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INSURANCE (26 journals)

Showing 1 - 26 of 26 Journals sorted alphabetically
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assurances et gestion des risques     Full-text available via subscription  
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Blätter der DGVFM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
British Actuarial Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geneva Risk and Insurance Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Health Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Insurance Markets and Companies     Open Access  
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Health Economics and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Social Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for Labour Market Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Risk and Insurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Risk Management & Insurance Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Scandinavian Actuarial Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD Finance & Investment/Insurance & Pensions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
The Geneva Reports     Free   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Astin Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.878
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0515-0361 - ISSN (Online) 1783-1350
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [395 journals]
  • ASB volume 50 issue 3 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.30
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • ASB volume 50 issue 3 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.31
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • WAVELET-BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR MORTALITY PROJECTION
    • Authors: Donatien Hainaut; Michel Denuit
      Pages: 675 - 707
      Abstract: Wavelet theory is known to be a powerful tool for compressing and processing time series or images. It consists in projecting a signal on an orthonormal basis of functions that are chosen in order to provide a sparse representation of the data. The first part of this article focuses on smoothing mortality curves by wavelets shrinkage. A chi-square test and a penalized likelihood approach are applied to determine the optimal degree of smoothing. The second part of this article is devoted to mortality forecasting. Wavelet coefficients exhibit clear trends for the Belgian population from 1965 to 2015, they are easy to forecast resulting in predicted future mortality rates. The wavelet-based approach is then compared with some popular actuarial models of Lee–Carter type estimated fitted to Belgian, UK, and US populations. The wavelet model outperforms all of them.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.18
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • VALUATION OF HYBRID FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL PRODUCTS IN LIFE INSURANCE BY
           A NOVEL THREE-STEP METHOD
    • Authors: Griselda Deelstra; Pierre Devolder, Kossi Gnameho, Peter Hieber
      Pages: 709 - 742
      Abstract: Financial products are priced using risk-neutral expectations justified by hedging portfolios that (as accurate as possible) match the product’s payoff. In insurance, premium calculations are based on a real-world best-estimate value plus a risk premium. The insurance risk premium is typically reduced by pooling of (in the best case) independent contracts. As hybrid life insurance contracts depend on both financial and insurance risks, their valuation requires a hybrid valuation principle that combines the two concepts of financial and actuarial valuation. The aim of this paper is to present a novel three-step projection algorithm to valuate hybrid contracts by decomposing their payoff in three parts: a financial, hedgeable part, a diversifiable actuarial part, and a residual part that is neither hedgeable nor diversifiable. The first two parts of the resulting premium are directly linked to their corresponding hedging and diversification strategies, respectively. The method allows for a separate treatment of unsystematic, diversifiable mortality risk and systematic, aggregate mortality risk related to, for example, epidemics or population-wide improvements in life expectancy. We illustrate our method in the case of CAT bonds and a pure endowment insurance contract with profit and compare the three-step method to alternative valuation operators suggested in the literature.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.25
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • JOINT OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSITION RULES AND THE PREMIUM SCALE IN A
           BONUS-MALUS SYSTEM
    • Authors: Kolos Csaba Ágoston; Márton Gyetvai
      Pages: 743 - 776
      Abstract: Bonus-malus systems (BMSs) are widely used in actuarial sciences. These systems are applied by insurance companies to distinguish the policyholders by their risks. The most known application of BMS is in automobile third-party liability insurance. In BMS, there are several classes, and the premium of a policyholder depends on the class he/she is assigned to. The classification of policyholders over the periods of the insurance depends on the transition rules. In general, optimization of these systems involves the calculation of an appropriate premium scale considering the number of classes and transition rules as external parameters. Usually, the stationary distribution is used in the optimization process. In this article, we present a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for determining the premium scale and the transition rules. We present two versions of the model, one with the calculation of stationary probabilities and another with the consideration of multiple periods of the insurance. Furthermore, numerical examples will also be given to demonstrate that the MILP technique is suitable for handling existing BMSs.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.27
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • TESTING FOR RANDOM EFFECTS IN COMPOUND RISK MODELS VIA BREGMAN DIVERGENCE
    • Authors: Himchan Jeong
      Pages: 777 - 798
      Abstract: The generalized linear model (GLM) is a statistical model which has been widely used in actuarial practices, especially for insurance ratemaking. Due to the inherent longitudinality of property and casualty insurance claim datasets, there have been some trials of incorporating unobserved heterogeneity of each policyholder from the repeated observations. To achieve this goal, random effects models have been proposed, but theoretical discussions of the methods to test the presence of random effects in GLM framework are still scarce. In this article, the concept of Bregman divergence is explored, which has some good properties for statistical modeling and can be connected to diverse model selection diagnostics as in Goh and Dey [(2014) Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 124, 371–383]. We can apply model diagnostics derived from the Bregman divergence for testing robustness of a chosen prior by the modeler to possible misspecification of prior distribution both on the naive model, which assumes that random effects follow a point mass distribution as its prior distribution, and the proposed model, which assumes a continuous prior density of random effects. This approach provides insurance companies a concrete framework for testing the presence of nonconstant random effects in both claim frequency and severity and furthermore appropriate hierarchical model which can explain both observed and unobserved heterogeneity of the policyholders for insurance ratemaking. Both models are calibrated using a claim dataset from the Wisconsin Local Government Property Insurance Fund which includes both observed claim counts and amounts from a portfolio of policyholders.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.19
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • A STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE MAXIMAL STRENGTH OF TAIL
           DEPENDENCE
    • Authors: Ning Sun; Chen Yang, Ričardas Zitikis
      Pages: 799 - 825
      Abstract: Several diagonal-based tail dependence indices have been suggested in the literature to quantify tail dependence. They have well-developed statistical inference theories but tend to underestimate tail dependence. For those problems when assessing the maximal strength of dependence is important (e.g., co-movements of financial instruments), the maximal tail dependence index was introduced, but it has so far lacked empirical estimators and statistical inference results, thus hindering its practical use. In the present paper, we suggest an empirical estimator for the index, explore its statistical properties, and illustrate its performance on simulated data.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.21
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • DISTORTION RISKMETRICS ON GENERAL SPACES
    • Authors: Qiuqi Wang; Ruodu Wang, Yunran Wei
      Pages: 827 - 851
      Abstract: The class of distortion riskmetrics is defined through signed Choquet integrals, and it includes many classic risk measures, deviation measures, and other functionals in the literature of finance and actuarial science. We obtain characterization, finiteness, convexity, and continuity results on general model spaces, extending various results in the existing literature on distortion risk measures and signed Choquet integrals. This paper offers a comprehensive toolkit of theoretical results on distortion riskmetrics which are ready for use in applications.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.14
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • AN EFFECTIVE BIAS-CORRECTED BAGGING METHOD FOR THE VALUATION OF LARGE
           VARIABLE ANNUITY PORTFOLIOS
    • Authors: Hyukjun Gweon; Shu Li, Rogemar Mamon
      Pages: 853 - 871
      Abstract: To evaluate a large portfolio of variable annuity (VA) contracts, many insurance companies rely on Monte Carlo simulation, which is computationally intensive. To address this computational challenge, machine learning techniques have been adopted in recent years to estimate the fair market values (FMVs) of a large number of contracts. It is shown that bootstrapped aggregation (bagging), one of the most popular machine learning algorithms, performs well in valuing VA contracts using related attributes. In this article, we highlight the presence of prediction bias of bagging and use the bias-corrected (BC) bagging approach to reduce the bias and thus improve the predictive performance. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of BC bagging as compared with bagging, boosting, and model points in terms of prediction accuracy.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.28
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • PORTFOLIO INSURANCE STRATEGIES FOR A TARGET ANNUITIZATION FUND
    • Authors: Mengyi Xu; Michael Sherris, Adam W. Shao
      Pages: 873 - 912
      Abstract: The transition from defined benefit to defined contribution (DC) pension schemes has increased the interest in target annuitization funds that aim to fund a minimum level of retirement income. Prior literature has studied the optimal investment strategies for DC funds that provide minimum guarantees, but far less attention has been given to portfolio insurance strategies for DC pension funds focusing on retirement income targets. We evaluate the performance of option-based and constant proportion portfolio insurance strategies for a DC fund that targets a minimum level of inflation-protected annuity income at retirement. We show how the portfolio allocation to an equity fund varies depending on the member’s age upon joining the fund, displaying a downward trend through time for members joining the fund before ages in the mid-30s. We demonstrate how both portfolio insurance strategies provide strong protection against downside equity risk in financing a minimum level of retirement income. The option-based strategy generally leads to higher accumulated savings at retirement, whereas the constant proportion strategy provides better downside risk protection robust to equity market jumps/volatilities.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.24
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • EFFICIENT DYNAMIC HEDGING FOR LARGE VARIABLE ANNUITY PORTFOLIOS WITH
           MULTIPLE UNDERLYING ASSETS
    • Authors: X. Sheldon Lin; Shuai Yang
      Pages: 913 - 957
      Abstract: A variable annuity (VA) is an equity-linked annuity that provides investment guarantees to its policyholder and its contributions are normally invested in multiple underlying assets (e.g., mutual funds), which exposes VA liability to significant market risks. Hedging the market risks is therefore crucial in risk managing a VA portfolio as the VA guarantees are long-dated liabilities that may span decades. In order to hedge the VA liability, the issuing insurance company would need to construct a hedging portfolio consisting of the underlying assets whose positions are often determined by the liability Greeks such as partial dollar Deltas. Usually, these quantities are calculated via nested simulation approach. For insurance companies that manage large VA portfolios (e.g., 100k+ policies), calculating those quantities is extremely time-consuming or even prohibitive due to the complexity of the guarantee payoffs and the stochastic-on-stochastic nature of the nested simulation algorithm. In this paper, we extend the surrogate model-assisted nest simulation approach in Lin and Yang [(2020) Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 91, 85–103] to efficiently calculate the total VA liability and the partial dollar Deltas for large VA portfolios with multiple underlying assets. In our proposed algorithm, the nested simulation is run using small sets of selected representative policies and representative outer loops. As a result, the computing time is substantially reduced. The computational advantage of the proposed algorithm and the importance of dynamic hedging are further illustrated through a profit and loss (P&L) analysis for a large synthetic VA portfolio. Moreover, the robustness of the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested with multiple simulation runs. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is able to accurately approximate different quantities of interest and the performance is robust with respect to different sets of parameter inputs. Finally, we show how our approach could be extended to potentially incorporate stochastic interest rates and estimate other Greeks such as Rho.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.26
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • RISK-BASED CAPITAL FOR VARIABLE ANNUITY UNDER STOCHASTIC INTEREST RATE
    • Authors: JinDong Wang; Wei Xu
      Pages: 959 - 999
      Abstract: Interest rate is one of the main risks for the liability of the variable annuity (VA) due to its long maturity. However, most existing studies on the risk measures of the VA assume a constant interest rate. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-dimensional willow tree method to compute the liability distribution of the VA with the joint dynamics of the mutual fund and interest rate. The risk measures can then be computed by the backward induction on the tree structure. We also analyze the sensitivity and impact on the risk measures with regard to the market model parameters, contract attributes, and monetary policy changes. It illustrates that the liability of the VA is determined by the long-term interest rate whose increment leads to a decrease in the liability. The positive correlation between the interest rate and mutual fund generates a fat-tailed liability distribution. Moreover, the monetary policy change has a bigger impact on the long-term VAs than the short-term contracts.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.20
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • TAXATION OF A GMWB VARIABLE ANNUITY IN A STOCHASTIC INTEREST RATE MODEL
    • Authors: Andrea Molent
      Pages: 1001 - 1035
      Abstract: Modeling taxation of Variable Annuities has been frequently neglected, but accounting for it can significantly improve the explanation of the withdrawal dynamics and lead to a better modeling of the financial cost of these insurance products. The importance of including a model for taxation has first been observed by Moenig and Bauer (2016) while considering a Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit (GMWB) Variable Annuity. In particular, they consider the simple Black–Scholes dynamics to describe the underlying security. Nevertheless, GMWB are long-term products, and thus accounting for stochastic interest rate has relevant effects on both the financial evaluation and the policyholder behavior, as observed by Goudenège et al. (2018). In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of these two elements together on GMWB evaluation. To this aim, we develop a numerical framework which allows one to efficiently compute the fair value of a policy. Numerical results show that accounting for both taxation and stochastic interest rate has a determinant impact on the withdrawal strategy and on the cost of GMWB contracts. In addition, it can explain why these products are so popular with people looking for a protected form of investment for retirement.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.29
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • A METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING AND INTERPRETING SOME WEIGHTED PREMIUM
           PRINCIPLES
    • Authors: Antonia Castaño-Martínez; Fernando López-Blazquez, Gema Pigueiras, Miguel Á. Sordo
      Pages: 1037 - 1064
      Abstract: We present a method for constructing and interpreting weighted premium principles. The method is based on modifying the underlying risk distribution in such a way that the risk-adjusted expected value (or premium) is greater than the expected value of some conveniently chosen function of claims, which defines the insurer’s perception of the risk. Under some assumptions on the function of claims, the method produces distortion premium principles. We provide several examples under different assumptions on the claim arrival process and different functions of claims, including record claims and kth record claims.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.15
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • RISK MEASURES DERIVED FROM A REGULATOR’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE REGULATORY
           CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURERS
    • Authors: Jun Cai; Tiantian Mao
      Pages: 1065 - 1092
      Abstract: In this study, we propose new risk measures from a regulator’s perspective on the regulatory capital requirements. The proposed risk measures possess many desired properties, including monotonicity, translation-invariance, positive homogeneity, subadditivity, nonnegative loading, and stop-loss order preserving. The new risk measures not only generalize the existing, well-known risk measures in the literature, including the Dutch, tail value-at-risk (TVaR), and expectile measures, but also provide new approaches to generate feasible and practical coherent risk measures. As examples of the new risk measures, TVaR-type generalized expectiles are investigated in detail. In particular, we present the dual and Kusuoka representations of the TVaR-type generalized expectiles and discuss their robustness with respect to the Wasserstein distance.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.22
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • LARGE-LOSS BEHAVIOR OF CONDITIONAL MEAN RISK SHARING
    • Authors: Michel Denuit; Christian Y. Robert
      Pages: 1093 - 1122
      Abstract: We consider the conditional mean risk allocation for an insurance pool, as defined by Denuit and Dhaene (2012). Precisely, we study the asymptotic behavior of the respective relative contributions of the participants as the total loss of the pool tends to infinity. The numerical illustration in Denuit (2019) suggests that the application of the conditional mean risk sharing rule may produce a linear sharing in the tail of the total loss distribution. This paper studies the validity of this empirical finding in the class of compound Panjer–Katz sums consisting of compound Binomial, compound Poisson, and compound Negative Binomial sums with either Gamma or Pareto severities. It is demonstrated that such a behavior does not hold in general since one term may dominate the other ones conditional of large total loss.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/asb.2020.23
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 3 (2020)
       
 
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