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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 938 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (166 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (133 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (151 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (162 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (8 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (290 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (290 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access  
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access  
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access  
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free  
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Mneme - Revista de Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Measurement
  [SJR: 0.721]   [H-I: 47]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-2241
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Online monitoring and characterization of dense phase pneumatically
           conveyed coal particles on a pilot gasifier by
           electrostatic-capacitance-integrated instrumentation system
    • Authors: Jian Li; Dapeng Bi; Qin Jiang; Haigang Wang; Chuanlong Xu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jian Li, Dapeng Bi, Qin Jiang, Haigang Wang, Chuanlong Xu
      The transportation of pulverized coal in gasification system needs to be carefully monitored and regulated with respect to the operation stability, gas quality and energy efficiency. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system is developed to continuously monitor the pulverized coal flow within a 30 mm horizontal pneumatic pipe on a pilot coal gasifier at low pressure. The instrumentation system calculates the mass flow rate of pulverized coal by measuring the particle mean velocity with two ring-shaped electrostatic sensors and particle concentration with a helical capacitance sensor. The system is calibrated and optimized before the field experiments, especially the optimal structure of the helical capacitance sensor with a homogeneous sensitivity distribution is achieved by static tests to minimize the influence of the uneven particle concentration distribution on the particle concentration measurement accuracy. Experiments are carried out under various operation conditions to characterize the flow of pulverized coal particles using the integrated instrumentation system. The regulating effects of the operation parameters of the pneumatic conveying system (the angle valve opening, the fluidized gas and supplement gas flow rates, the pressure within the feeding tank) on the particle velocity, concentration and mass flow rate are experimentally studied. Results demonstrate that the integrated instrumentation system can effectively monitor the dense phase pneumatically conveyed coal particles flow on the pilot coal gasifier. Both the angle valve and the pressure within the feeding tank are effective to control the mass flow rate via regulating the particle concentration. The supplement gas can regulate the particle velocity and concentration simultaneously.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.048
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Application of digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry for thermal
           stress
    • Authors: X. Wang; Z. Gao; S. Yang; C. Gao; X. Sun; X. Wen; Z. Feng; S. Wang; Y. Fan
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): X. Wang, Z. Gao, S. Yang, C. Gao, X. Sun, X. Wen, Z. Feng, S. Wang, Y. Fan
      A thermal stress measuring method based on the digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) is proposed in this paper. The concept of the method is that the thermal inequality leading to the deformation of the object surface will be recorded by the shearing speckle pattern, which is captured by CCD and analyzed in computer subsequently. This system making use of Wollaston prism has obvious advantages in non-contact, instantaneity, high-efficiency, low-cost, robustness and simplicity. The principle of the method is elucidated, and related experimental results with the simulation of finite element method (FEM) in contrast are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.073
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • A method to measure the rate of liquid released from agglomerates produced
           by gas-atomized liquid injection into a fluidized bed
    • Authors: Nicholas Prociw; Cedric Briens; Franco Berruti; Tarek Jamaleddine
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): Nicholas Prociw, Cedric Briens, Franco Berruti, Tarek Jamaleddine
      Liquid injection into fluidized bed reactors has several industrial applications, such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Gas Phase Polyethylene production, and Fluid Coking. High quality liquid distribution is essential to maximize the yield of desirable products, and minimize agglomeration. A new method was developed to measure the rate at which liquid is released from agglomerates formed as a result of liquid injection into a fluidized bed. This method is suitable for testing of industrial-scale spray nozzles, with liquid flowrates higher than 2 kg/s in fluidized beds containing several tonnes of solids. Liquid distribution can be monitored by measuring the conductance of the fluidized bed with flat electrodes located on the walls of the fluidized bed column.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Stationary wavelet transform based technique for automated external
           defibrillator using optimally selected classifiers
    • Authors: Lakhan Dev Sharma; Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): Lakhan Dev Sharma, Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria
      Early and accurate detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and rapid ventricular tachycardia (VT) is vital for defibrillation therapy. Various techniques have been proposed based on various parameters extracted from the electrocardiogram (ECG), which are mostly slow and requires comparatively wider ECG segment. The proposed technique requires a 4.1 s segment of ECG which results in an early detection and thus proposed to help in timely diagnosis and treatment of these life-threatening arrhythmias. Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) has been used for decomposition of the signal followed by calculation of sample entropy of the wavelet bands selected using filter-type feature selection procedure. Sample entropy of these bands, working as attributes for the classifier was fed to three different classifiers, Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), and Random Forest Algorithm (RFA) and their performance was analyzed with variation in their key model parameters. The proposed technique has been analyzed in two scenarios; VFVT vs Non-VFVT and VF vs Non-VF. The Sensitivity ( Se % ), Specificity ( Sp % ), Positive Predictivity ( + P % ), Accuracy ( Ac % ), and area under Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve ( Roc % ) analyzed over Creighton University Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia (CUVT) database were used for performance analysis and comparison. As per observations of the results, under VFVT vs Non-VFVT scenario SVM has highest + P % = 96.53 and Sp % = 97.08 , RFA has the highest Roc % = 98.10 , and k-NN has the highest Se % = 95.64 and Ac % = 96.01 . For VF vs non-VF classification, SVM gives best Sp % = 96.86 , RFA has the highest Roc % = 98.00 , Se % = 95.74 and Ac % = 95.80 , and k-NN gives best + P % = 96.52 .

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.054
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • A method for compensating platform attitude fluctuation for
           helicopter-borne LiDAR: Performance and effectiveness
    • Authors: Jianjun Wang; Lijun Xu; Yuanyuan Fan; Xuan Liu; Zhuocheng Tian; Xu Wang; Yanting Cheng
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jianjun Wang, Lijun Xu, Yuanyuan Fan, Xuan Liu, Zhuocheng Tian, Xu Wang, Yanting Cheng
      Attitude fluctuation of helicopter-borne platform is an important factor influencing the quality of point cloud products from airborne LiDAR, especially the roll and pitch parts. Therefore, we proposed a method to compensate the attitude fluctuation for helicopter-borne laser scanning; an attitude compensation prototype was designed, to eliminate the impact of both the roll and pitch fluctuations on point cloud products. The mechanical structure and control system of the prototype were designed. In order to test the dynamic compensation effectiveness of the prototype for airborne LiDAR, we established a semi-physical simulation system. In the experiment setup, the prototype, a laser rangefinder as well as a position and orientation system (POS) were all mounted on the platform of a three-axis turntable. The inner and middle shafts of the three-axis turntable rotated with sinusoidal movements to simulate the roll and pitch fluctuations of helicopter-borne platform. The x-axis and y-axis frameworks of the prototype were controlled to rotate inversely halves of the measured rotation angles of the simulated attitude fluctuations by the POS. Hence, the emitting orientations of the pulsed laser beams reflected by the scanning mirror embedded in the prototype would not be affected by the dynamic changing of the roll and pitch fluctuations. Total 11 groups of experiments were carried out to verify the control performance and dynamic compensation effectiveness of the compensation prototype under 11 sets of sinusoidal attitude fluctuations with different frequencies and amplitudes. Experimental results show that, under the impact of different frequencies and amplitudes sinusoidal attitude fluctuations, the attitude compensation prototype can always significantly decrease the unfavorable influence of the attitude fluctuations and have good dynamic compensation effectiveness.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.049
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Natural gas pipeline valve leakage rate estimation via factor and cluster
           analysis of acoustic emissions
    • Authors: Shen-Bin Zhu; Zhen-Lin Li; Shi-Min Zhang; Le-Le Liang; Hai-Feng Zhang
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): Shen-Bin Zhu, Zhen-Lin Li, Shi-Min Zhang, Le-Le Liang, Hai-Feng Zhang
      This paper estimates the leakage rate of a valve in a natural gas pipeline via factor and cluster analysis of acoustic emission signals. Factor analysis was used to reduce the amount of redundant information in the highly dimensional features and extract the optimal features for the cluster analysis. Three types of clustering algorithm—fuzzy C means, k-means and k-medoids—were used to classify leakage rates. Performance was evaluated in terms of overall accuracy, computational time, iterations, Jaccard coefficients and Cohen’s kappa. A model based on factor analysis and k-medoids clustering was found to be exceedingly effective for recognizing internal valve leakage rates. This method proved to be superior to the k-means and fuzzy C means clustering methods, and has potential value in real-world applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.076
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • A photodiode array and Langmuir probe for characterizing plasma in
           GLAST-III tokamak device
    • Authors: A. Qayyum; Farah Deeba; M. Usman Naseer; S. Ahmad; M.A. Javed; S. Hussain
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 125
      Author(s): A. Qayyum, Farah Deeba, M. Usman Naseer, S. Ahmad, M.A. Javed, S. Hussain
      A newly developed spectroscopic system based on linear photodiodes array has been installed on upgraded Glass Spherical Tokamak (GLAST-III) for spatial as well as temporal characterization of hydrogen discharge through light emission. The Spectral range of each silicon photodiode is from 300 nm to 1100 nm with response time of 10 ns and active area of 5 mm2(circular). The light from the plasma is collected through holes along 4 lines of sight channels with spatial resolution of about 5 cm passing from entire poloidal cross section. The photodiode's signals located at position of 10 and 14 cm from inboard side show fluctuations in the central plasma region. Moreover, the sequence of plasma lighting shows that plasma instigates from the central resonant field region and then expands outwards. At lower pressure, outboard movement of the plasma is slower suggesting better plasma confinement. In addition to photodiode array, an Ocean spectrometer (HR2000+) has been used to record the visible spectrum over the selected range (597–703 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.15 nm. The studies have been conducted during initial phase of plasma formation for two different hydrogen gas fill pressures. Langmuir triple probe (LTP) is used to get time-resolved information on plasma parameters in the edge region. The time evolution of whole discharge including microwave pre-ionization phase and current formation phase has been demonstrated by temporal profiles of light emission and plasma floating potential.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.075
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • State of the art and challenges in measurements and transducers for
           cryogenic monitoring
    • Authors: P. Arpaia; L. De Vito; M. Pezzetti; F. Picariello; L. Serio
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): P. Arpaia, L. De Vito, M. Pezzetti, F. Picariello, L. Serio
      Mainstreams in research on measurement systems for cryogenic process monitoring are reviewed with the aim of defining key current trends and possible future evolutions. At this aim, research mainstreams are classified according to the measurand: liquid level, flow rate, and pressure. In these fields, research on innovative measurement systems is surveyed, by highlighting main basic ideas, original design solutions, main results, and positioning in the innovation landscape. Then, current and future research trends are outlined in order to draw evolution scenarios of measurement systems for cryogenics monitoring.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.080
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Issues and characterization of fiber Bragg grating based temperature
           sensors in the presence of thermal gradients
    • Authors: Riccardo Gassino; Jennifer Pogliano; Guido Perrone; Alberto Vallan
      Pages: 15 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Riccardo Gassino, Jennifer Pogliano, Guido Perrone, Alberto Vallan
      This paper reviews the main issues arising from the use of fiber Bragg gratings as temperature sensors in the presence of significant thermal gradients. These conditions occur for example during laser thermal ablation of tumors. In particular, the paper focuses on the identification of the grating position along the fiber, which represents one of the main uncertainty contributions. A novel experimental setup for the grating center localization is proposed and the corresponding characterization procedure has been devised. The setup is built in such a way as to generate reproducible linear temperature distributions. Tests carried out using a sensor prototype have shown that the grating position can be found with a standard uncertainty of 0.3 mm.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.049
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Application of metaheuristic algorithms to optimal clustering of sawing
           machine vibration
    • Authors: Ahmad Aryafar; Reza Mikaeil; Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas; Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ahmad Aryafar, Reza Mikaeil, Sina Shaffiee Haghshenas, Sami Shaffiee Haghshenas
      The sawing machine vibration is a major factor to evaluate and predict the sawing performance. A few increases in sawing machine vibration cause a significant increase in the maintenance cost, which is important, because it determines the production cost. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the sawing machine vibration based on rock characteristics using stochastic techniques, namely genetic algorithm (GA) and differential evolution (DE). Additionally, 12 types of rocks, including Granite, Marble and Travertine were collected and studied and laboratory tests were conducted based on physical and mechanical properties for evaluating sawing machine vibration from Iranian quarries. The results showed that the applied metaheuristic algorithms such as stochastic approaches can be very suitable to classify the ornamental stone into 2 and 3 separate categories based on vibration level by only some important physical and mechanical properties including uniaxial compressive strength, Schmiazek F-abrasivity, Mohs hardness, and Young's modulus. Although, it has been found that there is no significant difference between the two algorithms, genetic algorithm modeling is more reliable than differential evolution based on the cost function. Finally, such studies can be used by engineers to optimize the ornamental stone sawing process.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.056
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Semi-empirical model for indirect measurement of soot size distributions
           in compression ignition engines
    • Authors: F.J. Martos; G. Martín-González; J.M. Herreros
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): F.J. Martos, G. Martín-González, J.M. Herreros
      This work proposes a semi-empirical model, which provides soot particle size distribution functions emitted by compression ignition engines. The model is composed of a phenomenological model based on the collision dynamics of particle agglomerates and an empirical model, which provides key input parameters such as primary particle size and a mathematical relationship between the size of the agglomerate and number of primary particles. The phenomenological model considers the relevant fluid-dynamics phenomena influencing the collision frequency function. It is observed that Brownian motion is the predominant phenomenon and in a much lesser degree inertial turbulent motion. The experimental model requires air/fuel ratio, engine speed, soot density and mean instantaneous in-cylinder pressure. A Dirac delta is used as a seed for the agglomerate size function whose magnitude depends on the soot volume concentration and the mean primary particle size at each engine operation condition. In a further step, the obtained modelled agglomerate size functions are fitted to lognormal size distributions defined by the modelled mean size and standard deviation. Modelled lognormal agglomerate size distribution functions are validated with respect to experimental distributions obtained using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS).

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.081
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Thickness dependence verification of electrochemically-etched polymer
           track detectors
    • Authors: Mehdi Sohrabi; Sahel Rabiee
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Mehdi Sohrabi, Sahel Rabiee
      Electrochemical etching (ECE) is extremely instrumental for amplifying charged particle tracks in polymer detectors, in particular polycarbonate, for radiation protection dosimetry and other applications. The rationale is high efficiency track enlargement to point observed by the unaided eyes. Many physical and chemical parameters control the ECE efficiency among which polymer thickness and applied voltage, i.e. field strength at a certain frequency, highly affect the detection efficiency and track diameter responses. Alpha particles of ∼0.3 to ∼3.0 MeV energy with fixed fluences of 104 tracks cm−2 were studied in 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µm thick polycarbonate under 50 Hz - 32 kV cm−1 fixed field strength in order to further verify the Mason and Smythe equations. The flat alpha detection efficiency and track diameter versus thickness responses for alpha energies studied under fixed field strengths are in good agreement with Smythe equation, i.e. all thicknesses can be equally applied if field strength is fixed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.065
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • The role of single valued neutrosophic sets and rough sets in smart city:
           Imperfect and incomplete information systems
    • Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Basset; Mai Mohamed
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Mohamed Abdel-Basset, Mai Mohamed
      During the recent years the smart cities knows a great extension as a modern shape of sustainable expansion. It's a urban area that utilize various devices connected with internet and integrates them with ICTs to promote goodness and execution of services for the best interaction among citizens and city's government. The basic for smart cities is distributed and independent information infrastructure. Using information effectively is going to be a main factor for success in the smart cities. The sources of information's (models, experts, and sensors) must be reason, perfect and complete. The generated information from independent and distributed sources can be imprecise, uncertain, and/or incomplete in real life. Any deficiency in gathered information will have a negative effect on the performance of services and decision making process within smart cities. So, we need a general framework to represent all types of imperfect and incomplete information. Since the classical methods fails to deal with vague, inconsistent and incomplete information, the fuzzy set was introduced to solve this drawback. The fuzzy set was not the perfect method for dealing with these drawbacks because it considers only truthiness and fails to deal with indeterminacy. The efficient mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, vague and inconsistent objects is rough sets theory which introduced by Pawlak. The theory of neutrosophic rough sets is powerful for dealing with incompleteness and neutrosophic set deals with indeterminate and inconsistent data efficiently through considering truthiness, indeterminacy and falsity degrees. So, in this research we will propose a general framework for dealing with imperfect and incomplete information through using single valued neutrosophic and rough set theories. The combination of two sets will deal with all aspects of vagueness, inconsistency and incompleteness of data and information, and then will enhance the quality of introduced services and decisions from smart cities to their citizens. As experimentation, we applied the proposed framework for modeling imperfect and incomplete data in healthcare field.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • A novel vibration sensor system for frequency measurement based on Bias
           Flip technique
    • Authors: Sheng Zhao; Haipeng Fu
      Pages: 56 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Sheng Zhao, Haipeng Fu
      This paper describes a new type of vibration sensor system for the real-time measurement of vibration frequency. The proposed sensor system consists of a piezoelectric energy harvesting device and a signal conditioning circuit. The piezoelectric energy harvesting device is used to sense and convert ambient vibration to a relevant output voltage. The signal conditioning circuit, made up by a Bias-Flip circuit, a pulse shaper and a low pass filter, is employed to generate a DC output voltage which is proportional to the magnitude of the vibration frequency. The proposed vibration sensor system is successfully demonstrated through SPICE simulation. In addition, an experimental setup has been designed and fabricated to verify the proposed system. When the sinusoidal vibration excitation from 200 Hz to 500 Hz is applied to the vibration sensor system, the measurement results fit very well with the theoretical prediction. The relative error between theoretical and experimental results is less than 1.6%.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.070
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • A sensitive and selective analytical method for the simultaneous
           determination of sildenafil and tadalafil in water, energy drinks and
           sewage sludge matrices by LC-QTOF-MS/MS
    • Authors: Elif Öztürk Er; Belma Özbek; Sezgin Bakırdere
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Elif Öztürk Er, Belma Özbek, Sezgin Bakırdere
      Given that the adulteration of dietary products with unauthorized content of erectile dysfunction drugs has increased in the world, public health is threatened worldwide. The illegal use of these drugs poses serious health risks to consumers and the environment. The contents of dietary supplements and environmental samples should be monitored carefully in order to control the abuse of erectile dysfunction drugs. Therefore, a sensitive and selective method was developed for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil and tadalafil using LC-QTOF-MS/MS. The chromatographic separation was successfully achieved. The analysis was performed with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer through the targeted MS/MS mode within 4.0 min. Calibration plots for both analytes were linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9992 within the range of 0.50–2000 ng/g. LOD/LOQ values were calculated as 0.16/0.53 and 0.28/0.93 ng/g for sildenafil and tadalafil, respectively. The validated assay was successfully applied to energy drink, tap water and sewage sludge samples. The quantitative measurements were performed on seventeen different brands of energy drinks and the results were compared with the written ingredients on the bottles. The tap water and sewage sludge samples were also analyzed and the recovery values were calculated for sildenafil and tadalafil.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Spectrum optimization of light-emitting diode insecticide lamp based on
           partial discharge evaluation
    • Authors: Jing Zhou; Xing-Ming Long; Hai-Jun Luo
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Jing Zhou, Xing-Ming Long, Hai-Jun Luo
      The spectrum distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a critical issue in adopting LEDs as an attractant in insect-catching apparatuses via phototaxis effects. Numerous research efforts have attempted to configure the LED spectrum in line with the insect-sensitive spectrum under designed test conditions. Although successful methods have achieved a stationary spectrum configuration, it is less effective when applied directly to an LED insecticide lamp due to the time-variant behaviors of insects in complex environments. Therefore, dynamic optimization for spectrum distribution of the LED insecticide lamp in practical fields remains essential to improve energy efficiency and the control quality of insects. In this paper, an online learning and dynamic control method has been proposed, where dead insects are evaluated by a partial discharge waveform and a cost function derived from the lamp’s safety, efficiency, and effectiveness is optimized using a proposed jumping-predication algorithm. Then, a detailed procedure for developing a smart and effective LED insecticide lamp based on photovoltaic power supply is illustrated, and finally the LED insecticide lamp is validated. The suggested methodology and experimental results shed light on controlling insects and pests using an LED insecticide lamp in green agriculture.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.073
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Void fraction measurement using concave capacitor based sensor –
           Analytical and experimental evaluation
    • Authors: Amit Pal; B. Vasuki
      Pages: 81 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Amit Pal, B. Vasuki
      Two-phase flow in pipelines is very common in the oil and gas industries. Void fraction is one of the important parameters in two-phase flow. Measurement of void fraction plays an important role in various areas of industries. Two types of measurement techniques are commonly used in electrical methods for macroscale range- variable capacitance type and variable conductance type. A comparatively low cost and non-invasive design of the concave capacitive sensor is analytically evaluated and experimentally validated to measure the void fraction inside the non-metallic pipe. The design is effective to reduce the fringing effect. The electrical model of the concave capacitance sensor is analyzed, which involves all the parasitic capacitances along with the cable capacitances. The capacitance of the sensor varies for the whole range of void fraction (0–100%). If the two phases are distilled water and air, the capacitance value varies from 94.0134 pF to 3.4377 pF experimentally for void fraction variation of 0–100%. Uncertainty analysis for the proposed sensor design along with the uncertainty budget is presented, for the whole range of measurement. The standard uncertainty is less than 0.97 pF for the whole range of measurement. The procedure for analysis is also discussed in this paper.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Non-intrusive fall detection monitoring for the elderly based on fuzzy
           logic
    • Authors: Poi Voon Er; Kok Kiong Tan
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Poi Voon Er, Kok Kiong Tan
      This paper presents a health condition monitoring solution that detects an elderly accidental fall occurrence. The fall detection algorithm implements both accelerometer-based and sound-based detections for the possible occurrence of a valid fall. The accelerometer-based fall detection is instrumental in the detection of a valid fall occurrence. However, it has been shown that by using accelerometer alone is insufficient to accurately detect a fall, as the accelerometer misinterprets some daily motion activities and classified them as valid falls. The sound sensor can be used to detect the sound pressure generated from a resultant fall, but sound pressure cannot by itself be used as a reliable indicator of a fall. Thus, a fuzzy logic-based fall detection algorithm is developed to process the output signals from the accelerometer and sound sensor, where a valid fall activity detected by the accelerometer, coupled with a detected sound pressure from the resultant fall can infer an occurrence of a valid fall. This paper demonstrates the fuzzy logic algorithm to improve the accuracy of detecting a valid fall as compared to the accelerometer only fall detection algorithm and it can be demonstrated that the algorithm is capable of minimizing false fall detections per day from high of 1.37 to low of 0.06 .

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Non-linear vibration and resonance analysis of graphene sheet subjected to
           moving load on a visco-Pasternak foundation under
           thermo-magnetic-mechanical loads: An analytical and simulation study
    • Authors: Majid Ghadiri; Ali Rajabpour; Amir Akbarshahi
      Pages: 103 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Majid Ghadiri, Ali Rajabpour, Amir Akbarshahi
      Analytical solution for the steady-state response of a simply supported graphene sheet resting on a visco-Pasternak foundation under thermo-magnetic-mechanical loads based on the Eringen’s nonlocal theory and Kirchhoff-Love plate and Kelvin-Voigt models is studied in this research. The graphene sheet is subjected to the moving concentrated load with a constant velocity. At first, the partial differential equation is converted to the ordinary differential equation based on the Galerkin method. Then, the multiple scales method (a perturbation method) is applied to obtain the appropriate solutions. In order to verify of presented linear frequencies in this research, the molecular dynamics simulation (MD) is employed and the obtained results are compared with reported results in the other literatures. Results demonstrate that the jump phenomenon is postponed with the increase of the some parameters such as temperature changes, initial stress, magnetic field, linear stiffness, shear modulus of visco-Pasternak foundation and viscoelastic structural damping coefficients of Kelvin-Voigt model. But, the jump phenomenon occurs earlier with the increase in force amplitude and the nonlocal parameter. Moreover, it is found that the non-linear stiffness has an important role in studying of jump phenomenon for graphene sheet subjected to moving concentrated load. In the next section of the paper, frequency–response equations under super-harmonic and sub-harmonic excitations are investigated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Identification of trace amounts of detergent powder in raw milk using a
           customized low-cost artificial olfactory system: A novel method
    • Authors: Mojtaba Tohidi; Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti; Vahid Ghafarinia; Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi; Mojtaba Bonyadian
      Pages: 120 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Mojtaba Tohidi, Mahdi Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Vahid Ghafarinia, Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi, Mojtaba Bonyadian
      One of the common concerns in quality assurance of raw milk is the use of antimicrobial agents for reducing the microbial population. For this purpose, different kinds of agents may be added to raw milk like detergents. This illegal practice is harmful to human health and has ethical and serious sanitary consequences. In this study, an artificial olfactory machine (electronic nose) was developed based on eight metal oxide semiconductor sensors (MOS) and its ability to detect the presence of detergent powder in raw milk was investigated. Three features (area under the curve, relative response, and slope) were extracted from each sensor response and three baseline manipulation techniques (differential, relative and fractional) were used to correct the sensor responses. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was employed to optimize the data matrix. MANOVA showed that the feature of “area under the curve” along with differential baseline correction method is the best combination for distinguishing different levels of the adulteration in milk. Based on the results, principal component analysis (PCA) with the first two PCs explains 91% of the variations. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method were employed for further qualitative classification. The result showed that the best performance (90%) was achieved by using the nu-SVM with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel function when the data collected from independent experiments were used for validation. The study demonstrated the potential of an electronic nose as a fast, effective and feasible method to detect detergent powder in raw milk.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • A new machine vision real-time detection system for liquid impurities
           based on dynamic morphological characteristic analysis and machine
           learning
    • Authors: Xinyu Li; Tiezhu Qiao; Yusong Pang; Haitao Zhang; Gaowei Yan
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Xinyu Li, Tiezhu Qiao, Yusong Pang, Haitao Zhang, Gaowei Yan
      Impurity in transparent-bottled liquid is a serious production accident in the field of beverage and medicine industry. However, the existing detection systems are difficult to distinguish impurities with dynamic interference (bubbles and stains) and detect impurities located at the edge of the bottle. In order to solve the problems stated above, a new machine vision system for detecting tiny and dynamic impurities is proposed in this paper. In the system, circularity calculation, longitudinal frame-difference method, orthogonal-axis inspection and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) machine learning algorithm are combined together to realize the automatic and real-time detection. Experimental results demonstrate that, after completing machine learning, the weighted error of the proposed system for detecting impurities can be effectively controlled at about 0.9% even in dynamic interference environment, which is great significance to safety production in beverage and medicine industry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Measurement of constant radius geometric features in archaeological
           pottery
    • Authors: L. Di Angelo; P. Di Stefano; A.E. Morabito; C. Pane
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): L. Di Angelo, P. Di Stefano, A.E. Morabito, C. Pane
      Constant radius geometric features are a common type of manufacturing features of ancient ceramics. They are obtained by a sweeping action of a tool, which leaves negative or positive traces characterized by a cross-section with one or more constant radii. The automatic recognition and dimensional characterization of these features could be useful for understanding the technology used to manufacture ceramics. Thus, a new perspective in archaeological investigations can be furnished. For this purpose, in this paper a new computer-based methodology suited to segmenting constant radius geometric features and measuring their dimensional parameters is proposed. Starting from a 3D discrete geometric model of the ceramic, the region pertaining to these features is determined and measurements of their radii are performed. Due to the uncertainties of various sources, which affect the investigated object, the required process is not trivial. In order to solve this problem, the segmentation phase is conducted using a non-conventional logic suitable for exploring the object with a fuzzy sensitivity, and the measurement is performed by a robust fitting method applied to the segmented entities. The methodology has been tested in the identification of embossed decorations of an ancient olla. The combined effects of the feature segmentation process together with the measure detection approach on the obtained results are critically analyzed and discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Determination of thermal conductivity of CFRP composite materials using
           unconventional laser flash technique
    • Authors: Wojciech P. Adamczyk; Sebastian Pawlak; Ziemowit Ostrowski
      Pages: 147 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Wojciech P. Adamczyk, Sebastian Pawlak, Ziemowit Ostrowski
      The purpose of the paper is to show an application of the inverse technique for measuring thermal conductivity (TC) of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. In the proposed technique the heat energy source and IR detector are located at the same side of the investigated sample, which allows taking into account the finite dimension, as well as real shape of the sample. These were accounted for by application of the multidimensional mathematical model that allows simulating the spatial and temporal distribution of the heat within entire body. The non-destructive character of the measurement technic is highly demanded in industrial applications. The core of the mathematical algorithm used for retrieving TCs consists of the finite volume solver. Proposed methodology determines the TC of material by fitting the calculated spatial and temporal temperature field to the measured data. This paper also describes an original in-house apparatus, which was developed to carry out the present experimental trials.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Realization and calibration of an oblique-incidence rhomb retarder of
           extreme retardance stability
    • Authors: N.N. Nagib; N.A. Mahmoud; M.S. Bahrawi
      Pages: 156 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): N.N. Nagib, N.A. Mahmoud, M.S. Bahrawi
      Based on previous theoretical studies, an oblique-incidence quarterwave phase retardation rhomb is realized and calibrated. The rhomb is made of flint glass (n = 1.7000 at 589 nm). In the wavelength interval 400–950 nm, the retardance varied between 87.98° and 88.10°. Deviation from the design retardance value of 90° resulted from the formation of surface layers on the rhomb faces, polishing effects and internal stresses. The retardance could be adjusted to ∼90° by a small variation in the external angle of incidence. Achromaticity of this type of rhombs implies using high refractive index glasses (n > 1.6).

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Testing the reliability of humidity generator through measurements
           traceable to calibration standards
    • Authors: Doaa Mohamed Abd El-Galil; Essam Mahmoud
      Pages: 159 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Doaa Mohamed Abd El-Galil, Essam Mahmoud
      This paper describes the metrological performance of NIS two-pressure humidity generator for testing the generator reliability after working for 13 years. In this work, humidity & temperature are observed and the measuring system is prepared for the calibration of humidity & temperature measurements. In the generator test chamber, relative humidity measurements are performed between 10% and 95% at fixed temperature of 25 °C and temperature measurements are performed between 10 °C and 65 °C at fixed humidity of 50% relative humidity. Results showed that the uniformity value is between ±0.13 °C and ±0.25 °C for temperature and between ±0.46% and ±0.62% for relative humidity. The value of stability is between 0.005 °C and 0.04 °C for temperature and 0.03% to 0.08% for relative humidity. Homogeneity value is in range between 0.09 °C and 0.12 °C for temperature, and between 0.43% and 0.52% for relative humidity, these satisfactory results showed the good performance of the generator. The expanded uncertainty of a coverage factor k = 2 was found to be from ±0.2 °C to ±0.32 °C for temperature and ±0.8% to ±0.96% for relative humidity. The obtained results give us the confidence that NIS two-pressure humidity generator can be used as a high accurate humid air generator and reference instrument, for calibrating all types of dew-point meters and humidity sensors with high accuracy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.028
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Natural-gas pipeline leak location using variational mode decomposition
           analysis and cross-time–frequency spectrum
    • Authors: Qiyang Xiao; Jian Li; Jiedi Sun; Hao Feng; Shijiu Jin
      Pages: 163 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Qiyang Xiao, Jian Li, Jiedi Sun, Hao Feng, Shijiu Jin
      A novel method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and cross-time–frequency spectrum (CTFS) is proposed for leak location in natural-gas pipelines. Leakage signals are decomposed into mode components by VMD, and an adaptive selection method using mutual information is proposed to process these mode components and obtain the sensitive components closely related to the leak. CTFS is applied to analyze the time–frequency distribution of sensitive mode components. The delay and the corresponding frequency information are extracted when CTFS reaches the maximum. The corresponding frequency is used to calculate the group velocity of wave speed, in combination with the dispersive curve. Finally, the time-delay information and wave speed can be used to determine leakage source. The proposed scheme has been experimentally validated; the results demonstrate that the average relative location errors are reduced to one-third when compared with the CTFS location method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD).

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Galileo satellite data contribution to GNSS solutions for short and long
           baselines
    • Authors: S. Yalvac; M. Berber
      Pages: 173 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): S. Yalvac, M. Berber
      GALILEO (Europe’s Global Navigation Satellite System) is going full speed ahead to achieve full constellation by 2020. Since GALILEO is currently an emerging system, the contribution of these satellites to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) solutions needs to be investigated. For this purpose, GNSS data collected at three IGS (International GNSS Service) MGEX (Multi GNSS Experiment) stations are analyzed. For the analyses, GPS (Global Positioning System) only, GLONASS (Russia’s Global Navigation Satellite System) only, GALILEO-only and combined solutions are tested and also effect of baseline length is examined. The results indicate that compared to GPS, GLONASS and ALL (GPS + GLONASS + GALILEO) solutions, GALILEO results vary greatly. When GALILEO observations are combined with other observations, the precision goes down. That is to say, for short baseline solution, GALILEO results fluctuate around 1 cm in the horizontal plane and in the vertical plane variations are mostly within 3–5 cm. For long baseline solution, GALILEO results are going up and down in the horizontal between 2 and 3 cm and in the vertical roughly 10 cm. In terms of accuracy, for short baseline solution, GALILEO-only solution is close to GPS-only solution; yet, we cannot say the same thing for long baseline solution.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • PCA exchange method for compensation of error sources in pressure balance
           calibration
    • Authors: Gigin Ginanjar; In-Mook Choi; Sung-Mok Kim
      Pages: 179 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Gigin Ginanjar, In-Mook Choi, Sung-Mok Kim
      Many things, such as tilt effect of the piston and cylinder assembly (PCA), temperature, air buoyancy, etc., significantly affect pressure measurement results when using a pressure balance in a high-pressure measurement environment. These effects can not only increase the uncertainty of the effective area determination but also cause problems in the performance of the pressure balance. Among the above effects, the tilt of the PCA is one of the significant uncertainty sources to be considered in the calibration. In the case of two pressure balances that have exchangeable PCAs, most uncertainty sources could be eliminated by exchanging two PCAs and averaging two calibration results because symmetric behaviors can be theoretically obtained. To investigate the above effects, an oil-operated pressure balance was used to calibrate another identical pressure balance with an exchangeable PCA up to 500 MPa. Before the calibration, the vertical condition of the PCA close to the gravitational axis was determined using a precise pressure gauge by calibrating it according to the tilt angle of the pressure balance. In the case of a marginal tilt angle of the PCA, the calibration results of a cross-float method before and after exchanging two PCAs, had symmetric behaviors, but they did not follow a cosine effect. The results could be dependent on pressure, piston materials, and PCA adoption methods. In conclusion, the distortion coefficient could be changed due to the tilt since the central piston axis is not coincident with one of the cylinder anymore.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Differences in acquisition of environmental data in strongly impacted
           marine sediments using gravity and vibro corers: The case-study of Augusta
           harbor (Eastern Sicily, Italy)
    • Authors: E. Romano; L. Bergamin; M. Celia Magno; A. Ausili; M. Gabellini; I.W. Croudace
      Pages: 184 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): E. Romano, L. Bergamin, M. Celia Magno, A. Ausili, M. Gabellini, I.W. Croudace
      Sediment cores are used to reconstruct the chronological evolution of contamination in impacted areas while deep core levels may be considered as reference conditions for the assessment of environmental status. For this purpose, the collection of undisturbed cores is essential. Vibro and gravity corers are the most used devices for environmental research. In this study, chemical (Ba, Hg and PCBs) and grain size data obtained by means of gravity (SW-104) and vibro (Rossfelder®) corer from 3 stations of the heavily contaminated Augusta harbor (Sicily, Italy) were considered. Their vertical profiles were compared considering the different technical characteristics of corers, in order to highlight differences in data acquisition. Results showed that, for areas characterized by high sedimentation rates, the vibrocorer is the best choice for the higher penetration capacity. No significant differences were recognized for sediment compaction and potential downward drag of the contaminants.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Computation and analysis of the extremely low frequency electric and
           magnetic fields generated by two designs of 400 kV overhead transmission
           lines
    • Authors: Eduard Lunca; Silviu Ursache; Alexandru Salceanu
      Pages: 197 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Eduard Lunca, Silviu Ursache, Alexandru Salceanu
      The overhead transmission lines are considered one of the major sources of electric and magnetic fields, which can induce electrical currents within the human body. In this study, the electric and magnetic fields generated by two recent designs of 400 kV transmission lines used in the Romanian power system are computed and compared to the exposure limits established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection for the general public. The computations are carried out with two dedicated software tools, called PowerMag and PowerELT, which have been developed based on a 2D quasi-static analytical approach. This approach, as well as the electric and magnetic field distributions obtained for the considered 400 kV overhead transmission lines, will be discussed in detail. To confirm the validity of the results, some comparisons to finite element computations will also be presented.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • An empirical model design for evaluation and estimation of carbonation
           depth in concrete
    • Authors: Suvash Chandra Paul; Biranchi Panda; Yuhao Huang; Akhil Garg; Xiongbin Peng
      Pages: 205 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Suvash Chandra Paul, Biranchi Panda, Yuhao Huang, Akhil Garg, Xiongbin Peng
      Carbonation is one of the major factors that reduce the durability performances of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Carbonation contributes in lowering the pH (less than 12) of concrete which is susceptible for the steel in concrete. Lower pH value may break the protective film also known as passive film of steel and accelerate the corrosion process. Although many studies have been performed on carbonation and focused mainly on the mechanisms, sources, and features which promote concrete carbonation. However, as a critical factor influencing the rate of carbonation, concrete mix compositions which come into play during concrete fabrication have not been properly researched or modelled. In this paper, an empirical model was designed using an automated neural network search (ANS) to investigate the effect of concrete mix compositions, weathering effect and exposure time on carbonation depth in concrete. Experimental validation illustrates the reasonable accuracy and robustness of the ANS model. It was found that carbonation process can be controlled by choosing the right composition of concrete mix.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.033
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Fibre optic sensors for coal mine hazard detection
    • Authors: Tongyu Liu; Yubin Wei; Guangdong Song; Binxin Hu; Lianqing Li; Guangxian Jin; Jinyu Wang; Yanfang Li; Chengxiang Song; Zhidong Shi; Lin Zhao; Jie Hu; Weisong Zhao; Moyu Hou; Runchun Li; Jiqiang Wang
      Pages: 211 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Tongyu Liu, Yubin Wei, Guangdong Song, Binxin Hu, Lianqing Li, Guangxian Jin, Jinyu Wang, Yanfang Li, Chengxiang Song, Zhidong Shi, Lin Zhao, Jie Hu, Weisong Zhao, Moyu Hou, Runchun Li, Jiqiang Wang
      A number of health and safety hazards present in underground coal mines, which include methane gas explosion, coal combustion, rock roof collapse, and flooding etc. Methane gas and coal combustion have been two major hazards, which resulted in most of the heavy casualties and economic losses. Conventional catalytic methane gas sensors suffer from poor accuracy and cumbersome maintenance, which is the bottleneck of methane hazard prevention. Coal mine combustion monitoring has been relying on gas tubing bundles system, which suffers from long time delay and poor reliability. Semiconductor laser diode methane gas sensors have been developed which has low power consumption, 0–100% full detection range and high accuracy, and no need of recalibration. Fibre optic Raman distributed sensors have been deployed in coal mine goaf and successfully detected combustion hazard in early phase. The FOS-based mine hazard detection system offers unique advantages of intrinsic safety, multi-location and multi-parameter monitoring. The application of FOS on monitoring of methane, coal combustion, micro-seismic and equipment condition are described, future trend of research in this area is also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.046
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • In situ monitoring of prestressed concrete using embedded fiber loop
           ringdown strain sensor
    • Authors: Maheshwar Ghimire; Chuji Wang; Kenneth Dixon; Michael Serrato
      Pages: 224 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Maheshwar Ghimire, Chuji Wang, Kenneth Dixon, Michael Serrato
      We report near real-time in situ monitoring of prestressed concrete beams using a new fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) strain sensor. The strain sensor was fabricated by integrating a micro air-gap in the sensor head and had a strain detection limit of tens of nanostrain ( n ε ). Two unbonded prestressed concrete beams were constructed with two strain sensors embedded in each concrete beam; one sensor was attached to the post-tensioned (PT) rod, while the second sensor was embedded in the concrete beam. A tensioning stress of up to 351 MPa was produced on the PT rod in steps of 39 MPa, and during a three-point loading test of the concrete beams, a force of up to 8 kN was applied in steps of 1 kN. Results demonstrated the ability of the FLRD strain sensor for sensing the stress on the PT rod as well as on the concrete far before the crack initiation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • An adaptive algorithm for target recognition using Gaussian mixture models
    • Authors: Wenling Xue; Ting Jiang
      Pages: 233 - 240
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Wenling Xue, Ting Jiang
      Target detection and recognition are widely used in civilian and military fields to identify humans, vehicles and weapons hidden in foliage. To adapt to changes in the forest environment and weather and to reduce unnecessary repeated training, this paper investigates the impact of weather on target recognition and classification based on ultra-wideband (UWB) signals. We propose a new method, called the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), to model targets in the presence of different weather conditions. Traditional statistical methodology is used for feature extraction, and GMM modelling is used to model the targets under different weather backgrounds. The likelihood ratio is calculated to obtain the corresponding target type, and achieve object identification and classification. This paper concludes with a comparison of the improved support vector machine (SVM) methods proposed in other studies in the literature. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm based on GMM is effective for target detection under a variety ofweather conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • A model for predicting thermophysical properties of water at supercritical
           state in offshore CDTW
    • Authors: Fengrui Sun; Yuedong Yao; Guozhen Li; Xiangfang Li; Chengang Lu; Zhili Chen
      Pages: 241 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Fengrui Sun, Yuedong Yao, Guozhen Li, Xiangfang Li, Chengang Lu, Zhili Chen
      Thermal methods have been widely used for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed for estimating the key water properties in offshore concentric dual-tubing wells (OCDTW) at supercritical state. Firstly, based on the pipe flow theory, a governing model, comprised of the energy and momentum balance equations, is established for supercritical water (SCW) flow in the vertical tubes. Then, the effect of heat loss to seawater as well as formation is taken into consideration of the mathematical model. The thermophysical properties of SCW are calculated through interpolation method from the pressure-temperature based tables. Besides, the heat exchange between the the integral joint tubing (IJT) and annuli is also considered. Results show that: (a) Seawater and the thermal exchange inside the offshore wellbores are two main factors contributing to the profile change of thermophysical properties in IJT and annuli. (b) Different from the heat and mass transfer characteristics of wet steam flow in wellbore, SCW possesses some unique features. For instance, the pressure is not sensitive to temperature while the temperature is sensitive to heat loss.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Optimizing the electrolyte chemistry parameters of PEO coating on 6061 Al
           alloy by corrosion rate measurement: Response surface methodology
    • Authors: Mojtaba Vakili-Azghandi; Arash Fattah-alhosseini; Mohsen K. Keshavarz
      Pages: 252 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Mojtaba Vakili-Azghandi, Arash Fattah-alhosseini, Mohsen K. Keshavarz
      Different chemistry parameters of electrolyte, including KOH, Na2SiO3 and Al2O3 nano-particles concentrations were used to obtain the best coatings by plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO). This work presents the formulation of a mathematical model based on chemistry parameters of electrolyte to predict the responses of corrosion behavior of PEO-coated 6061 Al alloy. In order to reach this goal, three compounds including KOH, Na2SiO3 and Al2O3 nano-particles in different concentration ranges were used and a response surface methodology was employed to develop the regression models. Analysis of variance was the method to determine the electrolyte chemistry that affects the responses. Approval trials were carried out to confirm these results. The results indicated that the lowest corrosion current density can be obtained at low concentrations (1–2 g/L) of KOH, high concentrations (5–6 g/L) of Na2SiO3, and moderate concentrations (2–4 g/L) of Al2O3 under the current conditions and process time employed in this particular study. Also, the study of microstructure and morphology of different coatings confirmed this electrolyte condition model. This condition led to an electrolyte with the best conductivity and oxidizing state, and highest contribution of electrolyte components in the coating growth process.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.038
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Modal parameter identification of RC frame under undamaged, damaged,
           repaired and strengthened conditions
    • Authors: Ahmet Can Altunişik; Olguhan Şevket Karahasan; Ali Fuat Genç; Fatih Yesevi Okur; Murat Günaydin; Ebru Kalkan; Süleyman Adanur
      Pages: 260 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ahmet Can Altunişik, Olguhan Şevket Karahasan, Ali Fuat Genç, Fatih Yesevi Okur, Murat Günaydin, Ebru Kalkan, Süleyman Adanur
      Structures are built on a design and then damaged in time by natural and manmade effects, repaired and strengthened for reusing. Determination of the structural behavior is very important to avoid future disaster. Operational Modal Analysis has been widely used recently to determine the inherent modal parameters of engineering structures and give significant information about the structural condition. Also, this method can be used to further studies such as model updating, damage detection and health monitoring. In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the changes of modal parameters considering undamaged, damaged, repaired and strengthened conditions using ambient vibration tests. For this purpose, a reinforced concrete frame model having two-floor with two spans in the longitudinal direction considering ½ geometric scales is built in laboratory. Four different cases are considered to emerge the efficiency of this procedure and the undamaged RC model is measured firstly to determine the initial modal parameters. Secondly, the lateral forces are applied to floor levels to obtain the damages, especially in beam-column joints. Thirdly, the damaged model is repaired using injection material and lastly strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. It is also examined that what rate the dynamic characteristics return to back after repairing and strengthening studies by the comparison with undamaged condition' In addition to this the evaluation of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer effectiveness in strengthening for real applications is presented. It is seen that ambient vibration test is enough to identify the modal parameters of engineering structures for different conditions. The modal parameters are decreased distinctly with damages, and reverted almost initial condition with strengthening.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.037
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Enhanced FFT-based method for incipient broken rotor bar detection in
           induction motors during the startup transient
    • Authors: Jesus R. Rivera-Guillen; J.J. De Santiago-Perez; Juan P. Amezquita-Sanchez; Martin Valtierra-Rodriguez; Rene J. Romero-Troncoso
      Pages: 277 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Jesus R. Rivera-Guillen, J.J. De Santiago-Perez, Juan P. Amezquita-Sanchez, Martin Valtierra-Rodriguez, Rene J. Romero-Troncoso
      Motor current signals analysis (MCSA) is a widely used approach for fault diagnostics in induction motors (IMs). It consists of detecting a specific signature or pattern associated to a fault condition from current signals. In particular, the fault of broken rotor bars (BRBs) is featured by a V-shaped pattern in the time-frequency domain during the startup transient. Although many techniques and methodologies have been presented in literature, most of them have been focused on analyzing consolidated faults such as one- BRB and multiple BRBs; in contrast, the BRB incipient detection, such as half BRB, has been rarely investigated. Hence, a methodology based on a new technique named Tooth-fast Fourier transform (FFT) to detect both incipient and consolidated BRB conditions is presented in this work. It consists of two windows moving along the analyzed current signal, where the FFT is performed for each window. Next, the spectra are subtracted for minimizing the stationary frequencies and maximizing the moving-ones. The signature of the moving frequencies in the resulting spectrogram has a “teeth” shape, giving the name to the proposed technique. Next, a weight function and a classification stage employing four indicators are presented for automatic diagnostics. The proposal is validated and tested using both synthetic and real signals. For the latter, different levels of BRB, i.e., half BRB, one BRB, and two BRBs, are considered. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposal to detect both incipient and consolidated BRB faults in IMs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.039
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • A study on the Langmuir adsorption for quartz crystal resonator based low
           pressure CO2 gas sensor
    • Authors: Chen Zhang; Suresh Kaluvan; Haifeng Zhang; Guoan Wang; Lei Zuo
      Pages: 286 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Chen Zhang, Suresh Kaluvan, Haifeng Zhang, Guoan Wang, Lei Zuo
      Quartz Crystal Resonator (QCR) has been proved to be effective for CO2 gas sensing, however, the mechanism of this sensing process remains unclarified. This paper proposes an innovative modeling for a QCR-based CO2 gas sensor. The proposed modeling is based on the Langmuir Adsorption Theorem and the Sauerbrey equation of QCR. The Langmuir Adsorption Theorem assumes that a monolayer of gas molecules is formed at the maximum gas concentration while each adsorbate molecule is assumed to take only one active site on the adsorbent surface. Therefore, the Sauerbrey equation is modified by combining Langmuir Adsorption Theorem and then the effect of both surface concentration and Langmuir constant are investigated and analyzed. Different from traditional analysis, the proposed modeling works well on not only the linear relationship between CO2 concentration and frequency shift at low CO2 concentration but also the non-linear saturation stage at higher CO2 concentration. Moreover, a lab experiment is carried out to verify the Langmuir-Sauerbrey adsorption modeling. Surface concentration constant and Langmuir constant are retrieved from the experiment and considered as material properties for gas sensing capability. The proposed modeling could also be applied to most QCR-based gas sensor, in which physical adsorption is mainly involved. Additionally, determination of surface concentration constant and Langmuir constant will benefit the understanding of many other gas sensing process.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.046
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Optimisation of multiple response characteristics on end milling of
           aluminium alloy using Taguchi-Grey relational approach
    • Authors: Jayakrishnan Unnikrishna Pillai; Ikshit Sanghrajka; Manikandakumar Shunmugavel; T. Muthuramalingam; Moshe Goldberg; Guy Littlefair
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Jayakrishnan Unnikrishna Pillai, Ikshit Sanghrajka, Manikandakumar Shunmugavel, T. Muthuramalingam, Moshe Goldberg, Guy Littlefair
      Computer Aided Manufacturing improves productivity in the modern manufacturing environment, however optimisation of numerous factors involved in automated manufacturing or material removal environment is critical to produce high quality products. This present study aims to derive a set of optimal process parameter combination for end milling process of Al6005A alloy on a 6-axis robotic machining centre. In addition, the effect of process parameters such as tool path strategic, spindle speed and feed rate on the performance characteristics such as machining time and surface roughness have been studied using Taguchi-Grey relational optimisation method. From the experimental results, it has been found that the tool path strategy has the most considerable influence on the performance characteristics considered, since it can optimise the motion of the robotic machining arm to provide high productivity and product quality. The optimal combination of the process parameters has been estimated using Taguchi-Grey relational analysis and the improvement of performance characteristics has been verified in the confirmation test for optimising milling processes of robotic machining centers.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.052
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Polaronic transport in antimony-vanadium tellurate glasses at high
           temperatures
    • Authors: Dariush Souri
      Pages: 299 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Dariush Souri
      The ternary bulk glasses of the form (60-x)V2O5-40TeO2-xSb with 0 ≤ x≤15 (in mol%) were prepared by using the standard melt quenching technique. The dc electrical conductivity of the mentioned samples was investigated within the temperature range of 296–408 K. The dc conductivities at 370 K, with values in the range of 4.80 × 10−6–1.08 × 10−4 S cm−1, were found to decrease with increase of Sb content. The experimental temperature-dependency of conductivity and the variation of the pre-exponential factor were interpreted in terms of polaron hopping theory. It founds that within the studied temperature range, the non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (NASPH) mechanism for electrons between different valent states of vanadium ions is applicable. The ratio of wave function decay (tunneling factor α) was found to be 2.26 × 108 cm−1 for samples with x ≥ 8 mol%.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.061
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Compact coating impedance detector for fast evaluation of coating
           degradation
    • Authors: Yu-Tong Kuo; Chung-Ying Lee; Yueh-Lien Lee
      Pages: 303 - 308
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Yu-Tong Kuo, Chung-Ying Lee, Yueh-Lien Lee
      In this paper, a prototype miniaturized impedance measurement instrument, a coating impedance detector (CID), is proposed to provide a quick estimate of the protective capacity of coatings. The performance of the CID was compared with a conventional potentiostat by measuring the impedance modulus of commercial coatings. Five coated samples with various impedance moduli were used to evaluate the efficiency and functionality of the CID. The results indicate a good correlation between the impedance moduli obtained by the CID and laboratory-type potentiostat in the range of 107–109 Ω-cm2. Furthermore, measurements associated with coating delamination demonstrate that the CID can acquire impedance data quickly while maintaining its precision. Although the CID is unable to evaluate in detail the performance of perfect coatings or provide kinetic information regarding the corrosion process occurring within the metal–coating interface, it is extremely useful to observe the changes in the coating impedance modulus in the critical range to help workers determine whether coating maintenance should be scheduled.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.041
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Development of a long term dynamic blood pressure monitoring system using
           cuff-less method and pulse transit time
    • Authors: Ji-Jer Huang; Hao-Yi Syu; Zhe-Lin Cai; Aaron Raymond See
      Pages: 309 - 317
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ji-Jer Huang, Hao-Yi Syu, Zhe-Lin Cai, Aaron Raymond See
      Hypertension has been a silent killer that has led to the death of millions of people annually. In this study, we developed a long term cuff-less blood pressure monitoring system that uses an office armchair with integrated sensors and communications circuits. The system is able to non-invasively acquire electrocardiography (ECG), photoplethysmography (PPG), and ballistocardiography (BCG) signals from the sensors placed on the gasbags that are in contact both the left and right legs upon detection of a person sitting down. These signals are acquired and pre-processed in a MCU, which transmits the data to a backend PC through a Bluetooth connection. The backend PC performs the blood pressure estimation using the ECG, PPG, and BCG waveforms processed using digital signal filtering, signature detection, time parameter detection, and blood pressure estimation processes. A total of 10 volunteers participated in the experiments wherein results from a commercial blood pressure monitoring device is compared with the proposed system that extracts BCG J peak from the left leg (RJI_L) and right leg (RJI_R) through sensors mounted on gasbags. RJI_L and RJI_R manifested a high collinearity and a variance inflation factor of up to 10 from the interval between the ECG R peak and the BCG J peak (RJI). Accordingly, RJI_R or RJI_L could be treated as independent variables for multiple regression analysis because they had similar correlation properties. An absolute mean pulse arrival time (PAT) of 0.910 and 0.659 was obtained for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. Furthermore, a moderate correlation was found between RRI and DBP while the RRI and SBP did not exhibit any linear correlation. The correlation coefficient r ranged between 0.9 and 1 in simple and multiple regression schemes. The correlation coefficient r improved to 0.757 when DBP was estimated in three- and four-variable regressions with PAT, RRI, and RJI_R as the independent variables. And a correlation coefficient of 0.774 was found between the proposed method and a traditional cuff approach for both SBP and DBP estimations. Therefore, the cuff-less method provides not only convenience to the user but also demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method using pulse transit time.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.047
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Novel engineered scrimber with outstanding dimensional stability from
           finely fluffed poplar veneers
    • Authors: Yahui Zhang; Yuxiang Huang; Yue Qi; Wenji Yu
      Pages: 318 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Yahui Zhang, Yuxiang Huang, Yue Qi, Wenji Yu
      The aim of this study is to prepare a novel wood engineered scrimber with outstanding dimensional stability as well as excellent mechanical properties. A novel technique was exploited for preparation of thick finely fluffed poplar veneers (FFPVs). The physical properties of the veneers before and after fluffing process were compared, and the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the resultant scrimber were also investigated. The results showed that there was a fivefold increase in water absorption rate (WAR) for FFPVs. Correspondingly, compared with traditional scrimber from the veneers without fluffing, the novel scrimber (Nscrimber) from FFPVs had a slight decline in mechanical strength. However, its dimensional stability was significantly improved, where the thickness swelling rate (TSR) decreased by approximate 74%.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.051
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Calibration of mobile manipulators using 2D positional features
    • Authors: Mili Shah; Roger Bostelman; Steven Legowik; Tsai Hong
      Pages: 322 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Mili Shah, Roger Bostelman, Steven Legowik, Tsai Hong
      Robotic manipulators are increasingly being attached to Automatic Ground Vehicles (AGVs) to aid in the efficiency of assembly for manufacturing systems. However, calibrating these mobile manipulators is difficult as the offset between the robotic manipulator and the AGV is often unknown. This paper provides a novel, simple, and low-cost method for calibrating and measuring the performance of mobile manipulators by using data collected from a laser retroreflector that digitally detects the horizontal two-dimensional (2D) position of reflectors on an artifact as well as a navigation system that provides the heading angle and 2D position of the AGV. The method is mathematically presented by providing a closed form solution to the positional component of the 2D robot-world/hand-eye calibration problem AX = YB . The method is then applied to simulated data as well as data collected in a laboratory setting and compared to other methods.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of blockboard and battenboard sandwich panels from date
           palm waste trunks
    • Authors: Maryam Haseli; Mohammad Layeghi; Hamid Zarea Hosseinabadi
      Pages: 329 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Maryam Haseli, Mohammad Layeghi, Hamid Zarea Hosseinabadi
      This paper presents investigation on the properties of value-added lightweight sandwich panels, blockboard and battenboard, made by date palm waste trunks as core layer combined with thin MDF as face layers. Some important physical, mechanical and thermo- acoustic properties of the panels were measured according to standard test methods and apparatus. Completely randomized design of experiments was planned and SPSS package was used for statistical analysis. Based on the experimental results, date palm wood-MDF sandwich panels with good thermal conductivity about 0.14 W/m K and favorable sound absorption up to 0.64 and noise reduction coefficients up to 0.15 can be used as heat and sound insulating materials. In addition, adequate physical and mechanical properties can be introduced date palm wood–MDF sandwich panels as a lightweight, cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative for wood- based panels for interior applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.040
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the accuracy of high-resolution topographic data generated using
           freely available packages based on SfM-MVS approach
    • Authors: Vijay Kisan Mali; Soumendra Nath Kuiry
      Pages: 338 - 350
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Vijay Kisan Mali, Soumendra Nath Kuiry
      The manual data collection for topographic details with high-resolution is almost impractical even for a small area. Recently, the SfM-MVS photogrammetry is extensively applied for the same. However, applications and associated challenges are not investigated so far for large physical models. Moreover, workflows using freely available packages have not been established yet for cost minimization. This study proposes two new workflows using a set of freely available packages for generating high-resolution DEM. A large outdoor river-network-floodplain setup is considered to investigate accuracy. The workflows are evaluated for two image sets, namely, CASE-I (considering only near parallel images) and CASE-II (considering convergent images in addition to CASE-I). The extensive accuracy tests show that the dome effect can be mitigated to a great extent using CASE-II dataset due to additional convergent images. The comparison with the PhotoScan confirms that the proposed workflows can be used for generating high-resolution DEM of large physical models.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.043
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive determination of fundamental frequency for direct time-domain
           averaging
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Xu; Jing Lin; Chang Yan
      Pages: 351 - 358
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Xiaoqiang Xu, Jing Lin, Chang Yan
      Time-domain averaging (TDA), as an effective signal processing technique for periodic signal enhancement has been widely used for fault detection of gearboxes and bearings. TDA normally requires a tachometer signal to provide an accurate estimation of fundamental frequency. However, tachometer is unavailable or difficult to use in many applications. In this paper, an adaptive fundamental-frequency determination method without tachometer signal is proposed. Firstly, the effect of fundamental-frequency estimation error on direct TDA is investigated, and it indicates that minor error of estimation can cause severe deterioration in curve of attenuation coefficient. Secondly, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) is proposed to evaluate the result of direct TDA for a given fundamental frequency, and it is utilized to optimize the fundamental frequency from a number of candidates. Finally, average waveform is obtained by implementing direct TDA with the optimized fundamental frequency. Examples of gear faults are given to verify the proposed method. The derived fundamental frequency is accurate, and average waveforms indicate the presence of gear faults successfully.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Measurements of complex resistivity spectrum for formation evaluation
    • Authors: Ming Jiang; Shizhen Ke; Zhengming Kang
      Pages: 359 - 366
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ming Jiang, Shizhen Ke, Zhengming Kang
      Low resistivity reservoirs, which are important oil reservoirs with considerable productivity, cannot be easily identified through traditional electrical logging methods. In this paper, we introduced a new logging method for effective identification of low resistivity reservoirs. The complex resistivity spectrum of sandstone layers can be obtained using this method. This paper presents the electrode array for measurements in boreholes, and the relationships between the complex resistivity spectrum and petrophysical properties. A numerical simulation was performed to study the detection characteristics of this logging tool and field tests were conducted to verify the feasibility of this method. The results show that variations in water-filled porosity obtained from this tool agree well with the actual values. Finally, water saturation can be obtained for oil reservoirs. This logging method provides a more effective approach than existing methods for the characterization of low resistivity reservoirs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.041
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Heat radiation measurement method for high pressure oxy-fuel combustion
    • Authors: Zsolt
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Measurement, Volume 124
      Author(s): Zsolt Dobó
      This paper describes a novel cost effective narrow-beam radiometer what was designed to measure incident heat flux at a specific location in high temperature and high pressure combustor. Beyond the radiometer the whole measurement assembly contains a water cooled plate for cold background, a high pressure window transparent for visible and IR radiation and a radiometer position/angle adjustment tool. The thermopile based radiometer measures the total heat radiation in a wavelength range of 0.6–8 µm. A special view tube was developed for decreasing the view angle to 0.35°, what angle was dictated by the dimensions of the combustor and the associated port sizes. Calibration curves were measured using a high temperature black body calibrator and the uncertainty of the measurement was evaluated. Although the presented radiant heat flux measurement method was developed for a specific combustor, it can be easily implemented for various combustion applications as well.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:05:58Z
       
 
 
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