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  Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 297 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (26 journals)
    - MACHINERY (33 journals)
    - MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (184 journals)
    - METROLOGY AND STANDARDIZATION (4 journals)
    - PACKAGING (15 journals)
    - PAINTS AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS (5 journals)
    - PLASTICS (28 journals)
    - RUBBER (2 journals)

PLASTICS (28 journals)

Showing 1 - 28 of 28 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular Polymers     Full-text available via subscription  
Cirugia Plastica Ibero-Latinoamericana     Open Access  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Polymer Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Technology of Plasticity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Journal of Cellular Plastics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Elastomers and Plastics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Kunststoffe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik     Open Access  
Plasmas and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Plastic and Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Engineering & Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal Cover Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1829-6971 - ISSN (Online) 2460-4461
   Published by Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastics Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Peningkatan mutu blanket karet alam melalui proses predrying dan
           penyemprotan asap cair

    • Authors: Afrizal Vachlepi
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Most of Indonesian rubber products SIR 20 are made from the material of raw rubber obtained from smallholders. However, the quality of this material is not good enough. Thus, quality improvement has to be carried out by manufacturers. The liquid smoke used during the blanket hanging process can improve the quality of the rubber products SIR 20. This research aimed to determine and study the effects of liquid smoke spraying and blanket-hanging duration on the drying factor, the dry rubber content, technical quality, vulcanization characteristics, and physical properties of vulcanized natural rubber. Treatments consisted of various hanging duration (6, 8, and 10 days, and without hanging) and spraying (with and without spraying of liquid smoke). The results showed that the spraying of liquid smoke on natural rubber blankets could improve the technical quality of the natural rubber, especially the values of Po and PRI. The spraying of liquid smoke could reduce the blanket hanging duration to 6-8 days. The blankets sprayed with liquid smoke had the optimum cure time of around 15 minutes and 19 seconds and the scorch time of around 3 minutes and 22 seconds. These values indicated that the vulcanization characteristics of blankets which were sprayed with liquid smoke were generally better than those of blankets which were not sprayed with liquid smoke.Keywords: liquid smoke, natural rubber, blanket quality, hanging.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.1702
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Efektivitas penggunaan gambir sebagai bahan penyamak nabati sistem C-RFP
           untuk pembuatan kulit jaket dari kulit domba

    • Authors: Sri Sutyasmi
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Gambier is obtained from the extraction of leaves and young twigs of Uncaria gambir, a shrub that grows in Indonesia. Gambier contains tannin by 20% to 55% so that can be used as a vegetable tanning material using the C-RFP system (C=Conditioning, R=Rapid, F=Fass (drum), P=Powder). This research aimed to determine the effectiveness of gambier as a vegetable tanning material using the C-RFP system. Pickled leather underwent a tanning process using the C-RFP system with gambier as the tanning material at various percentages, namely by 15%, 20%, and 25%, to be processed as leather for jackets. The variations of oil used to keep the leather supple were 12.5%, 15%, and 17.5%. The tanned leather was then tested in terms of its organoleptic, physical, chemical, and morphological properties. Results of the organoleptic test and most of the results of the physical test showed that leather for jackets which was tanned using a vegetable tanning material met the requirements set out by SNI 4593: 2011 (sheepskin/goatskin leather for jackets). Results of the SEM test indicated that leather for jackets which was tanned using a vegetable tanning material displayed dense and strong skin tissue, and this proves that gambier is very effective for vegetable tanning using the C-RFP system.Keywords: C-RFP, gambier, vegetable tanning, environmentally friendly.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.1619
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The effects of finish type on permeability and organoleptic properties of
           python (Python reticulatus) skin finished leather

    • Authors: Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Rihastiwi Setiya Murti
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: In the leather industry, there are many different types of finish, i.e. two-tone, transparent, semi aniline and opaque/solid color. The composition formulation of each finish type is different so each will impact not only on the performance but also on the properties of the finished leather. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of finish type (natural, aniline, semi-aniline, and two-tone) on permeability and organoleptic properties of python skin finished leather. This research focused on the finishing process with various finish types. The results showed that the effect of semi-aniline (I,II) finish type on water vapor permeability reduction is the highest when compared with natural (I, II); aniline (I,II) and two-tone finish types. Otherwise, the effect of semi-aniline (I,II) finish type on organoleptic properties is the lowest compared with natural (I, II); aniline (I,II) and two-tone finish types. The aniline I finish type has better organoleptic properties.Keywords: finish type, natural, aniline, semi-aniline, two-tone, python skin.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.1575
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Analisis sifat fisika pemanfaatan pati tandan kosong sawit dan limbah
           plastik LDPE sebagai bahan pembuatan plastik biodegradabel

    • Authors: Tengku Rachmi Hidayani, Elda Pelita, Gusfiyesi Gusfiyesi
      Pages: 29 - 34
      Abstract: This research aimed to overcome the issue of plastic packaging waste that accumulates in nature because synthetic polymers cannot be easily unraveled by bacteria. Biodegradable plastics were produced by mixing waste of plastics of the low density polyethylene (LDPE) with starch of empty palm fruit bunches, modified with the addition of maleic anhydride as a crosslinking agent. To produce biodegradable plastics, different compositions of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm fruit bunch, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide were used, namely (90: 10: 1: 1), (80: 20: 1: 1), (70: 30: 1: 1), and (60: 40: 1: 1). Research stages consisted of extraction of starch from palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB); preparation of biodegradable plastic powder with the reflux method and xylene solvents; and making of biodegradable plastics using the press molding method. Based on the results of characterization, it was revealed that the optimum condition was generated by biodegradable plastics with the composition of LDPE waste, starch of empty palm bunches, maleic anhydride, and benzoyl peroxide was equal to 60: 40: 1: 1, which generated the tensile strength value of 6.9410 N/m2, the elongation at break of 3.1875%, the the melting point temperature of 103oC, and the decomposition temperature of 384oC. Besides, the thermal gravimetric test generated a residue of 12.6% and results of the analysis on morphological properties suggested that the starch distributed evenly.Keywords: Biodegradable plastics, LDPE waste, LDPE-g-MA, starch, palm empty fruit bunch.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.2202
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pembuatan seal tabung gas karet alam dengan filler pasir kuarsa sebagai
           pengganti karbon hitam

    • Authors: Suharman Suharman, M. Harun
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: This research aimed to make natural rubber-based gas cylinder seals with quartz sand as the filler to replace carbon black. The experiments consisted of the use of 10 phr, 20 phr, 30 phr, 40 phr, and 50 phr of quartz sand. The gas cylinder seals produced underwent a test according to the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 7655:2010. The test generated the following results: the value of hardness ranged from 51±6 to 60±5 Shore A, the value of tensile strength ranged from 67 to 72 kg/cm2, the value of elongation at break ranged from 414 to 457%, the value of the compression set ranged from 25 to 61%, after aging, and ozone resistance with no cracks. Natural rubber-based gas cylinder seals with quartz sand as the filler to replace carbon black met the requirements specified by SNI 7655:2010 in terms of the criteria of hardness, elongation at break, after aging and ozone resistance.Keywords: quartz sand, carbon black, gas cylinder seal. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.2123
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pengaruh bahan pengisi serat kaca terhadap sifat fisik dan kristalinitas
           polipaduan PC/ABS

    • Authors: Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Muhammad Sholeh, Ihda Novia Indrajati, Ike Setyorini
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: This research aimed to determine the effects of the addition of glass fibers on the physical and crystallinity properties of PC/ABS polyblends. The ratio of PC/ABS used in this research was 75/25, while the addition of glass fibers ranged from 0; 5; 10; to 15 phr (based on the weight of PC/ABS). Polyblends of PC/ABS/glass fibers were prepared in a twin screw extruder. The test results showed that density and tensile strength of PC/ABS polyblends increased with an increase in the glass fiber content. The presence of glass fibers decreased MFI and impact strength of these PC/ABS polyblends. The functional groups were determined by the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer while crystallinity was examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD).Keywords: PC/ABS polyblend, glass fiber, physical properties, crystallinity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.2770
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Peningkatan ketahanan suhu dingin kulit atasan sepatu melalui pengurangan
           daya penyerapan air dan pengaruhnya terhadap sifat fisik dan morfologi

    • Authors: Prayitno Prayitno, Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: A research has been undertaken to increase the cold resistance of upper leather by decreasing its water absorption ability. Fluorinated acrylic polymer, a water repellent substance, was added at fatliquoring and finishing stages of upper leather with different concentrations levels. Research findings showed that an increase in the water-repellent concentration, i.e. by 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5; and 15%, result in increases in tensile strength, tearing strength, and elongation at break, whereas decreases in water absorption ability. No significant differences for the other physical properties such as water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability, and flexing resistance and they met the standard for shoe leather. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated an increased thin layer of water repellent on leather fibers as the water-repellent concentration increased. The leather fibers looked smoother, glistened, and thicker. This indicates the penetration of water repellent onto leather fibers.Keywords: water absorption, water repellent, cold resistance, upper leather.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v33i1.1614
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • MKKP Vol. 32 No. 2 (2016) Reviewer Acknowledgement

    • Authors: Muhammad Sholeh
      PubDate: 2016-11-22
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1926
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Peningkatan ketahanan oksidasi karet alam melalui pengikatan antioksidan
           4-aminodifenilamina secara kimia

    • Authors: Hani Handayani, Dadi R. Maspanger, Cynthia L Radiman
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Natural rubber is very important in supporting the Indonesian economy from non-oil sector. However, natural rubber is not resistant to oxidation. Various attempts have been made to overcome the weaknesses; one of them is the addition of antioxidants as additives in the manufacture of rubber goods. However, it has the disadvantage of mechanical technique, including antioxidant blooming, resulting in failed products and decrease in antioxidants ability. The aim of this research is to improve the resistance of natural rubber from oxidation through the chemically-bound antioxidant into epoxidized latex. Fresh latex was deproteinized using 0.06 phr papain. Latex was epoxidized using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide at 70°C with stirring speed of 700 rpm for 3 hours. Then the 4-Aminodiphenylamine (4-ADPA) antioxidant was added with three variations mole percent of 4-ADPA between 0.025 to 0.1 mol/100 grams of rubber, and four variations in temperature were applied (between 27-80°C). The results showed that the optimum condition for the binding was at 27°C at a dose of antioxidants as much as 0.1 mol/100 grams of rubber. The analysis of FTIR spectra revealed that the binding of 4-ADPA into the epoxidized latex was as much as 1.93 phr. The Rheometer curve analysis showed that the natural rubber bound 4-ADPA was more resistant to ageing based on the value of R300.
      Keywords: latex, antioxidant, epoxidation, 4-ADPA, natural rubber oxidation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-21
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1473
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Pengaruh bahan water repellent terhadap morfologi dan sifat-sifat fisika
           pada pembuatan kulit atasan sepatu ramah lingkungan

    • Authors: Prayitno Prayitno, Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Dona Rahmawati
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: The term of eco-friendly leather can be interpreted as chrome-free tanned leather. Recently, almost 80% of leather is tanned using chrome tanning agent because of the ease in processing and excellence of the physical properties. Nevertheless, people nowadays want an eco-friendly leather product. Vegetable tanning materials can be said as eco-friendly tanning material because their waste degrades easily. One of the weaknesses in the use of vegetable tanning is a high water absorption capability. In this research used a water repellent material that has the properties to suppress the ability of water absorption. The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of water repellent on physical properties and morphology of leather tanned by vegetable tanning materials. Because one of the weaknesses in the vegetable tanning is its high water absorption capability, in this research, water repellent was used and varied by 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5; and 15% . Physical properties obtained were compared with analysis of variance with the significance level of 95%. The water repellent increased from 5% to 15%. The results showed a decrease in water absorption capability from 77.6% to 65.39%, tearing strength from 41.64 to 20.05 kg/cm, tensile strength from 227.10 to 163.53 kg/cm2, and elongation at break from 57.11 to 49.68%, strong swelling and WVA have no significant changes, while for WVP, the maximum use of water repellent at 12.5%. SEM results indicate the presence of a thin layer on the leather fiber that can inhibit the absorption of water.
      Keywords: water repellent, upper leather, vegetable tanning, water absorption.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.922
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Reaksi transfer hidrogenasi minyak jarak kastor serta aplikasinya sebagai
           bahan pelunak kompon karet

    • Authors: Santi Puspitasari, Adi Cifriadi, Krisnawati Krisnawati, Tun Tedja Irawadi
      Pages: 85 - 98
      Abstract: Rubber plasticizer is used to improve rubber processability so as to shorten time and reduce energy consumption during compounding. In general, rubber plasticizer is nonrenewable and environmentally harmful petroleum derivatives due to the carcinogenic property. Environmentally friendly plasticizer can be produced by transfer hydrogenation of vegetable oil. The research was aimed to synthesize new rubber plasticizer from transfer hydrogenation of castor oil using diimide compound which was generated in situ by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as well as the application of the new rubber plasticizer obtained on natural and synthetic rubbers compounding. The result showed that the optimum condition of transfer hydrogenation was achieved at a capacity of 1000 ml oil/batch, 40oC for 5 hours, and ratio hydrazine hydrate to hydrogen peroxide at 1:2 due to the hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) had the highest degree of hydrogenation and neutral pH. The application of 10 phr HCO had significant effect on the compounding of EPDM 6250 which was shown by shortest time and lowest energy of compounding, and also by the highest minimum torque modulus. In addition, the crosslink density of rubber vulcanizate which was formed during accelerated sulfur vulcanization was affected both by the addition of HCO and the saturation of the rubber being used.Keywords: environmentally friendly plasticizer, castor oil, diimide hydrogenation, rubber. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1361
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Ketahanan n-pentana dan sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet perapat dari
           campuran karet alam/akrilonitril-butadiena dengan kompatibiliser

    • Authors: Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Muhammad Irfan Fathurrohman
      Pages: 99 - 110
      Abstract: The improvement of the compatibility of natural rubber (NR)/acrilonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) blend on rubber seal vulcanizate has been done by the addition of chloroprene rubber (CR) or epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as compatibilizer. Rubber seal compound was made of NR and NBR blend (BN) with CR (BCR), and ENR with epoxy content of 10% (BENR10), 20% (BENR20), 30% (BENR30), 40% (BENR40), and 50% (BENR50). The composition in each formula was homogenized, with comparison of NR:NBR at 40:60, and NR:compatibilizer:NBR at 40:5:55. That compounds were vulcanized with efficient system at 150oC. The addition of CR-compatilizer improved the curing characteristic, compression set, and n-pentane resistance of BN vulcanizate. Meanwhile, the addition of KAE-compatilizer improved the elasticity of BN vulcanizate. BENR elasticity and n-pentane resistance increased in line with the increasing level of epoxy content of ENR.Keywords: rubber seal, compatibilizer, n-pentane resistance, mechanical properties. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1013
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Utilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) rejection blended with
           acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resins and the effect on product
           properties

    • Authors: Achmad Hanafi Setiawan, Achmad Nandang Roziafanto
      Pages: 111 - 116
      Abstract: PMMA is one of the main raw materials for the injection molding process in the lens industries. Since this process requires extremely careful techniques to obtain lens with the best quality, it leads to a high rate of product rejection. These rejected products do not only pose an issue for the industrial environment and require storage space, their price also falls significantly. Among the solutions to this problem is to reuse the rejected products as substitute materials for the manufacture of another product’s part such as lamp holders. This process reuses rejected PMMA-containing products in the ABS base polymer industries so as to generate PMMA-containing products with better physical properties. In this experiment, 10 to 40 % (w/w) of rejected PMMA was blended with ABS resins. The monomer content in the ABS resins was analyzed by NMR. Moreover, the mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the blended products were also examined. The NMR analysis showed that the resin contained 21.6 % butadiene monomer, in which its value was higher than the value required for materials with high-impact class application. The blend of resins and rejected PMMA (10-30% w/w) could increase the tensile strength value and decrease Izod impact strength and elongation percentage. The morphological analysis showed that this increased PMMA content may also result in widespread brittle areas. Since the blend was designed without compatibilizers, the DSC analysis indicated that the resulting blend in any ratios was not completely miscible. It was revealed that ABS resins containing 10% PMMA was the best blend for the polymer engineering application and this blend still had adequate properties and elastomer content required.Keywords: ABS, blending, properties, PMMA regrind.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1256
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Kinetika vulkanisasi dan sifat mekanis komposit acrylonitrile butadiene
           rubber (NBR)

    • Authors: Arum Yuniari, Ike Setyorini, Hesty Eka Mayasari
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the effect of vulcanization temperature on mechanical properties and curing kinetics of NBR composites. The composites were formulated by using two types of carbon black i.e. N-330 and N-774. The curing kinetics was determined using Moving Die Rheometer. The network formation processes were related to torque and time. The vulcanizates were obtained by compression molding in a hydraulic press at 150°C and 160°C. The mechanical properties observed include tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, and tear strength. Kinetics studies were approached by Arrhenius equation and the reaction mechanism was assumed following first order reaction. The results showed that curing kinetics can be approached by the equation from the rheometer data. The surface area of carbon black strongly influenced the mechanical properties and rate constant (k) of NBR composite. Carbon black N-330 can be used as a desirable reinforcing filler which gave a higher mechanical properties than the other type of carbon black.Keywords: curing kinetics, NBR, temperature, mechanics.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1594
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Karakteristik termogravimetri dan kinetika dekomposisi EPDM dengan bahan
           pengisi carbon black

    • Authors: Hesty Eka Mayasari, Arum Yuniari
      Pages: 125 - 134
      Abstract: The thermal characteristics of a material are important to learn in order to know the thermal stability of the materials. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is a synthetic rubber that is widely used in industry due to its resistance to aging, ozone, and chemicals. The kinetic parameters and thermal decomposition of vulcanized EPDM were studied using thermogravimetric method with various vulcanization systems (efficient, semi-efficient, and conventional vulcanization system) and various carbon black (CB) as filler (50, 60, and 70 phr). Decomposition consist of two stages; the oxidation of EPDM and volatile matter loss then decomposition of EPDM. Kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition were approximated by the Coats Redfern equation. Activation energy and decomposed mass increases with decreasing content of CB. Vulcanized EPDM with CB as filler has fairly good resistance against thermal decomposition. The decomposition process can be viewed in detail in this paper.Keywords: EPDM, thermal decomposition, kinetic, thermogravimetric, carbon black. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-19
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i2.1591
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • MKKP Vol. 32 No. 1 (2016) Reviewer Acknowledgement

    • Authors: Arum Yuniari
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.1372
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Efektivitas karet alam termoplastik sebagai peningkat indeks viskositas
           minyak pelumas kendaraan

    • Authors: Santi Puspitasari, Muhammad Lutfi Arifianto, Mersi Kurniati
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Diversification of rubber goods are highly needed to enhance natural rubber domestic consumption. One of the efforts is by using thermoplastic natural rubber that is synthesized from emulsion graft copolymerization of natural rubber latex with thermoplastic monomer as index viscosity improver of lubricating oil. The research aimed to study the effect of thermoplastic natural rubber (natural rubber–styrene copolymer) addition, at various concentration, into base paraffinic lube oil (HVI 60 and HVI 650) on index viscosity value of lubricating oil. The result showed that emulsion graft copolymerization at composition ratio of natural rubber to styrene monomer 85:15, at 65oC for 7 hours, with addition of 1% ammonium peroxidisulfate as initiator and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant produced thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR, copoly NR-ST) with grafting efficiency of 56,48%. The TPNR can be functioned properly as index viscosity improver at 5% concentration to base paraffinic lube oil either HVI 60 or HVI 650. The obtaining new lubricating oils could fulfill the index viscosity standard requirement refered to Decree of Directorat General of Oil and Gas No 85K/34/DDJM/1998, and could compete with the commercial lubricating oil type 20W-50, 10W-40, and 15W-40.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.957
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Reologi, sifat aging, termal, dan swelling dari campuran EPDM/NR dengan
           bahan pengisi carbon black N220

    • Authors: Arum Yuniari, Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Indiah Ratna Dewi, Ike Setyorini
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: The blends of EPDM and NR are immiscible in nature and incompatible. Introducing maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer into the blends was expected to produce compatible blends with balanced mechanical properties. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of EPDM/NR ratio on the rheological, aging, thermal and swelling properties of the blends. The variation of EPDM/NR ratio were 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 40/60 phr. The blends were mixed using two roll mill. The results showed that the addition of NR affects the maximum torque, scorch time, and optimum vulcanization time. In the blends, EPDM plays an important role in improving aging, swelling, thermal properties.
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.905
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Pemisahan krom pada limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit menggunakan
           gelatin dan flokulan anorganik

    • Authors: Sugihartono Sugihartono
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the ability of gelatin, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate, and combination of gelatin with ferrous sulfate or aluminium sulfate for total chromium content (trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium) separation from tannery wastewater. Reduction of total chromium content in the wastewater was conducted using combination of gelatin and ferrous sulfate or gelatin and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 4:0; 3:1; 2:2; 1:3; and 0:4 (w/w). The results showed that gelatin, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate, were able to reduce total chromium content in the wastewater. Combination of gelatin/ferrous sulfate or gelatin/aluminium sulfate as flocculants provide synergistic work in reducing the total chromium content. A 94.75% removal of total chromium content was achieved by combining gelatine and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 3:1, clearer wastewater, and followed by reduction of degree of turbidity up to 74.47%. The total chromium content after treatment was 0.61 ppm, which met the requirements of wastewater for business and or daily activities especially for tanning industry.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.900
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Pengaruh mimosa pada penyamakan kulit jaket domba samak nabati menggunakan
           sistem C-RFP, ditinjau dari sifat organoleptis, fisis, dan morfologi kulit
           

    • Authors: Sri Sutyasmi, Titik Purwati Widowati, Noor Maryam Setyadewi
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of mimosa, to manufacture environmentally friendly leather for jacket by using the C-RFP system (C=Conditioning, R=Rapid, F=Fass (drum), P=Powder), on physical, organoleptic, and morphology properties of leather. It was also to obtain a formula for vegetable tanning with C-RFP system. Pickled skins are conditioned (pre-tanning) using Sodotan TSN and Sodotan APR, and then Sodotan TSN was chosen due to it meets the requirements of SNI leather for jacket (SNI 4593:2011). Then, pickled skins were tanned with mimosa and applied C-RFP system or rapid tanning without water added. Mimosa, used in this research, were 15%, 20%, and 25% and fatliquor were 12.5%, 15%, and 17.5%. Furthermore, The leather were finished into an environmentally friendly leather for jackets, and then tested for physical and organoleptic properties based on the SNI 4593:2011 as well as leather morphology (SEM). The physical test result shows that for mimosa 15%, 20% and 25%, and for fatliquor 15% and 17.5% are fullfill the SNI.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.932
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Pengaruh perbedaan jumlah penambahan binder uretan dan berbagai motif
           embossing terhadap kualitas kulit reject

    • Authors: Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Prayitno Prayitno, Bidhari Pidhatika, Gresy Griyanitasari
      Pages: 39 - 50
      Abstract: Rejected tanned leather is tanned lether product with damages of more than 30% of its total surface area, but can be improved by embossing. Embossing is the provision of patterns that influences the properties of articles and contributes to the closure of the defects on the surface of leather. This study aims to determine the influence of urethane binder and embossing motives to the quality of rejected leather for shoe upper applications. Variables investigated were urethane binder composition (100, 150, and 200 part in 1000 part of base coat) and embossing motives (crocodile, ostrich, shark fish, and milled motive). The quality of the leather was then tested in terms of organoleptic properties (feel, flexibility, visual appearance), mechanical properties (tear strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, rub fastness (dry, wet), adhesive strength of cover paint (dry, wet), and flexing resistance), physical properties (WVP and WVA), as well as morphology (SEM). The results showed that the addition of urethane binder and embossing patterns affect the quality of shoe upper leather, i.e. in general covering the leather defects and increasing the visual appearance (organoleptic properties), and changing the collagen network structure (based on SEM test). Visually preferred skin is skin with the addition of 200 parts of the urethane binder and crocodile patterned leather.

       
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.958
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride): The use of
           maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    • Authors: Indiah Ratna Dewi, Ihda Novia Indrajati, Ike Setyorini
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH) to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO), and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO)/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0) showed the highest cure rate index (CRI). MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1) based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.688
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Effect of vulcanization system and carbon black on mechanical and swelling
           properties of EPDM blends

    • Authors: Hesty Eka Mayasari, Arum Yuniari
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: EPDM (Ethylene propylene diene monomer) is one of synthetic rubber that widely used in automotive. It must be vulcanized and added by other materials before used. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of vulcanization system and the addition of carbon black (CB) to the mechanical properties and swelling characteristic of EPDM. This research used three vulcanization system, conventional vulcanization (CV), efficient vulcanization (EV) and semi-efficient vulcanization (SEV) with the variation of carbon black 50, 60, 70 phr (per hundred resin). This research showed that EV system resulted faster vulcanization time and lower delta torque than SEV and CV systems. This system also performed the highest tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength, while SEV system resulted the highest hardness. Furthermore, the conventional vulcanization system resulted the lowest swelling index.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
      DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v32i1.706
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Ucapan Terima Kasih

    • Authors: Arum Yuniari
      PubDate: 2015-12-12
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Biokomposit dari serat rami dan sekresi kutu lak termodifikasi dengan
           lateks terhidrasi dan tidak terhidrasi

    • Authors: Eli Rohaeti, Mujiyono Mujiyono, Rochmadi Rochmadi
      Pages: 23 - 36
      Abstract: Biocomposites are composite materials comprising one or more phases derived from a biological origin. Biocomposite with natural matrix developed more rapidly because they are more environmentally safer. The objective of research was to modify natural matrix from lac insect secretion with adding hydrated latex, to study effect of adding hydrated latex to the functional groups and the intrinsic viscosity of lac insect secretion, and to measure mechanical properties of biocomposite from modified lac insect secretion and ramie fiber. A sulfuric acid solution was used as catalyst in hydration of latex and then natural matrix of lac insect secretion was modified by adding hydrated latex. Biocomposite was prepared by mixing rami fiber and modified  lac insect secretion. It was then pressed with hydraulic press at 150 kgf/cm2 and 150oC for 15 minutes. Biocomposites were characterized using tensile tester according to ASTDM D 638-90 Type IV. The adding of catalyst caused the decreasing of intrinsic viscosity of latex. The adding of hydrated latex to natural matrix caused the increasing of intrinsic viscosity and functional group of matrix. The using 30% of catalyst and adding 10% of hydrated latex produced biocomposite with strength at break of 0.982 MPa, elongation at break of 1.189%, and Young modulus of 0.929 MPa.

      Keywords: biocomposite, hydration, latex, lac insect secretion, ramie fiber.

      ABSTRAK
      Biokomposit merupakan material komposit yang tersusun dari satu atau lebih komponennya berasal dari bahan alam. Biokomposit dari matriks alam berkembang lebih pesat karena lebih aman bagi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memodifikasi matriks dari sekresi kutu lak dengan penambahan lateks hasil hidrasi, mempelajari pengaruh penambahan lateks hasil hidrasi terhadap gugus fungsi dan viskositas intrinsik matriks, dan untuk mengukur sifat mekanik biokomposit dari matriks hasil modifikasi dengan serat rami. Lateks dihidrasi dengan variasi katalis asam sulfat 10, 20, dan 30% (m/m). Matriks alam dari sekresi kutu lak dimodifikasi dengan penambahan lateks hasil hidrasi sebanyak 5, 10, dan 15% (m/m). Biokomposit dibuat melalui pencampuran sekresi kutu lak hasil modifikasi dengan serat rami dan dipress pada tekanan 150 kgf/cm2 dan suhu 150oC selama 15 menit. Biokomposit dikarakterisasi menggunakan tensile tester sesuai dengan ASTDM D 638-90 tipe IV. Penambahan katalis menurunkan viskositas intrinsik lateks terhidrasi. Penambahan lateks terhidrasi meningkatkan viskositas intrinsik dan gugus fungsi matriks. Biokomposit dari matriks alam sekresi kutu lak termodifikasi lateks terhidrasi dengan penggunaan katalis 30% dan penambahan lateks terhidrasi sebesar 10% mempunyai kuat tarik sebesar 0,982 MPa, elongasi saat putus sebesar 1,189%, dan modulus Young sebesar 0,929 MPa.

      Kata kunci: biokomposit, hidrasi, lateks, sekresi kutu lak, serat rami.


      PubDate: 2015-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pemanfaatan trimming kulit pikel sebagai flokulan melalui hidrolisis
           kolagen menggunakan basa untuk penjernihan air

    • Authors: Sugihartono Sugihartono, Sri Sutyasmi, Prayitno Prayitno
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Wastes in the form of skin derivatives from leather tanning industries remain serious problems if not managed properly and quickly, since they can cause environmental pollution. This research aimed at studying the influence of base type and concentration for the hydrolysis of trimmed collagen from pickled sheepskin to the yield and properties of gelatin, as well as the gelatin’s potential as flocculant. The hydrolysis of trimmed collagen from pickled sheepskin was performed using KOH or NaOH solution, each with varied concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4% w/v, for 16 hours. The extraction of the resulting gelatin was performed using water (2.5 water part : 1 waste part), at 70-80 oC, for 3 hours. The results show that the yield of gelatin from hydrolysis using KOH (16.50-28.60%) is lower than that using NaOH (23.68-34.42%). The water and fat contents of the resulting gelatin were relatively similar, while the protein content from KOH treatment was higher than that from NaOH treatment. Hydrolysis with KOH 1% and NaOH 1% and 2% resulted in gelatin that can be used as flocculant. Hydrolysis with NaOH 2% was the best treatment to produce gelatin as flocculant.

      Keywords: pickled sheepskin, trimming waste, hydrolysis, gelatin,  flocculant.

      ABSTRAK
      Limbah berupa kulit turunan dari industri penyamakan kulit masih menjadi masalah serius apabila tidak ditangani secara tepat dan cepat, karena dapat menimbulkan pencemaran lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh jenis dan konsentrasi basa untuk hidrolisis kolagen hasil trimming kulit domba pikel terhadap rendemen dan sifat gelatin serta kemampuannya sebagai flokulan. Hidrolisis kolagen hasil trimming kulit domba pikel dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan KOH dan NaOH, dengan konsentrasi berturut-turut 1, 2, 3, dan 4% b/v selama 16 jam. Ekstraksi gelatin dilakukan dengan menggunakan air (2,5 bagian air : 1 bagian kulit) pada suhu 70 – 80 oC, selama 3 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen gelatin hasil hidrolisis menggunakan KOH adalah sebesar 16,5 - 28,60%, lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan menggunakan NaOH, yaitu sebesar 23,68 - 34,42%. Kandungan air dan lemak gelatin relatif sama, sedangkan kandungan protein hasil perlakuan KOH lebih tinggi dari pada NaOH. Sebaliknya, kandungan abu dan pH perlakuan KOH lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan perlakuan NaOH. Hidrolisis dengan KOH 1% dan NaOH 1% serta 2% menghasilkan gelatin yang dapat berfungsi sebagai flokulan. Hidrolisis menggunakan NaOH 2% merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk menghasilkan gelatin sebagai flokulan.

      Kata kunci: kulit domba pikel, limbah trimming, hidrolisis, gelatin, flokulan.


      PubDate: 2015-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pemanfaatan tanin dari kulit kayu tingi (Ceriops tagal) sebagai bahan
           penyamak nabati: pengaruh penambahan alum dan mimosa

    • Authors: Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Sri Sutyasmi, Titik Purwati Widowati
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: This research aimed at determining the effectiveness of the Tingi bark’s extract as vegetable tanning material and the optimum formulations of Tingi extract for lining leather tanning, when combined with alum and mimosa. The research variables included the solution compositions of alum, Tingi extract, and mimosa, as well as the process sequences in which the hides were exposed to each aforementioned solution. There were 8 (eight) different treatments performed in this research; those are alum (4%)-Tingi, alum (6%)-Tingi, alum (4%)-Tingi-mimosa (5%), alum (6%)-Tingi-mimosa (5%), Tingi-alum (4%),Tingi-alum (6%), Tingi-mimosa (5%)-alum (4%), and Tingi-mimosa (5%)-alum (6%). Characterization methods included chemical and physical tests. The results show that the Tingi extract can be used as vegetable tanning material, and the optimum properties were obtained when the alum (4%) was added after the Tingi extract {Tingi-alum (4%)}.The optimum properties were shrinkage temperature of 86 oC; total ash content of 0.73%; water soluble matter of 0.89%; pH of 3.78; degree of tannage of 96.37%; tensile strength of 370.65 kg/cm2; elongation at break of 36.52%; rubfastness of 5 (dry); and 4 (wet). The resulting leather also meet the requirements of Ethiopian Standard 1185:2005, Leather-Lining leather-Specification.

      Keywords: Tingi bark’s extract, alum, mimosa, vegetable tanning, lining leather.

      ABSTRAK
      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak kulit kayu Tingi sebagai bahan penyamak nabati dan formulasi ekstrak Tingi yang optimal pada penyamakan kulit lapis, ketika dikombinasikan dengan alum dan mimosa. Variabel penelitian meliputi komposisi larutan alum, ekstrak Tingi, dan mimosa, serta urutan proses di mana kulit diekspos ke masing-masing larutan tersebut di atas. Terdapat 8 (delapan) perlakuan berbeda dalam  penelitian ini, yaitu alum (4%)-Tingi, alum (6%)-Tingi, alum (4%)-Tingi-mimosa (5%), alum (6%)-Tingi-mimosa(5%), Tingi-alum (4%), Tingi-alum (6%), Tingi-mimosa (5%)-alum (4%), and Tingi-mimosa-alum (6%). Metode karakterisasi meliputi pengujian kimia dan fisika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak Tingi dapat digunakan sebagai bahan penyamak nabati, dan sifat-sifat optimum diperoleh ketika penambahan alum (4%) dilakukan setelah penambahan ekstrak Tingi {Tingi-alum (4%)}. Sifat-sifat optimum tersebut adalah: suhu kerut 86oC; kadar abu jumlah 0,73%; kadar zat larut dalam air 0,89%; pH 3,78; derajat penyamakan 96,37%; penyamakan masak; kekuatan tarik 370,65 kg/cm2; kemuluran 36,52 %; ketahanan gosok cat nilai 5 (kering) dan 4 (basah). Kulit yang dihasilkan juga memenuhi persyaratan Ethiopian Standard 1185: 2005, Leather–Lining leather-Specification.  

      Kata kunci : kulit kayu Tingi,  alum, mimosa, bahan penyamak nabati,  kulit lapis.


      PubDate: 2015-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Kajian kualitas gambir dan hubungannya dengan karakteristik kulit tersamak

    • Authors: Anwar Kasim, Alfi Asben, Sri Mutiar
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the quality of gambier taken from gambier production center in West Sumatra, the characteristic of tanned leather which was tanned by gambier, and the relationship between gambier quality and tanned leather product. This study was conducted by firstly taking the samples from ten location randomly, secondly analizing some of its characteristics, and later applicating them in leather tanning. The relationship between some gambier parameters with tanned leather was determined by linear regression. The result was finding that the quality was varied among different gambier production centers, comprise of water content, tannin level, cathecin level, ash level and water-insoluble substances. Sixty percent of producton centers had given gambier which was capable to produce leather met the quality requirements. The result also found there were a strong relationship between gambier characteristics and quality of tanned leather, e.g. gambier tannin level and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.980), gambier catechins level and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.967) and gambier ash content and bonded-tannin in tanned leather (r=0.852). Highest tannin level would produce good tanned leather.Keywords: gambier, tanning, tanned leather, the correlation.ABSTRAK
      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas gambir yang diambil dari sentra produksi gambir Sumatera Barat, mengetahui karakteristik kulit tersamak yang disamak menggunakan gambir tersebut dan mengetahui hubungan kualitas gambir dengan kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel dari sepuluh lokasi secara acak, dilanjutkan dengan analisis karakteristik gambir serta aplikasinya dalam penyamakan kulit. Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara beberapa parameter gambir dengan parameter kulit tersamak yang dihasilkan digunakan regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik gambir dari sentra produksi di Sumatera Barat memiliki kualitas yang bervariasi pada kadar air, kadar tanin, katekin, kadar abu dan zat tak larut air. 60% lokasi sentra produksi memberikan gambir yang mampu menghasilkan kualitas kulit tersamak memenuhi standar mutu. Hubungan antara beberapa parameter gambir sebagai bahan penyamak dengan kualitas kulit tersamak menunjukkan hubungan yang sangat erat antara kadar tanin gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.980), kadar katekin pada gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.967), dan kadar abu pada gambir dengan kadar tanin terikat pada kulit tersamak (r=0.852). Tingginya kadar tanin gambir akan menghasilkan kulit tersamak yang baik.
      Kata kunci :gambir, penyamakan, kulit tersamak, korelasi
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan
           karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    • Authors: Norma Arisanti Kinasih, Muhammad Irfan Fathurrohman, Dadang Suparto
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR) and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC) on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur donor) was studied in NR blends, while the effect of different acrylonitrile content (26, 28 and 33 wt %) was studied in NBR blends. The NBR curing characteristics and mechanical properties data showed that vulcanization at low temperature (150oC) was suitable for low acrylonitrile-NBR, whereas that at high temperature (170oC) was suitable for high acrylonitrile-NBR. In addition, the semi efficient system at low temperature vulcanization (150oC) was suitable for natural rubber.

      Keywords: vulcanization temperature, acrylonitrile, NBR, natural rubber, mechanical properties.

      ABSTRAK
      Karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena memiliki karakteristik vulkanisasi yang berbeda. Pemilihan sistem dan suhu vulkanisasi berpengaruh terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam (NR) dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena (NBR). Pada penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi (150, 160, 170 dan 180oC) terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat NR dan NBR. Pada NR dipelajari pengaruh sistem vulkanisasi yang berbeda (semi efisien, efisien dan donor sulfur), sedangkan pada NBR lebih difokuskan terhadap pengaruh kandungan akrilonitril yang berbeda (26, 28 dan 33% b/b). Karakteristik pematangan dan sifat mekanik karet NBR menunjukkan bahwa karet NBR dengan kandungan akrilonitril yang rendah lebih sesuai divulkanisasi pada suhu rendah (150oC), sedangkan karet NBR dengan kandungan akrilonitril yang tinggi lebih sesuai divulkanisasi pada pada suhu tinggi (170oC). Vulkanisat karet alam lebih sesuai divulkanisasi menggunakan sistem vulkanisasi semi efisien dengan suhu vulkanisasi sebesar 150oC.

      Kata kunci: suhu vulkanisasi, akrilonitril, NBR, karet alam, sifat mekanik.


      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pengaruh pemlastis nabati terhadap sifat elastomer termoplastik berbasis
           campuran karet alam/poli propilena

    • Authors: Dwi Wahini Nurhajati, Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih, Nursamsi Sarengat
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Vegetable plasticizer is a plasticizer that is derived from renewable raw materials, that are used as an alternative to petroleum-based plasticizer. The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of the vegetable and  plasticizer with petroleum plasticizers on the mechanical properties of (Thermoplastic Elastomer) TPE. Vegetable plasticizer used in this study is a modified castor oil. Natural rubber/polypropylene (KA/PP) based TPE was made in an internal mixer at a temperature of 180ºC with a variousvarious ratio KA/PP ratio and type of plasticizer. In general, modified castor oil as a plasticizer has a more positive effect on the mechanical properties of TPE in various ratios of KA/PP, is mainly related to improvement of properties of tensile strength, elongation at break and flexing resistance 100 kcs. The best formula of TPE is a TPE that is composed of KA/PP 60/40 using modified castor oil. XRD results showed that TPE is dominated by amorphous phase.
      Keywords: castor oil, natural rubber, polypropylene, TPE.
      ABSTRAK  
      Pemlastis nabati merupakan pemlastis yang berasal dari bahan baku yang terbarukan yang digunakan sebagai alternatif untuk pemlastis berbasis minyak bumi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan pengaruh pemlastis nabati dengan pemlastis dari minyak bumi terhadap sifat mekanik elastomer termoplastik. Pemlastis nabati yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah minyak jarak yang telah dimodifikasi. TPE berbasis campuran kompon karet alam (KA)/poli propilena (PP) dibuat di dalam internal mikser pada suhu 180°C dengan variasi perbandingan KA/PP dan jenis pemlastis. Secara umum minyak jarak termodifikasi sebagai pemlastis mempunyai pengaruh yang lebih positif terhadap sifat fisis TPE pada berbagai rasio KA/PP terutama terkait perbaikan sifat kuat tarik, perpanjangan putus dan ketahanan retak lentur. Formula TPE terbaik adalah TPE yang dikomposisi dari KA/PP pada rasio KA/PP 60/40 menggunakan pemlastis minyak jarak. Hasil XRD memperlihatkan bahwa TPE hasil penelitian didominasi fasa amorf.
      Kata kunci: karet alam, minyak jarak, poli propilena, TPE
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pertumbuhan cacing tanah Eisenia fetida sp. Pada kompos limbah fleshing

    • Authors: Prayitno Prayitno
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: The use of earthworm as a source of income and a means for managing organic solid waste such as fleshing waste has been widely applied. The aim of this research was to find the optimum ratio between fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium of Eisenia fetida sp. This research was conducted by growing the E. fetida sp. earthworm in the medium containing fleshing waste mixed with cow dung. The ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung was varied at 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50. In addition, 2 parts of chopped stubbles per part of every sample was added as a carbon source. The prepared media were fermented for three weeks with EM4 as a starter, followed by incubation of the earthworm for six weeks. The weight and the number of earthworm were evaluated every two weeks. The optimum growth of earthworm was achieved at the 2nd week of incubation with 185.48% and 121.10% increase of weight and number of earthworm, respectively, at 40:60 ratio of fleshing waste and cow dung in the growing medium.

      Keywords: earthworm, fleshing waste, incubation.

      ABSTRAK
      Penggunaan cacing tanah sebagai sumber pendapatan dan juga sarana untuk penanganan limbah padat organik seperti limbah fleshing saat ini telah banyak dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kondisi optimal perbandingan antara limbah fleshing dan kotoran sapi untuk pertumbuhan cacing tanah E. fetida sp. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menumbuhkan cacing tanah E. fetida sp. dalam media campuran limbah fleshing dan kotoran sapi dengan variasi perbandingan berturut-turut 0:100; 10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; dan 50:50 dan sebagai tambahan sumber karbon ditambahkan cacahan jerami sebanyak 2 bagian untuk setiap perlakuan. Semua media perlakuan difermentasikan selama tiga minggu dengan bantuan larutan starter EM4, dilanjutkan dengan inkubasi cacing tanah selama enam minggu. Berat serta jumlah cacing tanah dievaluasi setiap dua minggu. Pertumbuhan optimum cacing tanah dicapai pada minggu ke-2 dengan kenaikan bobot cacing tanah sebesar 185,48% dan jumlah 121,10% pada perlakuan perbandingan limbah fleshing dengan kotoran hewan 40:60.

      Kata kunci: cacing tanah, inkubasi, limbah fleshing.


      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pengaruh pengawetan kulit ikan buntal (Arothon reticularis) terhadap suhu
           kerut ditinjau melalui analisis differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)

    • Authors: R. Lukas Martindro Satrio Ari Wibowo, Muh. Wahyu Syabani
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the skin preservation type against shrinkage temperature of leather. The material used in this study was the skin of pufferfish (Arothon reticularis) that have been preserved by salting, formaldehyde and pickling and also raw skin as a reference. The method used to measure the shrinkage temperature was thermal analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) that operated from 4°C up to 440°C with nitrogen stream. DSC measurement results showed that shrinkage temperature of puffer fish preserved with formaldehyde was higher than salting and pickling, which is 63.64°C; 47.95°C; 57.37oC respectively. The advantage of using formaldehyde compared to others preservation technique was not only can protect the skin from damage by microorganisms, but also can create a bond with the collagen .

      Keyword: Puffer fish, differential scanning calorimeter, skin preservation.

      ABSTRAK
      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis pengawetan kulit terhadap indikator penting kualitas kulit yaitu shrinkage temperature. Material yang digunakan adalah kulit ikan buntal (Arothon reticularis) yang sudah diawetkan dengan penggaraman, formaldehid dan pengasaman serta kulit mentah sebagai blangko. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur shrinkage temperature adalah analisis thermal menggunakan Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) yang dioperasikan mulai suhu 4oC sampai dengan 440oC dengan aliran gas nitrogen. Hasil pengukuran DSC menunjukkan shrinkage temperature kulit ikan buntal awetan formaldehid lebih tinggi dibandingkan awetan penggaraman dan pengasaman, yaitu berturut-turut 63,64 oC; 47,95 oC; 57,37 oC. Kelebihan dari formaldehid selain dapat melindungi kulit dari kerusakan oleh mikroorganisme, juga dapat membuat ikatan dengan kolagen kulit.

      Kata kunci: Ikan buntal, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, pengawetan kulit.


      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pengaruh sistem vulkanisasi konvensional (CV) dan semi efisien (SEV)
           terhadap sifat aging dan termal vulkanisat campuran karet alam dan karet
           butil

    • Authors: Arum Yuniari, Muhammad Sholeh, Ihda Novia Indrajati
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the effect of CV and SEV curing systems on aging and thermal properties of natural rubber and butyl rubber blends. The mixing of rubber and rubber chemicals using two roll-mills and the vulcanization process was carried out by the hydraulic press at 160° C and 150 kg/cm2. The research design used two variations; first, the CV curing system (accelerator/sulfur) (1.0/2.5) phr and SEV curing system (accelerator/sulfur) (2.1/1.5) phr, second, the ratio of natural rubber/butyl: 100/0; 95/5; 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30; 65/35; 60/40 and 55/45 phr. The parameter observed were tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness before and after aging and thermal properties, e.g.TG/DTA and DSC. The results showed that CV curing systems provided tensile, elongation at break properties gave higher quality and better aging properties. TG/DTA analysis of vulcanizates processed with CV curing systems provided slightly better thermal stability than of the SEV curing system.Keywords: natural rubber, butyl rubber, curing, CV, SEV, aging, thermal.ABSTRAK
      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh sistem vulkanisasi CV dan SEV terhadap sifat aging dan termal campuran karet alam dan karet butil. Pencampuran karet dan bahan kimia karet dilakukan mengunakan mesin two roll mil dan proses vulkanisasi dilakukan dengan mesin hydraulic press pada suhu 160ºC dan tekanan 150 kg/cm2. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan 2 variasi. Variasi pertama sistem vulkanisasi CV (akselerator/sulfur) (1,0/2,5) phr dan sistem vulkanisasi SEV (akselerator/sulfur) (2,1/1,5) phr. Variasi kedua adalah perbandingan karet alam/butil: 100/0; 95/5; 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30; 65/35; 60/40 dan 55/45 phr. Pengujian yang diamati adalah tegangan putus, perpanjangan putus, kekerasan sebelum dan sesudah aging serta sifat termal: DTA/TGA dan DSC. Hasil uji menunjukkan vulkanisat yang diproses dengan sistem vulkanisasi CV mempunyai sifat tegangan putus, perpanjangan putus lebih tinggi dan sifat aging lebih baik. Analisa DTA/TGA vulkanisat yang diproses dengan sistem vulkanisasi CV memberikan stabilitas termal sedikit lebih baik dari pada sistem vulkanisasi SEV.Kata kunci: karet alam, karet butil, vulkanisasi, CV, SEV, aging, termal.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Sifat fisik, kimia, dan morfologik kulit jaket kambing tersamak
           menggunakan krom hasil recovery air limbah penyamakan

    • Authors: Sri Sutyasmi
      Pages: 107 - 114
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to recover chrome in tanning waste water to reduce environmental pollution and to utilize chrome as tanning agent. Chrome in tanning waste water leaching out of the drum was filtered and put in the tank and subsequently it was added with NaOH to generate chrome hydroxide. Furthermore, chrome hydroxide was converted to chrome sulfate as tanning agent by addition of concentred sulfuric acid. Cr2O3 content of chrome sulfate was determined before being used for tanning. The result showed that Cr2O3 content was 3958.6 mg/l. Variation of recovered chrome sulfate concentrations for tanning jacket leather were 25, 50, 75 and 100% respectively. Controls were made with the use of 100% of industrial grade chrome sulfate. The best result were goat jacket leather tanned with recovered chrome of 75 and 100 % for its physical properties and 25% for its chemical properties. Test results of SEM showed that chrome was morphologically presence in tanned goat leather mass.Keywords: tanning, jackets leather, chrome recovery, physical and chemical properties, leather morphology.ABSTRAK
      Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengambil kembali krom dalam air limbah penyamakan krom untuk mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan dan menghemat pembelian puder krom sebagai bahan penyamak krom. Air limbah penyamakan krom yang keluar dari drum, disaring dan dimasukkan dalam tangki dan ditambah NaOH untuk diendapkan menjadi krom hidroksida. Selanjutnya krom hidroksida dialirkan ke tangki yang lain dan ditambahkan asam sulfat pekat menjadi krom sulfat yang digunakan untuk menyamak. Hasil diuji kadar Cr2O3 terlebih dahulu sebelum digunakan untuk menyamak. Hasil uji kadar Cr2O3 adalah rata-rata sebesar 3958,6 mg/l. Variasi konsentrasi krom sulfat hasil recovery untuk penyamakan kulit jaket berturut-turut 25, 50, 75, dan 100%. Krom sulfat pasaran dengan konsentrasi 100% digunakan sebagai kontrol. Hasil uji sifat fisis kulit jaket kambing terbaik adalah konsentrasi krom berturut-turut 75 dan 100 % dan untuk sifat kimia kulit jaket terbaik 25 % yang disamak dengan krom sulfat hasil recovery. Hasil uji SEM menunjukkan bahwa secara morfologi krom dijumpai dalam kulit tersamak.Kata kunci: penyamakan, kulit jaket, chrome recovery, sifat fisik dan kimia, morfologi kulit.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Pengaruh berbagai jenis penyamakan dan tipe finish terhadap morfologi,
           sifat organoleptis dan mekanis kulit biawak (Varanus salvator)

    • Authors: Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti, Sri Sutyasmi, Rihastiwi Setiya Murti
      Pages: 115 - 126
      Abstract: Monitor lizard (Varanus salvator) skin is exotic leather because it has a unique grain. Therefore, the original grain of the animal needs to be maintained in the finishing process so that its performances look likes natural. This research aimed to study the effect of tanning materials (vegetable and chrome) and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone) on morphology, organoleptic and mechanical properties of lizard skin. The materials used in this study were dry preserved lizard skins. The research varied on the types of tanning (vegetable and chrome) and the type of finish (natural, aniline, semi-aniline and two tone) each by varying the finishing materials (casein and protein binders). The tests were conducted on the observation of the structure using photomicrographs, rub fastness, adhesion of finish strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and organoleptic. The results showed that the best result was vegetable tanned lizard skin using natural finish with casein and met the requirements of SNI 06-4362-1996, lizard skin for shoe upper. This gave dry and wet rub fastness of 5 and 5 respectively; dry and wet adhesion of finish strength of 650 and 100 g/cm respectively; tensile strength of 207.43 kg/cm2; elongation at break of 37.52% and organoleptic value of panelists observations of 87.9 (good).Keywords: Monitor lizard (Varanus salvator) skin, tanning, finish type, morphology, organoleptic and mechanical propertiesABSTRAK
      Kulit biawak (Varanus salvator) merupakan kulit exotic karena memiliki rajah yang unik, oleh karena itu dalam proses finishingnya rajah asli dari binatang tersebut perlu dipertahankan agar tampak alami. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis bahan penyamak (nabati dan krom) dan tipe finish (natural, anilin, semi anilin, dan two tone) terhadap morfologi, sifat organoleptis dan mekanis kulit biawak. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kulit biawak awet kering dan variasi yang dilakukan meliputi variasi jenis penyamakan (nabati dan krom) dan tipe finish (natural, anilin, semi anilin, dan two tone) dengan penggunaan bahan finishing yang bervariasi (kasein dan binder protein). Uji yang dilakukan meliputi pengamatan struktur menggunakan fotomikrograf, uji ketahanan gosok cat, kekuatan rekat cat tutup, kekuatan tarik, kemuluran, dan organoleptis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hasil yang terbaik adalah kulit biawak yang disamak nabati menggunakan tipe finish natural dengan kasein dan memenuhi persyaratan SNI 06-4362-1996, Kulit biawak untuk atasan sepatu, dengan nilai ketahanan gosok cat kering dan basah berturut-turut 5 dan 5; kekuatan rekat cat tutup kering dan basah berturut-turut 650 dan 100 g/cm; kekuatan tarik 207,43 kg/cm2; kemuluran 37,52%; dan nilai organoleptis hasil pengamatan panelis 87,9 (baik).Kata kunci: kulit biawak (Varanus salvator), penyamakan, tipe finish, morfologi, sifat organoleptis dan mekanis.
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2015)
       
 
 
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