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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 883 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (110 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (156 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (280 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (280 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mneme - Revista de Humanidades     Open Access  
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • A convolutional neural network based feature learning and fault diagnosis
           method for the condition monitoring of gearbox
    • Authors: Luyang Jing; Ming Zhao; Pin Li; Xiaoqiang Xu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Luyang Jing, Ming Zhao, Pin Li, Xiaoqiang Xu
      Feature extraction plays a vital role in intelligent fault diagnosis of mechanical system. Nevertheless, traditional feature extraction methods suffer from three problems, which are (1) the requirements of domain expertise and prior knowledge, (2) the sensitive to the changes of mechanical system and (3) the limitations of mining new features. It is attractive and meaningful to investigate an automatic feature extraction method, which can adaptively learn features from raw data and discover new fault-sensitive features. Deep learning has been widely used in image analysis and speech recognition with great success. The key advantage of this method lies into the ability of mining representative information and sensitive features from raw data. However, the application of deep learning in feature leaning for mechanical diagnosis is still few, and limited studies have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of feature leaning with various data types. This paper will focus on developing a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn features directly from frequency data of vibration signals and testing the different performance of feature learning from raw data, frequency spectrum and combined time-frequency data. Manual features from time domain, frequency domain and wavelet domain as well as three common intelligent methods are used as comparisons. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through PHM 2009 gearbox challenge data and a planetary gearbox test rig. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to learn features adaptively from frequency data and achieve higher diagnosis accuracy than other comparative methods.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Dynamic measuring of performance parameters for vehicles engines
    • Authors: Martin Pexa; Miroslav Müller; Sergej Hloch
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Martin Pexa, Miroslav Müller, Sergej Hloch
      Paper deals with dynamic measurement of performance parameters for selected vehicles engines using incremental sensor attached to the rest bed roller. Data collection was performed with an eight-channel collector. The moment of the inertia is the result of the measurement, which can also be used in the measurement of performance parameters. The external speed characteristics of the engine primarily resulting from the dynamic measurement is the absolute result of the measurement. It can be concluded on the technical conditions of the motor vehicle based on the evaluation of external speed characteristics of the engine. It is possible to maintain consistently good technical state of the motor engine with an appropriate maintenance and contribute to the ecology and the economy of the vehicle operation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • An image segmentation algorithm for measurement of flotation froth bubble
           size distributions
    • Authors: A. Jahedsaravani; M. Massinaei; M.H. Marhaban
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): A. Jahedsaravani, M. Massinaei, M.H. Marhaban
      The bubble size distribution at the froth surface of a flotation cell is closely related to the process condition and performance. The flotation performance can be reasonably predicted through continuous measuring the bubble size distribution by a machine vision system. In this work a new watershed algorithm based on whole and sub-image classification techniques is introduced and successfully validated by several laboratory and industrial scale froth images taken under different process conditions. The results indicate that the developed algorithms, in particular the sub-image classification based segmentation algorithm, can accurately and reliably identify the individual small and large bubbles in the actual froth images, which is often problematic.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • A methodology for football players selection problem based on
           multi-measurements criteria analysis
    • Authors: M.A. Qader; B.B. Zaidan; A.A. Zaidan; S.K. Ali; M.A. Kamaluddin; W.B. Radzi
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): M.A. Qader, B.B. Zaidan, A.A. Zaidan, S.K. Ali, M.A. Kamaluddin, W.B. Radzi
      Football is one of the most popular sports in the world. Professional football has become a significant contributor to global economics and business. The game attracts considerable funds, which motivate participants of the sporting process (players, coaches, club owners, administration, etc.) to strive for better athletic results. However, such a motivation simultaneously promotes internal and external rivalry. The increasing number of players, the teams’ desire to attract better team members, and the improved athletes’ performance boost the use of assessment and rating processes. The most popular and widely used player rating systems are based on performance statistics, which reflect situational factors of the game. Most specialists believe that such systems lack objectivity. Thus, this paper presents a new methodology to assess and rank football players based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). A hands-on study is conducted for the assessment. A sample of 24 players is grouped into four separate groups consisting of six players for each group. The age of U17 is examined by 12 tests distributed as follows: three anthropometrics, five fitness, and four skills tests. Players are ranked on the basis of a set of measurement metric outcomesusing the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to select the appropriate player using a one-shot experiment. Then, this study utilizes the mean and standard deviation to ensure that the four groups of players undergo systematic ranking, respectively. Findings are as follows: (1) systematic: TOPSIS is an effective tool used to solve player selection problems, and (2) statistics: group number one is the best group among the four groups, identical to the results of the system.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Relative range error evaluation of terrestrial laser scanners using a
           plate, a sphere, and a novel dual-sphere-plate target
    • Authors: Bala Muralikrishnan; Prem Rachakonda; Vincent Lee; Meghan Shilling; Daniel Sawyer; Geraldine Cheok; Luc Cournoyer
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Bala Muralikrishnan, Prem Rachakonda, Vincent Lee, Meghan Shilling, Daniel Sawyer, Geraldine Cheok, Luc Cournoyer
      Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are a class of 3D imaging systems that produce a 3D point cloud by measuring the range and two angles to a point. The fundamental measurement of a TLS is range. Relative range error is one component of the overall range error of TLS and its estimation is therefore an important aspect in establishing metrological traceability of measurements performed using these systems. Target geometry is an important aspect to consider when realizing the relative range tests. The recently published ASTM E2938-15 mandates the use of a plate target for the relative range tests. While a plate target may reasonably be expected to produce distortion free data even at far distances, the target itself needs careful alignment at each of the relative range test positions. In this paper, we discuss relative range experiments performed using a plate target and then address the advantages and limitations of using a sphere target. We then present a novel dual-sphere-plate target that draws from the advantages of the sphere and the plate without the associated limitations. The spheres in the dual-sphere-plate target are used simply as fiducials to identify a point on the surface of the plate that is common to both the scanner and the reference instrument, thus overcoming the need to carefully align the target.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.027
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • A methodology for the accurate measurement of uniaxial compressive creep
           of refractory ceramics
    • Authors: Marco E. Longhin; David L. Shelleman; John R. Hellmann
      Pages: 69 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Marco E. Longhin, David L. Shelleman, John R. Hellmann
      The uniaxial compressive creep experiment allows identification of which mechanism controls creep and to predict material lifetime under high temperature and low stress service conditions. Firstly, we detail a measurement apparatus developed in our laboratory to measure compressive creep for metals and ceramics, focusing on some important features to produce reliable measurements. Then we describe a protocol to analyze data in order to limit misinterpretation. Multi-stress and multi-temperature tests, particularly useful to determine stress exponent and activation energy, are described highlighting their advantages compared to single-dwell tests. Results obtained from a zircon-based ceramic refractory are used to discuss experimental uncertainties, accuracy and precision associated with creep rate, and creep parameters. Some consideration to decide testing conditions and parameters for different ceramic and metallic materials are also summarized.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • A theoretical study of an improved capacitive pressure sensor: Closed-form
           solution of uniformly loaded annular membranes
    • Authors: Yong-sheng Lian; Jun-yi Sun; Xiao-ming Ge; Zhi-xin Yang; Xiao-ting He; Zhou-lian Zheng
      Pages: 84 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yong-sheng Lian, Jun-yi Sun, Xiao-ming Ge, Zhi-xin Yang, Xiao-ting He, Zhou-lian Zheng
      In this study, the conductive diaphragm in conventional capacitive pressure sensors with dual function (the deformable element and the upper electrode plate of a non-parallel plate capacitor) was modified into a non-conductive elastic annular thin-film (as the deformable element) centrally connected with a conductive rigid circular plate or alternatively with a non-conductive rigid circular plate adhered by a conductive thin-film (as the upper electrode plate of a parallel plate capacitor). This modification brings two advantages: the parallel plate capacitor is more convenient in the accurate calculation of capacitance than a non-parallel plate capacitor; it is easier to select a deformable element with good elastic behavior in non-conductive elastic thin-films than to select such a deformable element in conductive diaphragms. These advantages could provide convenience for further improving the performance of sensors. The presented closed-form solution can meet the needs of the research and development of this improved capacitive pressure sensor.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Experimental measurement of spur gear mesh stiffness using digital image
           correlation technique
    • Authors: Naresh K. Raghuwanshi; Anand Parey
      Pages: 93 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Naresh K. Raghuwanshi, Anand Parey
      Mesh stiffness is the main cause of gearbox vibration. A crack in the tooth of gear reduces the mesh stiffness. Researchers are trying to evaluate the mesh stiffness of healthy and faulty gears by different techniques and modifying the existing techniques for the purpose of vibration based fault detection in gearboxes. Generally, the mesh stiffness is evaluated statically for full mesh cycle and it is used for vibration analysis of the gearboxes. In this paper, a new experimental technique of mesh stiffness measurement by using digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been proposed. The experiments were performed on healthy as well as cracked gears. The obtained results were compared with finite element method (FEM) and analytical method (AM) and showed a good match. The results show that the DIC technique can be used to measure the mesh stiffness.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.034
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Remote controlled water craft for water measurement
    • Authors: A. Kozyra; K. Skrzypczyk; K. Stebel; A. Rolnik; P. Rolnik; M. Kućma
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): A. Kozyra, K. Skrzypczyk, K. Stebel, A. Rolnik, P. Rolnik, M. Kućma
      This paper presents a remote controlled water craft and automatic calibrator for water quality parameter measurement. To determine the water condition as temperature, conductance, pH, O 2 , NO 3 - and NH 4 + ion concentration were used. All apparatus was placed on our own-design catamaran. The measurements are taken automatically on the craft, transmitted wirelessly to a PC-based control station and saved there in a dedicated database. The drone was built in such a way that it can be easily expanded using new measurement equipment and analysis software. Hence, the modularity and extensibility are important advantages of the catamaran. Using the Modbus based communication protocol enables easy measurement equipment expansion for the end-user. An important aspect in taking the measurements is the calibration of the multiple electrodes. To provide good accuracy, calibration has to be undertaken before each use. Calibration undertaken manually is very time-consuming and inconvenient; that is why the automatic calibration station was built. The proposed hardware and software were created within Project-Based Learning classes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Microstructure-dependent dynamic behavior of torsional nano-varactor
    • Authors: Hamid Mohammad-Sedighi; Ali Koochi; Maryam Keivani; Mohamadreza Abadyan
      Pages: 114 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Hamid Mohammad-Sedighi, Ali Koochi, Maryam Keivani, Mohamadreza Abadyan
      Experiments depict that the physico-mechanical response of miniature devices is microstructure-dependent. However, the classic continuum theory cannot correctly predict the microstructure-dependency. In this paper, the strain gradient theory is employed to examine the dynamic behavior and instability characteristics of miniature varactor with trapezoidal geometry. The governing equation of the varactor is obtained incorporating the effects of Coulomb force, van der Waals (vdW) attraction, squeeze film damping and structural damping. The influences of microstructure on the dynamic instability of equilibrium points are studied by plotting the phase portrait and bifurcation diagrams. It is found that increase in the microstructure parameter enhances the torsional stability. In the presence of the applied voltage, the phase portrait shows the saddle-node bifurcation while for free-standing varactor a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation is observed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Design and analysis of a 3D laser scanner
    • Authors: Mohammed A. Isa; Ismail Lazoglu
      Pages: 122 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mohammed A. Isa, Ismail Lazoglu
      A new laser scanner is designed, built and its scan measurement uncertainty is analyzed and deviations are minimized. The design is comprised of the physical setup of scanner, point cloud extraction as well as procedures for scanner calibration. It is designed to operate in a spherical domain, thereby giving wide imaging view possibilities. By exploiting strategies in real-time serial communication and image processing, the prototype acquires uniformly dense point cloud from a geometric specimen. In addition to design, rather than using benchmark geometry to only assess the accuracy of the scanner, data obtained from a known geometric model are used to modify the scanner parameters to obtain optimal results. A method of finding scanner parameters that provides least point deviations is developed using least squares. The methods of calibration and optimization of the scanner prototype in this paper can be extended to any type of scanner design.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Multi-response optimization of end milling parameters under through-tool
           cryogenic cooling condition
    • Authors: Mozammel Mia
      Pages: 134 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mozammel Mia
      Cryogenic cooling atmosphere in machining is usually accredited as clean cutting condition. Works in literature are mostly focused on external implementation of cryogenic; thereby not many studies are concerned in its internal application (i.e. through-tool). In this regard, present study deals with quality characteristics such as cutting force, surface roughness and specific cutting energy in internal cryogenic cooling assisted milling of hardened steel vis-à-vis mathematical modeling and multiple attributes optimization by using response surface methodology. Full factorial based design of experiment focusing on input variables cutting speed, feed rate and cutting condition divulged 27 experimental runs. Analysis of variance results showed that cutting condition prominently affects all responses which reflect the criticality of choosing appropriate mode of cooling. Experimental outcomes revealed that through-tool cryogenic cooling is better than dry and wet cooling technique. Furthermore, the formulated mathematical relations are usable due to higher prediction accuracies. A cutting speed of 26m/min, feed rate of 58mm/min and through-tool cryogenic cooling have been found and verified as optimum levels for concurrent minimization of quality characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.033
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Three-dimensional survey method of pavement texture using photographic
    • Authors: Lorenzo Puzzo; Giuseppe Loprencipe; Cristina Tozzo; Antonio D'Andrea
      Pages: 146 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Lorenzo Puzzo, Giuseppe Loprencipe, Cristina Tozzo, Antonio D'Andrea
      In this paper, an image-based technique for the assessment of a 3D model of pavement texture is presented. Five common cameras were used to collect pictures of the pavement surface. An innovative procedure was developed, based on volumetric calculation, to calculate the digital Mean Texture Depth (MTD) starting from the Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by the photos. To validate the procedure, 20 different pavement surfaces were acquired for a total of 100 DSMs. For each model the digital MTD was calculated and compared with the measured MTD performed with the sand patch method, in the same pavement. The coefficients of determination were found for each camera. The results highlighted the high accuracy level of the analysis, with a coefficient of determination from 0.99 to 0.94 in relation to the features of each camera used for the acquisition. In addition, others texture parameters extracted by profiles were calculated and analyzed. At last, a volumetric study was conducted to investigate the pavement behavior in case of rainfall.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.040
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Three point bending flexural strength of cement treated tropical marine
           soil reinforced by lime treated natural fiber
    • Authors: Vivi Anggraini; Afshin Asadi; Agusril Syamsir; Bujang B.K. Huat
      Pages: 158 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Agusril Syamsir, Bujang B.K. Huat
      Marine soil in the Selangor State of Malaysia was characterized with respect to its engineering properties as pavement layer in road constructions. Samples were collected from North Klang area in Selangor, Malaysia and subjected to physico-chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical analyses. Quick lime or calcium oxide (CaO) treated coconut fibers were introduced to soil cement mixture to enhance the flexural strength of tropical marine soil. Three point bending tests were carried out on treated samples after 7, 14 and 28days respectively. The tests results showed improvements in the flexural performance of the mixture as it could be seen by the increase in the flexural strength, Young’s modulus and the toughness index especially when the treated fibers were incorporated into the mixture. It was found that, the bond strength and interaction between treated fibers and soil was the dominant mechanism controlling the reinforcement benefit. It can be concluded that, the application of the CaO treated coconut fiber reinforced cement treated marine clay from Peninsular Malaysia is useful both in strength and ductility as pavement layer in road constructions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.045
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Measuring the radiation pattern of on-board antennas at sea
    • Authors: A. Valles Castro; F.J. Calviño Dopazo; L.F. Sánchez Álvarez; S. García Fernández; J.E. Antoranz Álvaro; F. Torrecilla Orte; M. García Sánchez; A.V. Alejos; I. Cuiñas; P. Gómez-Pérez
      Pages: 167 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): A. Valles Castro, F.J. Calviño Dopazo, L.F. Sánchez Álvarez, S. García Fernández, J.E. Antoranz Álvaro, F. Torrecilla Orte, M. García Sánchez, A.V. Alejos, I. Cuiñas, P. Gómez-Pérez
      Measuring the radiation pattern from antennas operating on ships is costly in terms of time and money. Due to the reflections on the sea surface, multipath influences measurement results. The standard procedures recommend repeating the measurement process several times and then applying a statistical analysis to suppress the multipath effect and obtain the correct antenna radiation pattern. However, a close analysis of the multipath problem using a two-ray model may help to find a measurement setup that minimizes the multipath effect and reduces the need for measurement repetitions. This would dramatically reduce the time and cost of measurements and improve the efficiency of the process.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.042
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • IR radiometer sensitivity and accuracy improvement by eliminating spurious
           radiation for emissivity measurements on highly specular samples in the
           2–25μm spectral range
    • Authors: T. Echániz; R.B. Pérez-Sáez; M.J. Tello
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): T. Echániz, R.B. Pérez-Sáez, M.J. Tello
      This paper indicates that the sensitivity and accuracy of an infrared radiometer for emissivity measurements depends not only on its design and the measurement method, but also on the spurious radiation. This spurious radiation must be taken into account in the calibration processes since it can be of the same order of magnitude as that of the sample in highly reflective surfaces. Its presence may also be the cause of the inability to detect small surface emissivity changes induced by any surface or bulk properties (anomalous skin effect, phase transitions, etc.). In this paper, the analysis of the spurious radiation is performed for a T-form radiometer and a measurement method where the surroundings are considered to emit as if they were black bodies. However, the results and conclusions that are obtained can be extended without difficulty to any type of radiometer and to all measurement methods. Our research shows that if the sample is placed normal to the emitted radiation optical path, two different spurious radiation sources are detected. However, for low emitting and highly specular materials, they can be eliminated by tilting the sample between 6 and 20° without modifying the spectral emissivity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Analytical solution to and error analysis of the quaternion based
           similarity transformation considering measurement errors in both frames
    • Authors: Guobin Chang; Tianhe Xu; Qianxin Wang; Ming Liu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Guobin Chang, Tianhe Xu, Qianxin Wang, Ming Liu
      The similarity transformation between two coordinate frames, is widely adopted in science and engineering. The transformation parameters are estimated using coordinate determinations of a set of common points in both frames. The quaternion is employed to represent the rotation transformation; and a 3×1 error vector is defined to represent the quaternion estimation error. Coordinate determinations in both frames are assumed noisy. An analytical least-squares solution is derived in which the quaternion estimate is the eigenvector of a 4×4 symmetric matrix corresponding to its largest eigenvalue. It is found that as long as a practically meaningful quaternion estimate exists, the largest eigenvalue must be single. Error analysis of this solution is investigated in detail in which the error analysis of the largest eigenvalue-eigenvector pair plays a pivotal role. Monte Carlo experiments are conducted and the results validate the consistency of the developed error analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Distortion calibrating method of measuring rail profile based on local
           affine invariant feature descriptor
    • Authors: Chao Wang; Ziji Ma; Yanfu Li; Jiuzhen Zeng; Tan Jin; Hongli Liu
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Chao Wang, Ziji Ma, Yanfu Li, Jiuzhen Zeng, Tan Jin, Hongli Liu
      Measuring rail profile in the presence of multiple degrees of freedom vibration is a very challenging task. This paper presents a novel method based on the local affine invariant feature descriptor to calibrate distorted profiles, which are obtained by traditional rail measurement system. It has three major modules: local affine invariant (LAI) feature descriptor, affine transformation estimation and parameters refinement. LAI feature descriptor is based on the affine geometry invariant and generated by calculating the proportions of different areas. Using the proposed LAI descriptor, we implement a three-stage profile calibration including matching, estimation, and refinement based on grouping and fast iterative closest point (FICP) algorithm. The performance of proposed LAI descriptor and calibrating method is tested by performing extensive experiments. The experimental results show that our LAI descriptor is highly descriptive and robust with respect to varying resolution and noise, and the LAI descriptor based calibration is effective and repeatable.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A real-time EIT imaging system based on the split augmented Lagrangian
           shrinkage algorithm
    • Authors: Yongkang Zhou; Xiaoqiong Li
      Pages: 27 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Yongkang Zhou, Xiaoqiong Li
      With advantages of portability, low-cost and noninvasive detection, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has great potential application value as a bedside monitor. Because image reconstruction in EIT involves addressing serious ill-posed inverse problems, realizing EIT online dynamic display still remains a challenging work. In this paper, an EIT imaging system with the function of online dynamic display was designed. Split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm (SALSA), which transforms an unconstrained optimization EIT inverse problem into an equivalent constrained optimization problem, was adopted in the proposed system. On the basis of EIT imaging simulation, a high-precise Compact PCI-based EIT system was implemented with FPGA. And experiments of EIT cylinder imaging and in-vivo monitoring were conducted to verify the feasibility of the system. The results indicated that the online dynamic display frame rate of the system, which was centered with a computer (Intel i7 2.2GHz, 4GB RAM), was up to 32fps.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Propagation modeling for outdoor-to-indoor and indoor-to-indoor wireless
           links in high-speed train
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; José Rodríguez-Piñeiro; Jean R.O. Fernández; José A. García-Naya; David W. Matolak; Cesar Briso; Luis Castedo
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Lei Zhang, José Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Jean R.O. Fernández, José A. García-Naya, David W. Matolak, Cesar Briso, Luis Castedo
      Nowadays telecommunication companies have shown a great interest in deploying broadband mobile wireless networks in high-speed trains (HSTs) with the aim of supporting both passenger services provisioning as well as automatic train control and signaling. The train carriage, as a confined steel structure, has specific propagation characteristics, which motivates the study of the indoor-to-indoor and outdoor-to-indoor radio propagation characteristics for broadband wireless communication systems in high-speed railways, constituting the main contribution of this work. This study has been performed by means of measurements considering an actual Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployment, as well as a portable test transmitter and different configurations of antennas and receivers at 2.4, 2.6 and 5.7GHz in a commercial high-speed rail line in Spain. The results show that radio waves incur obvious waveguiding effects inside the HST car. Moreover, for the propagation from the railway station to a mobile receiver inside the HST car, waves at higher frequencies experience less attenuation through the train carriage, by better propagating through windows. Although the railway station and train interior contain objects that induce a rich set of multipath components, the analysis of small-scale fading statistics shows that the channel still has a dominant path. Also, the LTE coverage tests for Base Transceiver Station (BTS)-Train and BTS-Mobile links were conducted and with internal and external antennas on board the train. We found that there was a strong signal penetration loss of approximately 26dB caused by the train carriage structure. The final results constitute an initial model for the propagation incurred by a relay-based communications system for fourth generation (4G) network in railways.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Self-interference suppression improvement by employing circular polarized
    • Authors: M. Portela Táboas; M. Vera-Isasa; M. García Sánchez
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): M. Portela Táboas, M. Vera-Isasa, M. García Sánchez
      This paper presents a novel method for suppressing the self-interference due to multipath in WiFi nodes of full-duplex systems based on employing two circular polarized antennas. Three different techniques have been used in order to suppress the interference generated by the direct wave: antenna separation, antenna pattern and analogue cancellation circuit comprised of a balun, a phase shifter and a variable attenuator. As a result, an initial isolation of 90dB was achieved inside an anechoic chamber. In order to beat the multipath interference circular polarization was employed. With the aim of analyzing the robustness of the circular polarization in comparison with the linear one, the self-interference between transmitter and receiver was measured in nine different environments. The measured level of self-interference was also compared with the results achieved inside the anechoic chamber. In this way, the degradation of the self-interference suppression due to multipath was evaluated. Results show better isolation when employing circularly polarized antennas in seven of nine environments. In addition, with the circular polarization self-interference suppression higher than 70dB was achieved independently of the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Implementation of a programmable electromechanical chopper with adjustable
           frequency and duty cycle for specific heat measurements
    • Authors: D. Giraldo; H. Correa; D. Peña Lara
      Pages: 60 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): D. Giraldo, H. Correa, D. Peña Lara
      A hard disk mechanism was used as an electromechanical light chopper controlled by software developed in LabVIEW with an accuracy of ±0.01Hz in frequency to realize specific heat measurements. This chopper can be used in applications in experimental techniques in which low-frequency light excitation is required. The software provides an user interface to set the excitation frequency and its duty cycle. The evaluation of the efficiency was measured by installing the device in a fully automated high-resolution AC calorimetry system. The device provides a light cutter signal with a frequency varying from 1mHz to 40Hz. Employing the desired wave function, the excitation mode provided by this design can be used under theoretical models proposed for the specific heat technique, obtaining an increased efficiency in the measurements of the specific heat response for the studied materials. This paper reports the performance characteristics of the technology of an asymmetric CA-chopper, which can optimize efficiency in capturing the measurement of the response of specific heat of any given study material in a high-resolution ac calorimetry system. The chopper consists entirely of the positioning mechanism of a hard disk.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A method for measuring pressure-area isotherms of insoluble surfactant
    • Authors: A. Ponce-Torres
      Pages: 74 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): A. Ponce-Torres
      A simple method for measuring pressure-area isotherms of insoluble surfactant monolayers is proposed. It can be seen as a variant of the ADSA-PD/CSD (Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis-Pendant Drop/Constrained Sessile Drop) film balance technique, where both the surface pressure and area per surfactant molecule are measured in the course of the experiment. In the proposed method, the measurement of this latter quantity is substituted by a straightforward fitting of an equation of state to the surface pressure values. In this way, one eliminates the main source of error of the ADSA-PD/CSD technique: the accurate determination of the small amount of surfactant deposited on the interface. The comparison between previous experimental results and those obtained with this approach shows remarkable agreement (the relative deviations in the area per surfactant molecule are of the order of 1%).

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.024
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Improvement of surface energy properties of PVC nanocomposites for
           enhancing electrical applications
    • Authors: A. Thabet; A.A. Ebnalwaled
      Pages: 78 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): A. Thabet, A.A. Ebnalwaled
      Nanotechnology strategy was used in this work to improve the surface energy properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Different types (clay, ZnO, SiO2 and Al2O3) and concentrations (1wt.%, 5wt.% and 10wt.%) of nanoparticles were investigated. The morphology, dielectric constant, contact angle, wetting energy, spreading coefficient and work of adhesion were investigated for pure PVC and PVC nanocomposites. Tap and salt water were used to study the surface energy properties. The results revealed that the type and concentration of the used nanoparticles affect the properties of the obtained nanocomposites. The change of surface roughness, hydrophilic cites arrangement and dipole/dipole interactions by the change of the type and concentration of the used nanoparticles were the main reason for improving the surface energy properties of PVC nanocomposites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.023
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Stroke-affected upper extremity movement assessment via continuous
           relative phase analysis
    • Authors: Kristina Daunoravičienė; Jurgita Žižienė; Jolanta Pauk; Adam Idzkowski; Inga Raudonytė; Alvydas Juocevičius; Artūras Linkel; Julius Griškevičius
      Pages: 84 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Kristina Daunoravičienė, Jurgita Žižienė, Jolanta Pauk, Adam Idzkowski, Inga Raudonytė, Alvydas Juocevičius, Artūras Linkel, Julius Griškevičius
      Paper presents the quantified assessment of stroke-affected upper extremity (UE) coordination via continuous relative phase (CRP) analysis. 14 post-stroke patients were divided into 3 groups based on the severity of impairment according to Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). CRP was determined based on UE kinematics parameters measured using inertial measurement units fixed on arm, forearm and hand while subjects performed designated movement. UE movement cycles were analysed based on the metrics derived from phase planes, the phase angle and CRP plots, as well as the calculated range of motions and CRP variability rates. It was found that CRP variability is associated with impairment level, i.e. it is decreasing with a higher level of dysfunction. Therefore, the CRP might serve as measurable quantity and could be valuable for supporting clinical assessment and quantifying impairment severity of UE motor functions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Braking deceleration variability of progressive safety gears using
           statistical and wavelet analyses
    • Authors: Paweł Lonkwic; Krystian Łygas; Piotr Wolszczak; Szymon Molski; Grzegorz Litak
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Paweł Lonkwic, Krystian Łygas, Piotr Wolszczak, Szymon Molski, Grzegorz Litak
      The impact of changeable operating conditions on the deceleration of progressive safety gears of PP 16 type and CHP 2000 new design is presented by the authors. The study was performed in the normal (dry friction) operation conditions (S) and also with the use of mineral oil lubricant (OM). The values of braking delays were recorded with the load of 4kN and 10kN applied. Statistical and wavelet analyses were performed to determine variability and waveforms of the system response. The authors reported the differences in dynamical characteristics of the examined safety gears designs in the frequency response. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the acceleration distribution is discussed in this research study.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Measurement of burr removal rate and analysis of machining parameters in
           ultrasonic assisted dry EDM (US-EDM) for deburring drilled holes in CFRP
    • Authors: Rendi Kurniawan; S. Thirumalai Kumaran; V. Arumuga Prabu; Yu Zhen; Ki Moon Park; Ye In Kwak; Md. Mofizul Islam; Tae Jo Ko
      Pages: 98 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Rendi Kurniawan, S. Thirumalai Kumaran, V. Arumuga Prabu, Yu Zhen, Ki Moon Park, Ye In Kwak, Md. Mofizul Islam, Tae Jo Ko
      An ultrasonic assisted dry electrical discharge machining (US-EDM) process in a gaseous fluid medium was proposed to remove the burrs formed on the exit region of a drilled hole. In preliminary experiment, three different electrode tools (copper, brass, and aluminum) were utilized. In secondary experiment, US-EDM and dry-EDM were compared and performed using the copper tool. US-EDM parameters, such as capacitance (C), pulse-on time (TON), and vibration amplitude (Ap-p) were considered as functions of the predicted burr removal rates (BRRs) model. Based on signal to noise (S/N) ratio analysis, machining parameters C=10−2 µF, TON =150µs, and Ap-p =4.919µm provided the optimal BRR. The BRR was affected the most by capacitance, followed by pulse-on time and ultrasonic vibration amplitude. The copper tool provided a higher BRR than other tools. US-EDM is considerably effective when TON is low and the performance of US-EDM is better than that of Dry-EDM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the US-EDM method created a heat-affected zone surrounding the machined surface of the deburred exit hole in range of 200µm–500µm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Litz wire RF coils for low frequency NMR applications
    • Authors: Giulio Giovannetti; Luca Menichetti
      Pages: 116 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Giulio Giovannetti, Luca Menichetti
      Radiofrequency (RF) coils are key components in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) systems since the use of dedicated coils is necessary for obtaining high-quality images. As a first approximation, an RF coil is essentially a tuned electrical circuit comprising an inductor and a capacitor. Conductors cross-geometry choice affects the coil overall performance, since the RF current doesn’t flow uniformly in all the conductor volume. The use of Litz wire conductor for the RF coil design can help to maximize the surface where the current flows and to minimize the conductor resistance. This paper briefly reports the literature on Litz wires employed for MR coil design and their influence on coil performance. Successively four circular coils, tuned at frequencies in kHz and MHz ranges, were built by using wire and Litz wire conductors. Realized coils were tested and characterized by laboratory workbench in order to measure quality factors and to compare the performance of the different conductors typology. Our results are applicable in several situations as MR imaging in low field scanners, imaging of nuclear species at low fields, Overhauser systems and prepolarized NMR. Moreover, we believe Litz wire could be successfully employed in MRI/magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) systems.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.031
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Atmospheric boundary layer simulation in a new open-jet facility at LSU:
           CFD and experimental investigations
    • Authors: Aly Mousaad Aly; Hamzeh Gol-Zaroudi
      Pages: 121 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Aly Mousaad Aly, Hamzeh Gol-Zaroudi
      This study focuses on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind generation with proper flow characteristics for an open-jet setup design. The results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical CFD models were later validated experimentally within a newly built open-jet facility at Louisiana State University (LSU). Various turbulence models of k–ɛ, Reynolds Stress Model, and Large Eggy Simulation (LES) are implemented to help selecting appropriate flow management schemes. Based on CFD results, the planks’ configuration that matched open terrain was a set of angles: 15°, 12°, 10°, 5°, 0°, 0° from bottom to top. The LES simulated wind velocity and turbulence intensity profiles were in good agreements with target profiles for open-terrain, because LES uses a spatial filtering operation to separate the larger eddies (which are more anisotropic) and smaller eddies (which are nearly isotropic). Moreover, a comprehensive experimental flow quality check was conducted, and the facility was further calibrated by testing a 1:15 scaled model of a low-rise building. The results were then compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the University of Western Ontario wind-tunnel database. It was shown that the general patterns of pressure coefficient’s contours are more symmetric for LSU model and the reattachment patterns are identical between the two cases. Eventually, the potential application of CFD was proved when implemented in the design of an open-jet facility to reduce the experimental effort for ABL wind processes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Modal parameter estimation from optically-measured data using a hybrid
           output-only system identification method
    • Authors: Peyman Poozesh; Aral Sarrafi; Zhu Mao; Christopher Niezrecki
      Pages: 134 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Peyman Poozesh, Aral Sarrafi, Zhu Mao, Christopher Niezrecki
      The accuracy of estimated modal parameters using different output-only system identification techniques is dependent on the amplitude of the structural response and the associated measurement noise. Unlike, a typical experiment using attached sensors and a multi-channel data acquisition (DAQ) system, optical measurement systems can have high levels of measurement noise that may result in estimated modal parameters that have low accuracy. Although the BSS-based modal parameter estimation techniques are able to identify modal characteristics of the structures from system responses, the performance of these techniques are generally limited by the damping values of structures and the number of sensors mounted on the structure. This paper proposes a new hybrid output-only system identification method that improves the extraction of modal parameters from optically measured system responses. The proposed Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) method employs a BSS learning technique, referred to as Complexity Pursuit (CP), to recover the source signals (i.e. time-domain modal responses). Afterwards, the recovered time-domain modal responses were further processed using the poly-reference least square complex frequency domain (PLSCF) technique to accurately estimate modal information from the recovered source signals. In this work, the numerical response of a cantilevered beam is processed using the hybrid output-only system identification method to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed technique in identifying modal parameters in the presence of noise. Furthermore, the proposed method is used to characterize the optically measured dynamic response of a 2.3-m long wind turbine blade. The obtained results indicate that the proposed output-only system identification is robust to the measurement noise, and since the contribution of the other modal responses are attenuated after applying BSS the hybrid methodology has a potential to identify accurate dynamic characteristics of structures from optically measured data.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.030
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Structural evaluation of dynamic and semi-static displacements of the
           Juarez Bridge using GPS technology
    • Authors: G. Esteban Vazquez B.; J. Ramon Gaxiola-Camacho; Rick Bennett; G. Michel Guzman-Acevedo; Ivan E. Gaxiola-Camacho
      Pages: 146 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): G. Esteban Vazquez B., J. Ramon Gaxiola-Camacho, Rick Bennett, G. Michel Guzman-Acevedo, Ivan E. Gaxiola-Camacho
      Global Positioning System (GPS) naturally produces position estimates representing a considerable advantage in comparison with others assessment instruments such as accelerometers, where double integration is required. Several investigations have demonstrated that GPS is an accurate and efficient tool for the evaluation of civil infrastructure. Therefore, an alternative bridge structural evaluation focused on in-service conditions of the Juarez Bridge located in Culiacan, Mexico by using GPS is addressed in this research. The Juarez Bridge connects two important zones of the city, it is a reinforced concrete structure constructed approximately 45years ago, and it has a length closely to 200m. The assessment process consisted in collecting continuous GPS data during one consecutive hour at three different periods of the day (rush hours) from Monday to Sunday under critical traffic loading. Since the response of a structure subjected to loads may result in different types of displacements, GPS time series were used for the proper calculation of dynamic and semi-static displacement at the center deck of the Juarez Bridge. However, GPS displacements obtained in terms of coordinates may not accurately reveal the behavior of the bridge without considering prior filtering of the data. Hence, two post-processing reliable filtering techniques: the moving average and Chebyshev filter were applied to improve the time series. It was observed that the vertical displacements were critical during the evaluation. Hence, vertical semi-static displacements were compared with respect to the AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) deflection limits, and probability of failure was properly calculated.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • The SWSC Compilation Algorithm enhancing the reliability and accuracy of
           determining rectangular co-ordinates of corners of building structures
           with photogrammetric method
    • Authors: Robert Krzyżek; Jacek Uchański; Piotr Falkowski
      Pages: 154 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Robert Krzyżek, Jacek Uchański, Piotr Falkowski
      The study investigated a set of data in the form of rectangular co-ordinates X, Y of the corners of building eaves defined with the photogrammetric method and additional measurements which were used to develop a computing procedure offering a greater reliability and accuracy of defining the position (co-ordinates X, Y) of the corners of the objects under study. The scope of the study included developing an algorithm able to carry out the above objectives and a making a comparative and statistical analysis of the obtained results. The SWSC Compilation Algorithm has been well tested on existing real structures. The objects were divided into two samples with, respectively, 143 (sample 1) and 101 (sample 2) building corners. A comparison of co-ordinates of the building corners (in both samples) done after running the SWSC Compilation Algorithm with reference data, produced a linear deviation of an average arithmetic value 0.05m.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Spiral trajectory planning approach for underground cavity measurements
           based on laser scanning
    • Authors: Hao Cui; Qingwu Hu; Qingzhou Mao; Mengxiao Song
      Pages: 166 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Hao Cui, Qingwu Hu, Qingzhou Mao, Mengxiao Song
      Underground cavity three-dimensional measurements constitute an important and challenging task in underground mining. The laser scanning method is a relatively precise and efficient way to address this problem, but it is limited by the unevenness of the point cloud that reduces the scanning efficiency. In this paper, an approach that can increase the evenness of the point cloud in underground laser scanning is proposed. The approach is based on a spiral trajectory planning strategy. The scanning trajectory is generated from previous scan by solid geometry. Exceptions are discussed and solutions are proposed. The approach was used in an actual laser scanning system and experiments were carried out in a gold mine in Hebei Province, North China. To assess the results, 3D Delaunay triangulation network of laser points was built in accordance to a semispherical-planer projection rule, and the area of each triangle in the network was calculated. The coefficient of variance of the triangular area indicated that the new approach can increase the evenness of the laser points efficiently.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.061
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • The design of a novel mother wavelet that is tailor-made for continuous
           wavelet transform in extracting defect-related features from reflected
           guided wave signals
    • Authors: Jingming Chen; Javad Rostami; Peter W. Tse; Xiang Wan
      Pages: 176 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Jingming Chen, Javad Rostami, Peter W. Tse, Xiang Wan
      Guided waves are increasingly being researched and applied for use in defect detection. Because different guided wave mode conversions and noise are inevitably generated by wall-covered sections of pipe, the received signals that contain the defect information are often overwhelmed by these undesired disturbances. Hence, the received signals must be analysed by an effective signal processing method so that the critical defect information can be extracted from the blurred received signals. Researchers have used different signal processing methods, such as continuous wavelet transform (CWT), to filter out the unwanted part of the received signals. Different filter bands can be generated from the mother wavelet of the CWT. The selection of a suitable mother wavelet can minimise the levels of noise and unwanted modes. However, the selection of the mother wavelet is an intensive trial and error process. In this paper, a new approach for selecting the most suitable mother wavelet for the inspection process was developed. Instead of using the Morlet wavelet as the mother wavelet, as suggested by other researchers, here propose the use of the emitted tone-burst signal as the mother wavelet for generating different filter bands of CWT. This type of novel mother wavelet is called the tone-burst wavelet. To verify its effectiveness, tone-burst wavelet was tested via simulation and in field tests. Simulated models of pipes were built using the finite element analysis tool to investigate the propagation characteristics of guided waves along the inspected pipes, especially on the wall-covered section. After the successful completion of the simulation, laboratory tests were conducted using building pipes that had corroded areas in the wall-covered sections. Finally, field tests were conducted using in-service building pipes erected in a tall building. The proposed tone-burst wavelet de-noising method was found to be effective in extracting the defect-related signals. Hence, the location and severity of the corrosion were successfully determined. Moreover, the results showed that the tone-burst wavelet was superior to the conventional Morlet wavelet when used as the mother wavelet of CWT. With the help of the proposed method, the likelihood of pipe ruptures that can trigger gas leakage and explosions can be minimised.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.038
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Integrative binocular vision detection method based on infrared and
           visible light fusion for conveyor belts longitudinal tear
    • Authors: Tiezhu Qiao; Lulu Chen; Yusong Pang; Gaowei Yan; Changyun Miao
      Pages: 192 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Tiezhu Qiao, Lulu Chen, Yusong Pang, Gaowei Yan, Changyun Miao
      Real-time and reliable detection of conveyor belt longitudinal tear is an important task in mining operations. This paper presents a novel method of Integrative Binocular Vision Detection (IBVD) to detect the longitudinal tears of conveyor belts. Based on infrared and visible fusion, the IBVD sensor device collects the fusion images of the belt. After extracting the tear features by projection method, the progress of potential tears can be evaluated and the tears can be identified. The IBVD method is verified by an experiment platform fulfilling the acquisition, pro-processing and analysis of fusion images for tear detection. The fusion image processing time is less than 18ms, which satisfies the requirement of real-time online monitoring. Compared to the individual measurement technique of either infrared detection or visible light detection, the average accuracy of the IBVD method reaches up to 96%, the IBVD method is more reliable in tear detection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.032
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Characterization of ice-phobic surfaces: Improvements on contact angle
    • Authors: L. Mazzola; G. Bruno
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): L. Mazzola, G. Bruno
      One of the main problem for the aircrafts is the ice formation on a critical components that decrease reliability and safety of the flights. At present, methods which prevent or oppose the ice nucleation and growth are not effective and several studies are on going. In this work we focus the activity on passive methods to prevent the ice (ice-phobic surfaces). The factors characterizing the adhesion of water to the surfaces are analyzed, in particular we focused our studies on two performance indexes, wettability and surface free energy, which are strongly correlated with the ice-phobic properties. Surface Free Energy (SFE) and wettability are two properties which depend on the chemical state and the roughness of the surface material. Changing the chemical state or roughness, it is possible to change the surface behavior of the materials. It is evident that, to design ice-phobic surfaces, it is important to evaluate the behavior of supercooled water droplet which starts to be in contact with the surface of the component at real condition of pressure and temperature of flight. For this reason it is important to realize a characterization technique which allows to analyze the sample surfaces varying both pressure and temperature. In this work we have design, developed and validated a test room in order to determine wettability and surface free energy in flight condition (pressure until to 0.1bar and temperature until to −50°C). In this way it was possible to reproduce, in static condition, the behavior of a supercooled liquid drop on the surface component. This new method was validate on a standard material such as Polypropylene. Tests demonstrated that both temperature and pressure influence the shape of the drops, in particular reducing the pressure and temperature, the liquid spread on the surfaces much more than standard conditions (at ambient pressure and temperature). It was corroborated that this new test room is useful for the characterization of ice-phobic surfaces.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T13:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.036
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A simplified method for the solar reflectance of a finite surface in field
    • Authors: Guoxiong Mei; Bo Wu; Shaokun Ma; Yinghong Qin
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Guoxiong Mei, Bo Wu, Shaokun Ma, Yinghong Qin
      Albedo is the fraction of the incident solar radiation that is reflected by a surface. The albedo of an infinite surface can be measured by the using aircraft or satellite-based tools or by the ASTM E1918-06. Measuring the albedo of a finite surface, however, is relatively complicate. Here we introduce a new simplified pyranometer-based method to measure the albedo of a finite surface. The method assembles a baffle with retro-reflective interior to force the down-facing pyranometer receiving the reflected radiation from the target only. The measurement completes by two steps with one leaving the target uncovered and the other covering the target with a spectrally-nonselective reference mask, while reading the incident and reflected radiations simultaneously. The reference mask is used for calibration, which negates the impact of the instrument shadow on the measurement errors. We use the proposed method to measure the albedo of typical land covers and we found the observed albedo agrees highly with the albedo measured by the ASTM E1918-06. The proposed method is also suitable to measure the albedo of targets that are compacted by the reference mask.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.039
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A new approach for damage detection in asphalt concrete pavements using
           battery-free wireless sensors with non-constant injection rates
    • Authors: Hassene Hasni; Amir H. Alavi; Pengcheng Jiao; Nizar Lajnef; Karim Chatti; Kenji Aono; Shantanu Chakrabartty
      Pages: 217 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Hassene Hasni, Amir H. Alavi, Pengcheng Jiao, Nizar Lajnef, Karim Chatti, Kenji Aono, Shantanu Chakrabartty
      This study presents a novel approach for detection of bottom-up cracking in asphalt concrete (AC) pavements using self-powered wireless sensor (SWS) with non-constant injection rates. The performance of the sensors was evaluated through numerical and experimental studies on an asphalt concrete specimen under three-point bending configuration. Damage was introduced by making notches with different sizes at the bottom of the specimen. Different 3D finite element (FE) models were developed using ABAQUS to generate the sensor output data for different damage states. Thereafter, the laboratory tests were carried on the same specimen to validate the performance of the proposed damage detection approach. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film was used to harvest the strain energy from the host structure and empower the sensor. In order to protect the embedded sensor, an H-shape packaging system was designed and tested. The results indicate that the progression of bottom-up cracks can be accurately detected using the proposed self-powered sensing system.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.035
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Comparison of the influence of acoustically enhanced pulsating water jet
           on selected surface integrity characteristics of CW004A copper and CW614N
    • Authors: D. Lehocká; D. Klichová; J. Foldyna; S. Hloch; P. Hvizdoš; M. Fides; F. Botko
      Pages: 230 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): D. Lehocká, D. Klichová, J. Foldyna, S. Hloch, P. Hvizdoš, M. Fides, F. Botko
      Acoustically excited pulsating water jet cutting (PWJ) is technological modification of material disintegration. From the reason of not detail described area of area of acoustically excited pulsating water jet with using circular nozzle is article focused on further research of mentioned technology. Presented article is focused on evaluation of surface integrity of copper CW004A and brass CW614N, changes in surface layer and strengthening in subsurface layer after impact of acoustically excited pulsating water jet. Surface topography was evaluated by using optical profilometry. Changes in surface layer were evaluated based on mass material removal Δm [mg/s] and maximal depth of penetration PWJ hmax [mm]. Strengthening in subsurface layer was monitored by nanoindentation measurement with Berkovich indenter. Evaluation of subsurface layers discover slight strengthening under disintegrated surface with lower elasticity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Applying strain gauges to measuring thermal warpage of printed circuit
    • Authors: Chien-Yi Huang; Kuo-Ching Ying
      Pages: 239 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Chien-Yi Huang, Kuo-Ching Ying
      Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are composite structures consisting of FR-4, solder mask, and Cu materials. When heated during reflow, these materials exhibit different levels of expansion because of their dissimilar thermal expansion coefficients. Currently, the shadow moiré method is the primary means for measuring PCB warpage. However, applying this method to soldered PCBs can yield inaccurate warpage data because of differences in component height. Moreover, flux volatilization during reflow can pollute the gratings of shadow moiré measurement systems. However, the PCB packaging industry rarely adopts this method because budget constraints, leading to low process quality caused by PCB deformation during reflow. By employing a 3-axis strain gauge measurement technique, this study developed a low-cost PCB warpage measurement method that yields accurate PCB warpage data despite considerable differences in component height and flux volatilization during reflow. Multiple process parameters (e.g., reflow soldering temperature) were employed to analyze bare and soldered PCBs to verify the feasibility of the proposed method by evaluating various PCB characteristics before, during, and after reflow.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.029
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A new data logger based on Raspberry-Pi for Arctic Notostraca locomotion
    • Authors: V. Pasquali; G. D'Alessandro; R. Gualtieri; F. Leccese
      Pages: 249 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): V. Pasquali, G. D'Alessandro, R. Gualtieri, F. Leccese
      A new data logger based on Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic invertebrates has been made, tested and deployed in field. The device uses infrared sensors to check in vivo the invertebrates picking up the locomotor activity, data are collected for the analysis. Thanks to the Raspberry Pi capabilities and features, the instrument proved to be suitable for extreme scenarios such as the polar environment, offering good performances obtained at a very low price. Preliminary test made in field have demonstrated its reliability. Some experimental considerations and the trend of the biological rhythms of the tadpole shrimp’s locomotor activity are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T09:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A low-cost platform based on a robotic arm for parameters estimation of
           Inertial Measurement Units
    • Authors: Juan Botero-Valencia; David Marquez-Viloria; Luis Castano-Londono; Luis Morantes-Guzmán
      Pages: 257 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Juan Botero-Valencia, David Marquez-Viloria, Luis Castano-Londono, Luis Morantes-Guzmán
      Calibration of Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is required to obtain a reliable measurement due to environmental and instrumental errors. Positioning systems are widely applied to inertial sensors calibration and testing. The most commonly used systems include nonmagnetic turntables, nonmagnetic rotating platforms, or robotic arms. Robotic arms provide a fast and accurate sensor positioning, but some aspects such as high-cost, non-portability, construction features, and kinematic should be considered. This paper presents a novel low-cost platform to estimate the calibration parameters of a MEMS magnetometer and accelerometer. The platform is based on a robotic arm of three degrees of freedom (DoF) using standard low-power servomotors with affordable prices and readily available. The kinematic model of the robotic arm is represented using a Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. The platform is placed in different positions to collect a dataset of points evenly distributed. The replicable design of the platform is described and the estimation of calibration parameters is developed to validate the functionality of the platform.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Machinability characteristics, thermal and mechanical properties of
           Al-Mg2Si in-situ composite with bismuth
    • Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani; Saeed Farahany; Victor Songmene
      Pages: 263 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Mohsen Marani Barzani, Saeed Farahany, Victor Songmene
      In the present work, the effects of Bi addition on machinability, thermal, microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-20Mg2Si in- situ metal matrix composite are investigated. Structure of primary Mg2Si reinforcement particle changed from coarse to fine polygonal accompanied with decrease in size and increase in density. Nucleation temperature of primary Mg2Si and solidification temperature range of Al-20Mg2Si composite decreased after addition of Bi. In addition, Bi additions improved ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation (El%), impact toughness and hardness value. Fracture surface of composite with Bi addition showed more fractured than decohered particles which are related to higher El% and impact toughness. Dry turning tests for various cutting conditions (90, 180 and 270m/min) and feed rates (0.1, 0.015 and 0.2mm/rev) were carried out with a cemented carbide tool. The result indicated that surface roughness and cutting force decrease with addition of 0.4wt.% Bi due to change in the Mg2Si particle size from 24µm to near 10µm with less built-up edge. Chip breakability of base alloy was superior because of Mg2Si particles. It was also observed that Bi acted a lubricant role during machining process and therefore decreased friction between the cutting tool and particles.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Distributed UPS control systems reliability analysis
    • Authors: Tommaso Addabbo; Ada Fort; Marco Mugnaini; Valerio Vignoli
      Pages: 275 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Tommaso Addabbo, Ada Fort, Marco Mugnaini, Valerio Vignoli
      Modern power systems should comply with high reliability and availability standards in order to meet customer final expectations and market needs. In this context it is quite obvious that modern uninterruptible power supply (UPS) have started to exploit improvement strategies to achieve higher availability figures over time. At the same time, power, size and performance constraints become stricter placing tight barriers to developers. UPS developers started therefore to design distributed systems where different functions could be allocated to different control board sections. The newly designed systems resulted to have higher availability and improved modularity and expandability. In this paper the authors compare the availability performance of an UPS with a single core control board with a distributed UPS based on multiprocessor control boards. Additionally, a model for the variations of the failure rate due to environmental changes is proposed. In particular, Weibull probability density functions have been considered in order to take into account failure rate changes induced by temperature increase at warmup in a limited time frame.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Possibilities of application measurement techniques in hot die forging
    • Authors: Marek Hawryluk; Jacek Ziemba
      Pages: 284 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Marek Hawryluk, Jacek Ziemba
      The article is a review presenting the possibilities of applying modern measuring techniques in the forging industry by using various measuring tools, instruments and machines applied in workshop metrology. The work points to different aspects of measuring techniques, emphasizing their importance in the context of safety (achieved forgings – products) and to significant measurement problems due to the extreme conditions in hot forging industrial processes (high cyclic mechanical loads and temperatures). The work also analyses the possibility and validity of applying scanning techniques for the purpose of directly monitoring the quality and changes in geometry of tools in industrial forging processes, without the necessity of dismounting them. In addition, applications of numerical modelling results (FEM) for determining physical quantities that are difficult or impossible to test under industrial conditions (temperature distributions, stresses, deformations, etc.) are presented. The work also presents other options of measuring techniques in the forging industry - including for evaluation of temperature measurements of forging tools, for analysis and improvement of forging tool lifetime, checking the technical condition of forging machines and equipment, as well as for building control and measurement systems with regard to forging forces.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A modified ISO 13528 robust analysis (Algorithm A) that takes measurement
           uncertainty into account
    • Authors: Carlo Carobbi
      Pages: 296 - 306
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Carlo Carobbi
      A new approach is here presented for the calculation of a robust reference value and the corresponding robust standard uncertainty to be used in proficiency test data analysis. The proposed method takes into account both the spread of the measured values and the measurement uncertainty declared by the participants in the proficiency test, while the robust standard ISO 13528 methods take only the measured values into account, neglecting measurement uncertainty. The zeta- and z-score performance statistics are consequently modified to adapt the proposed method. Examples of application of the method to actual proficiency test data are offered permitting to appreciate its validity and to facilitate insight.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Efficient implementation of envelope analysis on resources limited
           wireless sensor nodes for accurate bearing fault diagnosis
    • Authors: G. Feng; H. Zhao; F. Gu; P. Needham; A.D. Ball
      Pages: 307 - 318
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): G. Feng, H. Zhao, F. Gu, P. Needham, A.D. Ball
      With the fast development of electronics and wireless communication technologies in recent years, intelligent wireless sensor nodes are becoming increasingly popular in the online machinery condition monitoring systems. They bring a number of benefits, such as reduced investment on the installation and maintenance of expensive communication cables, ease of deployment and upgrading. For the condition monitoring of dynamic signals, distributed computation on wireless sensor nodes is getting popular with wireless sensor nodes becoming more computation powerful and power efficient. As a widely recognised algorithm for bearing fault diagnosis, envelope analysis has been previously proved suitable for being embedded on the wireless sensor nodes to effectively extract fault features from common machinery components such as bearings and gears. As a continuation, this paper studies into several envelope detection methods, including Hilbert transform, spectral correlation, band-pass squared rectifier and short-time RMS. Regarding to the fact that only low frequency components in the bearing envelope is of interest, spectral correlation can be simplified for fast calculation and short-time RMS method can be considered as a simplified band-pass squared rectifier, in which partial aliasing is allowed. Thereafter, spectral correlation and short-time RMS are employed to speed up the calculation of envelope analysis on a wireless sensor node, which thereafter provides the potential to reduce power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. The computation speed comparison shows that the spectral correlation method and short-time RMS can speed up the computation speed by more than two times and five times in comparison with the Hilbert transform method. The simulation study shows that spectral correlation and short-time RMS based methods achieves similar level of accuracy as Hilbert transform. Furthermore, the experimental study shows that spectral correlation and short-time RMS based methods can well reveal the simulated three types of bearing faults while with the computation speed significantly improved.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Optimisation of process parameters for the orbital and conventional
           drilling of uni-directional carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (UD-CFRP)
    • Authors: Norbert Geier; Tibor Szalay
      Pages: 319 - 334
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Norbert Geier, Tibor Szalay
      The machining behaviour of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is not a very extensively researched topic. With respect to this material, it must be noted that it is difficult to find its analogy in traditional metal machining because of its non-homogenous and anisotropic features. With the help of the latest technology, it is possible to machine good-quality holes using expensive and special cutting tools, but for the purpose of developing cheaper alternative technologies (like helical milling with a solid carbide tool) additional research and investigation are necessary in order to evaluate such possible technologies. In this study, the machinability of a hand-laminated uni-directional CFRP is investigated in the case of using a special diamond coated twist drill and a solid carbide end mill (helical milling) with a view to analysing and optimising referent machining parameters. Relying on the data obtained during the experiments, axial cutting force, delamination effect and surface roughness are analysed and modelled using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques. It was found that the solid carbide end mill with optimal cutting conditions is able to produce better-quality holes than the special diamond coated twist drill, as long the tool wear does not appear. It is also concluded that the average ratio of Rz to Ra is higher than in the case of homogeneous materials because of the uncut fibres, of the matrix and of the micro-crackings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Check measurements of magnetic flux density: Equipment design and the
           determination of the confidence interval for EFA 300 measuring devices
    • Authors: Liptai
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 111
      Author(s): P. Liptai, B. Dolník, M. Pavlík, J. Zbojovský, M. Špes
      The stability of the measuring device is associated with its accuracy at repeated measurements provided under the same conditions. We designed equipment for checking of the measurement accuracy and stability of the device EFA 300 that we called Stability Control Stand (SCS). The reason for our interest in the development and realization of the SCS was based on the internal need for laboratory checks of device EFA 300. The magnetic flux density B at different distances from the probes to the electromagnetic field source in the anechoic chamber was measured. In the experiment, we used the method of repeated measurements. The distribution of magnetic field has been verified through mathematical simulations. The measured values of the magnetic flux density are almost identical to the values which are simulated using the mathematical model. With respect to the sensitivity and accuracy, we identified the optimal distance of 20cm from the source of magnetic field to the geometric center of the probe in which the probe indicates the most accurate values. The measured data were processed using a mathematical statistics and subsequently, the expanded measurement uncertainty and confidence interval was calculated. The processed results with the expanded measurement uncertainty represent the B like reliable values at the next measurements with SCS.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T10:05:21Z
  • Research on operation determination of the functional condition of drill
           bits by means of the resistance method
    • Authors: Radoslav
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 110
      Author(s): Radoslav Kreheľ
      The article deals with the identification of drill bit blunting. Blunting of a tool is considered to be a negative phenomenon which occurs by rubbing the tool against the machined material. The measuring procedure is based on the fact that the amplitude and frequency of vibration increases with the increased drill blunting at the moment of cutting the material. That causes harder cutting of the tool into the material and thus increase in the cutting force. This phenomenon has been transformed into the measuring method. According to the equation mentioned in the article it can be seen that the surface of the workpiece and tool changes its position by the means of the acting force. This change in position has its own size and frequency and is a measurable variable. The measurement can be performed indirectly, e.g. by measuring changes in electrical resistance between the workpiece and the drill bit at the moment of the touch. The size of the deviation of flexible deformation depends on the size of the acting force. The size of the acting force is in relation to the wear of the tool. The deviation of flexible deformation causes the change in the size of the contact surface of the workpiece and the drill bit at the time of the touch. This change constitutes the change in the cross section of the conductive way for the flowing electric current. The article describes the method selected for particular measuring. It’s a resistance method by which the characteristics of the current flowing through the touching point of the machining tool with the surface of the workpiece is measured in the moment of the first contact of the tool with the workpiece at the beginning of machining. The electrical signal acquired in the moment of the first cutting of the machine tool into the workpiece carries the information on its functional condition. This piece of information is then processed and evaluated. The article contains conditions and the measuring procedure, comparison of the time pattern of the voltage of various degrees of the wear and by using various materials, which are recorded by the oscilloscope. Based on the values measured, the selected method for monitoring of the wear of drilling tools has been reviewed and evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:17:21Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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