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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 878 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (157 journals)
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    - HUMANITIES (275 journals)
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HUMANITIES (275 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift f     Full-text available via subscription  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access   (Followers: 1)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Language Resources and Evaluation
  [SJR: 0.915]   [H-I: 31]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1574-0218 - ISSN (Online) 1574-020X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • LRE journal CNL introduction
    • Authors: Brian Davis; Tobias Kuhn; Kaarel Kaljurand
      Pages: 9 - 11
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9375-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • Fully automatic multi-language translation with a catalogue of phrases:
           successful employment for the Swiss avalanche bulletin
    • Authors: Kurt Winkler; Tobias Kuhn
      Pages: 13 - 35
      Abstract: Abstract The Swiss avalanche bulletin is produced twice a day in four languages. Due to the lack of time available for manual translation, a fully automated translation system is employed, based on a catalogue of predefined phrases and predetermined rules of how these phrases can be combined to produce sentences. Because this catalogue of phrases is limited to a small sublanguage, the system is able to automatically translate such sentences from German into the target languages French, Italian and English without subsequent proofreading or correction. Having been operational for two winter seasons, we assess here the quality of the produced texts based on two different surveys where participants rated texts from real avalanche bulletins from both origins, the catalogue of phrases versus manually written and translated texts. With a mean recognition rate of 55 %, users can hardly distinguish between the two types of texts, and give very similar ratings with respect to their language quality. Overall, the output from the catalogue system can be considered virtually equivalent to a text written by avalanche forecasters and then manually translated by professional translators. Furthermore, forecasters declared that all relevant situations were captured by the system with sufficient accuracy. Forecaster’s working load did not change with the introduction of the catalogue: the extra time to find matching sentences is compensated by the fact that they no longer need to double-check manually translated texts. The reduction of daily translation costs is expected to offset the initial development costs within a few years.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-015-9316-5
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • A multilingual FrameNet-based grammar and lexicon for controlled natural
    • Authors: Normunds Gruzitis; Dana Dannélls
      Pages: 37 - 66
      Abstract: Berkeley FrameNet is a lexico-semantic resource for English based on the theory of frame semantics. It has been exploited in a range of natural language processing applications and has inspired the development of framenets for many languages. We present a methodological approach to the extraction and generation of a computational multilingual FrameNet-based grammar and lexicon. The approach leverages FrameNet-annotated corpora to automatically extract a set of cross-lingual semantico-syntactic valence patterns. Based on data from Berkeley FrameNet and Swedish FrameNet, the proposed approach has been implemented in Grammatical Framework (GF), a categorial grammar formalism specialized for multilingual grammars. The implementation of the grammar and lexicon is supported by the design of FrameNet, providing a frame semantic abstraction layer, an interlingual semantic application programming interface (API), over the interlingual syntactic API already provided by GF Resource Grammar Library. The evaluation of the acquired grammar and lexicon shows the feasibility of the approach. Additionally, we illustrate how the FrameNet-based grammar and lexicon are exploited in two distinct multilingual controlled natural language applications. The produced resources are available under an open source license.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-015-9321-8
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • The PENG ASP system: architecture, language and authoring tool
    • Authors: Stephen C. Guy; Rolf Schwitter
      Pages: 67 - 92
      Abstract: Abstract In this article, we describe the architecture, the language and the authoring tool of the PENG \(^{ASP}\) system. This system supports the writing of non-monotonic specifications in controlled natural language with the help of a web-based predictive text editor. This predictive editor communicates asynchronously with a controlled natural language processor that translates the specification text via discourse representation structures into executable Answer Set Programs (ASP). The controlled natural language processor additionally generates lookahead categories and anaphoric expressions for the author of a specification text, and it provides a paraphrase of the specification that clarifies the interpretation of the text by the machine. The predictive editor is a central component of the PENG \(^{ASP}\) system; it guides the writing process and displays multiple sets of lookahead categories simultaneously for different possible sentence completions as well as anaphoric expressions, and supports the addition of new content words to the lexicon .
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9338-7
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • A hybrid (visual/natural) controlled language
    • Authors: Yannis Haralambous; Julie Sauvage-Vincent; John Puentes
      Pages: 93 - 129
      Abstract: Abstract We define the notion of controlled hybrid language that allows information share and interaction between a controlled natural language (specified by a context-free grammar) and a controlled visual language (specified by a Symbol-Relation grammar). We present the controlled hybrid language INAUT, used to represent nautical charts of the French Naval and Hydrographic Service (SHOM) and their companion texts (Instructions nautiques).
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9339-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • Toward a knowledge-to-text controlled natural language of isiZulu
    • Authors: C. Maria Keet; Langa Khumalo
      Pages: 131 - 157
      Abstract: Abstract The language isiZulu belongs to the Nguni group of languages, which also include isiXhosa, isiNdebele and siSwati. Of the four Nguni languages, isiZulu is the most dominant language in South Africa, which is spoken by 22.7 % of the country’s 51.8 million population. However, isiZulu (and even more so the other Nguni languages) still remains an under-resourced language for software applications. In this article we focus on controlled natural languages for structured knowledge-to-text viewed from a potential utility for verbalising business rules and OWL ontologies. IsiZulu grammar—and by extension, all Bantu languages—shows that a template-based approach is infeasible. This is due to, mainly, the noun class system, the agglutination and verb conjugation with concords for each noun class. We present verbalisation patterns for existential and universal quantification, taxonomic subsumption, axioms with simple properties, and basic cases of negation. Based on the preliminary user assessment of the patterns, selected ones are refined into algorithms for verbalisation to generate correct isiZulu sentences, which have been evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9340-0
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • A GF miniature resource grammar for Tswana: modelling the proper verb
    • Authors: Laurette Pretorius; Laurette Marais; Ansu Berg
      Pages: 159 - 189
      Abstract: Abstract The Grammatical Framework (GF) not only offers state of the art grammar-based machine translation support between an increasing number of languages through its so-called Resource Grammar Library, but is also fast becoming a de facto framework for developing multilingual controlled natural languages (CNLs). For a natural language to share maximally in the opportunities that GF-based multilingual CNL support presents, it has to have a GF resource grammar. Tswana, an agglutinating Bantu language, spoken in Southern Africa as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, does not yet have such a grammar. This article reports on the development of a so-called miniature resource grammar, a first step towards a full resource grammar for Tswana. The focus is on the modelling of the Tswana proper verb as it occurs in simple sentences. The (proper) verb is the morphologically most complex word category in Tswana, and therefore constitutes a notable contribution towards the development of a GF resource grammar for Tswana. The computational model is discussed in some detail, implemented and tested on a systematically constructed treebank.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9341-z
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • CNLs for the semantic web: a state of the art
    • Authors: Hazem Safwat; Brian Davis
      Pages: 191 - 220
      Abstract: Abstract One of the core challenges for building the semantic web is the creation of ontologies, a process known as ontology authoring. Controlled natural languages (CNLs) propose different frameworks for interfacing and creating ontologies in semantic web systems using restricted natural language. However, in order to engage non-expert users with no background in knowledge engineering, these language interfacing must be reliable, easy to understand and accepted by users. This paper includes the state-of-the-art for CNLs in terms of ontology authoring and the semantic web. In addition, it includes a detailed analysis of user evaluations with respect to each CNL and offers analytic conclusions with respect to the field.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9351-x
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • Towards the creation of a CNL adapted to requirements writing by combining
           writing recommendations and spontaneous regularities: example in a space
    • Authors: Anne Condamines; Maxime Warnier
      Pages: 221 - 247
      Abstract: Abstract The Quality Department of the French National Space Agency (CNES, Centre National d’Études Spatiales) wishes to design a writing guide based on the real and regular writing of requirements. As a first step in this project, the present article proposes a linguistic analysis of requirements written in French by CNES engineers. One of our goals is to determine to what extent they conform to several rules laid down in two existing Controlled Natural Languages (CNLs), namely the Simplified Technical English developed by the AeroSpace and Defense Industries Association of Europe and the Guide for Writing Requirements proposed by the International Council on Systems Engineering. Indeed, although CNES engineers are not obliged to follow any controlled language in their writing of requirements, we believe that language regularities are likely to emerge from this task, mainly due to the writers’ experience. We are seeking to identify these regularities in order to use them as a basis for a new CNL for the writing of requirements. The issue is approached using natural language processing tools to identify sentences that do not comply with the rules or contain specific linguistic phenomena. We further review these sentences to understand why the recommendations cannot (or should not) always be applied when specifying large-scale projects.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-016-9368-1
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 1 (2017)
  • SFU Review SP -NEG: a Spanish corpus annotated with negation for sentiment
           analysis. A typology of negation patterns
    • Authors: Salud María Jiménez-Zafra; Mariona Taulé; M. Teresa Martín-Valdivia; L. Alfonso Ureña-López; M. Antónia Martí
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we present SFU ReviewSP-NEG, the first Spanish corpus annotated with negation with a wide coverage freely available. We describe the methodology applied in the annotation of the corpus including the tagset, the linguistic criteria and the inter-annotator agreement tests. We also include a complete typology of negation patterns in Spanish. This typology has the advantage that it is easy to express in terms of a tagset for corpus annotation: the types are clearly defined, which avoids ambiguity in the annotation process, and they provide wide coverage (i.e. they resolved all the cases occurring in the corpus). We use the SFU ReviewSP as a base in order to make the annotations. The corpus consists of 400 reviews, 221,866 words and 9455 sentences, out of which 3022 sentences contain at least one negation structure.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9391-x
  • The PROIEL treebank family: a standard for early attestations of
           Indo-European languages
    • Authors: Hanne Eckhoff; Kristin Bech; Gerlof Bouma; Kristine Eide; Dag Haug; Odd Einar Haugen; Marius Jøhndal
      Abstract: Abstract This article describes a family of dependency treebanks of early attestations of Indo-European languages originating in the parallel treebank built by the members of the project pragmatic resources in old Indo-European languages. The treebanks all share a set of open-source software tools, including a web annotation interface, and a set of annotation schemes and guidelines developed especially for the project languages. The treebanks use an enriched dependency grammar scheme complemented by detailed morphological tags, which have proved sufficient to give detailed descriptions of these richly inflected languages, and which have been easy to adapt to new languages. We describe the tools and annotation schemes and discuss some challenges posed by the various languages that have been annotated. We also discuss problems with tokenisation, sentence division and lemmatisation, commonly encountered in ancient and mediaeval texts, and challenges associated with low levels of standardisation and ongoing morphological and syntactic change.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9388-5
  • Annotation of semantic roles for the Turkish Proposition Bank
    • Authors: Gözde Gül Şahin; Eşref Adalı
      Abstract: In this work, we report large-scale semantic role annotation of arguments in the Turkish dependency treebank, and present the first comprehensive Turkish semantic role labeling (SRL) resource: Turkish Proposition Bank (PropBank). We present our annotation workflow that harnesses crowd intelligence, and discuss the procedures for ensuring annotation consistency and quality control. Our discussion focuses on syntactic variations in realization of predicate-argument structures, and the large lexicon problem caused by complex derivational morphology. We describe our approach that exploits framesets of root verbs to abstract away from syntax and increase self-consistency of the Turkish PropBank. The issues that arise in the annotation of verbs derived via valency changing morphemes, verbal nominals, and nominal verbs are explored, and evaluation results for inter-annotator agreement are provided. Furthermore, semantic layer described here is aligned with universal dependency (UD) compliant treebank and released to enable more researchers to work on the problem. Finally, we use PropBank to establish a baseline score of 79.10 F1 for Turkish SRL using the mate-tool (an open-source SRL tool based on supervised machine learning) enhanced with basic morphological features. Turkish PropBank and the extended SRL system are made publicly available.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9390-y
  • Creating a reference data set for the summarization of discussion forum
    • Authors: Suzan Verberne; Emiel Krahmer; Iris Hendrickx; Sander Wubben; Antal van den Bosch
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we address extractive summarization of long threads in online discussion fora. We present an elaborate user evaluation study to determine human preferences in forum summarization and to create a reference data set. We showed long threads to ten different raters and asked them to create a summary by selecting the posts that they considered to be the most important for the thread. We study the agreement between human raters on the summarization task, and we show how multiple reference summaries can be combined to develop a successful model for automatic summarization. We found that although the inter-rater agreement for the summarization task was slight to fair, the automatic summarizer obtained reasonable results in terms of precision, recall, and ROUGE. Moreover, when human raters were asked to choose between the summary created by another human and the summary created by our model in a blind side-by-side comparison, they judged the model’s summary equal to or better than the human summary in over half of the cases. This shows that even for a summarization task with low inter-rater agreement, a model can be trained that generates sensible summaries. In addition, we investigated the potential for personalized summarization. However, the results for the three raters involved in this experiment were inconclusive. We release the reference summaries as a publicly available dataset.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9389-4
  • A flexible text analyzer based on ontologies: an application for detecting
           discriminatory language
    • Authors: Alberto Salguero; Macarena Espinilla
      Abstract: Abstract Language can be a tool to marginalize certain groups due to the fact that it may reflect a negative mentality caused by mental barriers or historical delays. In order to prevent misuse of language, several agents have carried out campaigns against discriminatory language, criticizing the use of some terms and phrases. However, there is an important gap in detecting discriminatory text in documents because language is very flexible and, usually, contains hidden features or relations. Furthermore, the adaptation of approaches and methodologies proposed in the literature for text analysis is complex due to the fact that these proposals are too rigid to be adapted to different purposes for which they were intended. The main novelty of the methodology is the use of ontologies to implement the rules that are used by the developed text analyzer, providing a great flexibility for the development of text analyzers and exploiting the ability to infer knowledge of the ontologies. A set of rules for detecting discriminatory language relevant to gender and people with disabilities is also presented in order to show how to extend the functionality of the text analyzer to different discriminatory text areas.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9387-6
  • Erratum to: Replicability and reproducibility of research results for
           human language technology: introducing an LRE special section
    • Authors: António Branco; Kevin Bretonnel Cohen; Piek Vossen; Nancy Ide; Nicoletta Calzolari
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9386-7
  • What’s missing in geographical parsing?
    • Authors: Milan Gritta; Mohammad Taher Pilehvar; Nut Limsopatham; Nigel Collier
      Abstract: Abstract Geographical data can be obtained by converting place names from free-format text into geographical coordinates. The ability to geo-locate events in textual reports represents a valuable source of information in many real-world applications such as emergency responses, real-time social media geographical event analysis, understanding location instructions in auto-response systems and more. However, geoparsing is still widely regarded as a challenge because of domain language diversity, place name ambiguity, metonymic language and limited leveraging of context as we show in our analysis. Results to date, whilst promising, are on laboratory data and unlike in wider NLP are often not cross-compared. In this study, we evaluate and analyse the performance of a number of leading geoparsers on a number of corpora and highlight the challenges in detail. We also publish an automatically geotagged Wikipedia corpus to alleviate the dearth of (open source) corpora in this domain.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9385-8
  • Software requirements as an application domain for natural language
    • Authors: Themistoklis Diamantopoulos; Michael Roth; Andreas Symeonidis; Ewan Klein
      Abstract: Abstract Mapping functional requirements first to specifications and then to code is one of the most challenging tasks in software development. Since requirements are commonly written in natural language, they can be prone to ambiguity, incompleteness and inconsistency. Structured semantic representations allow requirements to be translated to formal models, which can be used to detect problems at an early stage of the development process through validation. Storing and querying such models can also facilitate software reuse. Several approaches constrain the input format of requirements to produce specifications, however they usually require considerable human effort in order to adopt domain-specific heuristics and/or controlled languages. We propose a mechanism that automates the mapping of requirements to formal representations using semantic role labeling. We describe the first publicly available dataset for this task, employ a hierarchical framework that allows requirements concepts to be annotated, and discuss how semantic role labeling can be adapted for parsing software requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9381-z
  • Replicability and reproducibility of research results for human language
           technology: introducing an LRE special section
    • Authors: António Branco; Kevin Bretonnel Cohen; Piek Vossen; Nancy Ide; Nicoletta Calzolari
      PubDate: 2017-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9380-0
  • A French clinical corpus with comprehensive semantic annotations:
           development of the Medical Entity and Relation LIMSI annOtated Text corpus
    • Authors: Leonardo Campillos; Louise Deléger; Cyril Grouin; Thierry Hamon; Anne-Laure Ligozat; Aurélie Névéol
      Abstract: Abstract Quality annotated resources are essential for Natural Language Processing. The objective of this work is to present a corpus of clinical narratives in French annotated for linguistic, semantic and structural information, aimed at clinical information extraction. Six annotators contributed to the corpus annotation, using a comprehensive annotation scheme covering 21 entities, 11 attributes and 37 relations. All annotators trained on a small, common portion of the corpus before proceeding independently. An automatic tool was used to produce entity and attribute pre-annotations. About a tenth of the corpus was doubly annotated and annotation differences were resolved in consensus meetings. To ensure annotation consistency throughout the corpus, we devised harmonization tools to automatically identify annotation differences to be addressed to improve the overall corpus quality. The annotation project spanned over 24 months and resulted in a corpus comprising 500 documents (148,476 tokens) annotated with 44,740 entities and 26,478 relations. The average inter-annotator agreement is 0.793 F-measure for entities and 0.789 for relations. The performance of the pre-annotation tool for entities reached 0.814 F-measure when sufficient training data was available. The performance of our entity pre-annotation tool shows the value of the corpus to build and evaluate information extraction methods. In addition, we introduced harmonization methods that further improved the quality of annotations in the corpus.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9382-y
  • An approach to measuring and annotating the confidence of Wiktionary
    • Authors: Antonio J. Roa-Valverde; Salvador Sanchez-Alonso; Miguel-Angel Sicilia; Dieter Fensel
      Abstract: Abstract Wiktionary is an online collaborative project based on the same principle than Wikipedia , where users can create, edit and delete entries containing lexical information. While the open nature of Wiktionary is the reason for its fast growth, it has also brought a problem: how reliable is the lexical information contained in every article? If we are planing to use Wiktionary translations as source content to accomplish a certain use case, we need to be able to answer this question and extract measures of their confidence . In this paper we present our work on assessing the quality of Wiktionary translations by introducing confidence metrics. Additionally, we describe our effort to share Wiktionary translations and the associated confidence values as linked data.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10579-017-9384-9
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