the assumption that tooth crowding is less frequent in ancient and modern wild wolf populations by examining 750 modern dogs and 205 modern wolves from across the modern geographic range of Canis lupus as well as 66 Late Pleistocene wolves from Alaska. Our results demonstrate that landmark-based metrics provide a reliable approach for recording and analysing tooth crowding. Although it is likely that the relatively low frequency of tooth crowding found in our modern dog dataset (∼6%) in part reflects the ‘modern’ morphology of domestic breeds, the higher frequency of crowding in both modern (∼18%) and ancient (∼36%) wolves strongly suggests that current assumptions linking tooth crowding with the process of early domestication (at least in dogs) should be critically re-evaluated, and that further investigations into the drivers behind these developmental patterns should be pursued.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T17:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of organic matter and biomarkers from Diepkloof Rock
           Shelter, South Africa: Insights into Middle Stone Age site usage and
           palaeoclimate
    • Authors: James A. Collins; Andrew S. Carr; Enno Schefuß; Arnoud Boom; Judith Sealy
      Pages: 51 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): James A. Collins, Andrew S. Carr, Enno Schefuß, Arnoud Boom, Judith Sealy
      Diepkloof Rock Shelter (DRS) represents a site of major interest for reconstructing early human behaviours during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). Rock shelters such as DRS also potentially preserve information concerning the environmental context for such behaviours. In this respect the organic matter composition of rock shelter sediments has rarely been investigated in detail, particularly at the molecular level. Here, we used pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) to systematically assess the organic matter composition of bulk sediments within the MSA and Later Stone Age (LSA) sequence at DRS. From this we sought to gain insights into site usage, taphonomy and burning practices. Additionally, we analysed the chain length distribution of leaf-wax n-alkanes as well as their hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions (δDwax and δ13Cwax) to investigate their potential as hydroclimate and vegetation indicators. This constitutes the first leaf-wax isotopic data in a terrestrial context of this antiquity in South Africa. Py-GC/MS shows a dichotomy between stratigraphic units (SUs) of high organic matter content, producing a range of pyrolysis products, including homologous series of long chain n-alkene/n-alkane doublets and alkyl-nitriles, and SUs of low organic matter content, dominated by aromatic, heterocyclic N and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrolysis products; typical molecular burning products. Several SUs of the Intermediate Howiesons Poort interval exhibit the latter composition, consistent with micromorphological evidence. δ13Cwax remains stable throughout the MSA, but leaf-wax n-alkane chain length and δDwax increase during the Late Howiesons Poort interval. Comparison with such patterns in modern plants in the region suggests this represents a shift towards the input of more arid-adapted vegetation into the shelter, driven either by aridification at the site locale or a change in selection practices. Our results suggest that these techniques have further potential in southern Africa and globally at sites where organic matter preservation is high.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Advances in archaeomagnetic dating in Britain: New data, new approaches
           and a new calibration curve
    • Authors: Catherine M. Batt; Maxwell C. Brown; Sarah-Jane Clelland; Monika Korte; Paul Linford; Zoe Outram
      Pages: 66 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Catherine M. Batt, Maxwell C. Brown, Sarah-Jane Clelland, Monika Korte, Paul Linford, Zoe Outram
      Archaeomagnetic dating offers a valuable chronological tool for archaeological investigations, particularly for dating fired material. The method depends on the establishment of a dated record of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field and this paper presents new and updated archaeomagnetic directional data from the UK and geomagnetic secular variation curves arising from them. The data are taken from publications from the 1950's to the present day; 422 dated entries derived from existing archaeo and geomagnetic databases are re-evaluated and 487 new directions added, resulting in 909 entries with corresponding dates, the largest collection of dated archaeomagnetic directions from a single country. An approach to improving the largest source of uncertainty, the independent dating, is proposed and applied to the British Iron Age, resulting in 145 directions from currently available databases being updated with revised ages and/or uncertainties, and a large scale reassessment of age assignments prior to inclusion into the Magnetic Moments of the Past and GEOMAGIA50 databases. From the significantly improved dataset a new archaeomagnetic dating curve for the UK is derived through the development of a temporally continuous geomagnetic field model, and is compared with previous UK archaeomagnetic dating curves and global field models. The new model, ARCH-UK.1 allows model predictions for any location in the UK with associated uncertainties. It is shown to improve precision and accuracy in archaeomagnetic dating, and to provide new insight into past geomagnetic field changes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • A technological and morphological study of Late Paleolithic ostrich
           eggshell beads from Shuidonggou, North China
    • Authors: Yi Wei; Francesco d’Errico; Marian Vanhaeren; Fei Peng; Fuyou Chen; Xing Gao
      Pages: 83 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Yi Wei, Francesco d’Errico, Marian Vanhaeren, Fei Peng, Fuyou Chen, Xing Gao
      We report the results of a detailed analysis of ostrich eggshell (OES) beads derived mainly from Cultural Layer 2 (CL2) of Locality 2 at the Shuidonggou site (SDG2) in North China, which is dated to ca. 31 ka cal BP. The eggshells belong to the extinct ostrich Struthio anderssoni. Based on microscopic examination, morphometric analysis, and experimental replication, we identify clear differences in morphology, size, technology, and style. Results indicate that the technology of bead making is similar to that used in most Middle and Later Stone Age sites in Africa and recorded ethnographically. Both well-made and poorly-crafted OES beads were produced at SDG2. Drilling experiments conducted in the framework of this study show that hafted stone points were probably used to make the perforations. Only occasionally beads were deliberately polished on inner and outer eggshell surfaces. Beads morphology and technology suggest that distinct types of beads were made by different individual craftspeople. This supports the hypothesis that several human groups visited the Shuidonggou site and used OES beads as an information technology about 31 ka cal BP.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Identifying the accumulator: Making the most of bone surface modification
           data
    • Authors: Jessica C. Thompson; J. Tyler Faith; Naomi Cleghorn; Jamie Hodgkins
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jessica C. Thompson, J. Tyler Faith, Naomi Cleghorn, Jamie Hodgkins
      Taphonomic analysis is an essential component of zooarchaeology, but is employed in different ways within different research traditions. Within the Africanist Palaeolithic literature, there is a strong emphasis on quantitative comparison of proportions of different bone surface modifications to one another and to proportions observed on modern experimental collections. This work has been driven by debates about the taphonomic histories of Oldowan sites that document the subsistence strategies of early Homo, but this specific approach can be usefully applied to a range of contexts across many different time periods and geographic locations. One obstacle to the cross-fertilization of this taphonomic tradition with other zooarchaeological work is the restrictive manner in which data are selected from an assemblage for analysis. To ensure comparability between fossil and modern assemblages, analysts typically exclude specimens with evidence for post-depositional modification not modeled in the experimental data. Although this adds interpretive robustness, it can diminish sample size significantly, sometimes to the point of affecting statistical analyses, and results in much time invested in collecting data that ultimately are not used. Here, we describe a new method for maximizing the number of specimens that can be incorporated into analysis, thus resolving the persistent problem of poor sample sizes to make more statistically robust comparisons to actualistic datasets.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Diagnostic properties of hammerstone-broken long bone fragments, specimen
           identifiability, and Early Stone Age butchered assemblage interpretation
    • Authors: Stephen R. Merritt; Kellyn M. Davis
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 85
      Author(s): Stephen R. Merritt, Kellyn M. Davis
      Zooarchaeological assemblages in a variety of geographic and temporal contexts are dominated by fragmentary long bone specimens, and precise identification of side, skeletal element, and bone portion underlie archaeological interpretations, including specimen counts for skeletal part profiles, minimum number of element (MNE), and individual (MNI) estimates. Actualistic hammerstone and anvil breakage of domestic goat limb bones was used to document how fragmentation impacts precise identification of skeletal specimens, analysis of assemblage composition, and reconstructions of butchery behavior. Specimens greater than 2-cm in size were assigned to categories that describe the precision with which side, element, upper, intermediate and lower limb segment, and long bone portion could be identified. Results suggest that specimen size is positively related to identifiability, and more identifiable specimens tend to include epiphyses and relatively complete shaft circumferences. Most elements produced a similar number of fragments, including highly identifiable ends that yield accurate skeletal part profiles, MNE, and MNI estimates. However, if density-mediated destruction removes these specimens, analysis of less-identifiable shaft fragments significantly underrepresents element and individual abundance. The number of identified limb specimens (NISP), MNE, and epiphysis-to-shaft ratios in fragmentary archaeological butchery assemblages suggest limb end underrepresentation deflates measures of assemblage abundance and reduces the behavioral resolution of butchery interpretations. However, zooarchaeological analyses can productively incorporate fragmentary, less-identifiable specimens when they define hypotheses that match the scale of archaeological data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Bio-cultural interactions and demography during the Middle to Upper
           Palaeolithic transition in Iberia: An agent-based modelling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): Carolina Cucart-Mora, Sergi Lozano, Javier Fernández-López de Pablo
      The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition was a process of cultural and biological replacement, considered a turning point in human evolutionary history. Various hypotheses have been used to explain the disappearance of Neanderthals from Eurasia. However, very few studies have explicitly examined the causative role of demography on Neanderthal and anatomically modern humans (AMH) interaction. Here we use an integrative method based on computational modelling and the analysis of archaeological data to construct an agent based model that explores the influence of demographic variables (birth and death rates) and mobility (home range size) on the bio-cultural interaction between AMH and Neanderthals during the transition from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic on the Iberian Peninsula (50 ka to 30 ka BP). Our simulation results are consistent with the current radiocarbon framework for the disappearance of Neanderthals in this region. This suggest that the extinction of Neanderthals could be explained by inter-specific differences in demographic behaviour and mobility patterns compared with AMH.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
       
  • Was the drought really responsible' Assessing statistical
           relationships between climate extremes and cultural transitions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): Keith W. Kintigh, Scott E. Ingram
      It is commonplace to assert causal relationships between episodes of extreme climate with dramatic cultural shifts. We explore the problem of statistically assessing the correspondence between episodes of extreme climate (such as droughts) and cultural events (such as depopulation) they are purported to explain. In order to do this: 1) We describe a method that permits the objective identification of climate extremes in a way that is independent of their supposed causal outcomes; 2) We discuss how we identify and date cultural transitions of interest; 3) We explore a variety of decision rules for determining whether or not there is a match between a given extreme climate interval and the interval during which a transition began; and 4) We propose an intuitive Monte Carlo approach to statistically assess the observed correspondence between the climate extremes and the cultural transitions. Our application does not indicate statistical support for a linkage between intervals of extreme climate and major transitions in any of the seven cultural traditions in the Southwest US that we examined.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
       
  • Formation, morphology and interpretation of darkened faecal spherulites
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 89
      Author(s): M.G. Canti, C. Nicosia
      Faecal spherulites are a common indicator of dung in archaeological deposits and most of the basic processes of their formation and taphonomy have been explained. However, a darkened form is also regularly found, ranging from slightly transparent through to completely opaque. These have been less well studied, so we set out here to understand what actually causes the darkening and to determine the range of conditions required to produce the changes. Darkened spherulites were successfully created by heating dung to between 500 °C and 700 °C with the gaseous products constrained. The maximum production in our experiments was at 600 °C. The darkened spherulites often expanded during the alteration process and some of the expanded ones become distorted. SEM examination was only possible through destructive preparation processes, but examples were found showing expansion beyond the normal size range. These had a distinctive internal structure characterised by very fine crystallinity and larger scale fracturing, perhaps resulting from organic matter loss and/or CaCO3 alteration. Prolonged oxidative heating failed to remove the darkening, leading to the possibility that it is partly a structural phenomenon, with opacification arising from compound relief. Based on these findings, darkened spherulites can now be confidently interpreted as; resulting from dung being heated in conditions of limited gaseous exchange to between 500 and 700 °C, then not heated again beyond ca. 700 °C. These sorts of conditions could occur, around the edge of, or beneath, any fire where fresh dung is being burned or where the existing stratigraphy has a dung component.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
       
  • Differentiating between cutting actions on bone using 3D geometric
           morphometrics and Bayesian analyses with implications to human evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Erik Otárola-Castillo, Melissa G. Torquato, Hannah C. Hawkins, Emma James, Jacob A. Harris, Curtis W. Marean, Shannon P. McPherron, Jessica C. Thompson
      Studies of bone surface modifications (BSMs) such as cut marks are crucial to our understanding of human and earlier hominin subsistence behavior. Over the last several decades, however, BSM identification has remained contentious, particularly in terms of identifying the earliest instances of hominin butchery; there has been a lack of consensus over how to identify or differentiate marks made by human and non-human actors and varying effectors. Most investigations have relied on morphology to identify butchery marks and their patterning. This includes cut marks, one of the most significant human marks. Attempts to discriminate cut marks from other types of marks have employed a variety of techniques, ranging from subjectively characterizing cut mark morphology using the naked eye, to using high-powered microscopy such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or micro-photogrammetry. More recent approaches use 3D datasets to obtain even more detailed information about mark attributes, and apply those to the fossil record. Although 3D datasets open promising new avenues for investigation, analyses of these datasets have not yet taken advantage of the full 3D surface morphology of BSM. Rather, selected cross-sectional slices of 3D scans have been used as proxies for overall shape. Here we demonstrate that 3D geometric morphometrics (GM), under the “Procrustes paradigm” and coupled with a Bayesian approach, probabilistically discriminates between marks caused by different butchery behaviors. At the same time, this approach provides a complete set of 3D morphological measurements and descriptions. Our results strengthen statistical confidence in cut mark identification and offer a novel approach that can be used to discriminate subtle differences between cut mark types in the fossil record. Furthermore, this study provides an incipient digital library with which to make future quantitative comparisons to archaeological examples, including contentious specimens that are key to understanding the earliest hominin butchery.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:40:54Z
       
  • Artists before Columbus: A multi-method characterization of the materials
           and practices of Caribbean cave art
    • Authors: Alice V.M. Samson; Lucy J. Wrapson; Caroline R. Cartwright; Diana Sahy; Rebecca J. Stacey; Jago Cooper
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Alice V.M. Samson, Lucy J. Wrapson, Caroline R. Cartwright, Diana Sahy, Rebecca J. Stacey, Jago Cooper
      This study represents the first positive identification of plant gum binding media in pre-Columbian art, and the first dates from indigenous cave art in the Caribbean. Mona Island reveals an extensive and well-preserved pre-Columbian and early colonial subterranean cultural landscape with dense concentrations of newly-discovered cave art in up to 30 caves. A multi-method approach to the research of pigments and binding media, charcoal, and cave sediments was used to elucidate the technologies, chronologies and processes of indigenous art and artists. Analyses included on-site use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (P-XRF) device to inform sample selection, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) on paint and charcoal samples, polarized light microscopy (PLM) for material characterizations, and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for detailed chemical analysis of paint structures and composition. In addition direct dates of cave art using radiocarbon (C14) and Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating methods are discussed. Results demonstrate multiple centuries of cave use during indigenous occupation and multiple phases and techniques of mark-making in dark zone locations within extensive cave systems. Visitors set out on pre-meditated journeys underground, making rock art using pigments from the cave floors, which they mixed into complex paints with the addition of plant gums from outside. This study is the first of its kind in the Caribbean providing insight into native paint recipes, material choices, and mark-making techniques. The methods have scope for widespread application and advance the integration of cave art research in archaeology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T16:56:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.012
       
  • Geometric morphometrics and finite elements analysis: Assessing the
           functional implications of differences in craniofacial form in the hominin
           fossil record
    • Authors: Paul O'Higgins; Laura C. Fitton; Ricardo Miguel Godinho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Paul O'Higgins, Laura C. Fitton, Ricardo Miguel Godinho
      The study of morphological variation in the hominin fossil record has been transformed in recent years by the advent of high resolution 3D imaging combined with improved geometric morphometric (GM) toolkits. In parallel, increasing numbers of studies have applied finite elements analysis (FEA) to the study of skeletal mechanics in fossil and extant hominoid material. While FEA studies of fossils are becoming ever more popular they are constrained by the difficulties of reconstruction and by the uncertainty that inevitably attaches to the estimation of forces and material properties. Adding to these modelling difficulties it is still unclear how FEA analyses should best deal with species variation. Comparative studies of skeletal form and function can be further advanced by applying tools from the GM toolkit to the inputs and outputs of FEA studies. First they facilitate virtual reconstruction of damaged material and can be used to rapidly create 3D models of skeletal structures. Second, GM methods allow variation to be accounted for in FEA by warping models to represent mean and extreme forms of interest. Third, GM methods can be applied to compare FEA outputs – the ways in which skeletal elements deform when loaded. Model comparisons are hampered by differences in material properties, forces and size among models but how deformations from FEA are impacted by these parameters is increasingly well understood, allowing them to be taken into account in comparing FEA outputs. In this paper we review recent advances in the application of GM in relation to FEA studies of craniofacial form in hominins, providing examples from our recent work and a critical appraisal of the state of the art.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T13:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.011
       
  • Bronze Age iron: Meteoritic or not' A chemical strategy.
    • Authors: Albert Jambon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Albert Jambon
      Bronze Age iron artifacts could be derived from either meteoritic (extraterrestrial) or smelted (terrestrial) iron. This unresolved question is the subject of a controversy: are some, all or none made of smelted iron' In the present paper we propose a geochemical approach, which permits us to differentiate terrestrial from extraterrestrial irons. Instead of evaluating the Ni abundance alone (or the Ni to Fe ratio) we consider the relationship between Fe, Co and Ni abundances and their ratios. The study of meteoritic irons, Bronze Age iron artifacts and ancient terrestrial irons permit us to validate this chemical approach. The major interest is that non-invasive p-XRF analyses provide reliable Fe:Co:Ni abundances, without the need to remove a sample; they can be performed in situ, in the museums where the artifacts are preserved. The few iron objects from the Bronze Age sensu stricto that could be analyzed are definitely made of meteoritic iron, suggesting that speculations about precocious smelting during the Bronze Age should be revised. In a Fe:Co:Ni array the trend exhibited by meteoritic irons departs unambiguously from modern irons and iron ores. The trend of Ni/Fe vs Ni/Co in different analysis points of a single object corroded to variable extents provides a robust criterion for identifying the presence of meteoritic iron. It opens the possibility of tracking when and where the first smelting operations happened, the threshold of a new era. It emphasizes the importance of analytical methods for properly studying the evolution of the use of metals and metal working technologies in our past cultures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T20:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.09.008
       
  • Repealing the Çatalhöyük extractive metallurgy: The green, the fire and
           the ‘slag’
    • Authors: Miljana Radivojević; Thilo Rehren; Shahina Farid; Ernst Pernicka; Duygu Camurcuoğlu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Shahina Farid, Ernst Pernicka, Duygu Camurcuoğlu
      The scholarly quest for the origins of metallurgy has focused on a broad region from the Balkans to Central Asia, with different scholars advocating a single origin and multiple origins, respectively. One particular find has been controversially discussed as the potentially earliest known example of copper smelting in western Eurasia, a copper ‘slag’ piece from the Late Neolithic to Chalcolithic site of Catal-hoyuk in central Turkey. Here we present a new assessment of metal making at Çatalhöyük based on the re-analysis of minerals, mineral artefacts and high-temperature materials excavated in the 1960s by J. Mellaart and first analysed by Neuninger, Pittioni and Siegl in 1964. This paper focuses on copper-based minerals, the alleged piece of metallurgical slag, and copper metal beads, and their contextual relationship to each other. It is based on new microstructural, compositional and isotopic analyses, and a careful re-examination of the fieldwork documentation and analytical data related to the c. 8500 years old high-temperature debris at Çatalhöyük. We re-interpret the sample identified earlier as metallurgical slag as incidentally fired green pigment, which was originally deposited in a burial and later affected by a destructive fire that also charred the bones of the interred body. We also re-confirm the contemporary metal beads as made from native metal. Our results provide a new and conclusive explanation of the previously contentious find, and reposition Çatalhöyük in a new narrative of the multiple origins of metallurgy in the Old World.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T04:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.001
       
  • Provenance and recycling of ancient silver. A comment on “Iridium to
           provenance ancient silver” by Jonathan R. Wood*, Michael F. Charlton,
           Mercedes Murillo-Barroso, Marcos Martinón-Torres. J. Archaeol. Sci. 81,
           1–12
    • Authors: Ernst Pernicka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Ernst Pernicka
      It is argued that it is unlikely that iridium can be used as tracer for the provenance of ancient silver for geochemical reasons. Instead it is suggested that the observed low but measurable iridium concentrations may be due to silver produced from argentiferous gold by cementation. It is furthermore argued that the calculation of geological model ages from lead isotope ratios does not provide any additional information compared with the use of conventional three-isotope diagrams.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T04:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.004
       
  • Gold parting, iridium and provenance of ancient silver: A reply to
           Pernicka
    • Authors: Jonathan R. Wood; Michael F. Charlton; Mercedes Murillo-Barroso; Marcos Martinón-Torres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Jonathan R. Wood, Michael F. Charlton, Mercedes Murillo-Barroso, Marcos Martinón-Torres
      We present a detailed response to Professor Pernicka's critique of our paper entitled “Iridium to provenance ancient silver”. We have concluded that Pernicka's hypothesis, which suggests that elevated levels of iridium in ancient silver artefacts is a consequence of silver deriving from the cementation (parting) process, does not account for the available evidence and that his critiques of the analyses we presented seem misplaced. We offer a simpler solution and show that the structure of our transformed data is founded on logical reasoning which is borne out by the empirical results. Essentially, this response supports our view reported in the original paper that the variation in iridium in ancient silver is largely geological rather than a consequence of de-silvering gold.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T04:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.07.005
       
  • Digging deeper: Insights into metallurgical transitions in European
           prehistory through copper isotopes
    • Authors: Wayne Powell; Ryan Mathur; H. Arthur Bankoff; Andrea Mason; Aleksandar Bulatović; Vojislav Filipović; Linda Godfrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Wayne Powell, Ryan Mathur, H. Arthur Bankoff, Andrea Mason, Aleksandar Bulatović, Vojislav Filipović, Linda Godfrey
      Southeastern Europe is the birthplace of metallurgy, with evidence of copper smelting at ca. 5000 BCE. There the later Eneolithic (Copper Age) was associated with the casting of massive copper tools. However, copper metallurgy in this region ceased, or significantly decreased, centuries before the dawn of the Bronze Age. Archaeologists continue to be debate whether this hiatus was imposed on early metalworking communities as a result of exhaustion of workable mineral resources, or instead a cultural transition that was associated with changes in depositional practices and material culture. Copper isotopes provide a broadly applicable means of addressing this question. Copper isotopes fractionate in the near-surface environment such that surficial oxide ores can be differentiated from non-weathered sulphide ores that occur at greater depth. This compositional variation is transferred to associated copper artifacts, the final product of the metallurgical process. In the central Balkans, a shift from 65Cu-enriched to 65Cu-depleted copper artifacts occurs across the metallurgical hiatus at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age boundary, ca. 2500 BCE. This indicates that the reemergence of metal production at the beginning of the Bronze Age is associated with pyrotechnical advancements that allowed for the extraction of copper from sulphide ore. Thus copper isotopes provide direct evidence that the copper hiatus was the result of exhaustion of near-surface oxide ores after one-and-a-half millennia of mining, and that the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Balkans is associated with the introduction of more complex smelting techniques for metal extraction from regionally abundant sulphidic deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:42:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.012
       
  • Heat-induced alteration of glauconitic minerals in the Middle Stone Age
           levels of Blombos Cave, South Africa: Implications for evaluating site
           structure and burning events
    • Authors: Magnus M. Haaland; David E. Friesem; Christopher E. Miller; Christopher S. Henshilwood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Magnus M. Haaland, David E. Friesem, Christopher E. Miller, Christopher S. Henshilwood
      In this paper we conduct geochemical and colourimetric measurements of glauconite grains in micromorphological thin sections from the Middle Stone Age site of Blombos Cave, South Africa, to investigate the formation, internal structure and reworking of heat-exposed cave deposits that are related to prehistoric burning events. Controlled heating experiments were first carried out on glauconite-rich loose sediments and block samples, both of which were collected from the Blombos Cave bedrock. The control samples were then subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (micro-FTIR) and petrographic-colourimetric analyses. The control experiment shows that glauconitic minerals undergo a gradual and systematic colour change when temperatures reach higher than c. 300–400 °C, primarily due to dehydration and iron oxidation. They also undergo clear structural changes when temperatures reach higher than c. 550 °C due to dehydroxylation and mineral transformation. By assessing the nature and degree of heat-induced optical and molecular alteration in glauconitic minerals, we demonstrate how glauconite grains in thin sections can be classified by the temperature to which they were exposed (20–400 °C, >400 °C, >600 °C and >800 °C). To assess the archaeological relevance of our controlled heating experiment, we applied this glauconite classification scheme to >200 grains found in three micromorphological thin sections of a Middle Stone Age (MSA) combustion feature. These grains were individually geo-referenced within the local coordinate system of Blombos Cave, through a thin-section-based GIS mapping procedure. With improved spatial control, we were able to study both the general distribution of non-altered and heat-altered glauconite grains in their original sedimentary context, as well as to calculate heat distribution models that cover the entire sampled section. This combined geo-chemical, optical and spatio-contextual approach provides insights into more elusive aspects of MSA site structure and burning events, such as heat intensity, burning frequency, temperature distribution, internal hearth structure and post-depositional reworking. The workflow we propose may easily be implemented and adapted to other archaeological contexts and to analogous sedimentary materials that show comparable heat-induced alteration patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T08:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.008
       
  • Fields of conflict: A political ecology approach to land and social
           transformation in the colonial Andes (Cuzco, Peru)
    • Authors: Steve Kosiba; R. Alexander Hunter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Steve Kosiba, R. Alexander Hunter
      This paper presents a political ecological framework for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis to examine changes in agricultural land in ancient and early historical contexts. It raises several issues pertinent to archaeological epistemology and science, with a particular focus on the limitations of using fixed data categories to examine fluid environmental processes and ecological relationships. The paper draws on political ecological theories that define land as a social process, moving beyond economic conceptions of agricultural land that rest on productive capacity and phenomenological theories that examine the physical environment in terms of cultural perception. It combines qualitative (archival) and quantitative (archaeological) data in a GIS methodology to address how linked changes in physical land attributes and labor routines can affect regional ecologies and foment social conflict. In empirical terms, the paper traces changes from maize to wheat fields during Spanish colonization (ca. 1533-1670) in Ollantaytambo, Peru, a monumental Inca town near the capital of their empire. It reveals how ecological transformations that occurred during this century–widespread deaths throughout, abandonment of Inca fields, and introduction of European biota–in part framed conflicts between Andean people and the colonial regime, and also empowered local farmers to claim land in previously undeveloped areas.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T12:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.001
       
  • A GIS of affordances: Movement and visibility at a planned colonial town
           in highland Peru
    • Authors: Steven A. Wernke; Lauren E. Kohut; Abel Traslaviña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Steven A. Wernke, Lauren E. Kohut, Abel Traslaviña
      Archaeological GIS is moving towards increasingly detailed, embodied, multidimensional simulations and analyses of human experience in the past. Most of the emerging GIS research synthesizing spatial modeling and subject-centered approaches has been concerned with practices and perceptions of landscape. This paper tightens the analytical focus to the more intimate scale of a single settlement, combining models of movement and visual experience within a planned colonial town in highland Peru. Such a rendering is important, since controlling movement and visual experience were central to the colonial project that built this and other such towns in the Viceroyalty of Peru. This study centers on an exceptionally well-preserved, relict planned colonial town in highland Peru to investigate affordances of movement and visibility within it. Several GIS-based simulations and analytical techniques are brought together, including drone-based high resolution three dimensional modeling, spatial network analysis, walking models, and cumulative viewshed analysis, to simulate aggregate visual experience as people moved through the town. The results are suggestive of how the layout of the town specifically routed transit to facilitate the visual prominence of the church and original Inka plaza of the reducción, as well as the prominence of indigenous elite households. Both continuities and discontinuities of movement and visual experience relative to Inkaic and Spanish colonial spaces are evident. By extension, this paper also provides a pathway for quantitative and reproducible modeling of site-scale movement and visual affordances as dimensions of subject and community formation in other global contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:45:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.004
       
  • Modeling Métis mobility? Evaluating least cost paths and indigenous
           landscapes in the Canadian west
    • Authors: Kisha Supernant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Kisha Supernant
      Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses in archaeology have been criticized by archaeologists for being reductive, environmentally deterministic, and reproducing a disembodied experience of the landscape. However, research over the past 20 years has demonstrated the power of GIS data and analyses to explore complex social questions about past human experiences. Indigenous knowledges of landscapes have not often explicitly informed GIS analyses in archaeology, even though archaeologists and indigenous communities around the world are forging collaborative relationships. This paper proposes an integrated approach GIS-based least cost analysis, where Indigenous traditional knowledge, historical documentation, and archaeology can be brought together for a more nuanced and locally-grounded model of past landscapes. A case study from the movement of the Métis people of Canada is used to test typical models of cost path movement used in archaeology against known historic trails information, followed by a discussion of possible future applications of movement models and variables related to local Indigenous knowledge of current and past landscapes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:38:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.006
       
  • What can GIS + 3D mean for landscape archaeology?
    • Authors: Heather Richards-Rissetto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Heather Richards-Rissetto
      Until recently Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have held center stage in the archaeologist's geospatial toolkit, and there is no doubt that archaeologists have moved beyond the map—but into what? In the early years, criticisms voicing GIS as environmentally-deterministic were abundant. What methods and tool have archaeologists used to overcome these criticisms? New geospatial technologies such as airborne lidar and aerial photogrammetry are allowing us to acquire inordinate amounts of georeferenced 3D data— but do these 3D technologies help overcome criticisms of environmental determinism? Together—GIS + 3D— can link georeferenced 3D models to underlying data adding a ground-based humanistic perspective lacking in the bird's eye view of traditional GIS. This paper situates GIS and 3D within a semiotic framework to offer some ideas on using 3DGIS to intertwine environmental and cultural factors to work toward new approaches for landscape archaeology.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.005
       
  • Significance and context in GIS-based spatial archaeology: A case study
           from Southeastern North America
    • Authors: Eric E. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Eric E. Jones
      Over 30 years ago, Kintigh and Ammerman (1982) outlined and applied a heuristic approach to spatial archaeology that balanced quantitative analyses and culturally and historically contextualized archaeology. The theoretical and methodological messages were that we need to do more than “eyeball” spatial patterns, we need to apply the proper analyses based on the characteristics of our datasets, and we need to ensure that our models, quantitative analyses, and resulting interpretations are based in the proper cultural and historical contexts. My goal in this paper is to examine how two of the concepts in this approach, significance and context, apply to a modern spatial archaeology that heavily utilizes geospatial computing tools. Although these tools help to solve several concerns that existed in the field 30 years ago, they can also cause others, such as mistaking autocorrelation for correlation or confusion about which of the multitude of available analytical tools is appropriate for particular questions and datasets. In this paper, I present a simplified version of the methodology I have used to address these concerns. I use archaeological, historical, and GIS-modeled data to compare the regional patterning of hierarchical and egalitarian societies in southeastern North America to examine why hierarchical sociopolitical organizations may have arose where they did. I end with a critical review of this approach and a discussion of how such research can be improved moving forward.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T01:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.009
       
  • Assessing the state of archaeological GIS research: Unbinding analyses of
           past landscapes
    • Authors: Meghan C.L. Howey; Marieka Brouwer Burg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Archaeological Science
      Author(s): Meghan C.L. Howey, Marieka Brouwer Burg
      The early pioneers of archaeological Geographic Information Systems (GIS) advocated for a future where this technology was more than a data-management tool. To this end, they emphasized harnessing the analytic power of GIS to advance innovative understandings of past social landscapes. This paper introduces the special issue, explaining its aims to offer a current assessment of how this vision has been realized. Three themes related to both persistent questions and emergent horizons in archaeological GIS are explored in the context of the contributions. We present our own set of ideas for how to unbind our analyses from some of the methodological and conceptual constraints inherent in the analytic GIS approaches on which we have long relied to explore past landscapes. We argue it is important to keep moving beyond analytic approaches tethered to discrete points, to push forward geospatial modeling of cultural processes across entire landscapes, and to incorporate uncertainty and iteration directly into our work. Through such efforts, we can develop robust insights into the ways past communities considered, reconfigured, and renewed patterns of social, economic, and ideological interaction, flow, and circulation through the variegated landscapes they inhabited. In doing this, we will get closer to realizing the ambitious vision early pioneers had for archaeological GIS – a technology they believed could let us ask entirely new questions about the past.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T01:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2017.05.002
       
 
 
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