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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 878 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (110 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (145 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (156 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (275 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (275 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
nonsite.org     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A multi criteria decision making approach for process improvement in
           friction stir welding of aluminium alloy
    • Authors: S. Sudhagar; M. Sakthivel; Prince J. Mathew; S. Ajith Arul Daniel
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): S. Sudhagar, M. Sakthivel, Prince J. Mathew, S. Ajith Arul Daniel
      This work is an attempt to select the optimum process parameters for friction stir welding of aluminium 2024 alloy based on multiple criteria decision making approach. The friction stir welding experiments have been conducted according to L9 orthogonal array with preferred input parameters are tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool offset. The response parameters measured are ultimate tensile strength, impact toughness and hardness of welded joint that determines quality of joint. The multi criteria decision making techniques namely Grey Relational Analysis and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution are used to find the optimum process parameter which provides maximum value of all responses. Same result is obtained through both techniques and the optimum conditions are tool rotational speed of 1000rpm, welding speed of 80mm/min and tool offset at 0mm.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Improving accuracy of cavitation severity detection in centrifugal pumps
           using a hybrid feature selection technique
    • Authors: Raziyeh Azizi; Behrooz Attaran; Ali Hajnayeb; Afshin Ghanbarzadeh; Maziar Changizian
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Raziyeh Azizi, Behrooz Attaran, Ali Hajnayeb, Afshin Ghanbarzadeh, Maziar Changizian
      Although the severity of cavitation determines the type of maintenance procedure, most of the previous studies have been focused only on the detection. This paper presents a system for detection of cavitation severity in centrifugal pumps and improving its accuracy using a hybrid feature selection technique. The vibration data used in this research is acquired from a model pump. The vibrations of the pump’s outlet is measured in three different pump conditions including no cavitation, limited cavitation and developed cavitation. Then, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is used to decompose original signals into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). After extracting the IMFs, several statistical features are extracted from the first six IMFs. After that, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used for fault classification. Correct classification rate of GRNN using all the extracted features as an input vector is 97.5%. A ten-fold cross-validation is conducted to evaluate the data. In order to increase the classification accuracy and eliminate redundant features, a hybrid feature selection algorithm is proposed. A comparison is also made between the results of radial basis function and multi-layer perceptron networks, as well. By using the selected features, not only the number of features is reduced, but also the classification accuracy is increased to 100% for all the three mentioned artificial neural networks. The selected features also determine the best IMFs that can be used in diagnosis of cavitation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Mean effective pressure oscillations in an IC-SI engine after the addition
           of hydrogen-rich gas
    • Authors: Michal Gęca; Grzegorz Litak
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Michal Gęca, Grzegorz Litak
      Fluctuations during the combustion of hydrogen-enriched gasoline in an Internal Combustion Spark Ignition (IC-SI) engine were investigated. The energy share of the hydrogen-rich fuel for the engine was varied as 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. The cyclic combustion pressure was measured and its cyclic oscillations were expressed by indicated mean effective pressure per cycle. The statistical and multifractal analyses applied to the corresponding time series showed considerable changes in the engine dynamics for hydrogen percentages ranging from 5% to 20%. The mean indicated pressure and the maximum pressure in the combustion chamber of the engine running under steady conditions were measured.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • A new simulation-based genetic algorithm to efficiency measure in IDEA
           with weight restrictions
    • Authors: Bohlool Ebrahimi; Morteza Rahmani; Seyed Hassan Ghodsypour
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Bohlool Ebrahimi, Morteza Rahmani, Seyed Hassan Ghodsypour
      To efficiency measure in real-life applications of data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, the inputs and outputs data are sometimes imprecise, and we need to use the weight restrictions in order to incorporate management’s views. For this purpose, the present paper investigates the problems of existing approaches in this area, and proposes a comprehensive DEA model which enables us to estimate the relative efficiency scores of real-life systems. The proposed model contains different types of imprecise data and general form of weight restrictions. A new simulation-based genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to estimate the expected values of relative efficiencies with the comprehensive DEA model. It is shown that the proposed model and the solution approach solves the drawbacks of existing models, and gives more informative and reliable results. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical content of the paper and to show the effectiveness of the new approach.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • The influence of electrode size on resistance measurement in the modified
           four-electrodes method
    • Authors: Adam Jakubas; Paweł Jabłoński
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Adam Jakubas, Paweł Jabłoński
      The determination of resistivity of thin antistatic coatings with use of a modified four-points method is considered. 2D and 3D mathematical models taking into account cylindrical current electrodes and pin like voltage electrodes were developed. We analyzed how the size of current electrodes can change the determined resistivity. The effect of coating thickness and resistivity of the coating and background was tested. The theoretical considerations showed that the size of current electrodes has a relatively small influence on the detected resistivity. This observation was confirmed by experiments.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Inexpensive remote monitoring system for freshwater mesocosms
    • Authors: Óscar Sampedro; Elisa Schaum; José Ramón Salgueiro
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Óscar Sampedro, Elisa Schaum, José Ramón Salgueiro
      This article describes a small, autonomous low-cost system for real time monitoring in freshwater mesocosms. The instrument is able to measure temperature, infrared (IR) scattering, fluorescence induced by blue and ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and the sunlight reflection. The device is based on measuring the fluorescence of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) using an UV or blue LED. We tested the accuracy of the apparatus in a laboratory using serial dilutions of phytoplankton samples and we obtained a signal proportional to the chl-a concentration. Measurements were then performed in two mesocosms that had been maintained at different temperatures during the last decade, with one of them at ambient temperature, and the other 4°C warmer, in line with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions. We found that the device described here was able to measure changes in chl-a concentrations of over 1.14μg/l and is capable of detecting CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) which interfered in the fluorescence measurement. Moreover the designed system has a broad dynamic range, suitable for these kind of environments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.034
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Embedded Vernier TDC with sub-nano second resolution using fractional-N
           PLL
    • Authors: Lars Bengtsson
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Lars Bengtsson
      A novel implementation technique for Vernier-based time-to-digital converters is reported. It is based on fractional-N phase-locked loops which allows the design of Vernier clocks with very close frequencies. The Vernier registers comparing counter values have been implemented in hardware in order to guarantee minimum detection latency of the moment of coincidence. Two Vernier clocks with close frequencies increment two 24-bit counters in a Cyclone V FPGA. A Vernier TDC with a demonstrated time resolution of 476ps is reported. It is also established that the time resolution limit that can be achieved with the suggested design is 10ps.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.038
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Multiresolution wavelet transform based feature extraction and ECG
           classification to detect cardiac abnormalities
    • Authors: Santanu Sahoo; Bhupen Kanungo; Suresh Behera; Sukanta Sabut
      Pages: 55 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Santanu Sahoo, Bhupen Kanungo, Suresh Behera, Sukanta Sabut
      Analysis of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal provides valuable information about the heart conditions of the patient to the clinicians. The wavelet transform is an effective tool for extracting discriminative features in ECG signal classification for automatic diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia. In this paper we proposed an improved algorithm to detect QRS complex features based on the multiresolution wavelet transform to classify four types of ECG beats. Extracted features are used for classifying cardiac abnormalities: normal (N), left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), Paced beats (P) using neural network (NN) and support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The performance of the method is evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy for 48 recorded ECG signals obtained from the MIT–BIH arrhythmia database. The proposed process achieved high detection performance with less error rate of 0.42% in detecting QRS complex. The classifier confirmed its superiority with an average accuracy of 96.67% and 98.39% in NN and SVM respectively. The classification accuracy of SVM approach proves superior for the proposed method to that of the NN classifier with extracted parameter in detecting ECG arrhythmia beats.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.022
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Identification of adulteration in uncooked Jasmine rice by a portable
           low-cost artificial olfactory system
    • Authors: Kriengkri Timsorn; Yaowapa Lorjaroenphon; Chatchawal Wongchoosuk
      Pages: 67 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Kriengkri Timsorn, Yaowapa Lorjaroenphon, Chatchawal Wongchoosuk
      Development of a portable low-cost artificial olfactory system called as electronic nose (E-nose) for rapid assessment of adulteration percentages in uncooked Jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) is reported. White rice was used to adulterate the Jasmine rice at various weight ratios (5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60 and 80% w/w). Volatile aroma compounds released by rice samples including pure Jasmine, pure White and mixed rice samples were detected by the E-nose (room temperature and 55°C) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in conjunction with gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometer (GC–TOFMS). The E-nose exhibited the highest sensor responses to Jasmine rice, mixed rice, and White rice samples, respectively, corresponding to number and total concentration of volatile aroma compounds obtained by SPME/GC-TOFMS analysis. 2-Butanone was found to be the most dominant volatile aroma compound in rice samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) with simple Euclidean plane calculation was used for pattern recognition and evaluation of adulteration percentages. Mean distances of PCA analysis showed a strong correlation and linear relationship (R2 >0.94) with amount of adulteration percentages at both room temperature and 55°C. Also, support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were used to classify and predict adulteration percentages. The results confirmed that the developed E-nose with simple proposed method can be used as alternative tool to quantify the adulterations in rice samples with several advantages including rapid, simple, low-cost, reliable and nondestructive measurement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.035
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Algorithmic clustering of LiDAR point cloud data for textural damage
           identifications of structural elements
    • Authors: Tsung-Chin Hou; Jen-Wei Liu; Yu-Wei Liu
      Pages: 77 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tsung-Chin Hou, Jen-Wei Liu, Yu-Wei Liu
      This study explored the potential of combining point cloud data (PCD) and data clustering algorithms for textural damage detection of commonly seen structural elements in Taiwan. Intensity and RGB (red, green, and blue color model) information acquired by ground LiDAR (light detection and ranging) were used for clustering analysis. Four data clustering algorithms, k-means (KM), fuzzy c-means (FCM), subtractive clustering (SC), and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) were employed to detect the textural damages and to compare the corresponding efficiency and accuracy. The structural elements being studied were rusted rolling doors representing general metal materials with corrosion, walls with tile spall off representing structural elements with erosions and physical damages, and washing finish walls with water staining representing the aging and lichen covering of structural elements. Our study results suggested that both KM and FCM gave preferable clustering performance than SC and DBSCAN. They exhibited desired accuracy for the damage/anomaly identification as well as computational efficiency, suggesting that KM and FCM were more appropriate for these types of application when PCD was used. It was also concluded that intensity rather than RGB data was more appropriate for reflecting the damaged areas. Intensity data was less interfered by environmental effects such as sunlight and rainwater when used to detect the textural changes. The clustering results were also shown to be associated with the clustering number and with the nature of the textural damage type.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.032
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Leakage aperture recognition based on ensemble local mean decomposition
           and sparse representation for classification of natural gas pipeline
    • Authors: Jiedi Sun; Zhitao Peng; Jiangtao Wen
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jiedi Sun, Zhitao Peng, Jiangtao Wen
      Leakage in a natural gas pipeline is influenced by many factors, including aperture, distance from sensors, and pressure inside the pipeline. The feature extraction and recognition algorithm is complex; thus, a new leakage aperture recognition method is proposed that presents a feature extraction algorithm based on the Ensemble Local Mean Decomposition (ELMD)-K-L (Kullback-Leibler) model and Sparse Representation for Classification. This method applied ELMD to perform adaptive decomposition of the leakage signals and obtain feature information of the leakage signals with different apertures. It then selected the product function components that contained major leakage information according to the K-L divergence from which we extracted a variety of time-frequency feature parameters to obtain the comprehensive and accurate eigenvector of the leakage signal. Realization of an accurate classification of leakage aperture using sparse representation classifiers was proposed to classify small samples of the complex signals. The classifiers obtained the sparsest solution of the test signal through the over-complete dictionary and used this solution as the sparse reconstruction coefficients of the test signal to obtain the reconstructed signal of this test signal under different categories. Finally, it completed the classification by determining the residuals of the test and the reconstructed signals. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can achieve higher accuracy than the traditional support vector machine and Back-Propagation classification algorithms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.029
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • A customized genetic algorithm for solving multi-period cross-dock truck
           scheduling problems
    • Authors: Kaveh Khalili-Damghani; Madjid Tavana; Francisco J. Santos-Arteaga; Mahdokht Ghanbarzad-Dashti
      Pages: 101 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Kaveh Khalili-Damghani, Madjid Tavana, Francisco J. Santos-Arteaga, Mahdokht Ghanbarzad-Dashti
      Cross-docking is a logistics strategy for direct distribution of products from a supplier or manufacturing plant to a customer or retail outlet with little or no handling and storage time. The classical cross-docking models are used to find the optimal inbound/outbound truck schedule that minimizes the total operational time. We propose a new multi-period cross-docking model with multiple products, due dates, variable truck capacities, and temporary warehouse. The problem is formulated as mixed-integer programming and an evolutionary computation approach based on a genetic algorithm (GA) is designed to solve it. The structure of the chromosomes, the operators, and the constraint handling strategy are specifically designed for multi-period problems. Several test instances have been generated to compare the performance of the proposed GA with that of a branch and bound solution procedure. Moreover, a comprehensive statistical analysis is conducted to illustrate the performance efficacy of the proposed GA relative to the branch and bound algorithm. This analysis reveals that the GA provides a substantial decrease in the computational burden when compared to the branch and bound algorithm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.027
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Time-frequency analysis and support vector machine in automatic detection
           of defect from vibration signal of centrifugal pump
    • Authors: Anil Kumar; Rajesh Kumar
      Pages: 119 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): Anil Kumar, Rajesh Kumar
      Centrifugal pumps operate at moderate to high speed. Contamination in the fluid in terms of solid particles and chemically reactive substances causes damage to the impeller, casing, and seals. A defect in bearing due to improper lubrication, adverse loading and manufacturing defect may also affect the performance of the pump. Hence there is a need to develop a reliable procedure for defect identification in the centrifugal pump. A robust automated signal processing algorithm is proposed for the purpose. Features sensitive to defective conditions are extracted from raw signal and scale marginal integration graph. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the optimal parameters of support vector machine (SVM). Using the optimal parameters, training of SVM is carried out for the learning of defective conditions of the pump. After training, features are applied to SVM for the identification of the defective condition of the pump. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is made using receiver operating characteristics graph and is found to be reliable. The overall recognition rate of the proposed method in identifying the specific conditions of the pump is 96.66%. In this work, an attempt is also been made to reduce the training time of GA-SVM model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T23:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.041
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
       
  • Some studies on mechanical and machining characteristics of
           Al2219/n-B4C/MoS2 nano-hybrid metal matrix composites
    • Authors: N.G. Siddesh Kumar; G.S. Shiva Shankar; S. Basavarajappa; R. Suresh
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): N.G. Siddesh Kumar, G.S. Shiva Shankar, S. Basavarajappa, R. Suresh
      The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of feed rate and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness in dry turning of nano-hybrid composites. The nano composites were prepared from Al2219 alloy matrix with n-B4C, n-B4C/MoS2 particulates using stir casting process and uniform distributions of n-B4C and n-B4C/MoS2 particles were observed by SEM and confirmed with EDS analysis. The micro hardness of the nano composites increases with increases in n-B4C/MoS2 particles. The result reveals that the increase in feed rate and addition of n-B4C particulates increase the surface roughness and cutting force of nano composites, whereas reduces by means of increase in cutting speed. The blend of plastic deformation and abrasion marks observed on machined surface. Built-up edge (BUE) was observed on uncoated carbide tool while turning of n-B4C/MoS2 composite at lower cutting speed. The TiN coated carbide offer better performance than the uncoated carbide tool.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Effect of CNC application parameters on wooden surface quality
    • Authors: Kücük Hüseyin Koc; Emine Seda Erdinler; Ender Hazir; Emel Öztürk
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kücük Hüseyin Koc, Emine Seda Erdinler, Ender Hazir, Emel Öztürk
      Objective of this study is to determine the parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate and wood material on surface quality. Medium density fiberboard (MDF), Beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon) were selected for the study. Wood specimens were prepared using different values of spindle speed and feed rate. Surface roughness ( R a ) values of specimens were measured by employing stylus type of equipment and laser based robotic measurement system. Laser based robotic measurements were obtained by Matlab software. The objective of the techniques were to (1) determine the significant parameters on wood surface quality (2) analyze the main and interaction effects in the CNC cutting process (3) compare the data from the robotic system with the stylus type of equipment. As the result of this study, spindle speed of 18,000rpm and feed rate of 2m/min resulted with minimum surface roughness values of MDF, Ayous and Beech wood for laser and stylus techniques.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Use of PCA-grey analysis and RSM to model cutting time and surface finish
           of Inconel 800 during wire electro discharge cutting
    • Authors: H. Majumder; T.R. Paul; V. Dey; P. Dutta; A. Saha
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): H. Majumder, T.R. Paul, V. Dey, P. Dutta, A. Saha
      This paper exhibits a test examination and investigation on the impacts of Wire Electro Discharge Cutting (WEDC) parameter on cutting time and surface roughness (Ra) of Inconel 800. Four cutting parameters, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, pulsed current and servo voltage have been selected to study their effects on cutting time and surface roughness (Ra). The response variables like cutting time and surface roughness (Ra) are then analysed using response surface methodology (RSM). The general belief that increase in pulse-on time reduces cutting time has been revisited. It has been seen, here, that cutting time diminishes with the expansion of pulse-on time obviously up to the limit and from there on again increments. The surface roughness, on the other hand, increases with the increase in pulse-on time appreciably. It is for the most part seen that when the rate of machining is moderate, i.e. it requires longer investment to machine then the surface completion is superior to that acquired while machining at a quicker rate. But, as increased machining time leads to an increase in the manufacturing cost, a trade-off between cutting time and surface roughness, was successfully made by utilising a hybrid PCA-grey relational analysis (GRA). This gave the best combination of cutting parameters. Also hybrid GRA-PCA shows less percentage error compare to traditional GRA.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • High frequency nano electromagnetic self-powered sensor: Concept,
           modelling and analysis
    • Authors: Ehsan Asadi; Hassan Askari; Mir Behrad Khamesee; Amir Khajepour
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ehsan Asadi, Hassan Askari, Mir Behrad Khamesee, Amir Khajepour
      This paper is allocated to the modelling and analysis of a nano plate self-powered sensor based on the electromagnetic concept. Harvesting energy directly from the environment in nano and micro scales is a promising alternative for batteries in order to provide sustainable power for minuscule devices, and powering tiny sensors. In addition, energy harvesting in high frequency can be utilized for very small mass sensing. The nano scale self-powered sensor, proposed in this paper, consists of a moving miniature permanent magnet mounted on a nanoplate, and a stationary electromagnetic coil. The vibration characteristics of the nano plate is described for cases where the plate is rested on a linear and nonlinear (Winkler) foundation. The vibration equation of the plate is discretized and solved using Galerkin approach. The electromagnetic component is modeled using analytical and finite element approaches to predict induced voltage, regenerated power and electromagnetic damping force. A good agreement is shown between the analytical and finite element models. Using the developed models, the power capacity of the nano device in linear and non-linear cases is investigated under different excitations. The results indicate that the device has a primary resonance frequency of 330MHz, and for a gap (distance between permanent magnet and coil) of 1.5nm, the nano device is able to provide 1.7 and 2.24mW/cm3 for linear and nonlinear cases respectively. At a given excitation condition, the induced voltage and the generated power depends on the mass of the particle, added to nano resonator. Thus, the voltage variation due to added particle, can be used to identify the particle’s mass.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Structural dynamics effect on voltage generation from dual coupled
           cantilever based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester system
    • Authors: Shin Yee Khoo; Zainab Shakir Radeef; Zhi Chao Ong; Yu-Hsi Huang; Wen Tong Chong; Zubaidah Ismail
      Pages: 41 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Shin Yee Khoo, Zainab Shakir Radeef, Zhi Chao Ong, Yu-Hsi Huang, Wen Tong Chong, Zubaidah Ismail
      This article investigates the effect of structural dynamics on voltage generation from a novel dual coupled cantilever based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) system. Two non-destructive vibration techniques using the EMA and ODS analysis techniques have been integrated into the location selection scheme for enhancing vibration energy harvesting purpose. The location selection scheme is based on a measurement procedure on both harvester and its host structure to identify the optimal location. The results shows that the proposed cantilever PVEH is able to harvest high voltage in the high displacement region. An optimal location, (i.e. maximum vibration points/anti-nodal points) determined by the location selection scheme could yield 33.3% improvement in harvested voltage, as compared to baseline voltage. Meanwhile, if the piezoelectric plate is placed at any minimal vibration points or nodal point on the structure as determined by the location selection scheme, a significant reduction (>70%) in harvested voltage is observed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Modeling and optimization in dry face milling of X2CrNi18-9 austenitic
           stainless steel using RMS and desirability approach
    • Authors: Abdel-Ali Selaimia; Mohamed Athmane Yallese; Hamza Bensouilah; IKhlas Meddour; Riad Khattabi; Tarek Mabrouki
      Pages: 53 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Abdel-Ali Selaimia, Mohamed Athmane Yallese, Hamza Bensouilah, IKhlas Meddour, Riad Khattabi, Tarek Mabrouki
      Stainless steel is characterized by a poor machinability due to its high ductility, and low thermal conductivity. The objective of this work is to model the output responses namely; surface roughness (Ra), cutting force (Fc), cutting power (Pc), specific cutting force (Ks) and metal removal rate (MRR), during the face milling of the austenitic stainless steel X2CrNi18-9 with coated carbide inserts (GC4040). For so doing, response surface methodology (RMS) is used. A full factorial design (L27 ) is selected for the experiments and the ANOVA is used in order to evaluate the influence of the cutting parameters namely; cutting speed (Vc), feed per tooth, and depth of cut (ap) on the out-put responses. The optimization is carried out, by using the desirability function (DF), according to three cases; minimizing (Ra), maximizing (MRR), and compromising between (Ra) and (MRR). The results reveal that both of (Ra) and (Ks) are mostly influenced by (fz). Both of (Fc) and (Pc) are found considerably affected by (ap), while (MRR) is influenced by both of (fz) and (ap). The optimum cutting conditions corresponding to the third case are: (Vc = 222 m/min, fz = 0.2 mm/tooth and ap = 0.9 mm). Furthermore, the poor machinability of the austenitic stainless steel is confirmed by the micro-chips welded on the machined surface. Nevertheless, the values of (Ra) did not exceed 2μm for the admissible tool wear [VB] of 0.3mm.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T14:03:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • An intelligent system for quality measurement of Golden Bleached raisins
           using two comparative machine learning algorithms
    • Authors: Navab Karimi; Ramin Ranjbarzadeh Kondrood; Tohid Alizadeh
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Navab Karimi, Ramin Ranjbarzadeh Kondrood, Tohid Alizadeh
      In this research, an expert system is provided for measuring and recognizing the quality and purity of mixed (pure-impure) raisins using bulk raisins’ images. For this purpose, by utilizing a machine vision setup 1400 images of the raisins were captured in the several ranges of mixture (from 5 to 50%). Then, totally 146 textural features were obtained using four methods of gray-level histograms, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray level run-length (GLRM) matrix, and local binary pattern (LBP). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used in order to find the optimum features from the extracted features. Accordingly, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for classifying the mixtures. In comparison to ANN, using top 50 features, SVM classifier had more efficient and accurate classification results (averagely 92.71%). The results of the proposed approach can be used in designing a system for purity and quality measuring of raisins.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Design and evaluation of computer-based electrical power quality signal
           generator
    • Authors: Milan Simić; Zivko Kokolanski; Dragan Denić; Vladimir Dimcev; Dragan Živanović; Dimitar Taskovski
      Pages: 77 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Milan Simić, Zivko Kokolanski, Dragan Denić, Vladimir Dimcev, Dragan Živanović, Dimitar Taskovski
      Electrical power quality signal generator, capable of reproducing the power quality disturbances in accordance with European standard EN50160, is presented in this paper. Signal generator is divided in two parts: LabVIEW based virtual instrumentation software for defining the disturbance parameters and hardware electronics for signal generation (data acquisition card and power amplifier). The paper focus is on the design of power amplifier for scaling the data acquisition card output voltage level to the nominal power line voltage (230V). The signal generator can be used for generation of reference signals useful for testing the power quality measuring instruments and various algorithms for power quality disturbance detection. In such manner, this PC based signal generator can be used as suitable and cost effective alternative to the instruments for testing the power quality meters and analyzers. According to the relevant document – ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, for detailed metrological assessment of developed signal generator, calculation and presentation of measurement uncertainty budget is performed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Wear mechanisms and surface topography of artificial hip joint components
           at the subsequent stages of tribological tests
    • Authors: Magdalena Niemczewska-Wójcik
      Pages: 89 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Magdalena Niemczewska-Wójcik
      It is virtually impossible to follow through changes in surface topography and analyse wear mechanisms of the friction components of a hip joint prosthesis under in vivo conditions. Only under laboratory conditions can analysis of operation process of friction pairs be undertaken. Research on wear mechanisms and formation of surface topography at the subsequent stages of operation process (during in vitro testing) analyzed in this work is a new approach to the current problem concerning investigation and analysis of the lifespan of an artificial hip joint. The paper presents issues of artificial hip joint wear mechanisms and methods for studying changes in the surface topography of a ball-and-socket friction pair at the subsequent stages of tribological research. The subjects of research were co-acting components of an artificial hip joint: a metallic ball and a polymeric socket. Tribological tests were performed with a hip joint simulator replicating the physiological movements and working conditions of the natural hip joint. After each stage of tribological tests, the surface texture of friction pair components was measured using a white light interference microscopy. In addition, the surface topography was examined before and after the operation process, using a coordinate measuring machine as well as an optical microscope. Based on the results, changes in surface topography (its functional properties) occurring at the subsequent stages of tribological tests were assessed. The wear mechanisms of the interacting components, i.e. abrasion, fatigue and adhesion, were identified.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.045
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Mission profiling of road data measurement for coil spring fatigue life
    • Authors: Y.S. Kong; S. Abdullah; D. Schramm; M.Z. Omar; S.M. Haris; T. Bruckmann
      Pages: 99 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Y.S. Kong, S. Abdullah, D. Schramm, M.Z. Omar, S.M. Haris, T. Bruckmann
      This study presents the mission profiling of three road conditions to assess the fatigue life of vehicle coil spring. Identifying all the service conditions of vehicle components, which indicate different possible situations and events, is crucial for the design of such components. Analyzing loading profiles prevents the over design or under design of components, which may lead to wastage or unexpected failure. Every road condition is different because of surface roughness. Acceleration signals were collected and processed using the shock response spectrum and extreme response spectrum methods for transient and stationary events, respectively. Mission profiling was performed to synthesize the equivalent power spectrum density (PSD) load profile for different uses of roads. The resulting PSD indicated that the greater involvement of the rural road reduced the lifetime of coil spring. The synthesized PSD was validated through the mean value of the responses. Fatigue life of the spring was compared to a concatenated strain life measurement using a conservative approach. This research revealed the generation of accurate road loading profile with measurement of acceleration from different roads for spring fatigue studies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Electromagnetic characterization of cola drinks
    • Authors: Tim Gaspard; Alejandro Cuevas; Iñigo Cuiñas; Isabel Expósito; Jo Verhaevert
      Pages: 111 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tim Gaspard, Alejandro Cuevas, Iñigo Cuiñas, Isabel Expósito, Jo Verhaevert
      The electromagnetic characterization of liquids could be of great interest to manufacturing companies, as it could provide information about the quality of beverages. They could use this knowledge to optimize production processes. Using the probe reflection system, dielectric properties of different varieties of Coca-Cola and Pepsi products in cans have been examined. Measurements have been performed at several temperatures between 0 and 60 degrees Celsius and at periods after opening of 0, 6, 24 and 48h. The applied frequency range goes from 0 to 20GHz in steps of 200Hz. Both experimental and theoretical approaches have been used to model the results. Although all varieties follow the same trend, the results clearly show that differences exist in the electromagnetic behavior of the two brands and of the different varieties.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Application of Lock-In Amplifier on gear diagnosis
    • Authors: Mario Luis Ruiz Barrios; Fidel Ernesto Hernández Montero; Julio César Gómez Mancilla; Evelio Palomino Marín
      Pages: 120 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Mario Luis Ruiz Barrios, Fidel Ernesto Hernández Montero, Julio César Gómez Mancilla, Evelio Palomino Marín
      Detection of faults in gears under variable rotational speed by vibration analysis becomes in a difficult task because events characterizing faults are not periodic. In this work, the use of Lock-In Amplifier (LIA), which leads to a time analysis approach, is proposed to be applied on gear fault detection. In this work, LIA is synchronized to the rotational frequency of any of the gear shafts and is used in order to determine spectral components related to a gear fault. In order to compare effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed technique with previously developed techniques, two gear-failure indicators are presented. These two indicators are determined in such a way that distributed teeth wear and faults producing a vibration with amplitude modulation can be detected. Several study cases, including numerical simulations and real vibration analysis, were carried out in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Characterization and dynamic mechanical analysis of PC-ABS material
           processed by fused deposition modelling: An investigation through
           I-optimal response surface methodology
    • Authors: Omar Ahmed Mohamed; Syed Hasan Masood; Jahar Lal Bhowmik
      Pages: 128 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Omar Ahmed Mohamed, Syed Hasan Masood, Jahar Lal Bhowmik
      Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most widely used layered manufacturing technology in various industries due to its capability to create complex parts at the lowest cost. But when it comes to the mechanical properties, the advantage of FDM is not ideal for every application. This is due to the fact that the mechanical properties of the fabricated parts by FDM strongly related to the fabrication parameters in which the material is being processed, and so how to improve them is worthy of study. Many researchers have examined the influence of varying parameters on the characteristics of FDM manufactured prototypes. FDM manufactured parts are always subjected to static and dynamic loading conditions in a wide range of industries. However, former researches only focused on the mechanical properties under static loading conditions, but none of them provided a systematic study on the effect of FDM fabrication parameters on the mechanical performance under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading. This study investigates the effect of manufacturing parameters on dynamic mechanical performance of the processed parts by FDM through computer-generated optimal design based on I-optimal design. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to study the microstructures of some specimens. The results show that dynamic mechanical performance of the manufactured parts is greatly influenced by processing conditions. The results also show that computer-generated optimal design based on I-optimal design is superior over the conventional experimental designs as it is able to simultaneously consider several factors at different levels with less number of experiments than traditional designs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • A theoretical and experimental disturbance analysis in a product of
           inertia measurement system
    • Authors: Vahid Fakhari; Saeed Shokrollahi
      Pages: 142 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Vahid Fakhari, Saeed Shokrollahi
      In this research, disturbances in a product of inertia measurement system (POI-MS) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. These disturbances mainly originate from some various mechanical or electrical sources including fluctuations of transmission system (belt-pulley mechanism oscillation), electro-motor non-continuous power generation (electro-motor speed fluctuation) and also misalignment of the rotor system (unbalancing). Knowing sensitivity of the measurement system performance to the mentioned factors will help the designer to eliminate disturbances and increase accuracy of the system. In this study, at first, disturbances in the measured transmitted force of POI-MS is investigated by performing some experiments. In order to reduce time and cost, more disturbance analyses are performed via simulations. In this regard, a dynamic model of POI-MS is developed in MSc. Adams software. This model includes nonlinear stiffness of the air bearings and flexibilities of the belt-pulley system. Then, effect of possible disturbance sources including belt flexibilities, speed fluctuations of electro-motor and unbalances in rotating parts on the performance of the POI-MS is investigated. Finally, some solutions are presented to eliminate disturbances in POI-MS and improve its accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Implementation of fractional order filters discretized by modified
           Fractional Order Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization
    • Authors: Abdullah Ates; Baris Baykant Alagoz; Gurkan Kavuran; Celaleddin Yeroglu
      Pages: 153 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Abdullah Ates, Baris Baykant Alagoz, Gurkan Kavuran, Celaleddin Yeroglu
      Digital systems are placed at the core of information technology and they are used extensively in electronics. The digital filter realization has become a central topic of signal processing studies. This paper presents a discrete IIR filter design method for approximate realization of fractional order continuous filters in digital systems. For this purpose, Fractional Order Darwinian Particle Swarm Optimization (FODPSO) method is modified to provide better fitting of a discrete IIR filter function to a fractional order continuous filter and we implemented a hybrid version of FODPSO method, where the initial particle generation is carried out by arithmetical candidate point selection technique of the Base Optimization Algorithm (BaOA). This modification expands the search range of the FODPSO and thus the optimized discrete IIR filter can provide better approximation to amplitude response of fractional order continuous filter functions. In the paper, several illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of proposed methods.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
       
  • Determination of suitable parameters for battery analysis by
           Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Yoana Fernández Pulido; Cecilio Blanco; David Anseán; Víctor M. García; Francisco Ferrero; Marta Valledor
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Yoana Fernández Pulido, Cecilio Blanco, David Anseán, Víctor M. García, Francisco Ferrero, Marta Valledor
      Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is one of the most powerful tools for the study of batteries. The applied AC current, range of frequency sweep, points per decade represented, length of the pause time after a change in the state of charge (SOC) and length of the pause time after a change in the ambient temperature must have suitable values to obtain useful results from EIS tests. A method to determine and optimize these parameters is presented in this paper. It is based on the limits imposed by the battery, the tests carried out, the instruments employed and the use of Kramers-Kronig relations. The method has been checked using two kinds of lithium batteries: a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery and a lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) battery.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
       
  • Effects of intrinsic fluorescence on biological aerosols detection
           accuracy of lidar
    • Authors: Zhimin Rao; Dengxin Hua; Tingyao He; Qiang Wang; Jing Le
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Zhimin Rao, Dengxin Hua, Tingyao He, Qiang Wang, Jing Le
      The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of intrinsic fluorescence on the detection capability for biological aerosols of an UV fluorescence lidar with selected design parameters. Numerical simulations, based on the fluorescence lidar equation, were performed for fluorescence spectra ranging from 300nm to 800nm, where the fluorescence was induced by a pulsed laser at 266nm. Simulation results show that the minimal detectable concentration of biological aerosols increases with detection range at different rates for different solar zenith angles, and that the uncertainties of the minimal detectable concentrations increase sharply with ranges. Lowest concentrations of biological aerosols are expected to be detectable during the night. In the day-time, aerosols emitting intrinsic fluorescence wavelengths are expected to be detectable at larger distances, with a relatively large uncertainty of the minimal detectable concentration.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
       
  • Measurements and evaluation of measurements of vibrations in steel milling
           process
    • Authors: Štefánia Olejárová; Jozef Dobránsky; Jozef Svetlík; Martin Pituk
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Štefánia Olejárová, Jozef Dobránsky, Jozef Svetlík, Martin Pituk
      The technologists often experience the oscillation existing only during the working period in the milling process. The reason for that is a self-induced oscillation of the tool against the workpiece as there is agenerated cutting power between the tool and the workpiece. The cutting force largely depends on the angle of cutter, the rotational frequency of the spindle and the depth of cut. The oscillations endanger the cutting edges and are very unpleasant for the operators due to the loud noise they make. The basic reason of oscillation is the dynamic interaction between the cutting process and the construction of the device. This report draws from the research on machining of materials by milling and provides the analysis of vibration signal in the direction of cutter rotation at three pre-selected places. The report brings the descriptions of the time course of acceleration and dominant frequency of vibration signal in dependence on the rotational frequency of the spindle which is anoperating parameter of milling and on the depth of cut.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
       
  • Linearity evaluation of high-speed sampling ADC board
    • Authors: G.W.C. Wijayasundara; Hyung-Kew Lee; Seung-Nam Park; Hehree Cho; Mun-Seog Kim
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): G.W.C. Wijayasundara, Hyung-Kew Lee, Seung-Nam Park, Hehree Cho, Mun-Seog Kim
      There are growing demands on the evaluation of accuracy for high-speed analog-to-digital converters which are increasingly needed in electrical metrology these days. Here, we have developed a system to measure the linearity error of analog-to-digital converters by adopting a reference sampling voltmeter and a dummy waveform generator. With the measurement setup, we evaluated the linearities for three units of Δ - Σ analog-to-digital converter, NI-5922, combined with three different PXI chassis. We found that the maximum linearity error can change with the PXI chassis up to about 15 μ V/V.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
       
  • Stabilizing control of a 1-DOF electromagnetic levitation of pivoted-free
           rigid ferromagnetic beam
    • Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Siddiqui; S.M. Ahmad; Umair Asghar
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Muhammad Rizwan Siddiqui, S.M. Ahmad, Umair Asghar
      The paper presents design, fabrication and feedback control of a 1-Degree-of-Freedom (1-DOF) attractive type electromagnetic levitation of a pivoted-free ferromagnetic rigid beam (PFB). Previous work primarily utilizes single electromagnet as opposed to the one presented here. The difficult problem of stabilizing an open loop unstable PFB between the two electromagnets (EM) that are mounted above and below PFB with equal air gap is considered. A current controller circuit is developed to precisely regulate the switching of control current to the EM. The EM exhibit a nonlinear force-current-displacement behaviour, hence to design a linear controller, the total range for displacement of PFB at the levitated end is restricted to a small gap around the equilibrium position. The force-current-air-gap relationship is linearized and a stabilizing classical Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is designed and implemented in real-time on a 1-DOF PFB test rig. The closed loop responses for command tracking and disturbance rejection from simulated and experimental studies are also presented.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T13:36:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
       
  • Rolling bearing performance degradation condition recognition based on
           mathematical morphological fractal dimension and fuzzy C-means
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Bing Wang, Xiong Hu, Hongru Li
      In allusion to performance degradation condition recognition issue for rolling bearing, a method based on mathematical morphological fractal dimension (MMFD as abbreviation) and fuzzy C-means algorithm (FCM as abbreviation) is proposed in this paper. MMFD of vibrating signal is able to describe the complexity and irregularity from the perspective of fractal, its effectiveness and stability is justified by means of signal simulation. On this basis, considering fuzzy character of performance degradation condition boundary, FCM is introduced in degradation condition recognition. Rolling bearing fatigue life enhancement testing was carried out in Hangzhou Bearing Test & Research Center, the whole life data was gathered and applied in this paper, the result shows that the proposed technique of MMFD-FCM has an excellent effect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Advancement of an intelligent system based on ANFIS for predicting
           machining performance parameters of Inconel 690 – A perspective of
           metaheuristic approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Binayak Sen, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Sankar Prasad Mondal
      The convincing potential of sophisticated milling tools exploited for machining of Inconel alloys in CNC milling machine offers minimal surface roughness-cutting force-cutting temperature trade-off footprint as compared to the conventional machining operation, which afforded a strong motivation to accomplish an in-depth discovery of the parametric design of CNC milling operation. In this study, the synergistic potential of contemporary Cubic boron nitride coated tool is used for machining of Inconel 690 in CNC milling machine, which has been scrutinized in order to build up a correlation among the objective function and the control variables by a metamodel called Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The developed ANFIS model was capable of predicting the performance parameters with commendable accuracy as observed from correlation coefficients within the range of 0.946542–0.988996, Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) in the range of 3.879652–7.456275% along with noticeably low root mean square errors (RMSE). Moreover, the ANFIS acquired results were compared with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, developed on the identical parametric ranges. The comparison of the obtained results indicated that the ANFIS overtakes the ANN model in predicting the preferred response variables, which suggests the modesty of the ANFIS model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Kinematic precise point positioning using GPS and GLONASS measurements in
           marine environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Reha Metin Alkan, M. Halis Saka, İ. Murat Ozulu, Veli İlçi
      The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique has received increased attention in recent years. When employing PPP, users need only a single GNSS receiver data to obtain a cm to dm accuracy level on a global datum, both in static and kinematic modes. This technique has become more popular due to its easy use, simple field operations, no base station(s) requirement, and provides cost effective high accuracy positioning. In satellite-based positioning, the accuracy and reliability of the positioning results are strongly dependent on the number and geometry of visible satellites, and quality of the observations. This issue is more important when the measurements are conducted in environments where satellite signals are blocked or degraded in some places like narrow channels, ravines, congested harbors, coastal areas with intense urbanization, inland waterways, in waters having severe terrain obstructions or surrounded by high mountains. To overcome this limitation, a combination of GPS and GLONASS measurements are proposed, especially to achieve more reliable and accurate solutions by increasing the number of visible satellites. The additional satellite system’s observations like GLONASS, are expected to enhance the positioning accuracy and solution availability where especially not enough numbers of GPS satellites are visible. As of today, precise orbits and clock data are available not only for GPS but also for GLONASS. This provides an opportunity to apply the PPP technique to GPS and GLONASS observations. In this study, performance of the PPP method is assessed in a dynamic environment using GPS-only and GPS+GLONASS observations. Accordingly, a kinematic test is carried out at the Obruk Lake Dam in the Çorum province, of Turkey. The collected data is processed using a globally popular on-line processing service: the Canadian Spatial Reference System-Precise Point Positioning Service (CSRS-PPP) operated by the Geodetic Survey Division of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The results show that the combined GPS+GLONASS data produced almost the same level of accuracy with the GPS-only data if there is a sufficient number of GPS satellites with good geometry. In the extreme cases, such as the elevation of satellites above 40 degrees, the GPS cannot provide a solution. However, when data and both satellites systems are combined, it is then possible to provide the solution. The results also reveal that a dm-level of accuracy can be achieved with the PPP technique in a dynamic environment. This accuracy level largely meets the requirements of many marine applications, including precise hydrographic surveying, marine geodesy, navigation and oceanography.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Nonlinear dynamic modeling and hybrid control design with dynamic
           compensator for a small-scale UAV quadrotor
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Yi-Rui Tang, Xiao Xiao, Yangmin Li
      This paper presents a detailed nonlinear dynamic model and the development of a flight control scheme for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) quadrotor. In the dynamic modeling, significant aerodynamic effects arising from the blade deformation of the rotor and the induced momentum are taken into account. The model is capable of representing the quadrotor behavior for more flight regimes, including not only hover but also high-speed and translational flights. Such a model can benefit the controller design from the improvement of the stability as well as the reduction of development period. Furthermore, a hybrid control scheme incorporating optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and robust sliding mode control (SMC) techniques is designed in a hierarchical multiple-layer structure. In actual practice, only partial states of the quadrotor are readily measurable. A reduced-order observer is hence developed and integrated into the compensator to estimate the unmeasured states. The simulation results show that the designed controller can achieve outstanding performance which is greatly superior than conventional control techniques can do.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • A wearable magnetic sensing device for identifying the presence of static
           magnetic fields
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): D.N. Kossyvakis, S.G. Vassiliadis, C.G. Vossou, E.E. Mangiorou, K.I. Prekas, S.M. Potirakis
      Nowadays, the ever growing use of electronic equipment in everyday life raises issues regarding the safety of specific population groups, such as patients carrying EMI sensitive implantable devices (e.g. cardiac pacemakers, surgical stents, etc.). In this respect, the need for wearable magnetic monitoring systems, able of detecting the presence of possibly hazardous magnetic fields of various different origins may become obvious. In this work, a wearable magnetic sensing device has been constructed in order to assess its ability to identify the presence of static magnetic fields of magnetic flux density up to 6 Gauss. Magnetostrictive delay lines (MDLs) have been employed as the sensing elements, due to their fibrous form and minimal thickness, which allows integration in textile and clothing products. Two different amorphous magnetostrictive materials, in ribbon and wire form respectively, have been tested in order to reveal the most appropriate solution for the application under consideration. Moreover, different performance aspects, such as uniformity of sensor’s response as well as temperature effects have been examined. The experimental results indicate that the proposed system can effectively operate within the required magnetic flux density range. Moreover, the fibrous character of the MDL makes it a perfectly suitable material for wearable applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Contact sensors for measuring high surface temperature in concentrated
           solar radiation environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jesús Ballestrín, María-Isabel Roldán
      Surface temperature is a highly desired but difficult measurement especially in concentrated solar context. In this work a method for surface temperature measurement based on contact sensors is presented. In the case of materials with high thermal conductivity, contact sensors positioned in the back of the material sample and very close to the surface is the most accurate way to measure surface temperature. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations have shown the truth of this statement. The higher thermal conductivity of the material, the lower the uncertainty in the measurement of surface temperature using this methodology. This measurement procedure has been applied to AISI 310S steel samples in the Plataforma Solar de Almería vertical axis solar furnace SF5 confirming the validity of the simulations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • π-Clean and strongly π-clean rings
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): SH.A. Safari Sabet, M. Farmani, M. Karami
      In this paper, π-regular (resp. strongly π-regular) and idempotent elements in a ring is used to define π-clean (resp. strongly π-clean) rings. A ring is called π-clean (resp. strongly π-clean) if each of its elements is the sum of a π-regular (resp. strongly π-regular) and an idempotent element. The purpose of this research is to give some results on π-clean and strongly π-clean rings and study π-clean and strongly π-clean group rings. Also, this paper is involved with investigating F 2 C 2 as a social group and measuring influence a member of it’s rather than others.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • A hybrid intrusion detection system for virtual jamming attacks on
           wireless networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Diego Santoro, Ginés Escudero-Andreu, Konstantinos G. Kyriakopoulos, Francisco J. Aparicio-Navarro, David J. Parish, Michele Vadursi
      Wireless communications are vulnerable to certain number of cyber-attacks and intrusion attempts due to the intrinsic openness of the communication channel. Virtual jamming attack stands out among other attacks. This type of attack is easy to implement, energy-efficient to be launched, and represents one of the most important threats to the security of wireless networks. As the complexity of the attacks keeps increasing, new and more robust detection mechanisms need to be developed. A number of Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs) have been presented in the literature to detect this type of attack. To tackle the problem of virtual jamming attacks on IEEE 802.11 networks, we present a novel Hybrid-NIDS (H-NIDS) based on Dempster-Shafer (DS) Theory of Evidence. The proposed method aims at combining the advantages of signature-based and anomaly-based NIDSs. The performance of the proposed solution has been experimentally evaluated with multiple scenarios in an IEEE 802.11 network.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Measurement of cytotoxicity and heavy metal load in drains water receiving
           textile effluents and drinking water in vicinity of drains
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Mubarra Noreen, Muhammad Shahid, Munawar Iqbal, Jan Nisar, Mazhar Abbas
      The textile industry plays a vital role in the development of any nation, however, at the same time it is severely being blamed for water pollution. Faisalabad is the third populated city in Pakistan and is known for intensive textile processing activities. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of Paharang and Samana Main Drains receiving textile industries effluents and ground water arising from the activities of textile industries in vicinity of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Important quality parameters i.e., Pb and Cd, BOD, COD and cytotoxicity (heamolytic and brine shrimp bioassays) were considered for pollution load evaluation. Results showed that the water quality parameters were beyond the permissible limit and textile industries significantly contributed in contamination of ground water with Pb and Cd metals. The Pb concentration was found out to be in the range of 0.20–0.49mg/L, 0.13–0.25mg/L, 0.05–0.14mg/L in Paharang drain, textile effluents and ground water, respectively, whereas these values were 0.25–0.39mg/L, 0.25–0.34mg/L and 0.10–0.23mg/L in Samana Main Drain, connected textiles units and ground water, respectively. The Paharang Main Drain heamolyzed the RBC in the range of 12.51–84.59% and shrimp death rate was in the range of 22–72%, whereas wastewater from textile units heamolyzed the RBC in the range of 15.32–68.48% and shrimp death rate was in the range of 14.0–66.0%. Samana Drain showed less cytotoxicity as compared to Pagarang Main Drain and both heamolytic and brine shrimp tests showed good correlation of cytotoxicity with water quality.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Estimating hovering of a mobile sensor in combustion boiler environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): I. Korhonen, V. Laine
      Our research group is investigating possibilities of developing a mobile sensor for short-term measurement work inside large industrial boilers. The aim of the sensor is to aid researchers modelling and simulating combustion processes in big boilers to test and verify their models. To that action a short-term, active mobile sensor is an extra-ordinary and unique tool, because it offers measurements in locations which cannot be reached with other traditional measurement methods in large boilers. There are many technical challenges to overcome before the active mobile sensor is ready for service. One is to know the balance between gravity forces, buoyancy and drag of the fluids from the bottom to upper parts of the boiler, in order to get the sensor ball floating and moving freely with the flows. This paper concentrates on estimating the conditions for hovering of the sensor ball.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Redressing grievances with the treatment of dimensionless quantities in SI
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): David Flater
      The International System of Units (SI) and its associated methods adhere to a design principle in which all kinds of quantities are described in terms of a standard set of dimensions. It is a corollary of that principle that quantities having no extent in any of those dimensions (“dimensionless quantities”) will not be distinguishable as different kinds through dimensional analysis alone, and the formality of quantity calculus will be of no help in preventing mistakes where different kinds of dimensionless quantities are confused. This corollary has led to controversies involving abuse of the unit hertz and elimination of radians and steradians as being equivalent to the number 1. In addition, official rejection of the use of so-called counting units in conjunction with accepted units has been repeatedly criticized and is often ignored. The proposed resolution is to extend quantity calculus to discern different kinds of dimensionless quantities as well as it currently discerns different kinds of dimensional quantities. The extended system provides a formal interpretation of commonly-used workarounds in terms that are compatible with SI. Should the extended quantity calculus become accepted by consensus in the future, a guide to its use would expand the set of references provided by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM), which currently lacks a definitive reference on quantity calculus.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of a series wound DC motor for modeling purpose
           in electric vehicles and mechatronics systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 109
      Author(s): Gusztáv Áron Sziki, Kornél Sarvajcz, János Kiss, Tibor Gál, Attila Szántó, András Gábora, Géza Husi
      In our previous publication a model for serial wound DC motors was presented and a simulation program was described that is based on this model and had been developed in MATLAB environment. The recent publication presents the latest, extended version of the program and deals with the measurement of the electromagnetic and dynamic characteristics (electric resistances, dynamic inductances, bearing resistance and brush friction torque) of the above motor. From the measured characteristics, the program simulates the operation of the motor, calculating its torque, rpm and current intensity, as a function of time. To check the accuracy of the measured characteristics, and also the proper operation of our program, locked rotor response test measurements were carried out on the motor and their results were compared with the simulated ones. Finally, a recently developed heat energy recovery system is presented, which can be used on electrical drives.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Anemometric type flow transmitter using LM335 – A temperature
           sensing IC
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): G. Rajita, A. Lata, N. Mandal
      In the present paper, an adapted anemometric type flow measurement technique has been designed and developed. To measure the flow rate of the fluid, a temperature sensing IC LM335 has been used in this technique as a flow sensor. The flow sensing IC is used to produce a change in output voltage of the flow transducer due to cooling effect of a flowing fluid on the metal cap of the IC sensor in contact with the fluid. In this transducer, the effect of fluid temperature is eliminated by using an identical IC sensor with its metal cap in contact with a stagnant part of the flowing fluid. Thus the difference of the outputs of the two identical transducers gives an output which depends only on fluid flow rate. The transducer along with signal conditioner and transmitter is designed and tested in the present work. The test results are reported in the paper. A characteristic equation of the proposed flow transducer has been derived and transducer characteristics obtained from experiment are found to follow this equation with good linearity, repeatability and small uncertainty of measurement. The signal conditioner and transmitter circuits used in this experiment are also found to have similar characteristics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • An alternative scheme to measure single-point hysteresis loops using
           piezoresponse force microscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 108
      Author(s): F.J. Flores-Ruiz, J.J. Gervacio-Arciniega, E. Murillo-Bracamontes, M.P. Cruz, J.M. Yáñez-Limón, J.M. Siqueiros
      We present a simple and low cost procedure to obtain the electromechanical response, in a single-point, of non-conductive materials. The technique makes use of amplitude modulated voltage pulses in an atomic force microscope with standard configuration. Material response obtained, as signals of amplitude and phase from a lock-in amplifier as well as the input signal introduced to the conductive tip are stored in the AFM images, which act like a data acquisition system. The acquired data are processed with a free-program that eliminates the necessity of voltage pulses with constant time-widths, enabling the system to study the domain stability in piezo- and ferro-electric materials. We provide the electronic circuit diagram, flowcharts, and a free software for the implementation and execution of this procedure. Our goal is to provide an alternative scheme to measure the strain-hysteretic behavior of nonconductive materials without the need to invest in expensive software or AFM-moduli.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • A non-imaging optical system for characterisation of ball-shaped
           micro-indenters
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Zhi Li, Uwe Brand, Febo Menelao, Mona Herdin, Andre Felgner
      To quantitatively determine the tip radius of spherical/conical and Rockwell micro-indenters, a practical tip radius measurement system is presented. Realization of the optical system has been detailed, including its theoretical and actual resolution and error sources. For the purpose of experimental investigation of the performance of the non-imaging radius measurement system, a sapphire sphere with a nominal radius of 200 μ m has been measured. Detailed data analysis indicates that higher-order form deviation of the object under test might be one of the key error sources within the calibration setup. Further experiments indicate that the prototype of the non-imaging system is able to measure real conical and Rockwell indenters with adequate resolution.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • The optimization of continuous torque calibration procedure
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 107
      Author(s): Nattapon Saenkhum, Tassanai Sanponpute
      This paper presents the optimized parameters of continuous (quasi-static) torque calibration by comparing it with the step-by-step (purely static) calibration facilities in order to prove the influence of the procedural conditions on the uncertainty of calibration. The filter setting (low pass Bessel: 0.2Hz, 1.25Hz, 5Hz and 10Hz) and speed of applying torque (≈140–35s/F.S.) were varied to examine the effects of both parameters on the measurement results and to optimize the continuous calibration. The measurement was made by a torque calibration machine (TCM) with two reference torque transducers and the HBM MGCplus ML30B amplifier system. The results of this experiment show the relative deviation between the step-by-step and continuous calibration within ±0.02% of reading that was enough for class 0.2 torque measuring devices (DIN 51309) and torque transfer wrench (DAkkS-DKD-R 3-7) calibration. For the step-by-step measurement, the duration time in each torque step (from applying torque to data record) must be adequate for processing time interval of the filter. For the continuous measurement, the speed of applying torque and filter setting should be optimized for best measurement capability.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T00:09:37Z
       
  • Voltammetric determination of caffeine by using gold nanoparticle-glassy
           carbon paste composite electrode
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Measurement, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tuğba Ören, Ülkü Anık
      In the present study, simple and sensitive voltammetric determination of caffeine was carried out by using a gold nanoparticle-glassy carbon paste composite electrode (AuNP-GCPE) in 3.2mM H2SO4 (pH 2.5). The effects of supporting electrolyte, pH and AuNP amount on caffeine peak current were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, analytical characteristics of AuNP-GCPE were examined and two linear ranges were obtained between 25–150μM and 200–1000μM with limit of detection values of 0.96μM and 4.90μM, respectively. Relative standard deviation for 50μM caffeine was also calculated as 7.52% (n =3). In order to evaluate the analytical performance of AuNP-GCPE, caffeine contents of various brands of cola samples were measured and compared with the results obtained by UV–Vis spectrometer. The obtained results by using the proposed composite electrode are in accordance with the caffeine contents that manufacturers claimed compared to UV–Vis. This composite electrode which utilizes the catalytic effect of AuNP with the simple preparation of GCPE, offers a fast and sensitive determination of caffeine in beverages as a practical application.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T13:13:45Z
       
 
 
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