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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 872 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (110 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (142 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (155 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (273 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (273 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access  
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access  
nonsite.org     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Measurement and analysis of temperature, thrust force and surface
           roughness in drilling of AA (6351)-B4C composite
    • Authors: G.S. Samy; S. Thirumalai Kumaran
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): G.S. Samy, S. Thirumalai Kumaran
      In the present study, the drilling is performed on AA (6351)–B4C composite to analyze the influence of cutting parameters on temperature, thrust force and surface roughness. The TiN coated carbide drill tools with varying point angle such as 90°, 118° and 135° are used to conduct the experiments. Initially, the temperature rise during drilling and the effect of temperature on the chip formation are investigated by contact and non-contact measurement techniques. The reduced temperature is achieved at lower spindle speed and feed rate conditions. However, the improper selection of point angle leads to tool wear and produces poor surface finish. In addition, the thrust force generation and the delamination of the drill holes are assessed by varying the input process parameters. The thrust force is low while drilling with 135° point angle tool, but produced higher delamination. Finally, the surface roughness is examined and the Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images are utilized to observe the drill hole surface morphology of the composite.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Vibrational analysis of length comparator
    • Authors: M. Jurevicius; J. Skeivalas; A. Kilikevicius; V. Turla
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): M. Jurevicius, J. Skeivalas, A. Kilikevicius, V. Turla
      The vibration analysis of the length comparator which is operating in dynamic mode and measures lengths with micrometers precision is of a high importance. In this paper, the theory of covariance functions is applied for the analysis of intensity distributions of length comparator vibrational signals and parameters. The data from measurements of vibrational signals at four fixed points were obtained in a form of data arrays. The estimates of cross-covariance functions between the data arrays and the estimates of auto-covariance functions of single arrays were calculated upon varying the quantization interval in the time domain. The normed auto-covariance and cross-covariance functions at the principal points of the comparator that enable establishing changes of correlation between data vectors upon changing the quantization interval of signals are presented. The changes of correlation between the vectors of vibration signals at the points of the comparator on varying the quantization interval are presented in graphs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Effect of CT acquisition parameters of spiral CT on image quality and
           radiation dose
    • Authors: A. Manmadhachary; Y. Ravi Kumar; L. Krishnanand
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): A. Manmadhachary, Y. Ravi Kumar, L. Krishnanand
      Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the most advanced manufacturing process in medical and dental industry. Computed Tomography (CT) images are the primary source to fabricate the medical models. Spiral CT scanner captures larger volume tissue in a short scan time. The major defects that appear in CT image acquisition process are Beam Hardening (BH), image noise and radiation dose. Tube voltage, tube current and pitch are the major parameters for CT image acquisition. In the present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of various CT image acquisition parameters in the CT image acquisition of dry mandible phantom. A Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was used for experimental plan. The scanning defects of BH artifact and image noise were calculated by using Beam Hardening Correction Factor (BHCF) and the standard deviation of X- ray photons in the voxel respectively. Similarly radiation dose was measured with CT Dose Index volume (CTDIvolume). Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method is used to optimize the CT image acquisition parameters, resulting increase in quality of CT images with less radiation dose. It was found that the image defects were less at optimal parameters found from GRA method compared to default image acquisition parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Melt level measurement for the CZ crystal growth using an improved laser
           triangulation system
    • Authors: Senwei Xiang; Feng Pan; Ke Xiang; Xuanyin Wang
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Senwei Xiang, Feng Pan, Ke Xiang, Xuanyin Wang
      An improved image-based laser-triangulation measurement system is proposed in this paper to measure the melt level in CZ crystal pullers. The system uses a line laser to overcome the deficiency of the traditional laser-triangulation system caused by the heat shield. The laser line projected to the melt surface and the bottom of the heat shield generates two scattered bars, which are captured by the camera. The relationship between the pixel distance of the two bars and the melt level is studied. An optimized adaptive laser bar detection approach is applied to measure the melt level quickly and accurately. Three experiments have been made to demonstrate the advantages of the system. The calibration experiment shows the system has a measurement resolution of 0.0755mm. The accuracy experiment proves the system has a precise measurement performance and the robustness experiment demonstrates the system using a truncated mean filter is reliable and robust.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Non-radiation technique for low grade discrimination of bone
           decalcification using fiber optic sensor
    • Authors: Somaye Makouei; Fatemeh Makouei
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Somaye Makouei, Fatemeh Makouei
      Early detection of decalcification is vital in osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. Since calcium ions are the main factor in bone strength, decalcification degrees in bone can be classified through assessment of the variation in its mechanical response to applied load. In this paper, an innovative non-radiation, low cost method is proposed for assessment of bone decalcification which is capable of discrimination of low grade decalcification. This capability is due to employment of high resolution fiber optic sensor (FOS) with the strain sensitivity of 27.8pmµɛ−1 that detects the decalcification through measurement of strain induced by loading. The sensor design procedure is based on genetic algorithm. By the means of mode field diameter (MFD) variation as a sensor indirect parameter, the common problems of intensity modulated optical sensors are overcome. Moreover, the sensor operation is nearly independent of temperature variation and the compensation requirement is removed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • A hybrid fusion algorithm for GPS/INS integration during GPS outages
    • Authors: Yiqing Yao; Xiaosu Xu; Chenchen Zhu; Ching-Yao Chan
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Yiqing Yao, Xiaosu Xu, Chenchen Zhu, Ching-Yao Chan
      To enhance the performance of an integrated Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) during GPS outages, a novel hybrid fusion algorithm is proposed to provide a pseudo position information to assist the integrated navigation system. A new model that directly relates the velocity, angular rate and specific force of INS to the increments of the GPS position is established. Combined with a Kalman filter and an improved Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network, the hybrid system is able to predict and estimate a pseudo GPS position when GPS signal is unavailable. Field test data are collected to experimentally evaluate the proposed model. The comparison results show: (1) the proposed model can effectively provide corrections to standalone INS during the 300s GPS outages, which also outperforms some of the widely used models; (2) our improved MLP method achieves better performance in the prediction of GPS position information than the normal artificial neural network (ANN) trained by Bayesian Regularization; (3) the best result can be reached when the current and past 1-step information of INS is utilized as the inputs of the artificial intelligence (AI) module.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.053
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Empirical mode decomposition based denoising method with support vector
           regression for time series prediction: A case study for electricity load
           forecasting
    • Authors: Yusuf Yaslan; Bahadır Bican
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Yusuf Yaslan, Bahadır Bican
      Electricity load demand estimation has a remarkable impact on the economic policies of power industry and business cycles. Forecasting the movements of load demand provides to know the tendency of the future and can lead to a clear decision in strategic planning or investments. Besides the ability to know the fluctuations of the future values contributes to the management of daily/weekly and long term operations. This study aims to predict the electricity load demand using a hybrid method that incorporates Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithms. The proposed EMD-SVR method integrates the EMD method to SVR algorithm by using EMD as a denoising step on the training data. Unlike the previous studies, the proposed algorithm is not dependent to a specific Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) for denoising and model learning. Experimental results are conducted on 3 electricity load datasets from different countries and the proposed method is compared with SVR algorithm using different feature vectors as well. It is shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the SVR and non-feature used denoised-SVR algorithm on electricity load forecasting.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Rolling element bearing fault diagnosis under slow speed operation using
           wavelet de-noising
    • Authors: C. Mishra; A.K. Samantaray; G. Chakraborty
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): C. Mishra, A.K. Samantaray, G. Chakraborty
      Rolling element bearing is widely used in rotating machines and any bearing defect therein can severely affect the overall machine performance. Vibration monitoring is often used to detect bearing faults. However, some rotor dynamic systems operate at very slow speed such as the slewing bearing used in dumpers, rolling mills, and cranes etc. At slow operating speed, the fault related signal features get smeared/masked due to slip, vibration of other machine parts, noise and disturbances. Thus, it becomes very difficult to identify the bearing characteristic frequencies (BCFs) from the vibration signature. In this paper, a novel diagnosis scheme based on envelope analysis and wavelet de-noising with sigmoid function based thresholding is used to extract the fault related symptoms from noisy vibration signatures of defective ball bearings operating at slow speed. The vibration signal is assumed to be composed of a deterministic part representing large scale features, a stochastic part and noise components. After sigmoid function based thresholding of the wavelet coefficients, a Bayesian estimator is used to obtain an approximation of the large scale features in the signal. The uncorrelated noise component in the signal is removed whereas the high-frequency structural ringing of the bearing induced due to impacts with the faults is retained in the large scale features. The envelope spectrum of the large scale features is used for fault diagnosis. The developed diagnosis scheme is tested using the experimental data collected from a machine fault simulator system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of calibration intervals for automatic test equipment
    • Authors: Jing Wang; Qi Zhang; Wei Jiang
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Jing Wang, Qi Zhang, Wei Jiang
      This paper proposed an approach for evaluating the optimal calibration interval of ATE. The on-station calibration strategy of ATE is analysed on the basis of the metrology chain. The calibration interval of a single instrument is determined by a grey prediction model based on fresh information. The out of tolerance-calibration matrix, which is used to calculate the metrology contribution rate, is established according to the multi-signal flow model. The calibration interval of ATE is optimized by weighted average to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional experiential method. The results demonstrate that compared with the cannikin principle and criteria of the highest rank of the metrology chain principle, our approach can make better use of test resources and save more time.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.062
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Feasibility of digital image correlation for railroad tie inspection and
           ballast support assessment
    • Authors: Alessandro Sabato; Christopher Niezrecki
      Pages: 93 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Alessandro Sabato, Christopher Niezrecki
      Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aging railway tracks is important for safety, to prevent catastrophic failure, and to reduce maintenance costs. The tracks and foundations are complex systems that may contain defects or damage including internal rail cracks, pitting or surface erosion, degradation of ballast support, or railway crosstie-ballast failures. In recent years, interest has grown in performing SHM by measuring structural deformation, full-field strain, and geometry profiles using three-dimensional (3D) Digital Image Correlation (DIC) systems. In this study, a novel approach to use DIC and pattern projection to assess the deformation of railway tracks is proposed. The proposed sensing approach should allow a railcar mounted sensing system to perform interrogation while moving at typical operating speeds (e.g. 60mph). The feasibility of the proposed 3D DIC system is evaluated through extensive laboratory testing. The approach’s ability to measure the crosstie’s full-field displacement and shape (i.e. at levels similar to what is found in the field) as different loading conditions are applied is demonstrated. The influence of motion similar to what might be found in a railroad service environment on the accuracy of the measurements is also quantified.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T14:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Non recursive Nonlinear Least Squares for periodic signal fitting
    • Authors: S. Giarnetti; F. Leccese; M. Caciotta
      Pages: 208 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): S. Giarnetti, F. Leccese, M. Caciotta
      A non-recursive version of Nonlinear Least Squares Fitting for frequency estimation is presented. This problem yields a closed-form solution exploiting a Taylor’s series expansion. Respecting some conditions, the computational complexity is reduced, but equally the method assures that the accuracy reaches the Cramer-Rao Bound. The proposed method requires a frequency pre-estimate. A series of simulations has been made to determine how accurate the pre-estimate should be in order to ensure the achievement of the Cramer-Rao Bound in various conditions for different periodic signals. The execution time of the proposed algorithm is smaller compared to a single iteration cycle of the standard approach. The proposed method is useful in applications that require a high accuracy fitting of periodic signals, especially when limited computational resources are available or a real-time evaluation is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T14:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Laboratory measurement of elastic waves in Basalt rock
    • Authors: Ashish Juneja; Mahesh Endait
      Pages: 217 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ashish Juneja, Mahesh Endait
      This paper reports the laboratory measurement of compression and shear waves in Basalt rock. Compression or primary waves were produced using a standard ultrasonic pulse velocity tester. However, it is well accepted that the production of pure shear waves in rock is difficult because of which suitable assumptions are made in the testing. Since bender elements have traditionally been used to produce pure shear at very small strains in soft materials, their use has been extended in this study to Basalt rock. The fabrication and setup of bender element tests is first discussed. The transducers were accommodated in pre-drilled slots at the two flat ends of the samples, the effect of which was carefully investigated using experimental and numerical studies. For 10–12mm long piezoceramic plates, the shear wave velocity was found to reduce by about 5% because of the slots. The shear wave velocity was estimated using the first arrival method after removing the near field and the crosstalk effects from the output signal. The shear wave velocity ranged between 1.15 and 3.31km/s and was nearly equal to one-half of the primary wave velocity. The results also show that the ratio of the shear wave velocity and the compression wave velocity was independent of the density and porosity of the Basalt rock. Because most of the rock was unweathered and compact and, its cavities filled with secondary minerals such as zeolites, calcites and silicates, it is unlikely that the high overburden pressures would affect the observed wave velocities.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T14:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.040
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Application of electronic nose with MOS sensors to prediction of rapeseed
           quality
    • Authors: Marek Gancarz; Jolanta Wawrzyniak; Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska; Dariusz Wiącek; Agnieszka Nawrocka; Marcin Tadla; Robert Rusinek
      Pages: 227 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marek Gancarz, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marcin Tadla, Robert Rusinek
      Rapeseed is one of the main raw materials regarded as a source of edible oil for humans. Stored in order to maintain continuity of production can undergo deterioration of the quality. Therefore, there is a need for rapid methods for the assessment of its quality. The quality of rapeseed during 31days of storage was studied. Colony Forming Unit (CFU), Ergosterol content (ERG), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were examined using an electronic nose (Agrinose). The electronic nose was built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor sensors (type MOS) and one representing the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems technology (MEMS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), as a method of data analysis, was applied to the visualisation rapeseed groups of different quality. An analysis of sensorgrams (sensor drift) with a strong signal was performed. Six from the eight sensors gave a clear response to spoiled rapeseed VOCs. The results have shown a correlation between microbiological and chemical methods for assessment of quality with responses of electrochemical sensors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T14:55:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.042
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Complex analysis of shear box tests with explicit consideration of
           interaction between test device and sample
    • Authors: Wengang Dang; Heinz Konietzky; Martin Herbst; Thomas Frühwirt
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Wengang Dang, Heinz Konietzky, Martin Herbst, Thomas Frühwirt
      The prior aim of lab testing is the determination of parameters. However, the measurements do not only reflect the rock or soil properties, but contain also, at least to some extent, the influence of the test equipment. Even if measurements are designed to minimize the influence of the test equipment often some measurement values are effected by an unknown amount. Therefore, it is proposed to build detailed numerical models of the test device including the specimen and to duplicate the lab test completely. This paper presents experimental and numerical tests performed with a shear box device. Multi-stage direct shear tests were conducted on smooth plane joints in artificial rock-like material under constant normal loading (CNL) conditions. A 3-dimensional numerical model of the shear box device including the sample was built and the laboratory tests were simulated. The numerical model comprises the loading frame, the hydraulic pistons, the shear boxes and the sample and considers the measuring devices. The numerical model was able to reproduce the non-uniform stress distribution at the joint connected with sample rotation, which in turn produces unwanted frictional forces at the upper shear box. Consequently, only 91–94% of the applied and measured normal force really acts at the joint. Moreover, numerical simulations also shows, to what extend the different parts of the loading frame deform.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.040
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • High accuracy synchronous acquisition algorithm of multi-hop sensor
           networks for machine vibration monitoring
    • Authors: Xin Xiao; Baoping Tang; Lei Deng
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xin Xiao, Baoping Tang, Lei Deng
      Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is an effective way to reduce the maintenance costs and improve the reliability of machine. Considering that wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be employed in some special applications where wired mechanical vibration monitoring systems are hard to be deployed, WSNs attracts much attentions in the field of mechanical vibration monitoring. But it is still facing many challenges in this filed, synchronization data acquisition is a crucial one of them. In this paper, the synchronization acquisition algorithm of multi-hop network for mechanical vibration monitoring is focused. In this algorithm, nodes are organized as cluster network. To realize synchronization acquisition triggering, transmission delay of beacon between gateway and each acquisition node is calculated and compensated. To improve the accuracy of synchronous acquisition, crystal oscillator drift of routers and acquisition nodes are measured and calibrated. While acquiring data, the accumulatived synchronization errors between acquisition nodes can be estimate and calibrated in real time. Finally, a three-hop network is employed to test the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the maximum synchronization triggering error is 0.64μs, the average value is 0.3663μs. At the sampling rate of 40ksps, the maximum synchronization acquisition error is 1.053μs, the average value is 0.826μs in 100s.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.036
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Fully-disposable multilayered phononic crystal liquid sensor with symmetry
           reduction and a resonant cavity
    • Authors: S. Villa-Arango; R. Torres; P.A. Kyriacou; R. Lucklum
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): S. Villa-Arango, R. Torres, P.A. Kyriacou, R. Lucklum
      Phononic crystals are artificial structures with unique capabilities to control the transmission of acoustic waves. These novel periodic composite structures bring new possibilities for developing a fundamentally new sensor principle that combines features of both ultrasonic and resonant sensors. This paper reports the design, fabrication and evaluation of a phononic crystal sensor for biomedical applications, especially for its implementation in point of care testing technologies. The key feature of the sensor system is a fully-disposable multi-layered phononic crystal liquid sensor element with symmetry reduction and a resonant cavity. The phononic crystal structure consists of eleven layers with high acoustic impedance mismatch. A defect mode was utilized in order to generate a well-defined transmission peak inside the bandgap that can be used as a measure. The design of the structures has been optimized with simulations using a transmission line model. Experimental realizations were performed to evaluate the frequency response of the designed sensor using different liquid analytes. The frequency of the characteristic transmission peaks showed to be dependent on the properties of the analytes used in the experiments. Multi-layered phononic crystal sensors can be used in applications, like point of care testing, where the on-line measurement of small liquid samples is required.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.051
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of a simple apparatus for the Seebeck coefficient measurement
           in high temperature region
    • Authors: Saurabh Singh; Sudhir K. Pandey
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Saurabh Singh, Sudhir K. Pandey
      A simple apparatus for the measurement of Seebeck coefficient ( α ) in the temperature range 300–620K has been fabricated. Our design is appropriate for the characterization of samples with different geometries like disk and rod shaped. The sample holder assembly of the apparatus has been designed in such a way that, single heater used for sample heating purpose is enough to provide a self maintain temperature gradient across the sample. The value of α is obtained without explicit measurement of temperature gradient. The whole apparatus is fabricated from the materials, which are commonly available, so that any part can be replaced in case of any damage. In order to calibrate the instrument, we have carried out Seebeck coefficient measurement on nickel metal and LaCoO3 compound. The values of α obtained for nickel and LaCoO3 sample using the designed set-up are found to be equal to the values reported in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.049
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Long term drifts in baselines of ground magnetic observatories
    • Authors: Anil Iype; A.T. Deshmukh; B. Veenadhari
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Anil Iype, A.T. Deshmukh, B. Veenadhari
      The stability of baseline is the most important criterion for evaluating the data quality of a ground magnetic observatory. Theoretically, a baseline should be a straight line, provided, there are no error factors affecting the absolute instruments, the variometer and the observational procedure. But in practice, we observe that the baselines are affected by some errors in the form of random errors and long term baseline drifts. It is known that temperature, pier tilts, aging of electronic components, etc. can affect the long term stability of baselines, but in this paper we discuss a new type of error which affects the baseline in the form of long term drifts due to the variation in the gradient field between the absolute room and the variometer room. Even though, a site is selected with the least magnetic gradient for the establishment of an observatory, in many cases, it is found that the magnetic gradient patterns are not permanent and changes over the time. This slow gradient changes can distort the actual temporal magnetic variations and thus affecting the purity of data recorded at a geomagnetic observatory. We have analytically shown that an ideal baseline has to be a horizontal straight line and the RHS of the fundamental equation of an observatory should be a constant. We have further shown that baseline instabilities are caused by variation in gradient field between the absolute and variometer pillars in addition to the measurement errors from absolute observations and variometer recording. This variation in the gradient field causes long term drifts in baselines. We have derived the correction factor which can filter out the signals arising out of variation in the gradient field. Finally we present how far the data quality can be improved by applying this correction.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.047
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • A simple optical system for miniature spindle runout monitoring
    • Authors: ChaBum Lee; Rui Zhao; Seongkyul Jeon
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): ChaBum Lee, Rui Zhao, Seongkyul Jeon
      We proposed a novel optical technique to monitor miniature spindle runout in a simple manner. Miniature spindles are commonly used in many machining applications, for example: micro-milling and micro-grinding. However, the capacitive sensors (CS) or eddy current sensors typically used for spindle runout measurements cannot be used for miniature spindle systems. This is due to the nonlinearity of the charge between a curved surface and a flat plate (sensing area) and a curved surface (measuring target area) and the effective sensing area being larger than the measuring target area. The proposed sensor utilizes curved-edge diffraction (CED), which uses the effect of the cylindrical surface curvature on the diffraction phenomenon in the transition regions adjacent to shadow, transmission, and reflection boundaries. The laser beam is incident to the spindle shaft edges along the Y and Z axes, four photodetectors then collect the total fields produced by the interference created by the waves due to CED around the spindle shaft edges. Two CS were used as a baseline comparison with the proposed sensor’s performance. A spindle with a shaft diameter of ϕ 5.0mm (same as CS effective sensing area) was selected to compare the results of the curved-edge sensor (CES) with the results of the CS. The spindle runout was measured and the following results were found: CES-CS calibration nonlinearity (Z 0.35% and Y 0.40%) and resolution (Z 20.1nm and Y 26.0nm for CS and Z 20.3nm and Y 15.9nm for CES). The fundamental sensing limit of CES was estimated to be: Z 0.52nm / Hz and Y 0.41nm / Hz for a working range of approximately 100μm, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.056
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Integrated stress measurement system in tower crane mast
    • Authors: Krzysztof Lalik; Ireneusz Dominik; Paweł Ćwiąkała; Janusz Kwaśniewski
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Krzysztof Lalik, Ireneusz Dominik, Paweł Ćwiąkała, Janusz Kwaśniewski
      In the paper two methods for measuring changes in stress for slender steel structure are presented. The first method consists of surveying the inclination of the tower mast and jib by using a tacheometer to measure the coordinates of two prisms placed on the construction crane. The measurement of these deflections performed with a simple model of endurance allowed to calculate stresses in the base of the mast crane. The stresses resulted from changing load by transferring construction parts on its arm. The redundant measurement system which was used during measurements is called a Self-excited Acoustical System (SAS). Due to the self-oscillation effect it was possible to measure the changes in stress at the lift mast base. During the process of measurement two self-excited loops were used to allow stress monitoring in all corners of the truss crane construction. This article presents a comparison of the results obtained by two parallel measurement systems and analyzes the possibility of integrating them into a single, redundant system for measuring stress changes.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.041
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • A flash photography method for the measurements of the fluid flow dynamic
           of a fluid dispensing system
    • Authors: S. Boonsang; W. Lertkittiwattanakul
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): S. Boonsang, W. Lertkittiwattanakul
      In this paper, we present a flash photography method for the measurements of the fluid flow dynamic of a fluid dispensing system. A fluid dispensing system is one of the key processes to deliver fluid materials to various positions in assembly parts of several manufacturing industries. A dispensing process is a complicated dynamic process and time-dependent. The parameter identification of a fluid dispensing model by using with measurement values of the accumulated final volume is usually employed. This technique may not provide the satisfactory results. To improve the accuracy of the parameter identification, the fluid flow measurements based on the flash photography methods is proposed. The experiments with various fluid levels inside a syringe were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The pressure dependent fluid flow rate curve constructed from the measurement values is presented, to identify the parameters associated with the model. The measured parameters are consistent with the fluid properties reported in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.050
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Vibration transmission and energy dissipation through the
           gear-shaft-bearing-housing system subjected to impulse force on gear
    • Authors: Huifang Xiao; Xiaojun Zhou; Jing Liu; Yimin Shao
      Pages: 64 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Huifang Xiao, Xiaojun Zhou, Jing Liu, Yimin Shao
      In this work, an eight-degree-of-freedom (DOF) dynamic model of the gear-shaft-bearing-housing system is established and the vertical vibration transmission and energy dissipation characteristics through the multiple transmitting interfaces under the impulse force due to gear fault are studied. The elastic deformations at the interfaces between gear and shaft, inner race and outer race, outer race and housing are formulated by the corresponding contact stiffness. The housing compliance is also included. A half-sine impulse force with two characteristic parameters as amplitude and time duration, which are associated with the defect type and size, is employed to represent the effect of gear fault on the system dynamics. The acceleration responses for different transmitting components as gear, inner race, outer race and housing are calculated for different impulse time duration, different impulse force amplitudes and shaft rotating speeds. The vibration transmission and energy dissipation through the multiple interfaces are characterized by the defined vibration transmission ratio and energy dissipation ratio. Obvious attenuation in acceleration magnitude is observed between the transmitting components from gear to housing. The maximum attenuation occurs at the transmission from inner race to outer race, while the minimum is between the outer race and the housing. The time duration of the impulse force determines the resonance and also the vibration transmission characteristics of the system. The energy dissipation increases nonlinearly with the amplitude of the applied impulse force. Results also suggest that the interface between inner race and outer race, and the interface between gear and shaft dissipated about 60% and 40% of the total energy, are the main sources of energy dissipation in the system. However, the shaft rotating speed has limited effect on the vertical impulse vibration amplitude, vibration transmission and energy dissipation. Experimental validation is performed, which supports the characteristics obtained from numerical results.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T14:16:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.052
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective optimization of manual metal arc welding process
           parameters for nano-structured hardfacing material using hybrid approach
    • Authors: Abhijit Saha; Subhas Chandra Mondal
      Pages: 80 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Abhijit Saha, Subhas Chandra Mondal
      In the manufacturing industries, welding assisted hardfacing attracted increasing attention for its effective protection against corrosion, thermal shock and abrasion. The presence of nano-particles in hard confronting materials fundamentally upgraded surface to volume proportion appropriately. Moreover, it enhances conductivity, hardness, and wear resistant properties. This paper introduces the multi-objective optimization of manual metal arc welding (MMAW) process parameters. The paramount process variables such as welding current, arc voltage and welding speed have been considered to undergo experiments. The response parameters consider weld bead width, reinforcement and bead hardness. Taguchi's (L25) orthogonal array has been utilized to perform the trial runs. The S/N ratio of Taguchi design is applied to identify optimal parameter settings for the lower bead width which corresponds to welding current of 160A, arc voltage of 17V and welding speed of 40mm/min. Similarly, for the higher reinforcement, it corresponds to welding current of 150A, arc voltage of 25V and welding speed of 30mm/min and for bead hardness, welding current of 140A, arc voltage of 19V and welding speed of 40mm/min. Moreover, multi-objective optimization was performed using a hybrid approach combining TOPSIS (Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) with PCA (principal component analysis) to identify optimal process parameters. Moreover, TOPSIS-AHP (Analytical hierarchy process) methodologies were used to compare the results with the TOPSIS-PCA. Finally, optimal settings of the input welding parameters correspond to A5V2S1 namely; welding current 160A (level 5), arc voltage 19V (level 2) and welding speed 20mm/min (level 1).

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.048
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Development of an opto-electronic measurement system for planter
           laboratory tests
    • Authors: Anil Cay; Habib Kocabiyik; Bilal Karaaslan; Sahin May; Myagmarsuren Khurelbaatar
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Anil Cay, Habib Kocabiyik, Bilal Karaaslan, Sahin May, Myagmarsuren Khurelbaatar
      Seed spacing uniformity is one of the important criteria in determining the planting performance of precision planters. The development of various measurement methods with different advantages has been ongoing for years to determine seed spacing. The objective of this study was to develop an opto-electronic measurement system for use in the measurement of seed spacing during the laboratory tests of precision planters and to examine the success of the system. The success of the developed system was tested by comparing the measurements on the sticky belt using 10 different seeds with different physical properties. The R2, MAPE, ei, β 0 ve β 1 values for all seeds were determined respectively as 0.998, 3.60%, 0.484cm, 0.022 and 1.012 as a result of the trials carried out. The system yielded very fast and correct results and there was no need for complex calibration and adjustment procedures. The opto-electronic measurement system can be used to measure seed spacing in laboratory tests for precision planters.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.060
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Thermal effects in single point diamond turning: Analysis, modeling and
           experimental study
    • Authors: Jayant Kumar; Vipender S. Negi; Kashi D. Chattopadhyay; RamaGopal V. Sarepaka; Ravindra K. Sinha
      Pages: 96 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jayant Kumar, Vipender S. Negi, Kashi D. Chattopadhyay, RamaGopal V. Sarepaka, Ravindra K. Sinha
      Single Point Diamond Turning is one of the ultra precision methods to generate surface finish with highest possible dimensional accuracies. It involves material removal by shearing mechanism using a diamond tool tip, shearing of material results in generation of thermal energy which causes adverse impact on the tool wear, dimensional accuracy, and surface quality of work piece and on the cost of production. Thermal issues are generally taken care of by the application of coolant. Even after use of coolant, heat is transferred to workpiece while machining, which contributes to the residue of heat for next machining cycle. It deteriorates the surface quality of machined work piece to some extent. In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to compute the net residual heat transferred in the workpiece in terms of machining parameters. The equations describing temperature distribution inside cylindrical work piece, rate of heat transfer, net residual heat for a constant depth of cut are also computed and presented. The mathematical model is followed by the simulation model and the resultant parametric values through well designed sets of precision machining experiments using proper optimization technique to predict optimum machining combination that result in less distortion of surface quality.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.046
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • A high gas pressure calibration system using a liquid-lubricated pressure
           balance
    • Authors: Hideaki Iizumi; Hiroaki Kajikawa; Tokihiko Kobata
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Hideaki Iizumi, Hiroaki Kajikawa, Tokihiko Kobata
      We developed a high gas pressure calibration system that uses a liquid-lubricated (LL) pressure balance as a standard for pressures up to 100MPa. The LL pressure balance can generate gas or hydraulic pressure by changing the pressure medium. We first evaluate characteristics of the LL piston–cylinder (PC), such as its effective area and fall rate. The effective area of the LL PC is evaluated through comparison with a hydraulic pressure balance. When the LL PC uses a gas, the fall rate is affected by gas dissolution into liquid in the LL PC reservoir. The results of calibrating a pressure gauge under the developed system are consistent with those by an existing hydraulic pressure calibration system.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.054
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Experimental investigations of the slipper spin in an axial piston pump
    • Authors: Junhui Zhang; Qun Chao; Qiannan Wang; Bing Xu; Yuan Chen; Ying Li
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Junhui Zhang, Qun Chao, Qiannan Wang, Bing Xu, Yuan Chen, Ying Li
      Slipper spin has a significant influence on the dynamic behavior and lubrication characteristics of the slipper in an axial piston pump. This paper focuses on experimental investigations on the slipper spin and first introduces a novel test rig for slipper spin measurement. The description of the test method is presented in detail, followed by sample results of the slipper spin measurement. According to the measuring results under test conditions, it is found that the slipper spin is in existence within the pump and its speed is approximately equal to the shaft speed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.035
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of experimental and operational modal analysis on a laboratory
           test plate
    • Authors: Esben Orlowitz; Anders Brandt
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Esben Orlowitz, Anders Brandt
      Operational modal analysis (OMA) is widely used whenever the dynamic characteristics of structures that do not fit into a laboratory are desired. In addition, OMA offers a test of the structure under its real boundary conditions which may sometimes be preferable for validation of numerical models. Theoretically, the natural frequencies and damping ratios should be identically estimated by an OMA test and an experimental modal analysis (EMA) test. However it is still often reported that EMA tests are more reliable. The present paper presents a thorough comparison of EMA and OMA tests of a Plexiglas plate. The experiments were carefully designed, to ensure that the plate was tested under similar boundary conditions. Estimated modal parameters from the EMA test and OMA test are presented and compared, for the first ten modes of the plate. It is found that natural frequencies are deviating by less than 0.3%, damping ratios by less than 7%, whereas cross-MAC values between the mode shapes of the two tests are found to be above 0.99. The experimental test was conducted first by an EMA test, followed by the OMA test and finally another EMA test was conducted in order to catch any time-variance. It is concluded that no significant differences were found between modal parameters obtained by OMA and EMA.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • High performance selectable-value transportable high dc voltage standard
    • Authors: Flavio Galliana; Roberto Cerri; Luca Roncaglione Tet
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Flavio Galliana, Roberto Cerri, Luca Roncaglione Tet
      At National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM), a selectable-value transportable high dc voltage standard (THVS) operating in the range from 10V to 100V in steps of 10V, was developed. This standard was built to cover the lack of high level dc voltage standards at values higher than 10V to employ mainly as transportable standard for inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs) or eventually as laboratory (local) high level dc voltage standard. An electronic technique was used to improve the THVS accuracy of the high values. The THVS shows lower noise, better short- term stability and accuracy than top level dc voltage and multifunction calibrators (MFCs) and satisfactory suitability to be transported. The project is extensible to 1000V.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Comments on “Design and modeling of an intelligent temperature to
           frequency converter”
    • Authors: Tapan Prasad; K.P.S. Rana; Vineet Kumar
      Pages: 138 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Tapan Prasad, K.P.S. Rana, Vineet Kumar
      In a recent work, Kumar et al. have presented design and modeling of an intelligent temperature to frequency converter (TFC) for thermistor in the input temperature range of 0–100°C [1]. In this work, a 555-timer based a signal conditioning circuit (SCC) was employed as TFC. Linearity, between the input temperature and the output frequency, was further enhanced with the application of artificial neural network. It is pointed out that this work developed erroneous frequency expression, waveforms and SCC circuit. In this comment, based on detailed mathematical formulations supported by Multisim™ simulation results, errors of the reported intelligent TFC are pointed out and the required corrections are proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T14:43:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.042
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of mechanical properties of aluminium/tungsten carbide
           composites
    • Authors: K. Ravikumar; K. Kiran; V.S. Sreebalaji
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): K. Ravikumar, K. Kiran, V.S. Sreebalaji
      This study deals with the investigation on mechanical properties of aluminium alloy (AA 6082) composites reinforced with tungsten carbide particles. Stir casting process was employed to fabricate the aluminium composite specimen by varying tungsten carbide in 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight. The composites were exposed to density, hardness, tensile and impact studies. Scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the mechanism of the fractured tensile and impact test specimen. The density, impact strength and elongation of the composites decreased with increase in addition of tungsten carbide, while the hardness of composites increased with increase in tungsten carbide. The tensile strength of the composites increased initially and then tends to decrease. Fracture of the composites is characterized by dimples, voids, cracks, ridges, pits and particle fracture. Brittle fracture of composites in the form of cracks and particle fracture are due to the strong interfacial bonding between the tungsten carbide and aluminium matrix at high strain rate. High impact strength of composites are due to ductile failure in the form of dimples, while low impact strength are due to brittle and plastic deformation characterized by micro and macro cracks, particle fracture.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.045
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Fault location method for distribution networks using smart meters
    • Authors: Sadegh Jamali; Alireza Bahmanyar; Ettore Bompard
      Pages: 150 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Sadegh Jamali, Alireza Bahmanyar, Ettore Bompard
      The ongoing deployment of smart meters, with data processing and communication features, has provided the opportunity to improve distribution systems performance. This paper presents a state estimation-based method for fault location in distribution networks using the measurements provided by the smart meters. During the normal operation of the system, state estimation methods can handle the errors in real or pseudo-measurements to give the best estimate of the system state and to identify large measurement errors, called bad data. This concept is extended in this paper under fault conditions where the fault is considered as an unknown and temporarily connected load which can be dealt with as bad data. The proposed method uses the changeable weighting matrix bad data identification technique to find the fault location. The method is algorithmically simple and does not require the fault type. The fault location accuracy is verified by extensive simulation tests on a real 13.8kV, 134-node distribution network for different fault scenarios. The results indicate that the method has a good performance under measurement and load data errors and for different number and locations of the smart meters in the network.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of three wood materials against weathering during long natural
           sunlight exposure
    • Authors: Ru Liu; Xiaoyu Pang; Zhong Yang
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Ru Liu, Xiaoyu Pang, Zhong Yang
      Three wood species were tested at three sections under natural sunlight for a total 733days. The surface color and gloss of the wood samples was measured at intervals. The results showed that: (1) all woods showed discoloration and loss of gloss after exposure in sunlight, while the discoloration was more obviously; (2) the degrees of color changes of woods were waving with increasing time, which might be caused by the protection and leaching of extractives, oxidization and degradation of lignin; (3) wood species had significant influence on surface color change of wood. Among all woods, the color change of Mabberley (Stereospermum colais) was the most serious, indicating Mabberley was the most sensitive wood to sunlight; (4) for different wood sections, the color changes were different. The degree of color change at three sections decreased in the order: tangential>cross>radial section.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.034
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Investigating multi-GNSS performance in the UK and China based on a
           zero-baseline measurement approach
    • Authors: Hussein Alwan Msaewe; Craig M. Hancock; Panos A. Psimoulis; Gethin Wyn Roberts; Lukasz Bonenberg; Huib de Ligt
      Pages: 186 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Hussein Alwan Msaewe, Craig M. Hancock, Panos A. Psimoulis, Gethin Wyn Roberts, Lukasz Bonenberg, Huib de Ligt
      GPS is the positioning tool of choice for a wide variety of applications where accurate (cm level or less) positions are required. However GPS is susceptible to a variety of errors that degrade both the quality of the position solution and the availability of these solutions. The contribution of additional observations from other GNSS systems may improve the quality of the positioning solution. This study investigates the contribution of the GLONASS and BeiDou systems and the potential improvement to the precision achieved compared to positioning using GPS only measurements. Furthermore, it is investigated whether the combination of the satellite systems can limit the noise level of the GPS-only solution. A series of zero-baseline measurements, of 1Hz sampling rate, were recorded with different types of pairs of receivers over 12 consecutive days in the UK and in China simultaneously. The novel part in this study is comparing the simultaneous GNSS real measurements recorded in the UK and China. Moreover, the correlation between the geometry and positional precision was investigated. The results indicate an improvement in a multi-GNSS combined solution compared to the GPS-only solution, especially when the GPS-only solution derives from weak satellite geometry, or the GPS-only solution is not available. Furthermore, all the outliers due to poor satellite coverage with the individual solutions are limited and their precision is improved, agreeing also with the improvement in the mean of the GDOP, i.e. the mean GDOP was improved from 3.0 for the GPS only solution to 1.8 for the combined solution. However, the combined positioning did not show significant positional improvement when GPS has a good geometry and availability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Improve electromagnetic interference of electronic products with Taguchi
           parametric design
    • Authors: Ching-Hsiang Chen; Chien-Yi Huang
      Pages: 200 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Ching-Hsiang Chen, Chien-Yi Huang
      Impact of electromagnetic waves and fields on neighboring devices may lead to product malfunctioning and system failures, which, in turn, may result in unexpected incidents and/or even major public safety issues. This study combines measures of shielding, filtering, and grounding to design parameters at the beginning of product design by taking industrial panel PC as an example. It employs the Taguchi method to plan and conduct experiments. The control factors are PCB and mechanic design related parameters while the noise factors considered are peripherals connected to the device for its operation. The optimal parameters combination is identified as: number of grounding screw holes at 14 and with cooling aperture of casing at diameter of 3mm and of staggered layout. The aforementioned optimal design can reduce electromagnetic interference noises down to the tune of 23dB (at frequency of 406.36MHz) which is way below the 47dB limits given by international specification.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.058
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Fast heading-rotation-based high-accuracy misalignment angle estimation
           method for INS and GNSS
    • Authors: Peida Hu; Shunyue Wang; Rong Zhang; Xixiang Liu; Bo Xu
      Pages: 208 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Peida Hu, Shunyue Wang, Rong Zhang, Xixiang Liu, Bo Xu
      When an inertial navigation system (INS) is used to evaluate the performance of an attitude determination system (GADS) based on the global navigation satellite system, the misalignment angles between them should be estimated correctly. The traditional misalignment angle estimation method treats the average attitude differences between GADS and INS as misalignment angles. Hence, the east and north components (levels) of the attitude errors caused by the accelerometer errors are mistakenly treated as misalignment angles. In this study, the level attitude error model is built considering the accelerometer errors. Furthermore, a fast and highly accurate misalignment angle estimation method based on heading-rotation is proposed to estimate the level attitude errors and misalignment angles simultaneously. This proposed method is examined through a turntable test. Experiment results demonstrate the capability of the proposed method in estimating the misalignment angles between high-accuracy GADS and INS.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.037
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Electrical, optical and electrophotochemical studies on agarose based
           biopolymer electrolyte towards dye sensitized solar cell application
    • Authors: Rahul Singh; B. Bhattacharya; S.K. Tomar; Vijay Singh; Pramod K. Singh
      Pages: 214 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Rahul Singh, B. Bhattacharya, S.K. Tomar, Vijay Singh, Pramod K. Singh
      This paper reports the latest work in our laboratory on biopolymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Biopolymer electrolyte comprises agarose, potassium iodide (KI) were dissolved in two different solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). To further achieve the reasonable conductivity for DSSC application we have added a low viscosity ionic liquid (IL) in the biopolymer electrolytes. The room temperature conductivity maximum was obtained near 60:40 compositions. Structural, electrical and photo electrochemical studies have been carried out in details and explained. These electrolytes were further used in the fabrication of DSSC, and comparative measured values of the fill factor (FF), Open circuit voltage (Voc), current density (Jsc) and efficiency at 100mW/cm were tabulated. The results obtained from data evaluation affirm that biopolymer – IL gel electrolytes appears promising candidates for energy devices.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • A model updating method with strain measurement from impact test for the
           safety of steel frame structures
    • Authors: Hyo Seon Park; Yeesock Kim; Byung Kwan Oh
      Pages: 220 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Hyo Seon Park, Yeesock Kim, Byung Kwan Oh
      Conventional model updating methods for structures mainly use modal parameters, which are global structural responses such as natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping obtained through vibration measurements. A model updated using those modal parameters can accurately estimate global structural responses and is used to evaluate the state of a structure. However, when using modal parameters only in model updating, a difficulty arises regarding safety assessment and response prediction of local structural members. To ensure safety of structural members, this study proposes a model updating method using the strains measured from the impact tests in structural members of steel frame in addition to modal parameters. In the model updating technique proposed in this study, error functions are set as the differences between measured and model’s modal parameters and the maximum strain subject to impact force, and the functions are minimized using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The strain responses predicted in the updated model are used in the safety assessment of structural members in steel frames. The proposed method was experimentally verified through impact hammer loading tests on a planar steel moment frame. Furthermore, the stresses obtained from the model updated with modal parameters only and the model updated by the proposed method were compared.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Parameter free and reliable signal denoising based on constants obtained
           from IMFs of white Gaussian noise
    • Authors: Weichao Kuang; Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling; Zhijing Yang
      Pages: 230 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Weichao Kuang, Bingo Wing-Kuen Ling, Zhijing Yang
      This paper proposes a denoising method based on the constants obtained from the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the noise. In particular, the model based constant is calculated using the analytical form of both the energy and the mean period of the first IMF of the noise. For practical situations, the corresponding constants are obtained using the sums of logarithms of the real energies and real mean periods of the IMFs of noise. Since the corresponding constants obtained using the practical data of the high order IMFs suffer from large fluctuations, these obtained values are unreliable. To address this issue, the relative percentage errors between the corresponding constants obtained using the practical data and the calculated model based constant are computed only using the second IMF to the sixth IMF. In this case, the corresponding constants obtained using the practical data of the selected IMFs are more reliable and less fluctuated. Next, the upper bound and the lower bound of the corresponding constants obtained using the practical data of the selected IMFs are computed. As no parameter is required to be predefined in the proposed algorithm, the proposed algorithm is more reliable than the existing algorithms. Computer numerical simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • A thermocouple-based remote temperature controller of an
           electrically-floated sample for plasma CVD of nanocarbons with bias
           voltage
    • Authors: Toshihiro Shimada; Takuya Miura; Wei Xie; Takashi Yanase; Taro Nagahama
      Pages: 244 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Toshihiro Shimada, Takuya Miura, Wei Xie, Takashi Yanase, Taro Nagahama
      We report an accurate and easy-to operate instrument for the temperature control of an electrically-floated sample using a thermocouple in direct contact with it. The signal was transmitted via 2.45GHz WiFi. We measured and analyzed the discrepancy between the thermocouple and a radiation thermometer for the plasma CVD of carbon nanomaterials under sample bias. A successful protection method from abnormal discharge in the plasma is also provided.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • An automatic transimpedance gain control circuit for analogue front-ends
           of drifting amperometric biosensors
    • Authors: Ilias Pagkalos; Emmanuel Mic. Drakakis
      Pages: 249 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Ilias Pagkalos, Emmanuel Mic. Drakakis
      When amperometric biosensors drift, their sensitivity drops with time: the same difference in detected concentration value Δ C results in lower sensor output current Δ I as the measurement/monitoring time progresses. This limitation affects the longevity of biosensors. To counterbalance for the drop in sensitivity, manual adjustment of the I-to-V transimpedance gain is usually applied. This paper presents an automatic transimpedance gain control circuit suitable for switched-capacitor-based current analogue front-ends. The circuit has been fabricated in the 0.35 μ m AMS technology, occupies an area of 0.028 mm 2 and consumes 14.5 μ W from a 3.3V supply. Measured results confirm the automatic selection between three values of transimpedance gain, namely 1, 10 and 100 G Ω each optimised for sensor current range values of ±1.65nA, ±165pA and ±16.5pA respectively. Though the reported topology has been tailored for glucose/lactate amperometric biosensors of slow temporal dynamics, its parameters can be made to match the conditions of other physiological/physical processes in need of monitoring.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Experimental structural damage localization in beam structure using
           spatial continuous wavelet transform and mode shape curvature methods
    • Authors: Rims Janeliukstis; Sandris Rucevskis; Miroslaw Wesolowski; Andris Chate
      Pages: 253 - 270
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Rims Janeliukstis, Sandris Rucevskis, Miroslaw Wesolowski, Andris Chate
      An experimental dynamic vibration test using a non-contact scanning laser vibrometer is performed in order to extract the deflection shapes of two aluminium beams containing a notch cut out with a mill and two carbon/epoxy composite beams containing an impact damage of different severities. All of the beams are subjected to the clamped-clamped boundary conditions. These shapes are used as an input in a continuous wavelet transform technique for damage detection. In total, 78 wavelet functions with scale factors from 1 till 128 are used for the aluminium beams, whereas deflection shapes for composite beams are obtained in two dimensions, thus a two-dimensional wavelet transform is employed using 16 wavelet functions, all at scales from1 till 16. The scale, which is most suitable for damage identification, is found by calculating standardized damage index and the parameter called damage estimate reliability for the scales under investigation. Another method, based on mode shape curvature squares, is also applied to identify the damage. A baseline data of deflection shapes at a healthy state is not required for both methods to work. Damage identification results are compared for both methods. To assess the robustness of an algorithm involving both methods, different sensor densities are simulated by reducing the input deflection shapes by integer factors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective optimization of multi-axis ball-end milling Inconel 718
           via grey relational analysis coupled with RBF neural network and PSO
           algorithm
    • Authors: Jinhua Zhou; Junxue Ren; Changfeng Yao
      Pages: 271 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jinhua Zhou, Junxue Ren, Changfeng Yao
      Multi-axis ball-end milling is the most commonly used operation in machining aerospace engine parts. Because of multi-output characteristic, the process improvement often requires multi-objective optimization. Recently, the grey relational analysis (GRA) has been more and more widely used in engineering manufacture with multiple responses. But, the original GRA method only suits for the optimization problem in discrete space. This paper proposes an integrated multi-objective optimization method with GRA, radial basis function (RBF) neural network, and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Compared with the original GRA, it expands the optimal solution space to continuous space. This approach is subsequently applied to the multi-objective optimization of multi-axis ball-end milling Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718. The purpose is to simultaneously obtain minimum surface roughness and maximum compressive residuals tress by optimizing the inclination angle, cutting speed, and feed. A hybrid experiment scheme with single factor design and orthogonal array is utilized to generate the sample data set. The multi-response optimization problem is successfully converted into the single objective optimization of grey relational grade (GRG). Then, the RBF neural network is employed to establish the mapping relation between the GRG and the process parameters. And its adequacy is proved by five test experiments with a low prediction error of 6.86%. Finally, the PSO algorithm is adopted to optimize the process parameters. Verification experiments show that a higher improvement of the GRG is obtained with the proposed method (62.87%) than that of the original GRA (50.00%). The developed approach is proved to be feasible and can be generalized for other multi-objective optimization problem in manufacturing industry.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T14:59:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.057
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of heavy metal exposure in workplace and health risk exposure
           assessment in steel industries in Iran
    • Authors: Narjes Alsadat Mousavian; Nabiollah Mansouri; Farhad Nezhadkurki
      Pages: 286 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Narjes Alsadat Mousavian, Nabiollah Mansouri, Farhad Nezhadkurki
      Measuring air pollutants such as heavy metals in the workplace, usually takes a long time, equipment and budget and due to variation in concentration, the results of short term researches are not reliable. To assess the health risk of workers in the smelting unit of an alloy steel factory to long term exposure to heavy metals, a simple, fast and less expensive method was used for evaluation with the combination of suspended dust analysis and PM10 measuring. The results showed that the highest and lowest concentration value was respectively recorded for Pb and Cd. Although, the average concentrations of heavy metals were lower than the recommended levels of occupational exposure, their occupational carcinogenic risks were different. The carcinogenic risk of Pb, Ni and Cd was low and acceptable, but was higher and unacceptable for Cr; therefore, using protective respiratory equipment and more efficient local ventilation was recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • The voltages in quadrature bridge with IVD
    • Authors: Franco Castelli
      Pages: 291 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Franco Castelli
      The paper exploits the useful features of inductive voltage divider (IVD) for the inter-comparison of complementary impedances. Since the definition of the quantized Hall resistance (QHR) a measurement chain allowing calibration of capacitance and inductance standards in term of ac QHR is required. The illustrated new bridge method allows these calibrations by a very simple and accurate method performable, at maximum operating frequency of 3kHz, with the standards in the range, from 0.2pF to 20μF and from 20μH to 1H and from 5 kΩ to 500MΩ. Voltages in quadrature bridge is balanced by the inductive voltage divider when the voltages at the bridge’s diagonals are in quadrature. The main innovations of voltages in quadrature bridge, as a quadrature bridge, are to using one supplying voltage only and allowing the use of inductive voltage divider in comparing complementary impedance standards. The main applications of voltages in quadrature bridge are the direct comparison inductance-resistance and of calculable cross-capacitance to ac QHR at only 3kHz maximum operating frequency. An experimental voltages in quadrature bridge was developed. Calibrations for directly inter-comparing capacitance and inductance standards to a 10,000Ω resistance standard were performed. By test results, the comparison of the standards in the outlined range with few parts in 109–108 appears achievable. Up-to-date a bridge method for directly inter-comparing inductance and resistance by an inductive voltage divider appears as a new bridge method.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.061
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of droplet sizes in bubbly oil-in-water flows using a
           fluid-sampling device
    • Authors: Lu-Sheng Zhai; Xiao-Yan Li; Peng Bian; Ning-De Jin
      Pages: 296 - 308
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 102
      Author(s): Lu-Sheng Zhai, Xiao-Yan Li, Peng Bian, Ning-De Jin
      One important characteristic of bubbly oil-in-water two-phase flows is the droplet size distribution, which has a significant effect on the heat/mass transfer between phases and the turbulence characteristics. In this study, a sampling device of dynamic fluid is designed to trap the morphological structures of the bubbly oil-in-water flows with low flow rate and high water cut. In the experiment, oil droplets in vertical upward pipe are forced into a sampling slot which is specifically designed to ensure that the passing oil droplets are not overlapped. The images of the oil droplets are recorded using a high speed camera when the mixture flows through the sampling slot. The methods of multi-scale edge detection and watershed segmentation are employed to extract the edges of the solitary and adjoining oil droplets in the flow images. Based on the detected oil droplet edges the equivalent oil droplet diameters are derived and compared with a model of maximum droplet diameter. Additionally, time-frequency entropy and the total energy of measured conductance signals are extracted using Adaptive Optimal Kernel Time-Frequency Representation (AOK TFR) to characterize the droplet size distribution of bubbly oil-water two-phase flows.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T14:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.055
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Research of non-contact measurement for high viscous fluid falling film
           thickness on spherical series surface
    • Authors: Yongxin Yu; Ling Ma; Hongyu Ye; Yizhong Zheng; Yuzhen Ma
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 101
      Author(s): Yongxin Yu, Ling Ma, Hongyu Ye, Yizhong Zheng, Yuzhen Ma
      In the heat exchange system, the thickness of viscous liquid film on the surface of corrugated tube formed by fluid is an important parameter to control the performance of heat exchange. Because the surface of corrugated tube is a spherical series surface, it makes it difficult for measuring the thickness of liquid film. Based on the measuring object of liquid film formed by fluid on the surface of the corrugated tube, we specially designed a capacitive sensor for this kind of abnormity surface in the paper. We detailedly introduced the structure and operational principle of capacitive sensor, the circuit design and software system analysis, finally we displayed the waveform chart formed from the field data. Experimental results showed that the measuring system realized high precise and non-contact measurement for the liquid film thickness on the surface of the corrugated tube.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T09:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • First application of multilayer graphene cantilever for laser
           photoacoustic detection
    • Authors: Jan Suchánek; Michal Dostál; Tereza Vlasáková; Pavel Janda; Monika Klusáčková; Pavel Kubát; Václav Nevrlý; Petr Bitala; Svatopluk Civiš; Zdeněk Zelinger
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 101
      Author(s): Jan Suchánek, Michal Dostál, Tereza Vlasáková, Pavel Janda, Monika Klusáčková, Pavel Kubát, Václav Nevrlý, Petr Bitala, Svatopluk Civiš, Zdeněk Zelinger
      The mechanical behaviours of multilayer graphene (MLG) membranes and cantilevers were investigated for the sensitive detection of acoustic waves in gases. The aim of this work was to find sensors for laser photoacoustic spectroscopy with high sensitivity. The application of the MLG cantilever for photoacoustic detection was reported for the first time. MLG membranes and cantilevers were prepared from highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by multiple mechanical cleavages allowing simple adjustment of the membrane/cantilever thickness and relevant mechanical parameters. The MLG cantilever/membrane movements induced by pressure waves triggered by the absorption of the CO2 laser pulse in the gas-filled photoacoustic cell were detected by a He-Ne laser beam reflected from the cantilever/membrane to a position sensitive detector (optical microphone). The sensitivity of the MLG cantilevers for the photoacoustic detection of methanol vapours (testing gas) was more than one order of magnitude higher in comparison with a top class microphone (Brüel & Kjaer). The signal-to-noise ratio of 19, 61, and 70 together with the limits of detection of 0.75ppm, 0.42 and 0.33ppm were calculated for the condenser microphone, the MLG membrane, and the MLG cantilever, respectively. Additionally, the high sensitivity of both MLG elements for the photoacoustic detection is also promising thanks to the single layer graphene with very a small thickness on the nanometer scale.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T09:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • PMN-PT based smart sensing system for viscosity and density measurement
    • Authors: Chen Zhang; Suresh Kaluvan; Haifeng Zhang; Guoan Wang
      Pages: 15 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 101
      Author(s): Chen Zhang, Suresh Kaluvan, Haifeng Zhang, Guoan Wang
      This paper presents a smart sensing system for viscosity and density measurement of viscous fluids. The proposed system is based on the vibrational properties of a cantilever probe bonded with newly developed piezoelectric materials–Lead Magnesium Niobate/Lead Titanate (PMN-PT) transducer, which has a piezoelectric charge constant (d33) more than 3 times larger than that of traditional piezoelectric material Lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The proposed system utilizes a PMN-PT single crystal for actuation and laser vibrometer for vibration detection. Using the PMN-PT transducer, the measured viscosity and density of fluids were extracted by analyzing the vibrational properties of the smart probe. Finite element analysis was conducted with COMSOL Multiphysics for theoretical calculation and lab tests were carried out to verify and evaluate the simulation results. This smart sensing system can be applied to in-field, in situ and real-time monitoring of viscous fluids, such as blood, engine oil and early-age concrete.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T09:23:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Measurement-based geometric reconstruction for milling turbine blade using
           free-form deformation
    • Authors: Zhengcai Zhao; Yucan Fu; Xuan Liu; Jiuhua Xu; Jun Wang; Shujie Mao
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 101
      Author(s): Zhengcai Zhao, Yucan Fu, Xuan Liu, Jiuhua Xu, Jun Wang, Shujie Mao
      In aerospace engineering, the combination of hot forming and numerical control milling processes is an effective way to manufacture gas turbine blades nowadays. Due to the shape deviation, it is hard to mill the parts formed by hot forming process to the final nominal shape sometimes. To reduce the rejection rate and save the production cost, a measurement-based approach for geometric reconstruction of final nominal shape using free-form deformation (FFD) is presented in this paper. The original shape was firstly sliced into several cross-sections in its design manner, then each section was modified by FFD based on a set of organized measurement points, and at last the final nominal shape was reconstructed by lofting these modified cross-sections. An iteration process with knot insertion was developed to improve the FFD calculation accuracy. The results were found to be highly encouraging, which validates the feasibility of our proposed geometrical reconstruction method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T13:08:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Measurement-based geometric reconstruction for milling turbine blade using
           free-form deformation
    • Authors: Zhengcai Zhao; Yucan Fu; Xuan Liu; Jiuhua Xu; Jun Wang; Shujie Mao
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 101
      Author(s): Zhengcai Zhao, Yucan Fu, Xuan Liu, Jiuhua Xu, Jun Wang, Shujie Mao
      In aerospace engineering, the combination of hot forming and numerical control milling processes is an effective way to manufacture gas turbine blades nowadays. Due to the shape deviation, it is hard to mill the parts formed by hot forming process to the final nominal shape sometimes. To reduce the rejection rate and save the production cost, a measurement-based approach for geometric reconstruction of final nominal shape using free-form deformation (FFD) is presented in this paper. The original shape was firstly sliced into several cross-sections in its design manner, then each section was modified by FFD based on a set of organized measurement points, and at last the final nominal shape was reconstructed by lofting these modified cross-sections. An iteration process with knot insertion was developed to improve the FFD calculation accuracy. The results were found to be highly encouraging, which validates the feasibility of our proposed geometrical reconstruction method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T13:08:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
 
 
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