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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 922 journals)
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    - HUMANITIES (284 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (284 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mneme - Revista de Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The performance evaluation of multi-image 3D reconstruction software with
           different sensors
    • Authors: V. Mousavi; M. Khosravi; M. Ahmadi; N. Noori; S. Haghshenas; A. Hosseininaveh; M. Varshosaz
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): V. Mousavi, M. Khosravi, M. Ahmadi, N. Noori, S. Haghshenas, A. Hosseininaveh, M. Varshosaz
      Three dimensional modelling of the objects is one the most discussed issues in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision. One of the factors affecting the accuracy of the obtained model in image-based methods is the software and algorithm to generate the model. Another important factor is the type of imaging sensor. Due to availability of cell phone sensors to the public, popularity of professional sensors and the advent of stereo sensors, a question raised about which imaging sensor can lead to more accurate and complete model. Although many research have been accomplished to identify a suitable software and algorithm to achieve an accurate and complete model, little attention has been paid to the type of imaging sensors and its effects on the quality of the final model. This paper aims to introduce an appropriate combination of a sensor and software to provide an accurate and complete model. To do this, different available software were compared and the most popular ones in each category were chosen. In this test, four small objects with distinct geometric properties were chosen and their accurate models as reliable true data were generated. Images were then captured using Fujifilm Real 3D stereo camera, Apple iPhone 5s and Nikon D3200 professional camera and three dimensional models of the objects were obtained using each of the software. Finally, a comprehensive comparison between the results showed that the best combination of software and sensors for generating three-dimensional models is directly related to the type of imaging sensors, the software and object shape. Generally better quantitative and qualitative results were obtained by using the Nikon D3200 professional camera.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.058
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Investigations of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of FDM
           fabricated parts for friction welding applications
    • Authors: Ranvijay Kumar; Rupinder Singh; I.P.S. Ahuja
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Ranvijay Kumar, Rupinder Singh, I.P.S. Ahuja
      Friction welding is one of the solid state welding techniques, for which the two pieces of thermoplastic materials must be compatible to each other. Friction welding of the two similar thermoplastic is an easy exercise but joining two dissimilar thermoplastic is difficult because of large differences in viscosity, specific density, molecular weight, melting point, crystalline vs. amorphous nature, surface behavior and dynamic-mechanical properties. In last three decades, studies have been reported to perform the friction and friction stir welding of thermoplastics but still the reason for compatibility of thermoplastic is not understood properly. In the present study attempts have been made to perform the compatibility analysis of two dissimilar polymers namely; acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyamide 6 (PA6) by establishing their melt flow properties after Aluminum (Al) metal powder reinforcement. Twin screw extrusion (TSE) and fused deposition modeling (FDM) technologies were used to fabricate the welding specimen for potential application in maintenance engineering.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Evaluation of different calibration equations for NTC thermistor applied
           to high-precision temperature measurement
    • Authors: Guang Liu; Liang Guo; Chunlong Liu; Qingwen Wu
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Guang Liu, Liang Guo, Chunlong Liu, Qingwen Wu
      Using a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor for high-precision temperature measurement can give a resolution and accuracy as low as 5 mK. The performance of an NTC thermistor is affected markedly by its calibration equation. Two series of high precision calibration for NTC thermistors in a precision water bath by means of comparison method were presented. Nine approximate calibration equations for the resistance–temperature characteristics of the MF501 NTC thermistor are evaluated within a temperature range of 278.15–328.15 K. It is confirmed that the fitting quality is influenced greatly by the number of coefficients used in the calibration equation, and that the Hoge-2 equation is the best calibration equation for the MF501 NTC thermistor for high-precision temperature measurements. The combined standard uncertainty of the thermistor calibration system is estimated as 4.31 mK. The calibration procedure and evaluation method proposed can be used for calibration of any types of NTC thermistors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Avoiding erroneous analysis of MIM diode current-voltage characteristics
           through exponential fitting
    • Authors: Bradley Pelz; Amina Belkadi; Garret Moddel
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Bradley Pelz, Amina Belkadi, Garret Moddel
      Accurate fitting of measured current-voltage [ I ( V ) ] data is crucial to the correct analysis and understanding of metal-insulator–metal (MIM) diodes, especially for optical rectennas. With the commonly used polynomial fitting of the I ( V ) data, the order of the fit can drastically affect the diode performance metrics such as resistance, responsivity, and asymmetry. Additionally, the resulting fitting coefficients provide no useful parameters. An exponential-based equation can fit the I ( V ) data well, can avoid artifacts from the choice of order of the polynomial, and allows for the accurate calculation of diode performance metrics directly from the fitting coefficients. Connecting the performance metrics to fitting coefficients shows a correspondence between zero-bias responsivity and asymmetry at any given voltage.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.054
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • ESMD-based stability analysis in the progressive collapse of a building
           model: A case study of a reinforced concrete frame-shear wall model
    • Authors: Xianglei Liu; Yi Tang; Zhao Lu; He Huang; Xiaohua Tong; Jing Ma
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Xianglei Liu, Yi Tang, Zhao Lu, He Huang, Xiaohua Tong, Jing Ma
      Aiming to estimate the degree of damage influences on a building model, this paper proposes to adopt the extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) method to conduct a stability analysis in the progressive collapse of a building model. As a representative case, a five-story reinforced concrete frame-shear wall building model with a destructible glass wall, is studied in detail. The input signals of key locations on the building model are obtained by high-speed videogrammetry (HSV). First, the original complex response signal is decomposed into a series of simple signals called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by a mode symmetric about the maxima and minima points. Second, the instantaneous frequency of each IMF is obtained to perform a stability analysis by a direct interpolation (DI) algorithm. Third, instantaneous energy is obtained to conduct a stress analysis for the key locations of the building model. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an ability to perform a stability analysis in the progressive collapse of a building model efficiently.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.038
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • A hybrid approach to multi response optimization of micro milling process
           parameters using Taguchi method based graph theory and matrix approach
           (GTMA) and utility concept
    • Authors: D. Brahmeswara Rao; K. Venkata Rao; A. Gopala Krishna
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): D. Brahmeswara Rao, K. Venkata Rao, A. Gopala Krishna
      Nowadays, it is required to produce micro products with high dimensional accuracy to use them in different applications like aerospace, electronic and optics. The objective of this study is to investigate influence of process parameters on surface roughness (Ra and Rq), tool wear and cutter vibration in micro milling of AISI304 stainless steel. According to orthogonal array of L27, twenty-seven experiments were conducted on the workpiece with carbide end mill cutter at different levels of spindle speeds, feeds and depth of cuts. A hybrid approach of Taguchi method based graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA) and utility concept was used for multi response optimization of process parameters. The GTMA was used to calculate weightage of four responses as per user’s opinion or preference. The utility concept was used to calculate utility value of four responses using preference scale. Mean utility values of responses are analyzed with Taguchi method and analysis of variance. The optimum process parameters for the minimization responses were found to be 6000 rpm of spindle speed, 95 µm/teeth of feed and 50 µm of depth of cut. The predicted responses at optimal process parameters are Ra = 0.534 µm, VB = 70.861 µm, Amp = 54.395 µm and Rq = 0.894 µm. A confirmation test was also carried out to verify the results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Detection of Power Quality Event using Histogram of Oriented Gradients and
           Support Vector Machine
    • Authors: Rajiv Kapoor; Rashmi Gupta; Le Hoang Son; Sudan Jha; Raghvendra Kumar
      Pages: 52 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Rajiv Kapoor, Rashmi Gupta, Le Hoang Son, Sudan Jha, Raghvendra Kumar
      This paper proposes a new method to distinguish power quality events based on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). We examine energy quality events such as sag, interruptions, swell, harmonic, transient, notch and flicker. The proposed method calculates numerous power quality disturbances such as flickering with harmonics, intrusion with harmonics, and sagging with harmonics. It has less processing time than the previous methods due to multiple events occurring at same time. Numerical experiments performed on a real database of power quality disturbances show that there is less calculation in the proposal in comparison with the wavelet change, S-transform and Hilbert change. Recognition with the assistance of HOG gives better and precise outcome in time area with faster reaction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Thermally-induced mechanical behaviour of a single proppant under
           compression: Insights into the long-term integrity of hydraulic fracturing
           in geothermal reservoirs
    • Authors: K.M.A.S. Bandara; P.G. Ranjith; T.D. Rathnaweera; M.S.A. Perera; W.G.P. Kumari
      Pages: 76 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): K.M.A.S. Bandara, P.G. Ranjith, T.D. Rathnaweera, M.S.A. Perera, W.G.P. Kumari
      With the increasing demand persisting for energy extraction from geothermal resources, many scientific research studies have been carried out on the performance of proppants to improve the energy extraction process. Knowledge of the after-effects of proppants exposed to realistic geothermal reservoir conditions is crucial. Therefore, the aim of the experimental study reported here was to investigate the mechanical behaviour of a single proppant under incremental loading conditions, and the mineralogical and microstructural alterations due to exposure to elevated temperatures (100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) and different cooling conditions (slow cooling and quenching). Significant mechanical weakening, overall strength reduction of 52.19% and 69.74% and Young’s modulus reduction of 43.64% and 55.45% for the slow cooling and quenching cooling techniques were observed in a single proppant when the temperature increased from room temperature (25 °C) to elevated temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of thermal cracks inside the proppant microstructure, together with the alteration of the mineral structure, and significant changes in zeolite, Na-feldspar and K-feldspar were observed upon exposure to elevated temperatures. The post-failure behaviour of a single proppant was studied conducting 3-D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. Under normal loading conditions, proppants cleave and generate large fragments like a flower, and this happens suddenly and quite violently through the material. Interestingly, post-failure analysis revealed that the failure mechanism of a single proppant consists of three major stress levels, where initially proppant fails at a high stress level and gains some crushing-associated strength at later stages.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.053
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Geographical recognition of Syrah wines by combining feature selection
           with Extreme Learning Machine
    • Authors: Nattane Luíza da Costa; Laura Andrea García Llobodanin; Márcio Dias de Lima; Inar Alves Castro; Rommel Barbosa
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Nattane Luíza da Costa, Laura Andrea García Llobodanin, Márcio Dias de Lima, Inar Alves Castro, Rommel Barbosa
      Data mining techniques have been used for the classification of many types of products. In order to classify the Syrah wines from Argentina (Mendoza) and Chile (Central Valley), according to their origin, we perform two feature selection methods with the following classification algorithms: Support Vector Machines (SVM), and two types of artificial neural networks, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), on 10-fold cross-validation. Each feature selection method has a different approach, creating also different sets of the most important features. The best model was the combination of variables peon-3-glu, malv-3-glu and pet-3-acetylglu, selected by Random Forest Importance, reaching 98.33% accuracy with ELM, outperforming SVM and MLP. The results obtained from the classifiers and feature subsets are able to confirm the importance of the anthocyanins to classify Syrah wines according to their geographic region. ELM was the best algorithm for classifying Syrah wines.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.052
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Measurement method and influencing factors of temperature and humidity of
           condensed flue gas based on in situ flue gas heat tracing
    • Authors: Jianmin Gao; Zhihao Sun; Zhiqiang Wang; Xin Wang; Jian Guan; Guoli Qi; Zhongwei Wang; Qian Du; Yukun Qin
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jianmin Gao, Zhihao Sun, Zhiqiang Wang, Xin Wang, Jian Guan, Guoli Qi, Zhongwei Wang, Qian Du, Yukun Qin
      Condensing boilers are efficient for the utilization of natural gas. However, condensed droplets in flue gas are supercooled after condensation heat transfer, and direct contact devices cannot accurately measure the temperature of flue gas containing such droplets. Therefore, an in situ heating interlayer pumping device was designed. Experimental results showed that in situ heating interlayer pumping device can effectively filtered out the influence of supercooled droplets, the temperature of flue gas measured by the proposed device was about 3 °C higher than that measured by direct contact temperature measuring device; the device optimum flow rate was 0.35 L/min, optimum heat tracing temperature was in the range 100–140 °C; the effective reliability of the device was verified experimentally using the positive balance efficiency and the counter balance efficiency of 30-kW gas-fired condensing heat-transfer test platform.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.067
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Measurement and optimization of performance characteristics in turning of
           Mg alloy under dry and MQL conditions
    • Authors: R. Viswanathan; S. Ramesh; V. Subburam
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): R. Viswanathan, S. Ramesh, V. Subburam
      Recent research in the field of magnesium has brought out the enormous potential in terms of their applications and machining process. Lightness and high strength-to-weight ratio of such materials have led to an increased interest in their use in automobile and aerospace industries. In this paper investigation on turning of magnesium alloy using uncoated tungsten carbide cutting insert in dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) cutting conditions have been presented. This work includes input parameters like cutting conditions, cutting speed, feed and depth of cut as cutting factors and the responses of tool flank wear, surface roughness, cutting force and cutting temperature have been optimized by grey relational analysis. The optimization has been performed firstly as mono-objective optimization by using Taguchi method; secondly as multi-objective optimization through Taguchi based grey relational analysis (GRA). The mono-objective optimization results gave the combination of 40 m/min cutting speed, 0.10 mm/rev feed rate and 0.5 depth of cut when run under MQL for optimizing the tool wear and cutting temperature and also the same combination optimized cutting force when operated under dry condition. The optimal condition for surface roughness was at 140 m/min cutting speed, 0.10 mm/rev feed rate, 0.5 depth of cut at MQL. GRA technique provided optimum condition i.e. 90 m/min cutting speed, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate and 0.5 mm depth of cut at MQL that minimized the output responses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Design and analysis of capacity models for Lithium-ion battery
    • Authors: Akhil Garg; Xiongbin Peng; My Loan Phung Le; Kapil Pareek; C.M.M. Chin
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Akhil Garg, Xiongbin Peng, My Loan Phung Le, Kapil Pareek, C.M.M. Chin
      Past studies on battery models is focussed on formulation of physics-based models, empirical models and fusion models derived from the battery pack data of electric vehicle. It is desirable to have an explicit, robust and accurate models for battery states estimation in-order to ensure its proper reliability and safety. The present work conducts a brief survey on battery models and will propose the evolutionary approach of Genetic programming (GP) for the battery capacity estimation. The experimental design for GP simulation comprises of the inputs such as the battery temperature and the rate of discharge. Further, the seven objective functions in GP approach is designed by introducing the complexity based on the order of polynomial. This step will ensure the precise functions evaluation in GP and drives the evolutionary search towards its optimum solutions. The design and analysis of the GP based battery capacity models involves the statistical validation of the seven objective functions based on error metrics with 2-D and 3-D surface plots. The results conclude that the GP models using Structural risk minimization (SRM) objective function accurately estimate the battery capacity based on the variations of the inputs. 2-D and 3-D surface analysis of the GP model reveals the increasing–decreasing nature of temperature-battery capacity curve with temperature the dominant input. The battery capacity model obtained using SRM as an objective function in GP is robust and thus can be integrated in the electric vehicle system for monitoring its performance and ensure its safety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Developing a new green ship approach for flue gas emission estimation of
           bulk carriers
    • Authors: Levent Bilgili; Ugur Bugra Celebi
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Levent Bilgili, Ugur Bugra Celebi
      Shipbuilding industry and shipping sector comprise of various complex production and operating processes, which consist of manufacturing, operation, repair/maintenance, scrapping/dismantling/recycling. Operation phase is the main source for production of various atmospheric contaminants. In the latest report of IMO, it is estimated that shipping activities are responsible for 2.2% and 2.1% of global CO2 and GHG emissions CO2 equivalent (including CH4 and N2O), which correspond to 35,640 and 39,113 million tons, respectively. IPCC estimates that the total fuel consumption will increase by 43.5% in 2050, at best. In this study, it is aimed to develop some equations in order to estimate the potential airborne emissions of a bulk carrier based on two main characteristics (DWT and CB) during pre-design. For this purpose, the three-year operation data of nine bulk carriers are examined and a regression analysis was applied to obtain the equations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Dual band infrared detection method based on mid-infrared and long
           infrared vision for conveyor belts longitudinal tear
    • Authors: Binchao Yu; Tiezhu Qiao; Haitao Zhang; Gaowei Yan
      Pages: 140 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Binchao Yu, Tiezhu Qiao, Haitao Zhang, Gaowei Yan
      In mining operation, the longitudinal tear detection of conveyor belt is of great significance to safety production. A novel method, named Dual Band Infrared Detection (DBID), is proposed to detect the longitudinal tear of conveyor belts in this paper. The DBID method is based on the collaboration of mid-infrared and long infrared vision. The DBID sensor device captures the lower surface images of conveyor belt. The feature of tear or scratch and tearing precursor can be extracted by analyzation of captured images. The DBID method is verified by experiments and practice, including the capturing of dual band infrared images (mid-infrared and long infrared images), image preprocessing, and tear detection. The DBID method is not only unlimited by visual condition, but also much more accurate and reliable compared with the Integrative Binocular Vision Detection (IBVD) method presented before which meets the requirement of real-time online detection.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Development of OCR system on android platforms to aid reading with a
           refreshable braille display in real time
    • Authors: Gabriel B. Holanda; João Wellington M. Souza; Daniel A. Lima; Leandro B. Marinho; Anaxágoras M. Girão; João Batista Bezerra Frota; Pedro P. Rebouças Filho
      Pages: 150 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Gabriel B. Holanda, João Wellington M. Souza, Daniel A. Lima, Leandro B. Marinho, Anaxágoras M. Girão, João Batista Bezerra Frota, Pedro P. Rebouças Filho
      Individuals with visual impairment are limited in terms of communication, interaction and personal autonomy due to the lack of literature in Braille which is mainly attributable to economic reasons. This paper proposes a reading system for visually impaired persons using a portable device. This work proposes and evaluates a combination of segmentation, feature extraction and machine learning techniques to achieve the best conversion of text to braille as quickly and accurately as possible. The experiments showed that the Central Moments extractor with Multi Layer Perceptron were the best combination for the OCR system developed with 99.86% accuracy and 99.93% specificity. Furthermore, we assess the portable device usability with elementary teachers and with teachers and students in an association of the blind. The results of this system can contribute to improved socialization between visually impaired persons and stimulate their intellectual health.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Measurement of termite resistance of particleboard panels made from
           Eastern redcedar using nano particle added modified starch as binder
    • Authors: Aujchariya Chotikhun; Salim Hiziroglu; Brad Kard; Charles Konemann; Michael Buser; Scott Frazier
      Pages: 169 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Aujchariya Chotikhun, Salim Hiziroglu, Brad Kard, Charles Konemann, Michael Buser, Scott Frazier
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of experimental particleboard panels exposed to subterranean termites, (Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar). Panels were manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) using nano-SiO2 particles added modified starch as a binder. The termite resistance of samples was evaluated using choice and no-choice bioassay approach for 12 weeks. Radiata pine control samples had 87.65% weight loss as compared with 9.92–14.07% weight loss of panel samples. The damage rating index (DRI) of the choice feeding test had the highest value of 4.00 in the case of radiata pine samples and the lowest value of 2.25 resulted from A1 panels having 0.60 g/cm3 density level and 1% of nanoparticles. In no-choice feeding tests, panel samples had less feeding damage compared to that of radiata pine samples and termite worker survival rate was less than 2%, in contrast to 87% survival rate for radiata pine control specimens as a result of 12-week exposure time. The average lowest weight loss value of 9.25% was found for A3 panels, having 0.60 g/cm3 density level and 3% of nanoparticles, and the average highest value of 14.08% was determined for the control samples. Based on the findings in this work it appears that experimental panels manufactured in this study had a certain level of resistance against the damage by subterranean termites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Experimental comparison of torque balance controllers for power-assisted
           wheelchair driving
    • Authors: Yoon Heo; Eung-pyo Hong; Yoon-hee Chang; Bora Jeong; Mu-sung Mun
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Yoon Heo, Eung-pyo Hong, Yoon-hee Chang, Bora Jeong, Mu-sung Mun
      A power-assisted wheelchair amplifies the user’s propulsion power. If the user’s arm strength is unbalanced, this can affect the driving balance. In order to correct this imbalance, a method of producing an assisting torque by cross-referencing the opposite input torque was developed. One proposed torque balance control scheme involves automatically controlling the cross-reference proportion according to the amplitude ratio of the left and right input torques. However, this scheme cannot improve the driving performance under all conditions because instability is inherent to the user’s propelling torque. To resolve this problem, a new torque balance control method is proposed that considers not only the proportion of input torques but also the temporal difference. This study examined the usefulness of the proposed torque balance control method based on the temporal difference through a comparison with the existing method via a driving simulation and experiment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the error of the light beam incidence on concave surfaces in
           3D roughness parameters using optical interferometry
    • Authors: João Luiz do Vale; Victor de Cerjat Beltrão; Carlos Henrique da Silva; Giuseppe Pintaúde
      Pages: 182 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): João Luiz do Vale, Victor de Cerjat Beltrão, Carlos Henrique da Silva, Giuseppe Pintaúde
      Surface roughness parameters of mechanical components are sensitive to systematic errors, which can cause significant deviations in their values. These parameters are commonly used for manufacture controlling or even for tribological applications, such that their variations may lead to miscarried interpretations or mistaken conclusions. This investigation aims to analyze the error of light beam incidence, caused by eventual mal-positioning of the sample. Concave surfaces produced by boring and honing processes were evaluated by optical interferometry method. For this study, two samples of compacted graphite iron, extracted from a cylinder liner of a block of an internal combustion engine with a nominal diameter of 83 mm, were studied. The average and standard deviations values of chosen 3D roughness parameters – Sa, Sq, Sk, Spk, Svk, Spq, Svq, Smq, Sds, Ssc, and Sdq – were determined. The equipment utilized for the measurements was Talysurf CCI Lite, integrated with the software Talymap Platinum. Two procedures of measurement were realized for each type of surface. In the first, reflection angles of 0; 1.38 and 2.76° were imposed. Then, additional measurements were performed following the same principles, except that this time the reflection angle was corrected by the use of a shim, ensuring the perpendicular incidence of the light beam in the surface through evaluation of the fringe spreading during the measurement set-up. The bored surface was more sensitive to the effects of light beam incidence than those observed for honed one, confirmed by the general analysis of 3D images, by the variations in Sq parameter and those of Sk family. Within the parameters of family Sk, the robustness of Svk was remarkable for both investigated surface finishing. Together with this result, the Sp map analysis showed that the predominance of peaks in the bored surface was responsible by a more accentuated effect of light beam incidence, intensified to their greater values of Sq. The hybrid parameters were the most affected by the light beam incidence angle on the concave surface, suffering significant alterations for a reflection angle of just 1.38°. In addition, the correction of incident angle resulted in any significant divergence for any surface roughness parameter.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Causal inference with latent variables from the Rasch model as outcomes
    • Authors: Matthew P. Rabbitt
      Pages: 193 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Matthew P. Rabbitt
      This article discusses and compares several methods for estimating the parameters of a latent regression model when one of the explanatory variables is an endogenous binary (treatment) variable. Traditional methods based on two-stage least squares and the Tobit selection model where the dependent variable is an estimate of the latent variable from the Rasch model are compared to the behavioral Rasch selection model. The properties of these methods are examined using simulated data and empirical examples are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the behavioral Rasch selection model for research in the social sciences. The simulations suggest the latent regression model parameters are more accurately and precisely estimated by the behavioral Rasch selection model than by two-stage least squares or the Tobit selection model. The empirical examples demonstrate the importance of addressing endogenous explanatory variables in latent regressions for Item Response Theory (IRT) models when estimating causal differences in the latent variable or examining differential item functioning.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.044
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • A miniature and low-cost electrochemical system for sensitive
           determination of rhodamine B
    • Authors: Xiaolin Zhu; Guanlan Wu; Chengzhi Wang; Dongmei Zhang; Xing Yuan
      Pages: 206 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Xiaolin Zhu, Guanlan Wu, Chengzhi Wang, Dongmei Zhang, Xing Yuan
      There is an ongoing search to develop techniques for measurement of rhodamine B (RhB), an organic pollutant widely applied in many fields and presenting a serious threat to human health. In this study, a miniature electrochemical system was constructed to sensitively analyze for RhB by integrating a carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube and ionic liquid modified pencil-graphite electrode (MWCNTs-COOH/IL/PGE), an Ag/AgCl electrode, and a platinum wire all into a pipette tip. One distinct feature of this system was the small samples volumes from milliliter to microliter size needed for the analysis, which is critical when only small amounts of sample are available. Another advantage was the disposability of MWCNTs-COOH/IL/PGE and the pipette tip, which facilitated a practical in-situ measurement. The synergistic coupling effect between MWCNTs-COOH and IL fostered a high electrocatalytic activity of the sensor for RhB. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current was linear with the concentration of RhB in the range of 0.005–2.0 μΜ and 2.0–60.0 μΜ. The lowest detection limit was found to be 1.0 nM. This study resulted in the development of a novel platform for the micro and ultra-sensitive measurement of RhB and provided great potential to simplify real-time environmental monitoring.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Luminescence efficiency of calcium tungstate (CaWO4) under X-ray
           radiation: Comparison with Gd2O2S:Tb
    • Authors: C. Michail; I. Valais; G. Fountos; A. Bakas; C. Fountzoula; N. Kalyvas; A. Karabotsos; I. Sianoudis; I. Kandarakis
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): C. Michail, I. Valais, G. Fountos, A. Bakas, C. Fountzoula, N. Kalyvas, A. Karabotsos, I. Sianoudis, I. Kandarakis
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the absolute luminescence efficiency (AE) of a CaWO4 screen, under X-ray irradiation and to compare it with a custom made PMMA/Gd2O2S:Tb composite film screen. The emitted light was evaluated by performing measurements of the AE under X-ray exposure conditions, with tube voltages ranging from 50 to 125 kV. The spectral compatibility of the CaWO4 screen, with various existing optical detectors, was investigated after emission spectra measurements. AE was found maximum at 50 kVp (2.34 Efficiency Units-E.U) which was slightly lower than the corresponding “gold standard” Gd2O2S:Tb (2.67 E.U), at the same X-ray energy. The emission spectrum of CaWO4 is excellent matched with the spectral sensitivities of photocathodes and silicon photomultipliers often employed in radiation detectors, and with good matching with amorphous silicon photodiodes. Considering the adequate luminescence efficiency values and the spectral compatibility with various photodetectors, CaWO4 could be also considered for use in X-ray imaging devices such as charged-coupled devices (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Metrological characterization of a combined bio-impedance plethysmograph
           and spectrometer
    • Authors: Erika Pittella; Emanuele Piuzzi; Emanuele Rizzuto; Stefano Pisa; Zaccaria Del Prete
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 120
      Author(s): Erika Pittella, Emanuele Piuzzi, Emanuele Rizzuto, Stefano Pisa, Zaccaria Del Prete
      In this paper, the design and characterization of a device, able to analyze the electrical bio-impedance in the frequency domain and its variations with time, is presented. The whole system design, that employs a tetra-polar electrode configuration, a specifically developed printed circuit board, and a data acquisition card connected to a PC, is presented. The measurement system is controlled through LabVIEW virtual instruments. Different reference resistors and RC networks, with impedance values lying in the physiological range of bio-impedances, have been used for assessing the systematic and random uncertainty contributions, and to derive the calibration curves necessary to correct the systematic effects of the developed instrument. The obtained results show that it is possible to achieve excellent metrological performances with the proposed system, that is suitable to be developed in a low-cost and portable version. Two possible applications of the instrument are shown, i.e. cardio-respiratory activity monitoring and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2018)
  • Hierarchical diagnostics of analog systems based on the ambiguity groups
    • Authors: Piotr Bilski
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Piotr Bilski
      The paper presents the hierarchical approach to detect and identify faults in the analog system using combined Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. The automated diagnostic system has two levels of fault identification, based on the unsupervised and supervised learning. The former is used in the initial stage to separate easily identifiable states of the analyzed system from the difficult ones. The latter are identified with the more sophisticated classifier. Because the difficulty of the fault identification is related with the existence of Ambiguity Groups, the Unsupervised Learning scheme is employed to detect them and decompose training data set into subsets, on which two stages of classifiers are trained. The first set (considered “simple”) is processed by the simpler machine learning algorithm. The second set is used to train the more complex classifier (operating in the uncertainty conditions). The proposed scheme is generic, therefore various algorithms can be implemented. In the presented case, the Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used in the first stage, while Random Forest (RF) – in the second one. To verify the approach, the 3rd order Bessel highpass filter was analyzed. The architecture was confronted against the traditional approach (where the standalone classifiers are employed). Results confirm usefulness of the proposed solution, regarding the higher classification accuracy and smaller computational effort than its alternatives.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Energy correction procedure on cross-border energy exchange using a
           virtual measuring point
    • Authors: Ivan Tolić; Kruno Miličević; Roman Malarić
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Ivan Tolić, Kruno Miličević, Roman Malarić
      Measurement procedures in cross-border energy exchanges usually neglect the associated measurement uncertainties, which is likely to result in financial damage to one, or both, transmission system operators. In this paper, measurement uncertainty analysis at the measurement point is extensively described and a correction procedure for its systematic contributions is presented. Aiming to develop a fair procedure for the exchanged energy distribution among transmission system operators, the concept of the virtual measuring point is introduced, taking into consideration measurement uncertainties and generated transmission losses. After performing the correction procedure, the virtual measuring point is converted into the corrected virtual measuring point, whose energy measurement is used for the final billing procedure. The presented method was tested in a practical example with data from a Croatian transmission system operator Ltd. and it was confirmed that the correction procedure can be of great interest for transmission system operators.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Accurate measurement of elastic modulus of specimen with initial bending
           using two-dimensional DIC and dual-reflector imaging technique
    • Authors: Feipeng Zhu; Pengxiang Bai; Yan Gong; Dong Lei; Xiaoyuan He
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Feipeng Zhu, Pengxiang Bai, Yan Gong, Dong Lei, Xiaoyuan He
      Common optical methods are not suitable for accurate measurement of elastic modulus of specimens with initial bending because it is rather difficult to separate the axial strain caused by the axial load from the surface strain which consists of the axial strain and the bending strain caused by additional bending moment. Inspired by the strain-gauge technique, averaging the two strains on the opposite surfaces can eliminate the effect of bending strain of the specimen with initial bending, which is easily implemented by dual-reflector imaging and two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC). With dual-reflector imaging, the front and rear surfaces of the specimen are recorded by using a single digital camera. Consequently, the strains of two optical extensometers constructed on these two surfaces are obtained with common 2D-DIC, and averaging these strains can eliminate the effect of bending moment and out-of-plane motion of the specimen. Therefore, the elastic modulus can be determined with high measurement accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method was first verified using self-manufactured tensile equipment which leads to large out-of-plane motion during the test. Furthermore, uniaxial tensile tests of stainless-steel specimens, including static and continuous tensile tests, were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The experimental results show good agreement between elastic modulus obtained using the proposed method and a strain gauge and the relative error between them is less than 0.5%, which shows excellent performance of the proposed method on accurate measurement of elastic modulus of specimens with initial bending.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.043
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • An effective color image segmentation approach using neutrosophic adaptive
           mean shift clustering
    • Authors: Yanhui Guo; Abdulkadir Şengür; Yaman Akbulut; Abriel Shipley
      Pages: 28 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Şengür, Yaman Akbulut, Abriel Shipley
      Color image segmentation can be defined as dividing a color image into several disjoint, homogeneous, and meaningful regions based on the color information. This paper proposes an efficient segmentation algorithm for color images based on neutrosophic adaptive mean shift (NAMS) clustering. Firstly, an image is transformed in neutrosophic set and interpreted by three subsets: true, indeterminate, and false memberships. Then a filter is designed using indeterminacy membership value, and neighbors’ features are employed to alleviate indeterminacy degree of image. A new mean shift clustering, improved by neutrosophic set, is employed to categorize the pixels into different groups whose bandwidth is determined by the indeterminacy values adaptively. At last, the segmentation is achieved using the clustering results. Various experiments have been conducted to verify the performance of the proposed approach. A published method was then employed to take comparison with the NAMS on clean, low contrast, and noisy images, respectively. The results demonstrate the NAMS method achieves better performances on both clean image and low contrast and noisy images.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Using measurement uncertainty to assess the fitness for purpose of an HPLC
           analytical method in the pharmaceutical industry
    • Authors: Luciana Separovic; Alessandro Morais Saviano; Felipe Rebello Lourenço
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Luciana Separovic, Alessandro Morais Saviano, Felipe Rebello Lourenço
      Chromatographic methods are widely used in pharmaceutical industry to assess quality, safety and efficacy of drug products. We found in literature a few number of works regarding the estimation of measurement uncertainty associated with chromatographic methods, however none of them evaluated whether the measurement uncertainty estimation values are reasonable to be applied in conformity assessment. Because of uncertainty in measurement, there is always the risk of incorrectly deciding whether or not a lot conforms to its specified requirement. In this paper, the measurement uncertainty associated with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of amoxicillin 500 mg tablets were estimated, as well as the assessment of process capability and statistical process control of its industrial manufacturing process. In addition, consumer and producer’s risks were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The manufacturing process was under control, but considering the measurement uncertainty, there was a considerable number of lots that may be out-of-specification. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, it was noticed that the producer’s risk was significantly higher than consumer’s risk. In addition, overall uncertainty and tolerance ratio was found to be higher than the recommended value. In other words, this assay cannot be deemed fit-for-purpose.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.048
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Advanced condition monitoring of Pelton turbines
    • Authors: Mònica Egusquiza; Eduard Egusquiza; Carme Valero; Alex Presas; David Valentín; Matias Bossio
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Mònica Egusquiza, Eduard Egusquiza, Carme Valero, Alex Presas, David Valentín, Matias Bossio
      The ability of hydropower to adapt the electricity generation to the demand is necessary to integrate wind and solar energy into the electrical grid. Nowadays, hydropower turbines are required to work under harsher operating conditions and an advanced condition monitoring to detect damage is crucial. In this paper the methodology to improve the condition monitoring of Pelton turbines is presented. First, the field data obtained from the vibration monitoring of 28 different Pelton turbines over 25 years has been studied. The main types of damage found were due to fatigue, cavitation and silt erosion. By analyzing the vibration signatures before and after maintenance tasks, the symptoms of damage detected from the measuring locations were determined for each case. Second, a theoretical model using numerical methods (FEM) was created in order to simulate the dynamic behavior of the turbine. The model was validated with the results obtained from on-site tests that were carried out in an existing turbine. The deformations and the stresses of the runner under different operating conditions could then be computed. The calibrated model was used to analyze in detail the effect of misalignment between nozzle and runner. In historic cases, this abnormal operating condition lead to severe damage in the turbine, due to the effect of fatigue in some locations of the buckets. The model reproduced well the symptoms detected in the field measurements. The stresses could be calculated, which eventually can be used to estimate the remaining useful life of the turbine.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.030
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Data snooping algorithm for universal 3D similarity transformation based
           on generalized EIV model
    • Authors: Bin Wang; Jie Yu; Chao Liu; Mingfeng Li; Bangyan Zhu
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Bin Wang, Jie Yu, Chao Liu, Mingfeng Li, Bangyan Zhu
      Three-dimensional (3D) similarity datum transformation is extensively applied in geodetic field and many other areas. In recent years, the total least squares (TLS) solution for universal 3D similarity transformation problem (with arbitrary rotation angles and scale ratio) has become a hot research issue and many algorithms have been proposed. However, the estimated transformation parameters are affected or even severely distorted when the observed coordinates are contaminated by gross errors. In this study, the 3D similarity transformation problem is described as a generalized errors-in-variables (EIV) model, and then the data snooping algorithm for this model is proposed. The weighted total least squares (WTLS) solution to the generalized EIV model is firstly derived through Euler–Lagrange method and then we reformulate it as a classical least squares problem. Two types of test statistics for data snooping are constructed based on the classical least squares theory under the conditions with known and unknown variance component, respectively. The results of the real and simulated experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the influence of the gross errors and obtain reliable transformation parameters.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.040
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • The influence of the structure of useful signal on the efficacy of
           sensitive emission of laser printers
    • Authors: Ireneusz Kubiak
      Pages: 63 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Ireneusz Kubiak
      The article presents issues related to the development of sensitive emission when laser printer is in operation. The article describes the possibility to control the efficacy of the source of emission, which is the printer's laser, through various selections of quality of the printout. Various laser printer modes were tested. Each of these modes was the source of electromagnetic emissions. The operating modes of laser printers were assessed from the effectiveness of the electromagnetic infiltration process point of view. The operation of a printer with a toner save option, which generates useful signal with a high degree of susceptibility to infiltration, is of a great importance. The obtained results were presented graphically in the form of images recreated from registered signals of adverse emission. The results show that the level of electromagnetic safety or susceptibility to electromagnetic infiltration of laser printers depends on the mode of operation of the device.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T18:29:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.055
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • High accuracy frequency extraction based on sigma-delta ADC applied in
           resonant dew point sensor
    • Authors: Jing Tian; Xiaofeng Meng; Jing Nie; Ning Li
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Jing Tian, Xiaofeng Meng, Jing Nie, Ning Li
      One of the design challenges for the resonant dew point measurement was optimizing the rapidity and accuracy of frequency extraction to meet the requirements. We have developed a 1-bit second-order sigma-delta (ΣΔ) analog-to-digital (ADC) to be applied in it, which was anticipated to have a highest resolution and design flexibility than traditional ADC. Based on the Butterworth filter, the design of ΣΔ modulator was modeled firstly to evaluate the performance of filters scheme before the hardware implementation. Furthermore, the design and implement of the digital decimation filters was presented to extend the design flexibility and application. To improve the accuracy and instantaneous of frequency estimation, we developed a new frequency estimation algorithm, which combined the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the chirp-Z transform. We built a complete hardware implementation system. We tested the performance of the designed ΣΔ ADC and found that has 11-bit resolution and the high flexibility. The experiment results showed the root mean square (RMS) error of frequency estimation was 0.0917 Hz with minimum error 0.01 Hz, and the SNR can achieve 123.04 dB. Results showed the proposed frequency estimation error decreases approximately 35 times under the premise of the same computation with FFT. Moreover, every completion of the frequency estimation only takes less than 1 s. Finally, the experiment of dew point measurement was carried out. The results indicated that the proposed measurement system was feasible for the frequency extraction of the resonant dew point sensor.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.063
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Image plane moving stage for high precision multispectral imaging
    • Authors: Maik Rosenberger; Rafael Celestre; Gunther Notni
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Maik Rosenberger, Rafael Celestre, Gunther Notni
      This paper presents a solution to overcome longitudinal chromatic distortion typical of spectral imaging. Here, a short description of the experimental setup and smart multispectral imager for industrial applications is presented. The image system is composed of a filter wheel composed of 12 filters spanning from 400 nm until 950 nm with a 50 nm bandwidth (fwhm). Chromatic distortion on the system is explained in details, showing that a high precision moving image plane and an adequate image registration can overcome the aforementioned effects. Development and characterization of a high speed linear-moving-stage is shown subsequently. To conclude this work, a selection of applications exploring the advantages of such solution is presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.049
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Evaluation of a dead weight torque machine by a generalized least square
    • Authors: Augusto Maury-Toledo; J. Alberto Morales García
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Augusto Maury-Toledo, J. Alberto Morales García
      Calibration of primary dead weight torque machines (DWTMs) is mainly a National Metrology Institutes (Is) task. However, traceability is obtained via dimensional and mass quantities and several secondary’s laboratories have sufficient Best Measurement Capabilities (BMCs) to achieve acceptable uncertainty levels. This paper describes a method that combine length and mass measurements in a Generalized Least Squares (GLS) approach that avoid the evaluation of complex uncertainty contributions. The method was implemented on in-house developed DWTMs; the sensitivity limit is first examined for each momentum arm length. Several dimensional measurements were made with an Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine (AACMM). A set of mass measurements from different equilibrium combination were taken and all information was introduced in the GLS with the advantage of the consistency check via chi square test. Regardless of the uncertainties levels of case treated, this method can be applicable to any DWTM.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.051
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • A method for calculating gear meshing efficiency by measured data from
           gear test machine
    • Authors: Cheng Wang; Shou-ren Wang; Gao-qi Wang
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Cheng Wang, Shou-ren Wang, Gao-qi Wang
      Gear meshing efficiency is an important component of gear transmission efficiency, and the meshing efficiency of gear is directly related to device performance and energy consumption. The gear meshing efficiency can’t be obtained directly from the measurement results of gear test machine. It is rarely reported effective method to calculate the gear meshing efficiency with measured data from gear test machine, which limits the verification of theoretical calculation method of gear meshing efficiency. Therefore, a method for calculating gear meshing efficiency by measured data from gear test machine is proposed in the paper. It is suitable for power closed type gear test machine, and suitable for power open one as well. Firstly, according to the type of gear test machine, the corresponding calculation method of gear transmission efficiency is confirmed. Secondly, the gear transmission efficiency under both unloaded and loaded conditions, the total power under loaded conditions and friction-related losses at the bearings are calculated at a given speed, respectively. Finally, substituting the calculation results of friction-related losses at the bearings, total power under loaded conditions and the gear transmission efficiency both unloaded and loaded conditions into the gear meshing efficiency calculation formula, and gear meshing efficiency by measured data from gear test machine is obtained. An example is presented to verify the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Conversion efficiency of Si-InGaAs and GaAsP-Si-Ge lateral beam splitting
           photovoltaic devices
    • Authors: Mara Bruzzi; Andrea Baldi; Ennio A. Carnevale; Maracantonio Catelani; Lorenzo Ciani
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Mara Bruzzi, Andrea Baldi, Ennio A. Carnevale, Maracantonio Catelani, Lorenzo Ciani
      This paper deals with the development and characterization of two photovoltaic systems based on the lateral beam splitting principle, with components able to convert different spectral bands of the solar radiation. One is based on a Si cell and a InGaAs photodiode coupled through a long-pass dichroic filter with 950 nm cut-off. A second system is working with a Si photodiode coupled with Ge and a GaAsP photodiodes and two long-pass dichroic filters of 600 nm and 950 nm cut-off in cascade. The systems have been tested under illumination with a Sun simulator and under direct solar radiation in various two-terminal configurations. The performance of the two systems have been compared in same illumination conditions. Both systems, as compared with the Si component alone, proved to significantly increase the photovoltaic performance, achieving at best a conversion efficiency of 20%, so almost doubling its efficiency in best cases.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.035
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Multi-objective optimization of converting process of auxetic foam using
           three different statistical methods
    • Authors: F. Najarian; R. Alipour; M. Shokri Rad; A. Farokhi Nejad; A. Razavykia
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): F. Najarian, R. Alipour, M. Shokri Rad, A. Farokhi Nejad, A. Razavykia
      This paper studies the optimization of converting process parameters of conventional foam into the auxetic. The control factors of converting process are heat temperature, pressure and time. The aim of this study is to achieve an optimum combination of these control factors for obtaining maximum stiffness and minimum negative Poisson’s ratio as the desired responses. A series of experiments were implemented based on the Taguchi orthogonal array design. In order to determine the optimum control factors level, three different multi-objective optimization methods i.e. grey relational analysis, fitness function and desirability function were employed. The optimum combinations achieved form all methods were verified through the confirmation tests. Although outcomes of all these methods, in the case of both Poisson's ratio and stiffness, were in a good agreement with the confirmation tests, however the result of grey relational analysis had the minimum mean error percentage. Also, all these methods reported the pressure, heat temperature and time as the first, second and third level of significance, respectively. This study allows manufacturer to select the optimization procedure appropriately and produce the auxetic foam with minimum waste material.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.064
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • A machine learning model for improving healthcare services on cloud
           computing environment
    • Authors: Ahmed Abdelaziz; Mohamed Elhoseny; Ahmed S. Salama; A.M. Riad
      Pages: 117 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Ahmed Abdelaziz, Mohamed Elhoseny, Ahmed S. Salama, A.M. Riad
      Recently, cloud computing gained an important role in healthcare services (HCS) due to its ability to improve the HCS performance. However, the optimal selection of virtual machines (VMs) to process a medical request represents a big challenge. Optimal selection of VMs performs a significant enhancement of the performance through reducing the execution time of medical requests (tasks) coming from stakeholders (patients, doctors, etc.) and maximizing utilization of cloud resources. For that, this paper proposes a new model for HCS based on cloud environment using Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) to optimize the VMs selection. In addition, a new model for chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and prediction is proposed to measure the performance of our VMs model. The prediction model of CKD is implemented using two consecutive techniques, which are linear regression (LR) and neural network (NN). LR is used to determine critical factors that influence on CKD. NN is used to predict of CKD. The results show that, the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the art models in total execution time the rate of 50%. In addition, the system efficiency regarding real-time data retrieval is greatly improved by 5.2%. In addition, the accuracy of hybrid intelligent model in predicting of CKD is 97.8%. The proposed model is superior to most of the referred models in the related works by 64%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Improving operator evaluation skills for defect classification using
           training strategy supported by attribute agreement analysis
    • Authors: Carlos Marques; Nuno Lopes; Gilberto Santos; Isabel Delgado; Pedro Delgado
      Pages: 129 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Carlos Marques, Nuno Lopes, Gilberto Santos, Isabel Delgado, Pedro Delgado
      Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI) machines have an important role in the monitoring and detection of errors during the manufacturing process of electronic circuit boards. These machines show images of products with potential assembly defects to an operator and let him decide whether the product has a real defect or on the contrary it was an automated false positive detection. The attribute agreement analysis methodology is part of a Six Sigma strategy to examine the repeatability and reproducibility of an evaluation system, thus giving important feedback on the suitability of each operator in classifying defects. In order to reduce the number of operator errors, a training method was developed with the support of the attribute agreement analysis method with test images presented to operators for classification. By using this methodology, it was possible to check the capability of each operator, and improve the operator's evaluation score. After the application of the tool, the improvement of results is shown.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.034
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Drone as an autonomous aerial sensor system for motion planning
    • Authors: Gavin J. Fouché; Reza Malekian
      Pages: 142 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Gavin J. Fouché, Reza Malekian
      A system capable of both autonomous navigation and remote fire detection was developed from first principles. Using a complementary filter and attitude fundamentals, an Euler coordinate system representation of the aircraft’s orientation was measured using a widely available low-cost inertial measurement unit incorporating MEMS accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers. Using line-of-sight guidance principles, navigation trajectories could be calculated in real-time providing autonomous navigation between user designated waypoints. A stabilisation control system using proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers was developed in order to achieve stabilised flight on the calculated navigation trajectories. Fire detection was facilitated with the use of three low-cost air composition sensors fed into an artificial neural network. A motion planner was developed to assist in flight planning by using topology information for the flight area to construct an optimal flight path based on distance and climb penalties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Improvement of the cavity expansion theory for the measurement of strain
           softening in over consolidated saturated clay
    • Authors: Tao Cheng; Zhongyuan Yu; Jun jie Zheng; Jianjun Du; Yi Zhang; Akhil Garg; Ankit Garg
      Pages: 156 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Tao Cheng, Zhongyuan Yu, Jun jie Zheng, Jianjun Du, Yi Zhang, Akhil Garg, Ankit Garg
      In this paper, considering the strain softening effect, the cavity expansion theory is improved for over-consolidated soil. Based on the theory of cavity expansion model, the soil around the pile is divided into three zones namely damage zone, plastic zone and elastic zone. This is divided according to the distance from pile. Considering the strain soften effect of over-consolidated soil, cavity cylinder balance equation is modified in the damage zone. The residual shear strength is introduced instead of the conventionally adopted peak shear strength. The effect of shear stress on excess pore water pressure is ignored in the plastic zone. With this development, large deformation plasticity theory was applied to modify the equation. Expressions and relations were derived to consider pile expansion stress of the damaged zone, excess pore water pressure, the radius of the damaged zone and plastic zone. Based on newly proposed model, it can be concluded that (1) With the increase of the pile expansion stress, plastic flow and strain softening appear in the damage zone, and there are rotations of principal stresses; (2) for the normally consolidated soil, the radius of the damage zone is about 5–6 times larger than the pile diameter. However, for the over-consolidated soil, the radius of the damage zone is 16.7%–20% smaller; (3) the excess pore water pressure increases with the increase in over consolidation ratio, whereas, it decreases significantly with the increase of the distance to the pile; (4) effective transmission radius of expansion stress is about 5–7 times larger than the diameter of the hole around the pile. The range can be considered as the boundary value of the plastic zone. Based on the theoretical deduction and numerical calculation of the hydrostatic pile, the mechanism of the pile penetration mechanism and its influence on the surrounding soil environment are summarized.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.069
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • High resistance measurement circuit for fiber materials: Application to
           moisture content estimation
    • Authors: Silvia Casans; Taras Iakymchuk; Alfredo Rosado-Muñoz
      Pages: 167 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Silvia Casans, Taras Iakymchuk, Alfredo Rosado-Muñoz
      Measuring very high resistance values is a difficult task since low voltage or currents are present and thus, noise and amplification must be carefully done, especially when low resistance values are required to be measured using the same circuit, too. This work proposes a novel and accurate measurement instrument for a wide range of resistance values oriented to portable applications, i.e. low power and low supply voltage (5 V) for battery operated equipment, with a small circuit design including analog sensing, digital interface (data reading and control) using a microcontroller and external communication. The proposed circuit includes an inverter attenuator with layout and configuration specially designed to allow accurate measurements and low noise contribution. An analog circuit is proposed to avoid current leakage and a allow a wide range of resistance values, a theoretical analysis of noise and other error sources is done. Experimental results show that the circuit provides accuracy and stability in the range from 1 MΩ to 100 GΩ comparable to high precision instruments requiring high voltage and long measurement time: accuracy lower than 1 % . A graphical user interface was also developed to communicate with the on-board microcontroller and control/monitor all data from the circuit. Finally, as the circuit is intended to be used for resistance measurement in fiber materials where Moisture Content (MC) is directly related to the electrical resistance in the material, different wood types are analyzed over 34 days. The evolution of measured resistance in wood is seen to be related to the ambient humidity an thus, the material MC can be directly extracted. At a low cost, small circuit size and low power, the proposed circuit exceeds standards for MC estimation in timber construction materials as EN14081-1:2011.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.072
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Comment to paper entitled “Experimental investigation of machinability
           characteristics and multiresponse optimization of end milling in aluminium
           composites using RSM based grey relational analysis” Measurement 105
           (2017) 78–86
    • Authors: Aqib Mashood Khan; He Ning; Li Liang; Muhammad Jamil
      Pages: 175 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Aqib Mashood Khan, He Ning, Li Liang, Muhammad Jamil
      The paper entitled “Experimental investigation of machinability characteristics and multiresponse optimization of end milling in aluminium composites using response surface methodology (RSM) based grey relational analysis (GRA)”. The
      Authors adopted RSM based grey relational method to achieve high productivity in terms of maximum material removal rate MRR and least surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces. Experimental design was made using RSM (central composite design) and responses were measured according to standard methods. In this study, authors had proposed the optimized Grey relational grade (GRG) ranking for machinability characteristics. However, there are some errors in their analysis, which are likely to affect the significance of their proposed ranking. So, this comment highlights the miscalculations and gives the corrected results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.057
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Complex networks approach for depth of anesthesia assessment
    • Authors: Mohammed Diykh; Yan Li; Peng Wen; Tianning Li
      Pages: 178 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Mohammed Diykh, Yan Li, Peng Wen, Tianning Li
      Despite numerous attempts to develop a reliable depth of anesthesia (DoA) index to avoid patients’ intraoperative awareness during surgery, designing an accurate DoA index is a grand challenge in anesthesia research. In this paper, an attempt is made to design a new DoA index. We applied a statistical model and spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) to monitor the DoA. The de-noised electroencephalography (EEG) signals are partitioned into segments using a window technique. The window size is determined empirically, then each EEG segment is divided into sub-blocks to make the signal quasi stationary. 10 statistical characteristics are extracted from each sub-block. As a result, a vector of statistical characteristics is pulled out from each segment. Each vector of the features is then mapped as a weighted graph and spectral graph wavelet transform is performed. The total energy of wavelet coefficients at different scales is tested. The energy of wavelet coefficients at scale 3 is selected to form a SGWT DoA function. The SGWT DoA is evaluated using an anesthesia EEG recordings and the bispectral (BIS) from 22 subjects. The Bland-Altman, regression, Q-Q plot and Pearson correlation are used to verify the agreement between the SGWT DoA and the BIS. The experimental results demonstrate that the SGWT DoA has the ability to estimate the DoA accurately. The SGWT DoA is also compared and tested with the BIS in the case of poor signal quality. Our findings show that, the SGWT DoA can reflect the transition from unconsciousness to consciousness efficiently even for a poor signal while the BIS fails to display the DoA values on the monitor.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Measurement of low-frequency noise during CNC machining and its assessment
    • Authors: Juraj Sinay; Michaela Balážiková; Martina Dulebová; Štefan Markulik; Zuzana Kotianová
      Pages: 190 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Juraj Sinay, Michaela Balážiková, Martina Dulebová, Štefan Markulik, Zuzana Kotianová
      The aim of the paper is to point out the necessity to measure noise exposure by means of weighting filter Z, not only weighting filter A, which is prescribed by the standard. The measurement in the paper confirms the various acoustic pressure levels using weighting filter A and weighting filter Z at a low-frequency from 16 Hz to a frequency of 100 Hz. Such measurements suggest that the way in which this noise is evaluated must be adjusted. Due to the risks of exposure to excessive noise, the legislation prescribes regular measurement of permissible noise levels. European legislation and technical standards (e.g. ISO 1996) prescribe “weighting A” in case of such noise. However, this does not respect the energetic effect of sound on the auditory organ, as well as the neuropsychic and cardiovascular system of humans and sensory-motor functions. Experiments and research show that when evaluating low-frequency sounds with strong acoustic energy, the evaluation procedures should be adjusted to the impact of real acoustic energy affecting humans. The noise exposure measurement described in the paper was carried out during production of cars parts that were machined by a CNC machine. The measurement results showed that when weighting filter Z was used, the acoustic pressure levels were higher than those measured by weighting filter A by 22.8 dB. The measured equivalent LZeq values for the given work activity were 73.4 dB(Z) and LAeq was 50.6 dB(A). At low frequencies, this difference was the most pronounced, up to several times higher.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Measurement, evaluation and proposed solution for power distribution
           arrangements with electrical cables in parallel
    • Authors: J.E.V. Fassarela; M.Z. Fortes; G.G. Sotelo
      Pages: 196 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): J.E.V. Fassarela, M.Z. Fortes, G.G. Sotelo
      The electrical installations to supply power for heavy loads usually are three-phase and have several cables in parallel. One reason for this choice has been the mechanical difficulties that arise when cables are too large. The shape or arrangement of cables within the conduit, beds, cable trays, or other assembly systems for cables can make each cable have a different impedance and, therefore, cause uneven distribution of the current between the cables of the same phase or circulating currents that appear in the neutral conductor. Using the Finite Element Method (FEM) or applying the solution of analytical equations, one can better understand this problem and, thus, propose solutions. This paper implements the analytical methodology, analyze it through the FEM, and take measurements in the laboratory. Thus, the method will be validated and then applied to the study of a proposed case. The purpose of this study is to present a methodology that can contribute to maximize cable ampacity and to improve the shelf life and the energy efficiency of the installation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.056
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • An improved sensor system for wheel force detection with motion-force
           decoupling technique
    • Authors: Lihang Feng; Wei Chen; Ti Wu; Heng Wang; Dong Dai; Dailin Wang; Weigong Zhang
      Pages: 205 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Lihang Feng, Wei Chen, Ti Wu, Heng Wang, Dong Dai, Dailin Wang, Weigong Zhang
      Wheel force transducer/sensor (WFT) is an effective instrument in automotive testing field to directly measure the wheel forces and moments under dynamic conditions. As a large-range load sensor mounted on the wheel, there are added inertial effect and rotational couplings that will greatly decrease the sensor accuracy, but they can hardly be eliminated by the conventional calibration with the standard loading devices. In this paper, the motion-force decoupling technique is proposed to address this problem. An improved wheel force sensor system is developed by integrating the force-sensing unit, the angle encoder, and an inertial measurement unit. The motion signals including the angle, angular rates and accelerations are used to compute the actual loads and compensate the errors of force measurement in rotating state of the wheel. Experiments are performed to verify the proposed approaches and calibrate the system. Road test also indicates that the sensor can be successfully used in practice to get more reasonable wheel loads.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.066
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Measurement of the real-time deflection of cable-stayed bridge based on
           cable tension variations
    • Authors: Yonghui Huang; Yang Wang; Jiyang Fu; Airong Liu; Wei Gao
      Pages: 218 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Yonghui Huang, Yang Wang, Jiyang Fu, Airong Liu, Wei Gao
      Measuring the real-time deflection of a bridge is vital to understand its behavior and performance. Although automated structural health monitoring systems have been established for many long span bridges, continuously measuring the real-time deflection of a bridge is still cumbersome. According to the mechanical and structural features of cable-stayed bridge, a novel method, for measuring the real-time deflection of cable-stayed bridge based on variations of cable tension, is freshly proposed. The relationship between the variation of cable tension and the deflection of the anchor point between the cable and girder is formulized building upon the geometric relationship of the deformation. Then, the real-time frequency of the cable is calculated from the measured acceleration signals using a time-frequency analysis method referred to as the Hilbert-Huang Transform. Consequently, the real-time cable tension is computed and the deflections of the anchor points of the girder are obtained. In the practical structural health monitoring of a cable stayed-bridge that realistically monitors the tension in many cables, measurements of the kinetic deflection curve of the girder can be achieved without requiring additional equipment. A numerical example is implemented to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. In addition, through a real engineering application of the He-dong Bridge, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a comparison with global positioning system (GPS) observation results. The developed method can provide an alternative cost-effective option for the real-time deflection measurement of cable-stayed bridges.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.070
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • Measurement uncertainty evaluation in whiplash test model via neural
           network and support vector machine-based Monte Carlo method
    • Authors: Shenlong Wang; Xiaohong Ding; Daye Zhu; Huijie Yu; Haihua Wang
      Pages: 229 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Shenlong Wang, Xiaohong Ding, Daye Zhu, Huijie Yu, Haihua Wang
      Uncertainty evaluation is playing an increasingly important role in assessing the performance, safety and reliability of complex physical systems in the absence of adequate amount of experimental data. This paper presents a quantification of the measurement uncertainty in whiplash test models. We researched the analysis techniques of uncertainty for the complex nonlinear systems, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed methodology. By introducing the finite element analysis, we verified the consistency between the whiplash test, the calibration test and the simulation results of them. We also studied the influential factors and their probability density functions and presented the sensitivity analysis of whiplash test model. Based on the Latin hypercube sampling, we utilized the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to establish the mathematical models. Furthermore, the accuracies of two models are validated. Comparing with the results acquired by the guidance of uncertainty measurement and the Bayesian method, we demonstrate that the LS-SVM-based Monte Carlo method is the most appropriate technique for the evaluation of whiplash test uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.065
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
  • An auto-associative residual based approach for railway point system fault
           detection and diagnosis
    • Authors: Zhe Shi; Zongchang Liu; Jay Lee
      Pages: 246 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 119
      Author(s): Zhe Shi, Zongchang Liu, Jay Lee
      Railway point systems are highly reliable systems the failure of which could lead to significant system delay and have a high chance of causing a fatal accident. It is therefore necessary to develop an online monitoring system to detect incipient failures and prevent faults from happening by applying appropriate maintenance. This paper proposes a novel auto-associative residual (AAR) based approach to evaluate point machine heath condition and diagnose faults from multiple failure modes. The AAR based approach developed in this paper employs auto-associative model to generate residuals from low cost on-board multivariate time series signal, then applies fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) models based on residuals. Commonly used FDD models are applied to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Self-organizing Map (SOM), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes Classifier(NBC) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier. Compared with existing approaches, the AAR based approach requires less expert knowledge for model development and minimizes human effort for diagnostic feature extraction. The AAR based approach for FDD achieves more than 97% fault diagnosis accuracy which outperforms existing approaches in the case study.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T04:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.062
      Issue No: Vol. 119 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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