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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 1057 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (218 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (173 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (195 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (150 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (227 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (87 journals)

HUMANITIES (227 journals)                  1 2 3     

Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (14 followers)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (4 followers)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription  
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (2 followers)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (5 followers)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (80 followers)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (20 followers)
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (1 follower)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (5 followers)
Arion : A Journal of Humanities and the Classics     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (27 followers)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (98 followers)
Behemoth     Open Access   (5 followers)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access  
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (1 follower)
Canadian Journal of Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal  
Claroscuro     Open Access  
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (8 followers)
Continental Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (3 followers)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (1 follower)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (2 followers)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (13 followers)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (31 followers)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (20 followers)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (3 followers)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Études de lettres     Open Access  
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
German Research     Hybrid Journal  
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (1 follower)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (3 followers)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Humanitaire     Open Access   (1 follower)
Humanities     Open Access   (5 followers)
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (2 followers)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)

        1 2 3     

Human Nature    [10 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 1.042]   [H-I: 35]
  • Why What Juveniles Do Matters in the Evolution of Cooperative Breeding
    • Abstract: Abstract The evolution of cooperative breeding is complex, and particularly so in humans because many other life history traits likely evolved at the same time. While cooperative childrearing is often presumed ancient, the transition from maternal self-reliance to dependence on allocare leaves no known empirical record. In this paper, an exploratory model is developed that incorporates probable evolutionary changes in birth intervals, juvenile dependence, and dispersal age to predict under what life history conditions mothers are unable to raise children without adult cooperation. The model’s outcome variable (net balance) integrates dependent children’s production and consumption as a function of varying life history parameters to estimate the investment mothers or others have to spend subsidizing children. Results suggest that maternal-juvenile cooperation can support the early transition toward a reduction in birth intervals, a longer period of juvenile dependence, and having overlapping young. The need for adult cooperation is most evident when birth intervals are short and age at net production is late. Findings suggest that the needs of juveniles would not have been an early selective force for adult cooperation. Rather, an age-graded division of labor and the mutual benefits of maternal-juvenile cooperation could be an important, but overlooked step in the evolution of cooperative breeding.
      PubDate: 2014-01-17
       
  • Eusociality in History
    • Abstract: Abstract For more than 100,000 years, H. sapiens lived as foragers, in small family groups with low reproductive variance. A minority of men were able to father children by two or three women; and a majority of men and women were able to breed. But after the origin of farming around 10,000 years ago, reproductive variance increased. In civilizations which began in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China, and then moved on to Greece and Rome, kings collected thousands of women, whose children were supported and guarded by thousands of eunuchs. Just a few hundred years ago, that trend reversed. Obligate sterility ended, and reproductive variance declined. For H. sapiens, as for other organisms, eusociality seems to be an effect of ecological constraints. Civilizations rose up in lake and river valleys, hemmed in by mountains and deserts. Egalitarianism became an option after empty habitats opened up.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Intergenerational and Sibling Conflict Under Patrilocality
    • Abstract: Abstract Here we argue that models developed to examine cooperation and conflict in communal breeders, using a “tug-of-war” model of reproductive skew generated by incomplete control, are an appropriate way to model human kinship systems. We apply such models to understand the patterns of effort put into competition between father and son and between brothers in conflict over family resources in a patrilineal kinship system. Co-resident kin do not necessarily emerge with equal shares of the cake in terms of reproductive output. The models show that, depending on the efficiency with which they can gain more control of the resource, on the marriage system, and on the relatedness of the partners in conflict, individuals can do better to help their relatives breed rather than fight each other for the resources needed to reproduce. The models show that when a son’s father is still breeding with his mother, sons should not compete for any share of reproduction. However, under polygyny, increased effort is spent on father/son and brother/brother conflict. Fathers will win the majority of reproduction if dominant to sons (in contrast to the finding that daughters-in-law win in conflict over mothers-in-law in patrilocal kinship systems, which has been suggested as explaining the evolution of menopause). Hence who wins in the sharing of reproduction depends not just on which sex disperses but also on the relative competitive ability of all individuals to exploit family resources. Anthropologists have long argued that cultural norms can reduce conflict. These formal evolutionary models help us to quantify the effects of reproductive conflict in families, throwing light on the evolutionary basis not just of patterns of reproductive scheduling, but also human kinship and marriage systems.
      PubDate: 2013-12-22
       
  • Primate Sociality to Human Cooperation
    • Abstract: Abstract Developmental psychologists identify propensities for social engagement in human infants that are less evident in other apes; Sarah Hrdy links these social propensities to novel features of human childrearing. Unlike other ape mothers, humans can bear a new baby before the previous child is independent because they have help. This help alters maternal trade-offs and so imposes new selection pressures on infants and young children to actively engage their caretakers’ attention and commitment. Such distinctive childrearing is part of our grandmothering life history. While consequences for other cooperative activities must surely follow, the novel rearing environments set up by helpful grandmothering can explain why natural selection escalated preferences and motivations for interactivity in our lineage in the first place, and why, unlike other aspects of infant development, social sensitivities are not delayed in humans compared with genus Pan.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • The Insectan Apes
    • Abstract: Abstract I present evidence that humans have evolved convergently to social insects with regard to a large suite of social, ecological, and reproductive phenotypes. Convergences between humans and social insects include: (1) groups with genetically and environmentally defined structures; (2) extensive divisions of labor; (3) specialization of a relatively restricted set of females for reproduction, with enhanced fertility; (4) extensive extramaternal care; (5) within-group food sharing; (6) generalized diets composed of high-nutrient-density food; (7) solicitous juveniles, but high rates of infanticide; (8) ecological dominance; (9) enhanced colonizing abilities; and (10) collective, cooperative decision-making. Most of these convergent phenotypic adaptations stem from reorganization of key life-history trade-offs due to behavioral, physiological, and life-historical specializations. Despite their extensive socioreproductive overlap with social insects, humans differ with regard to the central aspect of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. This difference may be underpinned by the high energetic costs of producing offspring with large brains.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • Eusociality: From the First Foragers to the First States
    • Abstract: Abstract People have always been social. Ethnographic evidence suggests that transfers of food and labor are common among contemporary hunter-gatherers, and they probably were common in Paleolithic groups. Archaeological evidence suggests that cooperative breeding went up as we settled down: as territory defenders became more successful breeders, their helpers’ fertility would have been delayed or depressed. And written evidence from the Neolithic suggests that the first civilizations were often eusocial; emperors fathered hundreds of children, who were provided for and protected by workers in sterile castes. Papers in this issue of Human Nature look at helpers and workers across the eusociality continuum—from hardworking grandmothers and grandfathers, to celibate sisters and brothers, to castrated civil servants—from the first foragers to the first states.
      PubDate: 2013-11-30
       
  • Masculine Men Articulate Less Clearly
    • Abstract: Abstract In previous research, acoustic characteristics of the male voice have been shown to signal various aspects of mate quality and threat potential. But the human voice is also a medium of linguistic communication. The present study explores whether physical and vocal indicators of male mate quality and threat potential are linked to effective communicative behaviors such as vowel differentiation and use of more salient phonetic variants of consonants. We show that physical and vocal indicators of male threat potential, height and formant position, are negatively linked to vowel space size, and that height and levels of circulating testosterone are negatively linked to the use of the aspirated variant of the alveolar stop consonant /t/. Thus, taller, more masculine men display less clarity in their speech and prefer phonetic variants that may be associated with masculine attributes such as toughness. These findings suggest that vocal signals of men’s mate quality and/or dominance are not confined to the realm of voice acoustics but extend to other aspects of communicative behavior, even if this means a trade-off with speech patterns that are considered communicatively advantageous, such as clarity and indexical cues to higher social class.
      PubDate: 2013-10-15
       
  • Courtship Feeding in Humans?
    • Abstract: Abstract Food sharing may be used for mate attraction, sexual access, or mate retention in humans, as in many other species. Adult humans tend to perceive more intimacy in a couple if feeding is observed, but the increased perceived intimacy may be due to resource provisioning rather than feeding per se. To address this issue, 210 university students (66 male) watched five short videos, each showing a different mixed-sex pair of adults dining together and including feeding or simple provisioning or no food sharing. A survey concerning attraction and intimacy in the dyad was completed after each video. Both provisioning and feeding produced higher ratings of “Involvement,” with feeding producing the highest ratings. Similarly, the perceived attraction of each actor to the other was lowest when no food sharing was shown and highest when feeding was displayed. These findings are consistent with a view of feeding as a courtship display in humans.
      PubDate: 2013-10-09
       
  • Teaching and the Life History of Cultural Transmission in Fijian Villages
    • Abstract: Abstract Much existing literature in anthropology suggests that teaching is rare in non-Western societies, and that cultural transmission is mostly vertical (parent-to-offspring). However, applications of evolutionary theory to humans predict both teaching and non-vertical transmission of culturally learned skills, behaviors, and knowledge should be common cross-culturally. Here, we review this body of theory to derive predictions about when teaching and non-vertical transmission should be adaptive, and thus more likely to be observed empirically. Using three interviews conducted with rural Fijian populations, we find that parents are more likely to teach than are other kin types, high-skill and highly valued domains are more likely to be taught, and oblique transmission is associated with high-skill domains, which are learned later in life. Finally, we conclude that the apparent conflict between theory and empirical evidence is due to a mismatch of theoretical hypotheses and empirical claims across disciplines, and we reconcile theory with the existing literature in light of our results.
      PubDate: 2013-10-06
       
  • Male Androphilia in the Ancestral Environment
    • Abstract: Abstract The kin selection hypothesis posits that male androphilia (male sexual attraction to adult males) evolved because androphilic males invest more in kin, thereby enhancing inclusive fitness. Increased kin-directed altruism has been repeatedly documented among a population of transgendered androphilic males, but never among androphilic males in other cultures who adopt gender identities as men. Thus, the kin selection hypothesis may be viable if male androphilia was expressed in the transgendered form in the ancestral past. Using the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (SCCS), we examined 46 societies in which male androphilia was expressed in the transgendered form (transgendered societies) and 146 comparison societies (non-transgendered societies). We analyzed SCCS variables pertaining to ancestral sociocultural conditions, access to kin, and societal reactions to homosexuality. Our results show that ancestral sociocultural conditions and bilateral and double descent systems were more common in transgendered than in non-transgendered societies. Across the entire sample, descent systems and residence patterns that would presumably facilitate increased access to kin were associated with the presence of ancestral sociocultural conditions. Among transgendered societies, negative societal attitudes toward homosexuality were unlikely. We conclude that the ancestral human sociocultural environment was likely conducive to the expression of the transgendered form of male androphilia. Descent systems, residence patterns, and societal reactions to homosexuality likely facilitated investments in kin by transgendered males. Given that contemporary transgendered male androphiles appear to exhibit elevated kin-directed altruism, these findings further indicate the viability of the kin selection hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2013-10-03
       
  • Menstrual Cycle Effects on Attitudes toward Romantic Kissing
    • Abstract: Abstract Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle (i.e., at higher risk of conception) prefer males displaying putative signals of underlying genetic fitness. Past research also suggests that romantic kissing is utilized in human mating contexts to assess potential mating partners. The current study examined whether women in their late follicular cycle phase place greater value on kissing at times when it might help serve mate assessment functions. Using an international online questionnaire, results showed that women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle felt that kissing was more important at initial stages of a relationship than women in the luteal phase of their cycle. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings.
      PubDate: 2013-09-29
       
  • Clique Size and Network Characteristics in Hyperlink Cinema
    • Abstract: Abstract Hyperlink cinema is an emergent film genre that seeks to push the boundaries of the medium in order to mirror contemporary life in the globalized community. Films in the genre thus create an interacting network across space and time in such a way as to suggest that people’s lives can intersect on scales that would not have been possible without modern technologies of travel and communication. This allows us to test the hypothesis that new kinds of media might permit us to break through the natural cognitive constraints that limit the number and quality of social relationships we can manage in the conventional face-to-face world. We used network analysis to test this hypothesis with data from 12 hyperlink films, using 10 motion pictures from a more conventional film genre as a control. We found few differences between hyperlink cinema films and the control genre, and few differences between hyperlink cinema films and either the real world or classical drama (e.g., Shakespeare’s plays). Conversation group size seems to be especially resilient to alteration. It seems that, despite many efficiency advantages, modern media are unable to circumvent the constraints imposed by our evolved psychology.
      PubDate: 2013-09-21
       
  • The Role of Rewards in Motivating Participation in Simple Warfare
    • Abstract: Abstract In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this “cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis” with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a higher rate of death from conflict. This provides preliminary support for the relationship between rewards and participation in warfare.
      PubDate: 2013-09-06
       
  • The Relationship Between Objective Sperm Competition Risk and Men’s
           Copulatory Interest Is Moderated by Partner’s Time Spent with Other
           Men
    • Abstract: Abstract Men who spend a greater proportion of time apart from their female partner since the couple’s last copulation are at greater “objective” sperm competition risk. We propose a novel cue to sperm competition risk: the time she spends with her male friends. Four hundred and twenty men in a committed, heterosexual, sexual relationship completed a questionnaire. The results indicate that men at greater objective sperm competition risk report less time desired until the couple’s next copulation, greater interest in copulating with their partner, and greater anger, frustration, and upset in response to their partner’s sexual rejection, but only among men whose partner spends more time with her male friends. These results remain after controlling statistically for the participant’s age and their partner’s age. We discuss limitations of the current research, and discuss how research in human sperm competition can inform social issues, including men’s partner-directed sexual coercion.
      PubDate: 2013-09-05
       
  • Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?
    • Abstract: Abstract Cooperation requires that individuals are able to identify, and preferentially associate with, others who have compatible preferences and the shared background knowledge needed to solve interpersonal coordination problems. The present study investigates the nature of such similarity within social networks, asking: What do friends have in common? And what is the relationship between similarity and altruism? The results show that similarity declines with frequency of contact; similarity in general is a significant predictor of altruism and emotional closeness; and, specifically, sharing a sense of humor, hobbies and interests, moral beliefs, and being from the same area are the best predictors. These results shed light on the structure of relationships within networks and provide a possible checklist for predicting attitudes toward strangers, and in-group identification.
      PubDate: 2013-07-24
       
  • Review of Daniel J. Hruschka’s        class="a-plus-plus">Friendship: Development, Ecology, and
           Evolution of a Relationship (Berkeley: University of California
           Press, 2010)
    • PubDate: 2013-06-29
       
  • Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies
    • Abstract: Abstract Human societies are examined as distinct and coherent groups. This trait is most parsimoniously considered a deeply rooted part of our ancestry rather than a recent cultural invention. Our species is the only vertebrate with society memberships of significantly more than 200. We accomplish this by using society-specific labels to identify members, in what I call an anonymous society. I propose that the human brain has evolved to permit not only the close relationships described by the social brain hypothesis, but also, at little mental cost, the anonymous societies within which such alliances are built. The human compulsion to discover or invent labels to “mark” group memberships may originally have been expressed in hominins as vocally learned greetings only slightly different in function from chimpanzee pant hoots (now known to be society-specific). The weight of evidence suggests that at some point, conceivably early in the hominin line, the distinct groups composed of several bands that were typical of our ancestors came to be distinguished by their members on the basis of multiple labels that were socially acquired in this way, the earliest of which would leave no trace in the archaeological record. Often overlooked as research subjects, these sizable fission-fusion communities, in recent egalitarian hunter-gatherers sometimes 2,000 strong, should consistently be accorded the status of societies, in the same sense that this word is used to describe tribes, chiefdoms, and other cultures arising later in our history. The capacity of hunter-gatherer societies to grow sufficiently populous that not all members necessarily recognize one another would make the transition to larger agricultural societies straightforward. Humans differ from chimpanzees in that societal labels are essential to the maintenance of societies and the processes giving birth to new ones. I propose that anonymous societies of all kinds can expand only so far as their labels can remain sufficiently stable.
      PubDate: 2013-06-29
       
  • Household and Kin Provisioning by Hadza Men
    • Abstract: Abstract We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men’s foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers’ households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3–4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.
      PubDate: 2013-06-28
       
  • A Cross-Cultural Study of Noblesse Oblige in Economic Decision-Making
    • Abstract: Abstract A cornerstone of economic theory is that rational agents are self-interested, yet a decade of research in experimental economics has shown that economic decisions are frequently driven by concerns for fairness, equity, and reciprocity. One aspect of other-regarding behavior that has garnered attention is noblesse oblige, a social norm that obligates those of higher status to be generous in their dealings with those of lower status. The results of a cross-cultural study are reported in which marked noblesse oblige was observed on a reciprocal-contract decision-making task. Participants from seven countries that vary along hierarchical and individualist/collectivist social dimensions were more tolerant of non-reciprocation when they adopted a high-ranking perspective compared with a low-ranking perspective.
      PubDate: 2013-06-09
       
  • Why Do the Karo Batak Prefer Women with Big Feet?
    • Abstract: Abstract Men may find women with small feet relative to body size more attractive because foot size reliably indexes nubility—i.e., age and parity. I collected judgments of attractiveness in response to drawings of women with varying foot sizes from a sample of 159 Karo Batak respondents from North Sumatra, Indonesia, as part of a collaborative project on foot size and attractiveness. The data revealed a contrarian preference among the Karo Batak for women with big feet. The judgments were compared with the results of an existing cross-cultural study that found a preference for women with small feet in aggregate, but a mix of small- and large-foot preferences in the societies taken individually. Using contingency table analysis, I found that ecology and less exposure to Western media were associated with a preference for women with big feet; patriarchal values were not. The findings suggest that human mating preferences may arise in response to local ecological conditions, and may persist and spread via cultural transmission. This has implications for the concept of universality espoused in some versions of evolutionary psychology.
      PubDate: 2013-05-31
       
 
 
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