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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 877 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (110 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (144 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (156 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (275 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (275 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access  
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access  
nonsite.org     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Appropriateness of gait analysis for biometrics: Initial study using FDA
           method
    • Authors: Kateřina Sulovská; Eva Fišerová; Martina Chvosteková; Milan Adámek
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kateřina Sulovská, Eva Fišerová, Martina Chvosteková, Milan Adámek
      Human body movement has been under continuous research for many years due to its potential application as a novel biometric system to identify individuals. It is possible to utilize various techniques, not only to obtain requested movement data, but also to analyse movement data. This paper uses functional data analysis on data obtained from 12 volunteers and uses 20 markers from the 3D motion capture system VICON MX T020. The functional data analysis was chosen as a suitable tool to obtain more information about an individual’s movement because it uses a technique for real-time data, which corresponds to continuous time process. The results show that all markers, under any walking speed and condition, identify a significantly high percentage of individual pairs. Further, our results discriminate between markers, where some markers are highly dependent on walking speed and condition, and also on the influence of body part asymmetry. In addition, regular movement patterns in almost all participants’ data shows a potential to identify individuals based on gait recognition with a 1:1 matching result.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.042
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Fast characterization of frequency response in high-speed signal
           generators with frequency-interleaving technique
    • Authors: Youngcheol Park; Hoijin Yoon
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Youngcheol Park, Hoijin Yoon
      This paper presents a frequency interleaving method to correct non-ideal characteristics of wideband signal generators. By effectively segmenting a discrete Fourier transform dataset into frequency-interleaving blocks, the proposed method is computationally more efficient than the conventional method based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). In cases the quality of frequency analysis can be improved by zero padding such as characterizing impulse responses, this method is effective because it is possible to interleave two or more FFT results to achieve better frequency resolution. To verify the proposed method, an arbitrary signal generator was tested with a 64 quadrature-amplitude-modulation waveform. Compared with the original signal quality, the proposed method improves the in-band signal-to-noise ratio by 9dB, and the error-vector magnitude decreases from 2.1%rms to 0.78%rms. In all cases, the computation speed was faster than that of conventional FFT.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.039
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Model based compensation of systematic errors in an inductive gap
           measurement method
    • Authors: Edvard Svenman; Anna Runnemalm
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Edvard Svenman, Anna Runnemalm
      A model-based correction of systematic errors to improve the measurement of gap dimensions in a recently presented method is described. Using one inductive coil on each side of the gap to measure distance and liftoff, the method detects zero width gaps and shows position error less than 0.1mm. The correction model relies on observations of experimental data, and is calibrated to a small set of measurements. From the initial measurement of gap dimensions, the model estimates errors in each coil to calculate new values for gap width, alignment and height. The errors in the compensated results are within 0.1mm except for gap width, which still suffers from the effect of combined gap width and misalignment. The method is intended for gap measurement in laser keyhole welding, where the laser beam and the resulting weld seam are very narrow, requiring high precision in alignment and gap preparation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.043
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • A new mini-grating absolute displacement measuring system for static and
           dynamic geomechanical model tests
    • Authors: Shucai Li; Hanpeng Wang; Yong Li; Qingchuan Li; Bing Zhang; Haiyang Zhu
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Shucai Li, Hanpeng Wang, Yong Li, Qingchuan Li, Bing Zhang, Haiyang Zhu
      In this paper, a mini-grating displacement measuring system is developed for geomechanical physical model tests. This system consists of a portable multi-channel grating data acquisition instrument, a grating ruler, a micro multi-point extensometer, and other related accessories. The motherboard of the portable multi-channel grating data acquisition instrument uses a self-developed circuit board and all channels can collect high-speed and high-precision grating displacement signals. The micro multi-point extensometer has advantages of micro-flexibility and small interference in physical model tests. Embedded measuring points in tunnel surrounding rock connect with the grating ruler which is fixed on an independent frame outside of steel wires and connects to the data acquisition system with wire lines. The system is applied to a static and dynamic geomechanical model test on a tunnel. Testing results prove that the system can be satisfactorily applied in geomechanical model tests.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Contamination effects on charge distribution measurement of high voltage
           glass insulator string
    • Authors: N.A. Othman; M.A.M. Piah; Z. Adzis
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): N.A. Othman, M.A.M. Piah, Z. Adzis
      It is certain that accumulated charge greatly enhances the local electric field distribution of insulator and may lead to breakdown even under nominal voltage. Although research on charge distribution has gained worldwide attention for the past few decades, yet the study of charge distribution on its surface is still insufficient. Therefore, this paper presents the charge distributions measurement on the surfaces of glass insulators string without grading ring subject to clean and contaminated conditions. The experimental results revealed that the distribution of charge for glass insulator recently removed from service has negative distribution pattern and this is further supported by the simulation work results. Charge injection and extraction occurring at the metal-dielectric interface greatly affects the charge amplitude of the adjacent insulators. This study also revealed that the presence of contamination affect the charge distribution of the insulator located near to ground electrode.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.044
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Verification of a novel micro-torsion tester based on electromagnetism
           using an improved torsion pendulum technique
    • Authors: W. Liu; Y. Huan; S.F. Wang; B. Chen; J. Dong; Y.H. Feng; D. Lan; H.Y. Jia
      Pages: 41 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): W. Liu, Y. Huan, S.F. Wang, B. Chen, J. Dong, Y.H. Feng, D. Lan, H.Y. Jia
      An optimized micro-torsion tester with high torque resolution, designed based on electromagnetism, is present. The torque capacity of this tester is 1.3×10−3 Nm with resolution of 4×10−8 Nm and the angle capacity is 115deg with resolution of 0.016deg. In order to verify the reliability of this tester, an improved torsion pendulum method is employed with the influences of damping, swing and axial force being carefully inspected. The same kind of copper wires with diameter of about 200µm are tested using both this micro-torsion tester and the improved torsion pendulum. The two kinds of results of shear moduli are very close, which verifies the reliability of the self-developed micro-torsion tester.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of random vibration signals with small samples using bootstrap
           maximum entropy method
    • Authors: Yanqing Wang; Weihu Zhou; Dengfeng Dong; Zhongyu Wang
      Pages: 45 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Yanqing Wang, Weihu Zhou, Dengfeng Dong, Zhongyu Wang
      The precise estimation of random vibration signals (RVS) is the important guarantee for safety and stability in flight. But in testing phase, RVS with small samples are obtained under the condition of unknown probability distribution. The current estimation methods based on statistical theory could not be used to estimate this kind of small samples. In this paper, a novel bootstrap maximum entropy method (BMEM) is proposed, which combines the advantages of bootstrap method (BM) and maximum entropy method (MEM). In addition, the proposed method is innovatively used for estimating RVS in the frequency domain with small samples. The estimation indices include the estimated expected value, estimated interval and expanded uncertainty. The estimation performance is quantified by the relative error and reliability. Firstly, BMEM is employed to analyze estimated expected value and estimated interval. The estimation results of BMEM are compared with MEM’s and BM’s quantitatively. Secondly, BMEM is employed to estimate expanded uncertainty. The adaptability of BMEM is proved by simulation experiments for different probability distributions. And the estimation precision of BMEM is demonstrated more accurate than grey system theory (GST), MEM and the conventional statistical methods. Finally, the real and simulation experiments results show that the proposed method is appropriate and effective for estimating RVS with small samples.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T01:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues in
           xenograft mice at low frequencies (100Hz–1MHz)
    • Authors: Seyyed M. Hesabgar; Ali Sadeghi-Naini; Gregory Czarnota; Abbas Samani
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Seyyed M. Hesabgar, Ali Sadeghi-Naini, Gregory Czarnota, Abbas Samani
      Previousstudies have shown that dielectric properties of biological tissues can be imaged at high frequencies (50MHz–20GHz) to detect abnormalities such as tumors. While evidence suggests that imaging these properties at low frequencies (e.g. below 1MHz) holds a good potential in medical applications, less research efforts have been dedicated to explore these properties at such frequencies for medical imaging. This study uses a recently developed technique to measure tissue dielectric properties of normal and corresponding cancerous tissue at low frequencies. This was accomplished by using a preclinical animal tumor model. To develop this animal model, human breast cancer cell line(MDA-MB-231)was injected into hind legs of severely compromised immunodeficient (SCID) mice. As a result, tumors were developed while they were permitted to grow to the size of 8–10mm in 8weeks. The electrical conductivity and permittivity (EC and EP) of the grown xenograft tumors and their surrounding normal tissue were measured at 100Hz–1MHz frequency using a measurement method which includes using a custom-made experimental setup in conjunction with an inverse finite element framework. Histological analysis was performed on the tumor and normal tissue specimens to assess differences in their micro-structure. Results indicated that both conductivity and permittivity of the tumors have significantly greater values than those of the surrounding normal tissue with average ratio values of 3.5:1 and 10.9:1 for the EC and EP, respectively. Results obtained in this study are consistent with micro-structural changes observed by histological assessment. The substantially high EP ratios measured in this study suggests that electrical permittivity at low frequencies can potentially be used as a powerful biomarker for the detection of breast malignancies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
       
  • Improving lock-in thermography detection of microgaps located at the
           tooth-filling interface using a phase versus amplitude image signal
           extraction approach
    • Authors: M. Streza; B. Belean; I. Hodisan; C. Prejmerean
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): M. Streza, B. Belean, I. Hodisan, C. Prejmerean
      The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesion between some dental fillings and the dental hard tissue by two non-destructive techniques: lock-in thermography and optical microscopy. In this regard 10 non-carious human teeth were sealed with experimental and commercial sealants and then longitudinally sectioned in slices that were then examined. In the mean time some cavities were restored with some new dental fillings (giomers) and their sealing ability was analyzed by the two above mentioned techniques. Both amplitude and phase images obtained after lock-in detection procedure bear information on the presence of the gaps, carried out by small perturbations of amplitude or phase of propagating subsurface thermal waves. An image processing algorithm based on the Laplacian of the amplitude and phase images highlights the edges of the crack, leading to the localizations of cracks with a very good contrast. No difference between the adhesion capacity of sealants to dental enamel was observed. The phase image seems to be more appropriate for retrieval of micro-gaps than the amplitude image. Lock-in thermography technique together with the image processing procedure proved their capacity in evaluating dental interfaces.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.043
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Micro 3D measurement applied to interfacial deformation of bilayer thin
           film/substrate structure under thermal cycling loads
    • Authors: Chuanwei Li; Zhanwei Liu; Huimin Xie; Aizi Jin
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Chuanwei Li, Zhanwei Liu, Huimin Xie, Aizi Jin
      Failures resulting from thermal mismatch between the layers in a multilayer thin Film/Substrate structure (F/S) are fatal for the reliability of F/S-based electron devices. In this paper, a bilayer F/S consisting of a silicon substrate, a chromium film layer and a copper film layer is investigated under external thermal cycling loads. Grid method combining with the stereovision model in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) system is developed to realize the measurement of three-dimensional deformation at microscale. The Focused Ion Beam (FIB) deposition technology is employed to fabricate micro-scale grid pattern with the spatial frequency of 1000lines/mm on the test sample surface. The thermal fatigue mismatch between the film layers gives rise to intense 3D deformation near the interface area. The out-of-plane deformation as well as the in-plane deformation of the interface area is measured to achieve the genuine 3D deformation characterization. The accuracy analysis validates the feasibility of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Anaemia cells detection based on shape signature using neural networks
    • Authors: Hany A. Elsalamony
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Hany A. Elsalamony
      Anaemia becomes more famous and public disease in our life. Many methods have been examined on red blood cells to detect this disease. This paper has been presented an algorithm for detecting anaemia kinds; such as sickle and elliptocytosis dependent on their geometrical shape signatures method. The proposed algorithm presents Circular Hough Transforms, watershed segmentation, and morphological mathematics functions as effective methods to detect the normal blood cells; but the anaemia kinds have been classified based on their shape signatures. Some difficulties have been faced through the detection process; the adhesion of cells may be not belonging to one of previous mentioned kinds of anaemia then they considered cells with unknown shapes. The results of the proposed algorithm have been achieved high precision in all processes steps on experimented 30 colourful microscopic images and the rates have been achieved to 100% and 100% based on three neural networks for all anaemia kinds.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • A revised progressive TIN densification for filtering airborne LiDAR data
    • Authors: Sheng Nie; Cheng Wang; Pinliang Dong; Xiaohuan Xi; Shezhou Luo; Haiming Qin
      Pages: 70 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Sheng Nie, Cheng Wang, Pinliang Dong, Xiaohuan Xi, Shezhou Luo, Haiming Qin
      Filtering is an essential post-processing step for various applications of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Progressive triangular irregular network (TIN) densification (PTD) is a commonly used algorithm for filtering airborne discrete-return LiDAR data. However, this method has limitations in removing point clouds belonging to lower objects and preserving ground measurements in topographically complex areas. Therefore, this study revised the classic PTD method by building an improved TIN and changing the original iterative judgment criterions for better filtering airborne LiDAR point clouds. Similar to the classic PTD method, our revised PTD method also consists of three core steps: parameter specification, seed point selection and initial TIN construction, and iterative densification of TIN. To evaluate the performance of our revised PTD method, it was applied to benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS Working Group III/3, and compared with the classic PTD method in filtering airborne LiDAR data. Experimental results indicated that, our revised PTD approach performed better than the classic PTD method in preserving ground points in steep areas and removing non-ground points which belong to lower objects. Additionally, results showed that our revised PTD method is capable of reducing Type I errors, Type II errors and total errors by 10.26%, 0.79% and 8.07% respectively. Our revised PTD method offers a better solution for filtering airborne LiDAR discrete-return data.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Structure analysis and denoising using Singular Spectrum Analysis:
           Application to acoustic emission signals from nuclear safety experiments
    • Authors: O.I. Traore; L. Pantera; N. Favretto-Cristini; P. Cristini; S. Viguier-Pla; P. Vieu
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): O.I. Traore, L. Pantera, N. Favretto-Cristini, P. Cristini, S. Viguier-Pla, P. Vieu
      We explore the abilities of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to characterize and denoise discrete acoustic emission signals. The method is first tested on simulated data for which different types and levels of noise are considered. It is then applied on real data recorded from nuclear safety experiments. The results show an excellent ability of the SSA to characterize the corrupted signal and to detect structural changes, even for low signal-to-noise ratio. For denoising purposes, the quality of the results depends mainly on the separability between the source signal to be estimated and the noise. However, whatever the case, the main components of the source signal are clearly identified when the components associated with the noise are removed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of the magnetite nanoparticles’ relaxivity during
           encapsulation into polylactide carriers
    • Authors: O. Strbak; I. Antal; D. Gogola; L. Baciak; M. Kubovcikova; M. Koneracka; V. Zavisova; A. Krafcik; M. Masarova-Kozelova; P. Kopcansky; I. Frollo
      Pages: 89 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): O. Strbak, I. Antal, D. Gogola, L. Baciak, M. Kubovcikova, M. Koneracka, V. Zavisova, A. Krafcik, M. Masarova-Kozelova, P. Kopcansky, I. Frollo
      Polylactide (PLA)-based carriers are currently widely employed in biomedical applications, where imaging modalities are in high demand; however, information regarding the contrast properties of the PLA-based magnetic carriers in MRI applications is lacking. Therefore, we measured the MRI parameters of the magnetite nanoparticles with different encapsulation rates in PLA spheres. The MRI measurements were performed at the 4.7T and 0.178T systems, where the relative contrast, transversal relaxation time (T2), and transversal relaxivity (r2) were evaluated and compared. The results reveal that these parameters can be used in order to determine the magnetic nanoparticles’ encapsulation into PLA carriers, as well as in the quantification of the particles’ loading rate. Such an approach can be utilised in biomedical applications to determine the rate of drugs’ encapsulation into the PLA carrier system, for example, as well as for drug release tracking from the carriers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • A remote supervision fault diagnosis meter for photovoltaic power
           generation systems
    • Authors: Kuei-Hsiang Chao; Chao-Ting Chen
      Pages: 93 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Kuei-Hsiang Chao, Chao-Ting Chen
      The main purpose of this paper is to develop a fault diagnostic meter for photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. First, Solar Pro software package is used for a photovoltaic power generation system analysis, and then the power generation data of photovoltaic modules during normal operations and during malfunctions is collected. Then, this paper establishes a photovoltaic power generation system fault diagnosis method based on extension theory. The power generation data collected previously is used to construct a matter-element model for PV generation systems during normal operations and during malfunction. This matter-element model and the PV power generation system fault diagnosis program are implemented using a PIC microcontroller. The PV power generation system fault diagnosis based on extension theory discussed previously requires only small amounts of data in order to construct matter-element models for normal operations and different fault situations. This diagnosis method does not require learning procedures to be used in fault diagnosis of PV power generation systems. Moreover, the method provided high accuracy. As PV power generation systems are typically installed on outdoor roofs, this paper also utilizes the ZigBee wireless sensor network transmission technology to transmit the power generation data of outdoor PV power generation systems to the PIC microcontroller in order diagnose malfunctions in PV power generation systems in real time. Finally, testing results were used to ascertain the feasibility of the PV power generation fault diagnosis meter discussed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of radiating-source parameters by measurements in Faraday cages
           and sparse processing
    • Authors: Nenad Munic; Marija Nikolic Stevanovic; Antonije Djordjevic; Aleksandar Kovacevic
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Nenad Munic, Marija Nikolic Stevanovic, Antonije Djordjevic, Aleksandar Kovacevic
      We have developed an algorithm that enables characterization of radiating sources by amplitude measurements in a Faraday cage. The algorithm uses equivalent dipoles and exploits electromagnetic scattering from the cage walls. To extract the parameters of the equivalent dipoles, we use sparse processing. We have verified the proposed approach by comparing experimental results obtained in an anechoic chamber and in a Faraday cage. In this way, we have shown that the Faraday-cage measurements may be used as a low-cost alternative to the standard electromagnetic-compatibility test sites such as (semi)anechoic chambers and open-area test sites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • A drag force anemometer using finite length cylinder with direction
           measurement capability
    • Authors: Ferhat Daldaban; Ferhat Karagöz; Mustafa Serdar Genç
      Pages: 117 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Ferhat Daldaban, Ferhat Karagöz, Mustafa Serdar Genç
      This study proposes a new design idea to measure wind speed and direction using drag force. For this aim, load cells which are get aligned with the geographical directions were used. A prototype was built and tested in a wind tunnel located at WEAR Laboratory in Erciyes University. The tests were performed for the direction of 225° between 5m/s and 25.2m/s and the outputs were compared with reference velocities. The results were shown that the mean measurement errors of the new design were less than 3% and the mean direction errors were less than 3° respectively, which provided WMO accuracy requirements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Design and development of a thermal imaging system based on a temperature
           sensor array for temperature measurements of enclosed surfaces and its use
           at the body-seat interface
    • Authors: Zhuofu Liu; Le Chang; Zhongming Luo; Vincenzo Cascioli; Andrew I. Heusch; Peter W. McCarthy
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Zhuofu Liu, Le Chang, Zhongming Luo, Vincenzo Cascioli, Andrew I. Heusch, Peter W. McCarthy
      We describe a mapping system based on 64 evenly spaced digital sensors (thermal in this example) and interpolation algorithms. Current pressure mapping systems are suspect to noise, signal drift (creep), hysteresis and drop out of pixels, requiring frequent recalibration all of which impact on accuracy and experimental protocols. The system described here uses a one-wire-based protocol for easy configuration and reliable measurement without requiring frequent recalibration and can continuously measure temperature over a surface (seat or mattress) for hours. Additionally, in this example, the system can be used to overcome inherent drawbacks of traditional temperature (or humidity) assessment, being capable of mapping entire regions simultaneously. It greatly outperforms visual imaging (i.e. infrared) techniques at enclosed surfaces. The system, as shown here, could prove invaluable in future development of monitoring systems as it allows for more accurate parameter modelling at enclosed surfaces such as the body-seat interface. This will be useful when creating more realistic understanding of the changes occurring and how to moderate them effectively in order to reduce problems associated with prolonged wheelchair use.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Updating highway asset inventory using airborne LiDAR
    • Authors: Yi He; Ziqi Song; Zhaocai Liu
      Pages: 132 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Yi He, Ziqi Song, Zhaocai Liu
      Highway assets, including traffic signs and signals, light poles, guardrails, and culverts, are essential components of transportation networks. They guide, warn, and protect drivers and regulate traffic. To manage and maintain the regular operation of the highway system, state departments of transportation (DOTs) need reliable and up-to-date information about the location and condition of highway features. Various techniques have been employed to collect highway inventory data. These techniques range from the simplest manual inventory method to methods that involve advanced technology, such as light detection and ranging (LiDAR). The focus of this paper is to analyze the capability and strengths of airborne LiDAR in highway inventory data collection. A field experiment was conducted to collect airborne LiDAR data, and an ArcGIS-based workflow was proposed to process the data. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed workflow as well as the feasibility and high efficiency of airborne LiDAR for highway inventory data collection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Study of measurement method for large imbalance evaluation based on
           dynamic electromagnetic force
    • Authors: Qiuxiao Wang; Zhaofu Wu; Dequan Wang; Xiaoyan Fu
      Pages: 142 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Qiuxiao Wang, Zhaofu Wu, Dequan Wang, Xiaoyan Fu
      While identifying the imbalance of the workpiece with large eccentric mass, grave error would be produced due to failing to guarantee the linearity of both the balance machine and measuring system. A method was present to improve the measurement accuracy of imbalance identification. It utilized a controllable electromagnet that generated the controllable electromagnetic force to attenuate the unbalance vibration synchronously, so as to avoid the vibration signal exceeding the liner range. Model of equivalent magnetic circuit of the electromagnet was established, and the relationship between the coil current and the dynamic electromagnetic force was analyzed by finite element modeling. The influence on the electromagnetic force of some factors such as temperature and air gap was investigated. The control system and strategy were also developed. Test results indicated that this method is applicable for large imbalance evaluation with high precision.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Influence of heat treatment on mechanical properties and microstructure of
           the Al2024/SiC composite produced by multi–pass friction stir processing
           
    • Authors: Davood Ghanbari; Masoud Kasiri Asgarani; Kamran Amini; Farhad Gharavi
      Pages: 151 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Davood Ghanbari, Masoud Kasiri Asgarani, Kamran Amini, Farhad Gharavi
      Aluminium matrix nano-composites were produced by friction stir processing of an Al-Cu alloy at different number of passes with pre-inserted SiC particles. The metal matrix composites were supplementary heat treated to elucidate the effect of heat treatment on microstructural changes and mechanical properties. The samples were fabricated by two and four passes. The supplementary heat treatment consisted of annealing at 590°C for 1h and artificial aging at 180°C for 8h. Microstructural studies showed that fine and co-axial grains along with uniform distribution nano-particles were formed in the stir zone (SZ). The agglomerated nano-scale particles were also observed in the samples. Micro-hardness results presented that in the SZ-region, hardness decreased with increasing the number of passes in the samples that were not heat treated. However, hardness uniformly increased about 70HV in the heat-treated samples. Wear mechanism in all of the samples was adhesive mechanism and the value of wear resistance increased about 170% in the heat-treated samples. The obtained results showed that the improvement of hardness and wear resistance in the heat-treated sample was related to the change in size and distribution of the S-phase precipitates in microstructure.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Factors influencing half-cell potential measurement and its relationship
           with corrosion level
    • Authors: Wanchai Yodsudjai; Thanawit Pattarakittam
      Pages: 159 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Wanchai Yodsudjai, Thanawit Pattarakittam
      The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influences of concrete cover, chloride content, compressive strength and moisture content on the half-cell potential measurement in reinforced concrete structure. The relationship between the level of corrosion and the half-cell potential value was also evaluated. Twenty one concrete slabs with the dimensions of 300×300×100mm3 and three concrete slabs with the dimensions of 300×300×125mm3 were prepared for various experimental cases; that is, three levels of cover (25, 50 and 100mm), three levels of chloride content (0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% by weight of cement content) and two levels of compressive strength (17.65 and 20.59MPa). After curing in water for 28days, the half-cell potential was measured in accordance with the ASTM C879 every week to detect corrosion under wet-dry accelerated until 140days. The specimens were then broken to observe the corrosion condition of reinforcement inside them. The results showed that the half-cell potential decreased (more negative value) with the increase of chloride content and moisture content but increased (less negative value) with the increase of compressive strength. The influence of concrete cover was still not definitive. The variation of half-cell potential decreased with the increase of concrete cover, chloride content and moisture content. On the other hand, the variation of half-cell potential increased with the increase of compressive strength. The relationship between the level of corrosion and the half-cell potential was found; that is, the level of corrosion increased with the decrease of the half-cell potential.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Application of multi-domain sparse features for fault identification of
           planetary gearbox
    • Authors: Chuan Zhao; Zhipeng Feng
      Pages: 169 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Chuan Zhao, Zhipeng Feng
      Planetary gearboxes vibration signals are highly complex due to the intricate kinematics and the amplitude modulation and frequency modulation nature, and their spectra have intricate sidebands, leading to difficulty in planetary gearbox fault identification. To address this issue, multi-domain features are extracted for fault identification from vibration signals to construct feature vectors in time-domain, frequency-domain and through instantaneous amplitude energy analysis. Variational mode decomposition (VMD) is utilized for the merits which are entirely non-recursive, free from pseudo mode and negative frequency and much robust to noise to decompose a signal into a set of mono-components, based on which the instantaneous amplitude energy is calculated. In order to inhibit and eliminate the undesirable features while concentrate the fault identification information to several outperforming features, sparse filtering which is essentially hyper-parameter-free is applied to extract sparse features without considering the selection of k-nearest neighborhood involved in manifold learning. Finally, the proposed method is validated via analyses of planetary gearbox dataset collected in both lab experiments and a wind farm. Based on clustering analysis of multi-domain sparse features extracted, the localized faults are successfully identified.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Probability distribution pattern analysis and its application in the Acute
           Hypotensive Episodes prediction
    • Authors: Dazhi Jiang; Chenfeng Peng; Yifei Chen; Zhun Fan; Akhil Garg
      Pages: 180 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Dazhi Jiang, Chenfeng Peng, Yifei Chen, Zhun Fan, Akhil Garg
      At present many hospitals have to deal with the patient’s care and nursing for Acute Hypotensive Episodes (AHE) occurring in Intensive Care Units. AHE can cause fainting or shock suddenly, leading to irreversibility organ damage, and even death. Therefore, forecasting of occurrence of AHE is of practical value. However, the prediction of clinical AHE largely depends on the doctors’ experience, which cannot guarantee the high rate of success. It is thus very meaningful for the clinical care to use appropriate methods to predict the AHE with an automatic and reliable method. In this study, a Probability Distribution Patterns Analysis (PDPA) method is presented to solve the time series prediction problem of AHE. In the first phase, the features are extracted from the PDPA in the global and integral time series, and the partial local time series in the fixed time window. In the second phase, the proposed algorithm combining Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), namely GA-SVM is adopted to select the vital features for the effective classification. In order to demonstrate the generality of our method, we also conduct experiments on a classical time series problem-Control Chart Patterns (CCPs) multi-class time series, which is a benchmark problem in the process control. For CCPs problem, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms several traditional methods. The obtained accuracy is 98.65%, which is superior to listed previous works using the same CCPs model. For AHE classification and forecasting, the methodology is applied in two data sets, a small data set (37 records) and a big one (2892 records). The test accuracy of 89.19%, sensitivity of 91.67%, specificity of 88% in the small data set, and a test accuracy of 80.76%, sensitivity of 78.19%, specificity of 81.51% in the big data set are achieved with the classification model.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.030
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Semi-active vibration control featuring a self-sensing SSDV approach
    • Authors: Bin Bao; Wei Tang
      Pages: 192 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Bin Bao, Wei Tang
      A self-sensing vibration control technique using nonlinear synchronized switch damping on the voltage sources (SSDV) is proposed in this article. SSDV, as one of effectively nonlinear vibration damping techniques, has been developed into several extensions in recent years, such as enhanced SSDV and adaptive SSDV. However, in the original SSDV and its extensions, the switch algorithm for the principle of SSDV technique is carried out by active real-time controllers (e.g., DSpace systems/Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)). In addition, external sensors are applied to measure the moment of the displacement extrema for the switch algorithm. By comparison, the proposed approach can realize the SSDV technique without real-time controllers and external sensors. Experimental investigations showed that the proposed technique exhibits excellent single-mode damping performance and is easy to implement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Performance of data acquisition system for monitoring PV system parameters
    • Authors: Hegazy Rezk; Igor Tyukhov; Mujahed Al-Dhaifallah; Anton Tikhonov
      Pages: 204 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Hegazy Rezk, Igor Tyukhov, Mujahed Al-Dhaifallah, Anton Tikhonov
      Data acquisition systems (DAQSs) are widely employed with PV plants for collecting all system data for evaluating plant performance and optimization purposes. The main objective of this work is to develop a cost effective DAQS based on Lab-VIEW. The proposed monitoring system has been employed for continuously collecting and displaying the electrical output parameters of stand-alone PV system. Such parameters include; PV generated voltage, current and power. Also it allows drawing of PV panel characteristics under real test conditions. In addition, the global solar radiation can be calculated via measuring the PV module short circuit current since it directly related to the solar concentration. The proposed system is considered as a good solution for collecting the system database to be ready for the analysis and optimization of PV plant’s performance. The configurations of software and hardware of the proposed system are presented and the performance of the proposed system is tested when integrated with small size PV system. Field testes demonstrated that the obtained monitoring data are very satisfactory. The online obtained data that displayed on PC screen is very informative. The developed DAQS was found to be very supportive for research and educational purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.050
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Application of pattern recognition in gear faults based on the matching
           pursuit of a characteristic waveform
    • Authors: Lingli Cui; Tianchang Yao; Yu Zhang; Xiangyang Gong; Chenhui Kang
      Pages: 212 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Lingli Cui, Tianchang Yao, Yu Zhang, Xiangyang Gong, Chenhui Kang
      Aiming at the issue of recognizing the damage pattern of gear signals, a new matching method based on the morphological characteristics of the vibration waveforms was proposed in this paper. The signals of different types of gear faults share the same modulated frequency; therefore, only whether a gear is damaged or not can be identified from the frequency domain. However, it is difficult to recognize the different fault types of the gears. There are significant differences among the signal waveforms in the time domain of different fault types; thus, research on the recognition of the types of gear-damaged faults is conducted using the repeated characteristic waveforms of the same fault type based on the morphological characteristics of the gear fault signal. The signal morphological characteristics of different gear fault types were extracted using a searching algorithm, and then the matching effect was achieved from the basic atom library, which was constructed by the multi-stage characteristic waveform after an optimized process by the method optimal direction (MOD). Finally, the simulation signals of four types of different gear fault types and real engineering signals were processed using this method, and the effectiveness of the method was proved.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Method of standard field for LF magnetic field meter calibration
    • Authors: Pinzhang Zhao; Lin Li; Jia Gao; Yuming Ma
      Pages: 223 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Pinzhang Zhao, Lin Li, Jia Gao, Yuming Ma
      In this paper, a measurement system applied to calibrate LF (low frequency) magnetic field meters is described. The mechanism of generating a calculable standard LF magnetic field basing on circular Helmholtz coils is explained, than the measurement system is designed. The self-designed major components are introduced and their properties have been analyzed, several techniques are considered to improve the performance of the system. The sources of standard uncertainty related to calibration are analyzed, and the expanded uncertainty at 100kHz is evaluated for example. In addition, the system is validated by comparing the calibration results with the results obtained by other laboratories.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T01:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Effects of intrinsic fluorescence on biological aerosols detection
           accuracy of lidar
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Zhimin Rao, Dengxin Hua, Tingyao He, Qiang Wang, Jing Le
      The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of intrinsic fluorescence on the detection capability for biological aerosols of an UV fluorescence lidar with selected design parameters. Numerical simulations, based on the fluorescence lidar equation, were performed for fluorescence spectra ranging from 300nm to 800nm, where the fluorescence was induced by a pulsed laser at 266nm. Simulation results show that the minimal detectable concentration of biological aerosols increases with detection range at different rates for different solar zenith angles, and that the uncertainties of the minimal detectable concentrations increase sharply with ranges. Lowest concentrations of biological aerosols are expected to be detectable during the night. In the day-time, aerosols emitting intrinsic fluorescence wavelengths are expected to be detectable at larger distances, with a relatively large uncertainty of the minimal detectable concentration.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Determination of suitable parameters for battery analysis by
           Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Yoana Fernández Pulido, Cecilio Blanco, David Anseán, Víctor M. García, Francisco Ferrero, Marta Valledor
      Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is one of the most powerful tools for the study of batteries. The applied AC current, range of frequency sweep, points per decade represented, length of the pause time after a change in the state of charge (SOC) and length of the pause time after a change in the ambient temperature must have suitable values to obtain useful results from EIS tests. A method to determine and optimize these parameters is presented in this paper. It is based on the limits imposed by the battery, the tests carried out, the instruments employed and the use of Kramers-Kronig relations. The method has been checked using two kinds of lithium batteries: a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery and a lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) battery.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Measurements and evaluation of measurements of vibrations in steel milling
           process
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Štefánia Olejárová, Jozef Dobránsky, Jozef Svetlík, Martin Pituk
      The technologists often experience the oscillation existing only during the working period in the milling process. The reason for that is a self-induced oscillation of the tool against the workpiece as there is agenerated cutting power between the tool and the workpiece. The cutting force largely depends on the angle of cutter, the rotational frequency of the spindle and the depth of cut. The oscillations endanger the cutting edges and are very unpleasant for the operators due to the loud noise they make. The basic reason of oscillation is the dynamic interaction between the cutting process and the construction of the device. This report draws from the research on machining of materials by milling and provides the analysis of vibration signal in the direction of cutter rotation at three pre-selected places. The report brings the descriptions of the time course of acceleration and dominant frequency of vibration signal in dependence on the rotational frequency of the spindle which is anoperating parameter of milling and on the depth of cut.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Voltammetric determination of caffeine by using gold nanoparticle-glassy
           carbon paste composite electrode
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tuğba Ören, Ülkü Anık
      In the present study, simple and sensitive voltammetric determination of caffeine was carried out by using a gold nanoparticle-glassy carbon paste composite electrode (AuNP-GCPE) in 3.2mM H2SO4 (pH 2.5). The effects of supporting electrolyte, pH and AuNP amount on caffeine peak current were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, analytical characteristics of AuNP-GCPE were examined and two linear ranges were obtained between 25–150μM and 200–1000μM with limit of detection values of 0.96μM and 4.90μM, respectively. Relative standard deviation for 50μM caffeine was also calculated as 7.52% (n =3). In order to evaluate the analytical performance of AuNP-GCPE, caffeine contents of various brands of cola samples were measured and compared with the results obtained by UV–Vis spectrometer. The obtained results by using the proposed composite electrode are in accordance with the caffeine contents that manufacturers claimed compared to UV–Vis. This composite electrode which utilizes the catalytic effect of AuNP with the simple preparation of GCPE, offers a fast and sensitive determination of caffeine in beverages as a practical application.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Linearity evaluation of high-speed sampling ADC board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): G.W.C. Wijayasundara, Hyung-Kew Lee, Seung-Nam Park, Hehree Cho, Mun-Seog Kim
      There are growing demands on the evaluation of accuracy for high-speed analog-to-digital converters which are increasingly needed in electrical metrology these days. Here, we have developed a system to measure the linearity error of analog-to-digital converters by adopting a reference sampling voltmeter and a dummy waveform generator. With the measurement setup, we evaluated the linearities for three units of Δ - Σ analog-to-digital converter, NI-5922, combined with three different PXI chassis. We found that the maximum linearity error can change with the PXI chassis up to about 15 μ V/V.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Algorithmic compensation of video image dynamic errors with measurement
           data about geometric and object motion parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Igor Korobiichuk, Yurij Podchashinskiy, Oksana Lugovyh, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Kachniarz
      This article considers the mathematical models and methods of identifying the video image dynamic errors. These movies contain information on measuring the geometric parameters and motion parameters of natural stone products and equipment used in their manufacture. The details of dynamic errors are required to develop the algorithmic procedures of their compensation and to improve the accuracy of measuring these geometrical and motion parameters of the measurement object.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • FTIR and UV spectra of pentaternary borate glasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): A.A. Ali, Y.S. Rammah, R. El-Mallawany, D. Souri
      A series of (75-x) B2O3-xBi2O3-10Na2O-10CaO-5Al2O3 glasses, (0≤x≤25mol%) were prepared. Density and molar volume were measured. FTIR and UV spectra were recorded at 400–4000cm−1 and 200–850nm, respectively. Optical energy gap (Eopt.), Urbach’s energy (Eu), and refractive index (n) were calculated using absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) and derivation of absorption spectrum fitting (DASF) methods. Molar refraction (Rm) and molecular polarizability (αm) have been calculated according to (ASF) method.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of machinability characteristics and
           multi-response optimization of end milling in aluminium composites using
           RSM based grey relational analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): B. Rajeswari, K.S. Amirthagadeswaran
      This paper investigates the machinability characteristics of end milling operation to yield the minimum surface roughness, cutting force, tool wear with the maximum material removal rate using RSM based grey relational analysis. Twenty-seven experimental runs based on Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were performed by varying the parameters of spindle speed, feed and depth of cut in different weight percentage of reinforcements such as Silicon Carbide (SiC-5%,10%,15%) and Alumina (Al2O3-5%) in aluminium 7075 metal matrix. Grey relational analysis was used to solve the multi-response optimization problem by changing the weightages for different responses as per the process requirements of quality or productivity. Optimal parameter settings obtained were verified through confirmatory experiments. Analysis of variance was performed to obtain the contribution of each parameter on the machinability characteristics. The result shows that spindle speed and weight percentage of SiC are the most significant factors which affect the machinability characteristics of hybrid composites. An appropriate selection of the input parameters (spindle speed of 1000rpm, feed of 0.03mm/rev, depth of cut of 1mm and 5% of SiC) produces high material removal rate coupled with fine surface finish, less tool wear and low cutting force.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Study of the variability of the Leap Motion’s measures for its use
           to characterize air strokes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Elyoenai Guerra-Segura, Carlos M. Travieso, Jesús B. Alonso
      This study presents an evaluation of different measurements provided by the Leap Motion sensor for characterization of air strokes and its stability. This test consists on the performance of a daily in air signature done by the same user during 4months. Each one of the strokes, which represent the signatures of the users, is characterized for 21 different measures given by the sensor. The experiment is based on the evaluation of the temporal variability of the strokes according to these 21 measures. To compute the temporal variability of the measurements, different values as the length of the strokes, the variability of the mean and standard deviation of the measures, alignment costs referenced to the signature of the first day, etc. are obtained. In general, the results show some differences between the stability of the different measurements which can be produced either by the user or the sensor. In our conclusion, the results are promising and the Leap Motion could be used as a tool for biometric information extraction from the air strokes, as it has been already proposed. This novel study will help to understand and know the option of the use of Leap Motion from the measure stability point of view, for other application as signature identification.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Application of short time energy analysis in monitoring the stability of
           arc sound signal
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Ping Yao, Kang Zhou
      This paper employed the short time energy of arc sound signals to online quantitatively describe the stability of arc sound signal. At first, the signal can be preprocessed by wavelet packet filtering, and then detailed information of the short time energy of the signal was obtained using hamming window. After statistical analyzed the short time energy, the energy distribution possibility and cumulative distribution function of the signal can be collected. Then a proposed stability evaluation criterion was employed to quantitatively describe the stability of arc sound signal. Relative experimental data showed that more stable signal corresponded lager value of the criterion. The proposed method which combined the short time energy and statistical analysis was supported by many actual experiments. This contribution can benefit the quantitative evaluation of the arc welding process, and instructed the future parameters optimization to obtain welding products with high quality.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Measurement analysis in uncertainty space
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): R. Craig Herndon
      Uncertainty due to measurement repetition is quantified by transforming data from measurement space to uncertainty space using transition equations. Measured data is fit with a reference function that serves as the basis for the envelope used in uncertainty space to quantify measurement uncertainty. This method’s sampling criterion which prevents information loss also uses the reference function. The method quantifies uncertainty in terms of the random effects associated with a measurement system and the uncertainty associated with the finite resolution capabilities of the measurement system. Uncertainties calculated using the proposed method were equal to expanded uncertainties (k =2) calculated using the standard method. This nonparametric method for uncertainty analysis quantifies uncertainty due to measurement repetition and establishes that the uncertainty due to data discretization is the minimum achievable uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Effect of silver nanoparticles on the upconversion and near-infrared
           emissions of Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped zinc tellurite glasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): M. Reza Dousti, Raja J. Amjad
      The effect of the silver nanoparticles on the optical response of the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped zinc tellurite glasses was studied. The glasses were characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The characteristic radiative emissions of Er3+ ions at visible (upconversion) and near-infrared spectral regions were recorded by exciting the samples at 980nm excitation wavelength. The intensities of upconversion and near-infrared emissions were enhanced up to 180% and 130%, respectively. The increase in luminescence intensity is attributed to the enhanced effective localized field induced by silver nanoparticles. Lifetime measurements were conducted to investigate the presence of energy transfer between Er3+ and silver.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Design and development of a novel water flow measurement system
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Shiv Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Yadav, Ravinder Agarwal
      The present paper reports the design and developmental aspects of a prototype of an automatic primary water flow standard. The system is based on a unique technique of carrying out multiple weighing using double weighing tanks. The multiple weighing technique has advantages of increasing the collection time by collecting large water mass thereby reducing the diverter error, the main source of measurement uncertainty, consequently improving measurement uncertainty of the system. The longer collection time minimizes the effect of diverter error. This makes cumbersome process of diverter error evaluation insignificant and may be avoided. Another advantage is to use either of the two tanks in case of any one of the tanks becomes out of order and using another tank as stand alone in a single weighing compromising bit measurement uncertainty. The system thus developed is capable of measuring water flow rate and/calibrating different water flow meters having size (15–100) mm, in the flow range from 0.3m3/h to 100m3/h. The estimated relative expanded uncertainties of the system for collected water mass of 2000kg, 1500kg, 1000kg and 500kg are found as 0.055%, 0.056%, 0.061% and 0.081% (at k =2), respectively which is sufficient for industrial dissemination. The present designed and developed prototype system is a low-cost solution to users and industries which is easier to operate and maintain with comparable existing systems.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • An information-based procedure for measuring semantic change in historical
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Yair Neuman, Harvey Hames, Yochai Cohen
      For various contexts it may be of great interest to measure the way in which the meaning of certain target concept changes over time. In this paper, we propose a simple information-based procedure for addressing this challenge. Our procedure involves the construction of a context-vector representing the target's meaning and the use of the Kullback-Leibler divergence measure for quantifying its semantic change. This procedure is illustrated through historical case study in which we study the semantic change of the concept “Sin” in the Corpus of Historical American English. The procedure, its benefits and limitations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Stress detection and measurement in ferromagnetic metals using pulse
           electromagnetic method with U-shaped sensor
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Deqiang Zhou, Meng Pan, Yunze He, Bolun Du
      This paper proposed a pulse electromagnetic method (PEM) with a specially designed U-shaped sensor to detect and measure stress in ferromagnetic metals, which is derived from pulsed eddy current (PEC) and pulse magnetic flux leakage (PMFL). At first, theory behind PEM for tensile stress measurement has been analyzed. The influences of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic material on sensor’s response have been investigated through finite element method (FEM). Experimental system has been built and the experimental studies have been carried out to obtain the relationship between stress and extracted features from difference response of PEM U-shaped sensor. The excitation frequency has been optimized to improve the sensitivity. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed PEM can be used to measure and quantify the unidirectional tensile stress in ferromagnetic specimen due to the linear relationship in elastic deformation. The relationship between sensitivity and frequency is a reverse power function, and low frequency excitation has a higher sensitivity on stress measurement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Risk stratification of 2D ultrasound-based breast lesions using hybrid
           feature selection in machine learning paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Bikesh Kumar Singh, Kesari Verma, A.S. Thoke, Jasjit S. Suri
      Selection of relevant and appropriate features to characterize breast patterns is of paramount importance in breast tissue representation and classification in machine learning paradigm. Feature selection based on single evaluation criterion has shown limited capability in breast tumor detection and classification due to their biases towards single criterion. In this paper, a new hybrid feature selection scheme is used to determine most relevant features for classification of benign and malignant tumors in breast ultrasound images. The proposed approach uses ten different evaluation criteria to decide the relevance of a particular feature. The existing feature selection techniques are also reviewed. A new database of 178 breast ultrasound images consisting of 88 benign and 90 malignant cases are used in experiments. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of existing feature selection techniques using back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. The results demonstrate that proposed feature selection approach outperformed traditional methods achieving significantly higher classification accuracy of 96.6% and 94.4% with BPANN and SVM classifiers respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Improvement of star identification based on star trace in star images
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 105
      Author(s): Xianyi Liu, Zhaofa Zhou, Zhili Zhang, Dianjian Liu, Xihui Zhang
      Digital zenith camera system is a highly accurate positioning instrument in geodetic astronomy. It can capture 16 star images in one experiment unit in different azimuthal camera orientations and the stars in each star image should be identified using star catalogue. But the amount of calculation is very large, the efficiency of star identification is low. Now, the improvement of star identification is mainly through updating algorithm. Considering that there exist identical stars in these star images, this paper provides a new method to improve star identification. The star trace is deduced taking the earth rotation and instrument rotation into consideration. The errors of star trace are also analyzed. Then select the same stars that appear in the star images taken in the initial position and after rotating one angle. Using the identical stars instead of star catalogue and the star trace to identify the rest stars, the efficiency will get improved. The analysis of experimental data shows that there are many identical stars in these star images. The appearance of one star can be predicted according to the star trace. The star identification get improved by using the same stars in these star images. And it costs less time to identify the stars in star images, but the precision is approximately equal.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Online monitoring of pipe conveyors part II: Evaluation of selected
           operational parameters for the design of expert system
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Vieroslav Molnár, Gabriel Fedorko, Miriam Andrejiová, Anna Grinčová, Peter Michalik
      Online monitoring of pipe conveyors operation is a key condition to their operational reliability. According to Molnár et al. (2016), the parameter to be used for evaluation is the change of contact forces on the idler rolls of hexagonal idler housing of a pipe conveyor. However, the statement itself is not enough for online monitoring purposes. Evaluation criteria in form of evaluation gauge enabling the identification of processes occurring in the conveyor belt need to be set followed by adequate measures taken afterwards. The paper aims to review the courses of contact forces at various tension forces since these are the parameters convenient for tracking of pipe conveyor operation. For better independence of results and conclusions, the measured values are transformed with the use of min/max method of standardization and then modified by moving averages. Experimental tests are evaluated with the use of basic statistics methods, correlation and regression analysis. The outputs include analysis of contact forces and time dependence, contact forces and tension force dependence for two different measurements, with and without material.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Comparison of morphology and topography of surfaces of WEDM machined
           structural materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): K. Mouralova, J. Kovar, L. Klakurkova, T. Prokes, M. Horynova
      Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) is an unconventional machining technology using physical principles to cut materials. There are many factors affecting this process and having a fundamental influence on the final quality of the machined surface. Apart from the dielectric and wire electrode type used, these include, in particular, the machine setting parameters such as discharge current, gap voltage, pulse on and off time, and wire feed. Another very significant aspect of the machining process is mechanical and physical characteristics of the machined material including its heat treatment. This study deals with an analysis of morphology and topology of the surfaces of samples made of 4 structural materials and their 5 types of heat treatment. The analysis was carried out using electron microscopy (SEM) and a contact-less 3D profilometer which allowed evaluating the profile and surface parameters of surface quality including creating a 3D surface image.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Vibration-insensitive low coherence interferometer (LCI) for the
           measurement of technical surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Yinan Li, Markus Kästner, Eduard Reithmeier
      For the evaluation of operationally stressed surfaces containing microstructures, robot guided measurement systems need to be designed, that are able to automatically measure the integrity of these microstructures in a production related environment. Because drifts or vibrations between the robot mounted sensor and the sample surface noticeably influence measurement results, leading to usually insufficient results even large non-measured areas. The measurement system should be designed both to precisely measure the sample surface and to robustly handle the influences of the environmental vibration. In this paper, we introduce a robot guided low coherence interferometer (LCI) system, that can compensate inevitable drifts and vibrations using high-speed data acquisition and a phase correction method, which can analyze and correct distorted inferoferograms using Hilbert-Transform in the frequency domain. Utilizing these methods the measurement performance of this system can be improved in comparison with the conventional LCI, to reduce non-measured areas and to reach a low measurement deviation of less than 0.1μm. The detailed capability of the proposed methods for the identification and the compensation of environmental vibration is shown based on experimental data.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • FEM study of analyzing the electrical resistance of brazed joint by the
           4-wire technique for quality assurance
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Wolfgang Tillmann, Norman Sievers, Tim Henning, Denis Jakimenko
      The validation of a brazed work piece requires lot of operating experiences in order to assure a sufficient joint quality for a reliable manufacturing process. In most cases, a quality assurance is only performed by destructive methods to measure the strength of the joint. Conventional non-destructive testing methods such as computer tomography, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic particle inspection as well as other available optical and thermal methods are commonly not suitable for brazing applications in mass production. This is partly due to the fact that these methods are very expensive or even highly limited when it comes to the detection of critical imperfections. Hence, there is a high demand to investigate alternative non-destructive testing methods. The main focus of this feasibility study is the examination of the electrical resistance behavior of the brazed joint. In this regard, different positions of defects within the filler metal as well as different contact positions for the current supply and voltage measurement of the 4-wire technique are investigated by means of FEM-analyses. A key aspect is the evaluation of the particular voltage distribution within the brazed work pieces as a function of these variations and to generate significant potential differences for the measurement of brazed joints. The results will contribute the design of the resistance measurements on various component geometries to enable a precise quality inspection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
  • Experimental assessment of high sampling-rate robotic total station for
           monitoring bridge dynamic responses
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 104
      Author(s): Jiayong Yu, Ping Zhu, Bin Xu, Xiaolin Meng
      High sampling-rate robotic total stations (RTS) are emerging tools for monitoring both semi-static and dynamic displacement responses of bridge structures, due to rapid advancements in data sampling rates and tracking speeds. However, the dynamic measurement accuracy of the RTS needs to be fully assessed, especially for different sighting distances. To this end, groups of static and dynamic evaluating tests were carried out on university campuses, and a further in-situ performance assessment with RTS was performed for monitoring dynamic responses of a long suspension bridge in Changsha, China, with a central span of 328m. A standardized procedure was developed to process these RTS measurements. The background noise in RTS measurements for sighting-distances varying from 25m to 400m only results in minor errors which mainly distribute in a frequency range of less than 0.1Hz. The vibration displacements of an oscillating platform between the RTS and an accelerometer are compared in both horizontal and vertical directions to demonstrate the sufficient accuracy of the RTS measurements. The in-situ experiment also leads to a similar conclusion. This study confirms that the feasibility of using high sampling-rate RTS for monitoring dynamic responses of bridges.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
 
 
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