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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 884 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (111 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (156 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (280 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (280 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mneme - Revista de Humanidades     Open Access  
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Strategy for required data reduction in the practical implementation in a
           low-cost electronic platform of an index for damage assessment of seismic
    • Authors: Elisabet Suarez; Andrés Roldán; Francisco Sagasta; Antolino Gallego; Amadeo Benavent-Climent
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Elisabet Suarez, Andrés Roldán, Francisco Sagasta, Antolino Gallego, Amadeo Benavent-Climent
      This paper presents a strategy to reduce the number of data required for the in-situ health evaluation of hysteretic energy dampers used for seismic protection of building structures. Such an optimization is essential in order to implement in practice the numerous indices now available for damage assessment of structures in real time, in the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In general, damage indices are implemented and verified in lab systems entailing expensive and very specialized equipment, which permits the use and management of large amounts of data. For real-time field applications, low-cost embedded computers with limited calculation and data recording capacity may be used; however, they require thorough study of the influence of variables involved in the algorithms for calculation of the damage indices, with ulterior optimization and required data reduction. While the proposed strategy can be followed in broader applications and SHM techniques, the present paper focuses on its application to data coming from vibration tests carried out to evaluate damage of a particular type of hysteretic damper, the Web Plastifying Damper (WPD). The WPD was patented by the University of Granada for the passive control of structures subjected to earthquakes, through a non-parametric damage index previously developed by the authors. This study describes two steps for reducing data: (1) An in-depth study of the calculation time spent on each step of the theoretical algorithm; (2) A parametric study of the influence of key signal parameters—window length, number of windows and duration of the signal—on the damage index calculation in order to minimize the resources needed. Results show a successful optimization that permits the damage index to be calculated with the low-cost Picocom platform.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.08.050
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A versatile and fully instrumented test station for piezoelectric energy
    • Authors: A.K. Batra; J.R. Currie; A.A. Alomari; M.D. Aggarwal; C.R. Bowen
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): A.K. Batra, J.R. Currie, A.A. Alomari, M.D. Aggarwal, C.R. Bowen
      This paper describes the implementation of LabVIEW software to control instruments and acquire data from a piezoelectric energy harvesting test station which is based on a cantilever structure. The experiment is run in the Clean Energy Laboratory on the Ambient Energy Harvester Test Station. A digital multimeter, a programmable resistance selector, an arbitrary waveform generator, a shaker table, an accelerometer and a laser displacement sensor are used to control and acquire data in terms of harvested energy as a function of vibration frequency and load resistance. LabVIEW software is used to control the test station which makes near real-time data measurements, displays waveforms on a PC screen, and stores data for later analysis. Acquired waveforms are presented in terms of frequency versus voltage of the vibrating cantilever at preselected ranges of load resistances in terms of either AC or DC voltages. The vibration of the cantilever beam is measured with an accelerometer and beam movement is measured with a laser displacement meter. Test results are stored in a comma separated variable text file which can be imported into any data analysis software package. All experiments are performed on an isolated optical bench to avoid interference from mechanical noise that may exist in the surrounding environment. The system provides an integrated approach to characterize key performance indicators for energy harvesting materials and devices.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.08.038
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Exploring the item features of a science assessment with complex tasks
    • Authors: Tina Collier; Linda Morell; Mark Wilson
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Tina Collier, Linda Morell, Mark Wilson
      Item explanatory models have the potential to provide insight into why certain items are easier or more difficult than others. Through the selection of pertinent item features, one can gather validity evidence for the assessment if construct-related item characteristics are chosen. This is especially important when designing assessment tasks that address new standards. Using data from the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science Instruction and Assessment (LPS) project, this paper adopts an “item explanatory” approach and investigates whether certain item features can explain differences in item difficulties by applying an extension of the linear logistic test model. Specifically, this paper explores the effects of five features on item difficulty: type (argumentation, content, embedded content), scenario-based context, format (multiple-choice or open-ended), graphics, and academic vocabulary. Interactions between some of these features were also investigated. With the exception of context, all features had a statistically significant effect on difficulty.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:57:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.08.039
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A study on drum cutting properties with full-scale experiments and
           numerical simulations
    • Authors: Xuefeng Li; Shibo Wang; Shirong Ge; Reza Malekian; Zhixiong Li; Yifei Li
      Pages: 25 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Xuefeng Li, Shibo Wang, Shirong Ge, Reza Malekian, Zhixiong Li, Yifei Li
      In order to investigate the properties of cutting loads on shearer drum, a series of full-scale shearer drum cutting tests were conducted in the National Energy Coal Mining Machinery Equipment Research and Design Center of China. The pick forces and the torque acting on the drum were measured and recorded under different cutting conditions by the strain sensors that were embedded in the cutting picks. Besides, an attempt was made to simulate the shearer drum cutting process. For this purpose, a computer program named Particle Flow Code in three dimensions (PFC3D) based on discrete element method (DEM) was used. The rock sample was models by graded particle assemblies and the micro-properties were calibrated by modeling the uniaxial compressive strength tests. The cutting process for the front and back drums with different traction speeds were simulated with this model. The torque of drums and forces of each pick were obtained during the simulation. Reasonable agreement and significant correlations were found between experiment and numerical simulation in terms of cutting forces of picks and the mean torque of the drums. The specific energy increased with the increase of traction speed in experiments, which was reproduced well in numerical simulation. Moreover, according to the analysis in frequency domain, the vibration of drum torque consists of components with multiple frequencies below 50Hz, which is observed in both experiment and simulation. Therefore, numerical simulation by PFC3D is an easier, faster and reasonable method in the prediction of drum cutting load and design of shearer drum.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A modified nanostructured graphene-gold nanoparticle carbon screen-printed
           electrode for the sensitive voltammetric detection of rutin
    • Authors: I.M. Apetrei; C. Apetrei
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): I.M. Apetrei, C. Apetrei
      This study presents a graphene-gold nanoparticles screen-printed voltammetric sensor for the determination and quantification of rutin in pharmaceutics by means of square-wave voltammetry. The cyclic voltammetry electrochemical studies have demonstrated that the sensor has a large active surface and the transfer of electrons is facilitated by the nanostructured materials in the sensing material. To increase the performance of the sensor to rutin, the following experimental conditions were optimized: the detection method, the nature of the electrolyte solution and the pH. In optimum conditions of square-wave voltammetry in acetate buffer solution of pH 5.0, the sensor allows the detection of rutin on a potential of 0.44V vs. Ag/AgCl. The current of the anodic peak varies linearly with the rutin concentration ranging in the domain 0.1×10−6 to 15×10−6 M, with a detection limit of 1.1×10−8 M. The nanomaterials-based sensor was effectively used for the quantification of rutin in the pharmaceutical products being characterized by precision, repeatability and great accuracy. Furthermore, the results obtained correspond with those obtained with the standard method and with the amounts indicated by the producer, respectively, having a 99% confidence level.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A 3D-FEM-based model to predict the electrical constriction resistance of
           compressed contacts
    • Authors: Jordi-Roger Riba; Antonio-Giuseppe Mancini; Carlos Abomailek; Francesca Capelli
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Jordi-Roger Riba, Antonio-Giuseppe Mancini, Carlos Abomailek, Francesca Capelli
      This work proposes a method to estimate the electrical constriction resistance of two mating metallic rough surfaces based on the finite element method (FEM). The FEM-based method generates a random array of three-dimensional orthogonal parallelepipeds to simulate the stochastic distribution of the asperities across the contact interface. The effect of the contact pressure is studied in detail, since once the contact materials and the topology of the contact area are settled, the contact pressure plays a critical role in determining the electrical constriction resistance. The proposed model is based on two critical variables, the contact pressure and the surface roughness of the mating surfaces, which must be measured in the laboratory to calibrate the model. Results provided by the FEM-based model are compared with experiments for three geometries, thus validating the accuracy of the proposed approach. Although the apparent contact areas of the analyzed specimens have a rectangular shape, the proposed method is also applicable to determine the electrical constriction resistance of other geometries. It is also proved that depending on the pressure applied to the contact interface, the electrical constriction resistance can be almost independent of the apparent area of contact. Although the aim of this work was to generate an electrical constriction resistance model for power connectors, it is also applicable to many other power devices.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • On time-frequency domain feature extraction of wave signals for structural
           health monitoring
    • Authors: Yi Lu; Jiong Tang
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Yi Lu, Jiong Tang
      Wave propagation signals are commonly used as information carrier in structural health monitoring. To facilitate decision making, wave signals are often decomposed into multiple components to reveal its frequency or time-frequency content. In this research we investigate the use of time-frequency decomposition techniques for feature extraction. The method based on the adaptive harmonic wavelet transform (AHWT) possesses high computational efficiency and at the same time inherently avoids certain issues in some other time-frequency feature extraction methods, e.g., the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). EMD entertains the adaptivity with respect to signal features, but that adaptive nature affects the comparability of the resulting intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In contrast, the AHWT based method has similar feature extraction capabilities in the time-frequency domain while using a deterministic basis. Therefore, wavelet features can become cross-comparable when common wavelet basis is used. Our case study shows that the AHWT based approach can identify the critical features in Lamb wave signals to realize effective and robust decision making in structural damage detection.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Design of a novel nondestructive portable mobile neutron activation system
    • Authors: M. Abdelati; A. Abdelsalam; Sayed A. El Mongy
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): M. Abdelati, A. Abdelsalam, Sayed A. El Mongy
      A new non-destructive portable mobile system was designed to be used for neutron activation assay according to the Safeguards purposes. The sample is irradiated in a neutron field and its composition is determined by identifying the characteristic induced gamma radiation emitted by the fission and activation products. For the design of a neutron activation system, many aspects must be considered such as choosing the best materials to assure the protection against radiation and estimating the thickness required to shield the neutron source based on its flux or strength. The polyethylene and paraffin wax were selected as neutron shielding material, lead being chosen as gamma shielding material. Several calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 to estimate the required shield thickness and distribution of thermal neutron flux at different irradiation position inside the shield. The available 252Cf neutron source with 12µCi of activity was used. The novel neutron activation analysis system was proposed, designed and fabricated to meet the maximum flexibility for neutron activation analysis, at minimum cost and with adequate optimized shielding and portability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Textile electrodes in capacitive signal sensing applications
    • Authors: Branko Babusiak; Stefan Borik; Ludmila Balogova
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Branko Babusiak, Stefan Borik, Ludmila Balogova
      This article introduces a capacitive measurement method for objective examination of textile sensor sensitivity within the frequency range associated with various biosignals. The proposed evaluation method is subsequently used to investigate biosignal sensing properties of a basic copper surface sensor and two selected textile sensors made from commercially available and commonly used conductive Shieldex and Elitex fibres. Experiment results indicate that the Elitex-based electrode is more suitable than Shieldex and copper surface electrodes. The signal attenuation of the Elitex electrode is lower by approx. 1–2dB in comparison to the Shieldex electrode in the 0.5Hz to 10kHz frequency range. The copper surface electrode has slightly better signal transmission properties within low frequencies (<3Hz), however these are not considered critical in biosignal sensing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T08:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Measuring transaction performance based on storage approaches of Native
           XML database
    • Authors: Mohsen Marjani; Fariza Nasaruddin; Abdullah Gani; Shahaboddin Shamshirband
      Pages: 91 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mohsen Marjani, Fariza Nasaruddin, Abdullah Gani, Shahaboddin Shamshirband
      Many organizations today store their critical business information permanently in XML format. XML data can be managed using: XML-Enabled Database (XED) systems which convert and store XML files in traditional database systems; Native XML Database (NXD) systems which store XML data natively using three main storage technologies – text-based, model-based, and schema-based techniques; and Hybrid Database systems which are comprised of both XML-Enabled and Native XML database systems. NXDs are faster than other database technologies because there is no need to convert the format of the data prior to storage. No performance evaluation has been carried out to compare all three storage strategies, hence, this paper reports on the first attempt to evaluate all three storage strategies by using open source products to measure the response time taken for each of the database basic tasks such as database creation, dataset insertion, and data manipulation. The results of the evaluation show that the schema-based storage strategy: performs 3.5 times faster than the other two storage techniques in data insertion; shows very good performance in query processing on small and large datasets; performs 10.33 times faster than text-based, and 7.5 times faster than model-based storage techniques in query processing of large datasets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Drilling of pultruded and liquid composite moulded glass/epoxy thick
           composites: Experimental and statistical investigation
    • Authors: B. Ramesh; A. Elayaperumal; S. Satishkumar; Anish Kumar
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): B. Ramesh, A. Elayaperumal, S. Satishkumar, Anish Kumar
      Composites are often one of the foremost difficult-to-machine materials. Out of many defects due to hole making process, the prime concern is delamination. This investigation aims to reveal the best drill geometry and corresponding optimal process parameter levels for making defect tolerance holes in thick pultruded and liquid composite moulded (LCM) composites. The novelty in this work are carrying out drilling operations with special geometry drills in thick composites, considering the entire depth of hole for assessing the damage and studying the influence of self-excited vibration of the work material. Minimization of drilling forces, drilling-induced damage and tri-axial self-excited vibration of the work material have been executed simultaneously to reveal the optimum process parameter levels for drilling the tested composite materials with each of the selected drill tools. It has been found that three flute and four-facet WC twist drills are more suitable for pultruded and LCM composites, respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • An application of evolutionary system identification algorithm in
           modelling of energy production system
    • Authors: Yuhao Huang; Liang Gao; Zhang Yi; Kang Tai; P. Kalita; Paweena Prapainainar; Akhil Garg
      Pages: 122 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Yuhao Huang, Liang Gao, Zhang Yi, Kang Tai, P. Kalita, Paweena Prapainainar, Akhil Garg
      The present work introduces the literature review on System Identification (SI) by classifying it into several fields. The review summarizes the need of evolutionary SI method that automates the model structure selection and its parameter evaluation based on only the system data. In this context, the evolutionary SI approach of genetic programming (GP) is applied in modeling and optimization of cleaner energy system such as direct methanol fuel cell. The functional response of the power density of the fuel cell with respect to input conditions is selected based on the minimum training error. Further, an experimental data is used to validate the robustness of the formulated GP model. The analysis based on 2-D and 3-D parametric procedure is further conducted to reveals insights into functioning of the fuel cell. The pareto front obtained from optimization of model reveals that the operating temperature of 64.5°C, methanol flow rate of 28.04mL/min and methanol concentration of 0.29M are the optimum settings for achieving the maximum power density of 7.36mW/cm2 for DMFC.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A non-intrusive image analysis technique for measurement of heterogeneity
           in grass species around tree vicinity in a green infrastructure
    • Authors: Vinay Kumar Gadi; Ankit Garg; Shiv Prakash; Lili Wei; Sanyogita Andriyas
      Pages: 132 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Vinay Kumar Gadi, Ankit Garg, Shiv Prakash, Lili Wei, Sanyogita Andriyas
      Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation growth is important for maintenance of urban green space. It also governs the differential settlement of foundation of buildings and performance of biofiltration units. The objective of this study is to analyse the heterogeneity in vegetation density and shoot growth of a grass around a tree vicinity. A novel non-intrusive image analysis approach was designed and developed for quantifying heterogeneity in vegetation growth. A commercially available unmanned air vehicle (UAV; PHANTOM 3 STANDARD) was utilized to capture images. Vegetation density from these captured images were quantified using a public domain image processing program ImageJ. Atmospheric parameters were monitored by micro-climate monitoring system for interpreting vegetation growth. It is found that, at a given radial distance from stem of tree, vegetation density range is found more heterogenous than shoot growth. The basic assumption of symmetricity around tree vicinity as adopted in previous models for root water uptake is found to be not true. Variation of rainfall is one of the main reason causing heterogeneity in grass growth around tree vicinity. Heterogeneity in vegetation growth more prominent near the tree vicinity than away from it. An increase in vegetation density is found within 2m radial distance in both sides of tree stem due to presence of shredded leaves from tree during winter.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A new model for rolling element bearing defect size estimation
    • Authors: Aoyu Chen; Thomas R. Kurfess
      Pages: 144 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Aoyu Chen, Thomas R. Kurfess
      A new model based on the Hertzian contact theorem is proposed to estimate the size of a line spall defect located on the bearing’s outer race. The entry point can be determined from the ball-race geometry relation, while the exit point can be identified from the time domain signal. Therefore, the defect size can be estimated from the vibration signal without requiring additional bearing load and stiffness measurements. Experiments were performed on a 3-axis CNC machine tool at speeds ranging from 500 to 3000rpm and three line spall defects were estimated using the proposed method. The proposed model is demonstrated to estimate defect size with minimal speed related error, offset error, and standard deviation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Experimental measurement of dynamic properties of composite slabs from
           frequency response
    • Authors: Hamed Allahyari; Iman M. Nikbin; Saman Rahimi R.; Ahmad Allahyari
      Pages: 150 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Hamed Allahyari, Iman M. Nikbin, Saman Rahimi R., Ahmad Allahyari
      Nowadays, in order to increase the live load bearing capacity and provide large-scale cost savings associated withconstruction projects, using structures with a lower dead load and higher strength is extremely common throughout the world. This issue causes structures to be highly susceptible to vibration and, asa consequence, meeting vibration serviceability dominates design criteria. Hence, identifying dynamic characteristics is crucial to provide a desirable serviceability. Recently, unfilled steel-concrete composite decks with perfobond rib shear connectors are used in buildings and bridges asa novel structural system. A little amount of research has been reported till date on the dynamic characteristics of this structural system. Thus, this study focuses on the dynamic characteristics of unfilled steel-concrete decks, including normal-weight high-strength concrete (HC) and lightweight high-strength concrete (LHC). Some of the main dynamic characteristics such as damping ratio, natural frequencies, and frequency response functions (FRFs) assessed by means of non-destructive technique (NDT) with hammer excitation. Subsequently, the experimental results in terms of natural frequencies were compared with the finite element model (FEM) predictions. It is concluded that there is good agreement for natural frequencies with difference of less than 13% and consequently the developed FEM model can be used for structural performance prediction and damage detection of composite decks with reliable accuracy. The results show that the damping ratios and natural frequencies of the decks fabricated with LHC (DLHC) and HC (DHC) decreases in comparison to those of decks fabricate with plain concrete (DPC). The most effective mode was the first mode with a damping ratio of almost 0.5% for both DHC and DLHC. DPC and DLHC had approximately similar serviceability, whereas DLHC can be more applicable than DPC due to lower weight.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:52:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.030
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A new approach to reduce the effects of omitted minor variables on food
           engineering experiments: Transforming the variable-result interaction into
    • Authors: Selahaddin Batuhan Akben
      Pages: 162 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Selahaddin Batuhan Akben
      In food engineering experiments aiming the optimization, only the combinations of major variables are tested. Moreover, only the constant optimal value (single value) is suggested to each independent variable in these experiments. However, the suggested values may not always be optimal in future studies due to minor variables that not considered in the experiments. Therefore, it is more accurate to suggest the range of variable values that produce the almost same optimal results rather than a constant optimal value. So that the effect of the minor variables can be minimized. For this reason, in this study, the values of variables obtained by polynomial model were transformed to images then an image processing method was performed to represent the relevant values of the variables asa single colour shade. Thus, the optimal ranges represented by single shade of color were determined. The limits of these ranges were the variable values corresponding to the values of maximum or minimum color shade and very close to the maximum or minimum constant value. The proposed method was tested in an experiment aiming the nisin production optimization depending on three independent variables. Since the same optimization experiment that has been tried with another method is also available in the literature the findings of this study were also compared with the previously suggested constant optimal values. Asa result, the superiorities and availabilities of method proposed in this study were discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.035
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Analysis of surface morphology and topography of pure aluminium machined
           using WEDM
    • Authors: K. Mouralova; J. Kovar; L. Klakurkova; J. Bednar; L. Benes; R. Zahradnicek
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): K. Mouralova, J. Kovar, L. Klakurkova, J. Bednar, L. Benes, R. Zahradnicek
      Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) represents the effective technology of unconventional machining used for the manufacture of components with complex shapes, for machining of hard materials following heat treatment or of non-ferrous metals that are difficult to machine with conventional processes. One non-ferrous material is pure aluminium 99.5 which is used for this experiment: for the design of the experiment, machine parameters were setup for the fabrication of 33 samples aluminium 99.5. The objective of this study was to find the key parameters of machine setup for the manufacture of high-precision components with the required surface quality. For this purpose, an analysis of the morphology of the surface layer was made using electron microscopy (SEM), including a local analysis of the chemical composition (EDX). In addition, the surface topography using 3D profilometer and profile and area parameters of the surface quality were evaluated, including 3D colour filtered and unfiltered images of surfaces taken using light microscopy. The prepared metallographic preparations allowed an analysis of the sub-surface area, including a local chemical microanalysis of “recast layer” using EDX. This study discovered the optimal setting of machining parameters (gap voltage=70V, pulse on time=6µs, pulse off time=50µs, discharge current=25A and wire feed=14m·min−1) for the best quality of machined surface and the narrowest width of kerf for precision machining.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.040
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Reproducibility of standardized fine motor control tasks and age effects
           in healthy adults
    • Authors: Esther J. Smits; Antti J. Tolonen; Luc Cluitmans; Mark van Gils; Rutger C. Zietsma; Marina A.J. Tijssen; Natasha M. Maurits
      Pages: 177 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Esther J. Smits, Antti J. Tolonen, Luc Cluitmans, Mark van Gils, Rutger C. Zietsma, Marina A.J. Tijssen, Natasha M. Maurits
      Graphical tasks can provide objective measures of important motor symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). These tasks could potentially be useful in clinical settings for (early) diagnosis and monitoring of such diseases. However, before such tasks can be used clinically, reproducibility needs to be investigated. The present study assesses the reproducibility of these graphical tasks including age-effects in healthy adults. Overall, performance on circle, spiral and zigzag tracing tasks and a writing task showed good reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)>0.7). Reproducibility was similar to the reproducibility of the Purdue pegboard task, which is an already validated fine motor control task. Reproducibility for the modified Fitts’ task was moderate (ICC=0.6). Reproducibility was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. To conclude, performance on graphical tasks, especially tracing and writing tasks, was reproducible in healthy adults, which is essential for future diagnostic and monitoring purposes in patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Information barrier experimental: Toward a trusted and open-source
           computing platform for nuclear warhead verification
    • Authors: Moritz Kütt; Malte Göttsche; Alexander Glaser
      Pages: 185 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Moritz Kütt, Malte Göttsche, Alexander Glaser
      Trusted measurement systems are critical for the verification of future arms-control treaties that involve confirming the authenticity of nuclear warheads on the basis of their radiation signatures. Several research efforts have produced prototype systems, but their designs are typically not published in detail, making it difficult to enable trust in these devices. The Information Barrier Experimental (IBX) is a new prototype built around the Red Pitaya computing platform using passive gamma spectroscopy. It is the first such platform designed to help a broad research community study vulnerabilities and define the required specifications for a common, trusted inspection system. It is low-cost, simple to assemble, and enables comprehensive hardware and software authentication studies. The device follows a digital data acquisition approach, which significantly reduces the number of components between scintillator and spectrum output. Measurements demonstrate that this approach is technically feasible and produces excellent measurement results.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Using dielectric properties and intelligent methods in separating of
           hatching eggs during incubation
    • Authors: Mahdi Ghaderi; Ahmad Banakar; Ali Akbar Masoudi
      Pages: 191 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mahdi Ghaderi, Ahmad Banakar, Ali Akbar Masoudi
      Fertility is an important trait in poultry industry so that any reduction in fertility resulted in a huge economic loss by rising incubation costs. In this study, dielectric constant and loss factor of eggs were used as a non-destructive, cheap, and precise method to identify dead embryos and infertile eggs, during incubation. For this purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were used. The result indicated that SVMs truly identified dead embryos with 100% accuracy at day 18 of incubation before hatching. In addition, SVM could also correctly identify un-hatching eggs, including dead embryos and infertile eggs with 92.31% accuracy at the 5th day. Neural network correctly classified un-hatching eggs with accuracy of 87.5% and 86.7%, respectively. Application of these two different classifiers showed that SVM yield better performance than ANN. The use of these capacitance properties not only present an automatic measurement method in detecting fertilized eggs in chicken, but also can apply in other strains of birds, which might be beneficial in birds’ hatchability system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.038
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A high accuracy ultrasonic measurement system using the prism technique
    • Authors: Hassina Merdjana; Abdelkrim Boukabou; Morad Grimes
      Pages: 195 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Hassina Merdjana, Abdelkrim Boukabou, Morad Grimes
      In this paper, a non-destructive measurement system is proposed to evaluate the elastic properties of highly attenuating homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials. This measurement system is based on a mode conversion technique allowing the evaluation of both compressional (P) and shear (S) waves with only one transducer. In the experimental investigation, the specimen under test (SUT), realized in a prism-shaped form, is tested using the prism technique. Then, the gathered backscattered echoes are estimated using a model-based estimation algorithm in order to extract the desired elastic properties. Accordingly, the estimated parameters are in good agreement with the manufactured values, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system, and therefore, can be considered as a promising way to robustly evaluate certain properties of highly attenuating materials.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.042
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Miniaturization of a 50N tuning-fork type force transducer by adopting a
           simplified Roberval mechanism
    • Authors: Toshiyuki Hayashi; Kazunaga Ueda
      Pages: 203 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Toshiyuki Hayashi, Kazunaga Ueda
      A tuning-fork type force transducer of 50N rated capacity was miniaturized and packed into a cylindrical space 70mm in diameter and 92mm in height by adopting a simplified Roberval mechanism. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measured results in different rotational positions of the transducer were within 2×10−5 relative. The mass of the force introduction part was reduced, and this enabled the transducer to be used in an inverted orientation, which is indispensable for the reference force transducers built into force comparators. The new compact force transducer was evaluated in its upright orientation by using a dead-weight type force standard machine and in the inverted orientation by using a force comparator in which an existing massive tuning-fork type force transducer was temporarily adopted asa reference. It was demonstrated that the output of the new force transducer in the inverted orientation coincided with that in the upright orientation within a mean deviation of 3×10−5 relative, after applying nonlinearity compensation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T13:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.037
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A case study in technological quality assurance of a metric screw thread
    • Authors: Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz; Izabela Wierucka
      Pages: 208 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz, Izabela Wierucka
      This paper presents a set of actions taken within the quality system in order to ensure that a product fulfils quality requirements. The quality of the product was guaranteed by application of the concept of cyber physical system using the three quality management stages strategy proposed by Taguchi. Technological quality assurance of a product was proposed on the example on a metric screw thread. The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, the specifications of a product, technology and measurement system are introduced, then the capability of the system is tested, and finally the controllable and uncontrollable factors influence on the system are contemplated with regard to providing the product with technological quality.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • MATLAB implementation for evaluation of measurements by the generalized
           method of least squares
    • Authors: M Solaguren-Beascoa Fernández
      Pages: 218 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): M Solaguren-Beascoa Fernández
      The method of Least Squares is one of the fundamental tools in scientific investigation. In 2002, Lars Nielsen described a technique for applying it in its more generalized form, fully compatible with the principles for evaluation of measurement uncertainty. Despite the importance of this contribution, its application has hardly been widespread, probably due to the technicalities of its implementation. Those difficulties are found in an iteration process that contains a near-singular system of equations. In this paper, the work of Nielsen has been reformulated in accordance with the notation of the ISO ‘Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’, analyzed in detail to solve the implementation difficulties, completed with an adequate convergence criterion, and implemented in the MATLAB mathematical program. The result is a practical tool that will allow the application of the general least-squares method in accordance with the international requirements of expressing the measurements with their uncertainties.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.039
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Geometrical parameter measurement and phytoplankton process modeling based
           on video images of water samples from reservoirs
    • Authors: Igor Korobiichuk; Yurij Podchashinskiy; Tatyana Elnikova; Andrzej Juś
      Pages: 226 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Igor Korobiichuk, Yurij Podchashinskiy, Tatyana Elnikova, Andrzej Juś
      There was developed a computerized system for measuring the geometric parameters and the number of phytoplankton instances in the water samples from reservoirs used for household purposes. The basis of these measurements is formation and computer processing of video images of water samples from these reservoirs. The measurement results are used to develop the mathematical models of phytoplankton processes, monitoring and forecasting of the status of reservoirs for household purposes, which are a source of water supply.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.048
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Pattern recognition based on-line vibration monitoring system for fault
           diagnosis of automobile gearbox
    • Authors: T. Praveenkumar; B. Sabhrish; M. Saimurugan; K.I. Ramachandran
      Pages: 233 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): T. Praveenkumar, B. Sabhrish, M. Saimurugan, K.I. Ramachandran
      Gearbox is an important equipment in an automobile to transfer power from the engine to the wheels with various speed ratios. The maintenance of the gearbox is a top criterion as it is prone to a number of failures like tooth breakage and bearing cracks. Techniques like vibration monitoring have been implemented for the fault diagnosis of the gearbox over the years. But, the experiments are usually conducted in lab environment where the actual conditions are simulated using setup consisting of an electric motor, dynamometer, etc. This work reports the feasibility of performing vibrational monitoring in real world conditions, i.e. by running the vehicle on road and performing the analysis. The data was acquired for the various conditions of the gearbox and features were extracted from the time-domain data and a decision tree was trained for the time-domain analysis. Fast Fourier Transform was performed to obtain the frequency domain which was divided into segments of equal size and the area covered by the data in each segment was calculated for every segment to train decision trees. The classification efficiencies of the decision trees were obtained and in an attempt to improve the classification efficiencies, the time-domain and frequency-domain analysis was also performed on the normalised time-domain data. From, the results obtained, it was found that performing time-domain analysis on normalised data had a higher efficiency when compared with the other methods. Instantaneous processing of the acquired data from the accelerometer enables faster diagnosis. Hence, online condition monitoring has gained importance with the advent of powerful microprocessors. A windows application that has been developed to automate the process was found to be essential and accurate.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.041
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Assessment of methodologies to estimate displacements from measured
           acceleration records
    • Authors: Damaris Arias-Lara; Jaime De-la-Colina
      Pages: 261 - 273
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Damaris Arias-Lara, Jaime De-la-Colina
      This study presents a comparative analysis of several methods to estimate displacements from measured accelerations records, with the objective of assessing their performance to compute displacements caused by different types of excitation (harmonic, vehicular, pedestrian, or seismic). The acceleration records were selected to be unaffected by tilts and rotation around a vertical axis. The study relevance is founded on the lack of agreement among researchers in relation to the validity/precision of displacements obtained from accelerations. Results show that there are two main groups of methods: one applies to signals with zero end displacements, and the other applies to more general movements. Except for cases with both much noise and small displacements, it is possible to compute displacements with high cross correlation coefficients and small errors, with respect to measured displacements. Results also indicate that the selection of the method to estimate displacements depends on: displacement amplitudes, type of waveform, type of information requiered (either the peak displacement or the whole displacement signal), and magnitude of the displacements at the record end.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • An integrated system for simultaneous casting of multi-polyacrylamide gels
           with varied concentrations
    • Authors: Praveen Maurye; Mrigank Dhabi; Jayanta Kumar Biswas; Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 274 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Praveen Maurye, Mrigank Dhabi, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhyay
      The ever growing advancements in the protein analysis of any cell or tissue using different variants of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and associated basic techniques offers its widespread application in almost all molecular biology laboratories. On the other hand, casting of several gels in parallel is a cumbersome task but is often an essential situation. A multi-gel casting apparatus for simultaneous casting of homogeneous concentration and gradient concentration sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel was described here. The efficiency of this newly modified apparatus was significantly improved by the flexibility of using the top pouring and bottom pouring mechanism at the same time along with the siphoning of used solution from polymerizing bottom gel surface which makes it suitable for all types of vertical polyacrylamide gels. This apparatus reliably produces different kinds of slab gels in multiple numbers with each gel having similar physical characteristics in its type and provides desired results comparable to the gels made by commercial sources.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.036
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • IoT embedded linux system based on Raspberry Pi applied to real-time cloud
           monitoring of a decentralized photovoltaic plant
    • Authors: Renata I.S. Pereira; Ivonne M. Dupont; Paulo C.M. Carvalho; Sandro C.S. Jucá
      Pages: 286 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Renata I.S. Pereira, Ivonne M. Dupont, Paulo C.M. Carvalho, Sandro C.S. Jucá
      In this project we propose, describe, implement and test the Renewable Energy Monitoring System (REMS), a new concept on data acquisition and transmission systems (DATS) applied to real-time cloud monitoring of a decentralized photovoltaic (PV) plant. To achieve this latest design, we went through various systems projects alongside the evolution of technology. From this practical experience and in agreement with Brazil’s policy of diversifying the electricity generation matrix, our proposal focuses on a multi-user remote system using Raspberry Pi and Internet of Things (IoT) concept. REMS is capable of sensing and modifying monitoring process management via remote firmware update through the developed Analog/Digital Converter Embedded System (ADCES) as well as communicating with a personal developed cloud server profile via RPi Embedded Linux System (ELS), thus not requiring a dedicated PC. The measured variables are PV voltage and current, ambient and PV module temperature, solar irradiance, and relative humidity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.033
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Performance analysis of image thresholding: Otsu technique
    • Authors: Ta Yang Goh; Shafriza Nisha Basah; Haniza Yazid; Muhammad Juhairi Aziz Safar; Fathinul Syahir Ahmad Saad
      Pages: 298 - 307
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Ta Yang Goh, Shafriza Nisha Basah, Haniza Yazid, Muhammad Juhairi Aziz Safar, Fathinul Syahir Ahmad Saad
      Image thresholding is usually applied as an initial step in many algorithms for image analysis, object representation and visualization. Although many image thresholding techniques were proposed in the literature and their usage is well understood, their performance analyses are relatively limited. We critically analysed the feasibility of successful image thresholding under a variation of all scene parameters. The focus is based on Otsu method image thresholding technique since it is widely used in many computer vision applications. Our analysis based on Monte Carlo statistical method shows that the success of image segmentation depends on object-background intensity difference, object size and noise measurement, however is unaffected by location of the object on that image. We have also proposed a set of conditions to guarantee a successful image segmentation. Experiment using real-image data was set up to verify the validity of those conditions. The result demonstrates the capability of the proposed conditions to correctly predict the outcome of image thresholding using Otsu technique. In practice, the success of image thresholding could be predicted beforehand with the aid of obtainable scene parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.09.052
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • In-situ monitoring and characterization of airborne solid particles in the
           hostile environment of a steel industry using stand-off LIBS
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 115
      Author(s): D. Girón, T. Delgado, J. Ruiz, L.M. Cabalín, J.J. Laserna
      The analytical possibilities of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to carry out in-situ and real-time detection and compositional characterization of aerosols in the atmosphere of a steelmaking factory, have been evaluated. To this aim, a compact and versatile dual-pulse LIBS analyzer, able to sample at distances up to eight meters, has been designed to work in these hostile industrial environments. Due to the discrete nature of the particulate matter, the particle sampling rate was less than 2.5% and 6% for single- and double-pulse regimes, respectively. An efficient statistical procedure, based on the calculation of standard deviations, is used to qualitatively characterize the elemental composition of the aerosol. Then, a conditional analysis based on the limit of detection, is employed to assess the elemental sampling rate. This experimental methodology has been used to evaluate the influence on the aerosol formed of the oxycutting process in a continuous casting machine producing steel slabs, revealing a strong presence of elements derived from the casting powder used in the production. Moreover, chromium, present in the steel cast, is detected in aerosol suspension in the steel shop. An increase in the concentration of particulate matter was expected when oxycutting was on. Single-pulse and dual-pulse excitation modes are also evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Research on neural network model of surface roughness in belt sanding
           process for Pinus koraiensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 115
      Author(s): Xue Bao, Junhua Ying, Feng Cheng, Jian Zhang, Bin Luo, Li Li, Hongguang Liu
      At present, researches about surface roughness mainly focus on the measurement methods and the relation between wood surface roughness and adhesion strength as well. It is well known that some sanding parameters are considerably key factors for analyzing the cause of surface roughness. However, only a few research studied the relations among surface roughness, sanding parameters, sanding pressure and wood texture direction. Back-propagation network (BP network) system was applied to simulate and predict the surface roughness value during the sanding process. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sanding parameters on surface roughness of pinus koraiensis and the relation between sanding pressure and surface roughness, and finally establish the model of surface roughness combined with wood texture characteristic of pinus koraiensis through neural network system. The results showed that All values of surface roughness had a “vacuum belt” when λ = 0° and λ = 45°, but it did not appear when λ = 90° (λ refers to the angle between the feeding direction and the wood grain). The confidence of the fitting surface roughness results was 97% by BP network model and the average error was 5.8%, which can simply and successfully predict surface roughness during sanding process.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • The use of the photogrammetric method for measurement of the repose angle
           of granular materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 115
      Author(s): Artur Wójcik, Przemysław Klapa, Bartosz Mitka, Jerzy Sładek
      The paper addresses a vitally important issue of precise determination of the angle of repose of granular materials. For calculation of the said angle, a photogrammetric 3D coordinate measurement method has been proposed. With the view of method verification, 600 independent measurement results were obtained, based on which the angle of repose of examined plant granular materials (triticale) was determined with a statement of the associated measurement uncertainty. The conducted analysis has shown that the proposed method is useful and capable of low (as for biological materials) measurement uncertainty congruent with the requirements of automated systems, and as such may be helpful in laying down the standard specification for measuring of the angle of repose, using coordinate metrology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • A novel genetic algorithm based method for solving continuous nonlinear
           optimization problems through subdividing and labeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 115
      Author(s): Majid Esmaelian, Madjid Tavana, Francisco J. Santos-Arteaga, Masoumeh Vali
      We introduce a novel method called subdividing labeling genetic algorithm (SLGA) to solve optimization problems involving n – dimensional continuous nonlinear functions. SLGA is based on the mutation and crossover operators of genetic algorithms, which are applied on a subdivided search space where an integer label is defined on a polytope built on the n – dimensional space. The SLGA method approaches a global optimal solution by reducing the feasible search region in each iteration. One of its main advantages is that it does not require computing the derivatives of the objective function to guarantee convergence. We apply the SLGA method to solve optimization problems involving complex combinatorial and large-scale systems and illustrate numerically how it outperforms several other competing algorithms such as Differential Evolution even when considering problems with a large number of elements.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Leak detection of water distribution pipeline subject to failure of socket
           joint based on acoustic emission and pattern recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 115
      Author(s): Suzhen Li, Yanjue Song, Gongqi Zhou
      Early leak detection is of great importance for life-cycle maintenance and management of municipal pipeline system. Due to economic and technical efficiency, ductile iron pipe segments and socket joints are widely used in practice to construct water distribution systems. The ductile configuration of the socket joint allowing for large deformation constitutes the most common cause for water leakage. Using acoustic emission (AE) techniques, this paper presents an experimental study on leak detection of a water distribution system subject to failure of socket joint. The acoustic characteristics of leak signals in the socket and spigot pipe segments are investigated. After feature extraction and selection, a classifier based on artificial neural network (ANN) is established. It has been validated that the dominant frequencies of the AE leak signals due to the failure of the socket joint concentrate on 0–10 kHz. The proposed ANN-based method can achieve good estimation accuracy of 97.2% and 96.9% by using the feature set {Peak, Mean, Peak Frequency, Kurtosis} and {Mean, Peak Frequency}.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Effect of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) on fine and ultrafine
           particle emission and distribution during polishing of granite
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): V. Songmene, J. Kouam, A. Balhoul
      Granite polishing generates aerosols containing fine and ultrafine particles that can be detrimental to occupational health and safety. As the occupational safety regulations are becoming more and more stringer, it is important to find ways of limiting the workers exposure to these particles. Different methods have been proposed to reduce the dust emission at the source during polishing of granite. They include using ventilation to capture or redirect the dust and using of wet polishing process to help settling down quicker the generated particles. Traditionally, the wet machining processes are conducted using flood lube but given the costs associated with this lubricating condition, in most machining sectors, the use of minimum quantity lubrication or cooling, also known as MQL machining is being tried. MQL polishing could be a cost effective way of reducing the dust generation at the source when polishing granites. Knowledge on the distribution and behavior of semi-wet particle could also help in designing other methods and apparatus for capturing or taking the dust away of the working environment. This paper investigates fine and ultrafine particle emissions during polishing tests under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions as compared to dry polishing. The MQL polishing is done using water at different flow rates and their effects on the working environment air quality investigated. It is found that the effectiveness of water MQL in particle reduction depends on size of particles considered.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Uncertainty-based combination of signal processing techniques for the
           identification of rotor imbalance
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Marco Tarabini, Diego Scaccabarozzi
      This paper describes a method for the uncertainty-based combination of signal processing techniques for the identification of rotor imbalance. The main idea of the proposed method is to compute the imbalance with different algorithms and to average the different algorithms’ results. The method is based on the data fusion at feature level and uses the measurement uncertainty of the imbalance as a figure of merit for the weight computation. A static, a dynamic, and a hybrid implementation are presented. In the static one, the weights are computed in a dedicated training phase, in which four algorithms (Fourier transform and quasi-harmonic fitting of signal denoised with Hilbert-Huang Transform, Hilbert Vibration decomposition, and Wavelet Packet decomposition) have been used to estimate the known imbalance of car wheels. In the dynamic one, the weights are computed at runtime by estimating the difference between each predictor and the actual signal. The hybrid approach is the combination of the two algorithms. Results of simulations and experiments evidenced the validity of the data fusion, with uncertainty reductions between 10 and 40%, with larger benefits in presence of non-stationary disturbances.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • A hybrid desirability function approach for tuning parameters in
           evolutionary optimization algorithms
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mohammadsadegh Mobin, Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Mohammad Komaki, Madjid Tavana
      Evolutionary algorithms are optimization methods commonly used to solve engineering and business optimization problems. The parameters in evolutionary algorithm must be perfectly tuned in a way that the optimization algorithm solves the optimization problems efficiently and effectively. Several parameter tuning approaches with a single performance metric have been proposed in the literature. However, simultaneous consideration of multiple performance metrics could provide the optimal setting for the parameters in the evolutionary algorithm. In this research, a new hybrid parameter tuning approach is proposed to simultaneously optimize the performance metrics of the evolutionary optimization algorithm while it is used in solving an optimization problem. The proposed hybrid approach provides the optimal value of parameters of the evolutionary optimization algorithm. The proposed approach is the first parameter tuning approach in the evolutionary optimization algorithm which simultaneously optimizes all performance metrics of the evolutionary optimization algorithm. To do this, a full factorial design of experiment is used to find the significant parameters of the evolutionary optimization algorithm, as well as an approximate equation for each performance metric. The individual and composite desirability function approaches are then proposed to provide the optimal setting for the parameters of the evolutionary optimization algorithm. For the first time, we use the desirability function approach to find an optimal level for the parameters in the evolutionary optimization algorithm. To show the real application of the proposed parameter tuning approach, we consider two multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, i.e., a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSO) and a fast non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-III) and solve a single machine scheduling problem. We demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed hybrid approach in providing the optimal values of all parameters of the evolutionary optimization algorithms to optimize their performance in solving an optimization problem.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Single-phase magnetic cores’ faults diagnosis using FRA approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): D. Smugala, M. Bonk, R. Ziemski
      Single phase cores made of Cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO) sheets faults diagnosis method using frequency response analysis was presented in this paper. Using the Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) approach, methodical analysis of each considered type of defect influence on FR diagrams was conducted. FR diagrams deviances noticed for analyzed faults of cores, were statistically described with interpretation, in respect to the core global condition evaluation. A developed model of inductive component tested core faults occurrence were simulated. FR diagrams deviations observed for core faults, were experimentally verified.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • The influence of the unloading rate on creep recovery of force transducers
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): K.M. Khaled, G.M. Mahmoud
      This paper presents a study of the effect of unloading rate on the creep recovery of force transducers. The creep values increase with increase loading rate and this increasing phenomenon follows a Natural Logarithm function. The creep is highly dependent on the unloading rate from 0.5 mm/min to 5 mm/min while above 5 mm/min up to 20 mm/min the creep values are less dependent. An equation represents the time-loading/unloading rate effect on the creep/creep recovery of the force transducers, is introduced.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Novel and powerful mosaic constructor for territorial analysis using
           mobile robots via Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Pedro Pedrosa Rebouças Filho, Francisco Diego Lima Moreira, Leandro Bezerra Marinho, Jefferson Silva Almeida
      One of the most fundamental problems in mobile robotics is to build an environment map. Digital image processing techniques can be applied to extract the most important information from the environment to solve such tasks. In this work, we proposed a new approach to build mosaics using the Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK) method from images captured by a mobile robot and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Furthermore, we compared our approach with the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) techniques to find the points of interest. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) and the Least Median Square methods were used to find the homography matrix, while the Cubic and Linear Interpolation methods were applied to build the mosaic. According to the results, BRISK with RANSAC and Linear Interpolations were the fastest methods taking 15.671±4.665 s, while, SIFT and SURF took 78.074±5.66 and 19.494±2.32 s, respectively. BRISK achieved the same values as SIFT and SURF for the metrics Mean Squared Error, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Mean Structural Similarity Index. The results were satisfactory for territorial analysis using both the robot with wheels and the UAV.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Simulating radiation thermometer temperature measurement error from the
           performance change of an interference filter due to polarization effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Efrem Kebede Ejigu
      A radiation thermometer is an optical instrument in which the dielectric optical filter is a critical component. Dielectric multilayer optical filters are favored in most radiation thermometer designs for selecting a certain wavelength range of the flux. Asa component those filters are affected by different conditions to which they are exposed, which might lead to error in temperature measurement using radiation thermometer. The radiation thermometer is mostly used at normal to the flux source where the interference filter have the possibility of receiving collimated radiant flux (angle of incidence 0°) after passing through a lens, but there are optical set up situation where the lens involved converge part of the flux beam. In a converged beam the incidence angle can be within a range of approximately 0–20°. In this situation the measured temperature will be affected, as polarization introduces some error specifically from the interference filter. The error might be very small for most industrial applications, but quantifying it is beneficial specifically for high accuracy measurement required in high temperature measurement. It will be demonstrated through simulation how the polarization effect can be quantified and be related to temperature error by considering different design conditions of a multilayer interference filter. The paper also demonstrates how a polarization consideration in a multilayer dielectric filter design can minimize this error. It is practically demonstrated that wavelength shift, broadening of a full width at half maximum (FWHM) and reduced transmittance at central wavelength can be determined by comparing the performance of the designed optical filters.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T15:20:38Z
  • Power system frequency tracking based on LES technique with constant
    • Authors: Veljko
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Željko Đurišić, Veljko Papić
      This paper describes a new algorithm for measuring the frequency in electric power systems. The algorithm is based on the Least Error Squares (LES) technique and uses digitized samples of voltage at a relay location. The algorithm uses one matrix with constant coefficients which can be previously calculated. It was successfully tested using computer simulated signals and using signals obtained through laboratory tests and field measurements. The test results demonstrate the ability of this algorithm to estimate voltage and frequency with acceptable accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • Optimization of drilling parameters for drilling of TI-6Al-4V based on
           surface roughness, flank wear and drill vibration
    • Authors: Balaji Venkata; Rao Mohan Rao B.S.N. Murthy
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): M. Balaji, K. Venkata Rao, N. Mohan Rao, B.S.N. Murthy
      Machining of titanium alloys is difficult due to their low elasticity, high formability and tendency of breakage. In drilling of TI-6Al-4V alloy, drill bits are subjected to chatter vibration and it causes poor surface finish and tool failure. In this study, effect of drilling parameters such as spindle speed, helix angle and feed rate on surface roughness, flank wear and acceleration of drill vibration velocity was investigated using Response Surface Methodology. A Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure vibration of drill bit in the form of Acousto Optic Emission (AOE) signal. And these signals were transformed into time domain with different time frequency zones using a high speed fast Fourier transformer. Experimental data were analyzed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to identify significant parameters on surface roughness, flank wear and acceleration of drill vibration velocity. A multi response optimization was performed to optimize drilling parameters for minimum surface roughness, flank wear and acceleration of drill vibration velocity. Optimum cutting parameters were found as 26.16 degrees of helix angle, 10.0 mm/min of feed rate and 600rpm of spindle speed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • A hybrid dynamic model of shape memory alloy spring actuators
    • Authors: Cortez-Vega Chairez; Feliu-Batlle
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): R. Cortez-Vega, I. Chairez, A. Luviano-Juárez, V. Feliu-Batlle
      This paper presents the development of a hybrid model that describes the temperature, elongation and inner force relationships in a spring Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator. The temperature-inner force relationship obeys a hybrid structure in which a sigmoid function correlates the variation of temperature for the SMA and the force executed by the spring actuator. The hybrid nature of the model describes the regular hysteresis behavior of the SMA. The switching law of the hybrid model depends on the time derivative of the temperature. A multivariable model depending on temperature, and inner and external forces was developed in order to characterize the Shape Memory Effect (SME). A set of experiments was carried out to obtain the parameters used to characterize the model. The application of the Levenberg-Marquardt method resulted in the parametric estimation procedure. An averaged correlation factor of 0.95 between the model response and experimental results justifies the proposed modeling approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • Compensation of friction and force ripples in the estimation of cutting
           forces by neural networks
    • Authors: M.S. Heydarzadeh; S.M. Rezaei Azizi Kamali
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): M.S. Heydarzadeh, S.M. Rezaei, N. Azizi, A. Kamali E
      Estimated cutting forces are usually mixed up with disturbing forces such as friction and need to be compensated. In common compensation methods, such forces are firstly recorded along machining contours under air-cutting conditions. Then, recorded disturbing forces are recalled for the compensation during the main machining process. This method doubles the process time and needs a precise synchronization. This problem is addressed in this paper. A novel method based on neural networks is introduced to compensate of friction and force ripples during cutting force estimations when signals of permanent magnet linear motors (PMLMs) are used. To this end, a Kalman filter observer was designed and experimentally verified for measuring of friction and force ripples. It was then used to provide target series required for training a neural network. Time series of the translator position along some sinusoidal trajectories were selected as training inputs. Taguchi experimental design method was used to determine the structure of the network (number of layers, nodes, and delays). It can be seen that increasing the complexity of the network does not necessarily lead to a more precise network, and a neural network with a hidden layer,16 nodes in the hidden layer and two time-delays can well model such forces. Experiments showed that the results of both methods are very similar and therefore, the proposed method can be used as well as the recording method. Finally, the designed method was successfully applied to the precise estimation of micro milling forces in order to estimate tool deflections.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • A procedure for calibrating the spinning ultrasonic wind sensors
    • Authors: Ghaemi-Nasab Franchini; Ali Davari Sorribes-Palmer
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): M. Ghaemi-Nasab, S. Franchini, Ali R. Davari, F. Sorribes-Palmer
      The accuracy of wind speed and direction measurements with spinning ultrasonic wind sensors is important than ever in today’s wind industry in which, they are usually installed on the hub of the wind turbines to measure the wind speed and direction for optimized power. In this paper, extensive wind-tunnel tests have been performed to calibrate the wind speed and direction measured by a spinning single-axis ultrasonic anemometer for both static and spinning conditions. This has been carried out with static measures at various stationary angles of transducers signal path with wind direction, and with dynamic measures in which the anemometer is rotating with various rotational speeds. The velocity measured by ultrasonic anemometer in static tests is calibrated with pitot-tube data, and the interpolation of obtained calibration coefficients is used to correct the ultrasonic velocity measured in dynamic tests. It is observed that the calibrated ultrasonic wind speed measurements in dynamic tests are in a good agreement with the reference velocity. According to the results, the ultrasonic velocity measurements in both static and dynamic tests are affected by the transducers head distortions, and the shifting in acoustic pulse trajectory due to the rotational motion does not affect the anemometer measurements. The uncertainty of the calibration process for the spinning tests was found to be about 0.3%.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • Integrate measurements allow the surface characterization of thermo-vacuum
           treated alder differentially coated
    • Authors: Maurizio DAuria; Teresa Lovaglio Angelo Rita Paola Cetera Aldo Romani
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Maurizio D'Auria, Teresa Lovaglio, Angelo Rita, Paola Cetera, Aldo Romani, Salim Hiziroglu, Luigi Todaro
      The objective of this work was to investigate color stability and chemical changes of thermo-treated artificially weathered and coated alder (Alnus cordata, Loisel.) samples. Specimens were thermo-treated at a temperature of 200 °C for 4 h and then coated with commercially manufactured finishes. A solar box test chamber was employed for weathering of the samples. The color change of the specimens were measured using CIE L∗a∗b∗ color space system. Changes of the chemical composition in the samples were evaluated using UV–Vis-NIR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. The results of these different analytical techniques all indicate the same outcome and consistently corroborate the color measurements before and after UVB exposure. The results revealed that thermo-treated alder wood, coated with various finishes, exhibited a strong variation of color compared to that of control specimens indicating of thermal modification was not very effective in restrictingUVlight induceddegradationin the specimens.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • Fracture mechanics modelling of lithium-ion batteries under pinch torsion
    • Authors: Vijayaraghavan Akhil; Garg Liang Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): V. Vijayaraghavan, Akhil Garg, Liang Gao
      For the design of batteries to sustain the crash tests, the mechanical strength (force generated) on the battery can be evaluated to understand its fundamental effect on possible failure (such as breaking of separator and short-circuit) of batteries. In this perspective, this study proposed a holistic approach to evaluate the maximum force generated on the battery when subjected to the pinch-torsion test. The fundamentals of the test are understood by formation of Finite element analysis (FEA) model and validated based on experiments. The inputs in FEA such as the temperature, the displacement and the strain rate are varied and the maximum generated force is observed on the battery. The quantification of the finite element data is further performed by an optimization approach of GP. It was found that the GP model for an evaluation of mechanical force on the battery is accurate. The robustness in the model is validated by design of its simulation for 10,000 runs. 2-D and 3-D surface analysis suggests that the displacement due to indentation is the most dominant followed by the temperature and the strain rate. The findings from the analysis can pave the way for design of new battery that comprises of higher strength when subjected to the crash tests.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
  • Driver workload estimation using a novel hybrid method of error reduction
           ratio causality and support vector machine
    • Authors: Yang Xing; Chen Dongpu Cao Huaji Wang Yifan Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 114
      Author(s): Yang Xing, Chen Lv, Dongpu Cao, Huaji Wang, Yifan Zhao
      Measuring driver workload is of great significance for improving the understanding of driver behaviours and supporting the improvement of advanced driver assistance systems technologies. In this paper, a novel hybrid method for measuring driver workload estimation for real-world driving data is proposed. Error reduction ratio causality, a new nonlinear causality detection approach, is being proposed in order to assess the correlation of each measured variable to the variation of workload. A full model describing the relationship between the workload and the selected important measurements is then trained via a support vector regression model. Real driving data of 10 participants, comprising 15 measured physiological and vehicle-state variables are used for the purpose of validation. Test results show that the developed error reduction ratio causality method can effectively identify the important variables that relate to the variation of driver workload, and the support vector regression based model can successfully and robustly estimate workload.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:11:20Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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