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HUMANITIES (244 journals)                  1 2 3     

Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adeptus     Open Access  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription  
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arion : A Journal of Humanities and the Classics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access  
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access  
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access  
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
German Research     Hybrid Journal  
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Human Nature
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 41]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2291 journals]
  • Review of Alice Dreger’s Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics,
           Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science
    • PubDate: 2015-07-28
  • Before Cumulative Culture
    • Abstract: Abstract In the 7 million years or so since humans shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees we have colonized more of the planet’s terrestrial habitat than any other mammalian species and come to account for more biomass than all other terrestrial vertebrates combined. Chimpanzees, in contrast to and under pressure from ourselves, have veered toward extinction. There are multiple reasons for the stark evolutionary trajectories humans and chimpanzees have taken. Recent theoretical and empirical interest has focused on the emergence of cumulative culture whereby technological innovations are progressively incorporated into a population’s stock of skills and knowledge, generating ever more sophisticated repertoires. Here we look at the role of high-fidelity imitation and intention-reading in the establishment of cumulative culture. By focusing on the lithic record, we aim to identify when in our evolutionary history these skills became part of our ancestors’ behavioral repertoire. We argue that evidence of cooperative construction in stone tool manufacture, along with speculation regarding changes to the mirror neurone system, hint at the foundations of overimitation and shared intentionality around 2 million years ago. However, these are not the only ingredients of cumulative culture, which is why we do not see convincing evidence for it until slightly more than a million years later.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
  • Chimpanzees’ Bystander Reactions to Infanticide
    • Abstract: Abstract Social norms—generalized expectations about how others should behave in a given context—implicitly guide human social life. However, their existence becomes explicit when they are violated because norm violations provoke negative reactions, even from personally uninvolved bystanders. To explore the evolutionary origin of human social norms, we presented chimpanzees with videos depicting a putative norm violation: unfamiliar conspecifics engaging in infanticidal attacks on an infant chimpanzee. The chimpanzees looked far longer at infanticide scenes than at control videos showing nut cracking, hunting a colobus monkey, or displays and aggression among adult males. Furthermore, several alternative explanations for this looking pattern could be ruled out. However, infanticide scenes did not generally elicit higher arousal. We propose that chimpanzees as uninvolved bystanders may detect norm violations but may restrict emotional reactions to such situations to in-group contexts. We discuss the implications for the evolution of human morality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
  • The Curse of Curves
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines the associations between objective and subjective measurements and impressions of body shape and cold pressor pain reporting in healthy adults. On the basis of sexual selection theory (SST), we hypothesized that body characteristics that are universally preferred by the opposite sex—specifically, lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) in women and higher shoulder-to-hip ratios (SHR) in men—and characteristics (e.g., proportion of body fat in women) that infer attractiveness differently across cultures will correspond to higher experimental pain reporting in women and lower pain reporting in males. A convenience sample of young adults (n = 96, 58 females, 18–24 years; mean age = 19.4) was measured for body mass index (BMI), WHR, SHR, and subjective body impressions (SBI), along with cold pressor pain reporting. The findings showed that BMI was positively associated with WHR and less-positive SBI in both sexes. Consistent with SST, however, only BMI and WHR predicted variability in pain expression in women, whereas only SHR predicted variability in men. Subjective body impressions were positively associated with SHR among males and unrelated to WHR among females, yet only females showed a positive association between SBI and higher pain reporting. The findings suggest that sexually selected physical characteristics (WHR and SHR) and culturally influenced somatic (BMI) and psychological (SBI) indicators of attractiveness correspond with variability in pain reporting, potentially reflecting the general tendency for people to express clusters of sexually selected and culturally influenced traits that may include differential pain perception.
      PubDate: 2015-06-06
  • People’s Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases
    • Abstract: Abstract People’s judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people’s judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people’s judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.
      PubDate: 2015-06-05
  • Biological Conditions and Economic Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Average stature is now a well-accepted measure of material and economic well-being in development studies when traditional measures are sparse or unreliable, but little work has been done on the biological conditions for individuals on the nineteenth-century U.S. Great Plains. Records of 14,427 inmates from the Nebraska state prison are used to examine the relationship between stature and economic conditions. Statures of both black and white prisoners in Nebraska increased through time, indicating that biological conditions improved as Nebraska’s output market and agricultural sectors developed. The effect of rural environments on stature is illustrated by the fact that farm laborers were taller than common laborers. Urbanization and industrialization had significant impacts on stature, and proximity to trade routes and waterways was inversely related to stature.
      PubDate: 2015-06-04
  • Testing Theories about Ethnic Markers
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a modern society utilize the accents of unfamiliar individuals to make social decisions in hypothetical economic games that measure interpersonal trust, generosity, and coordination. A total of 4603 Danish participants completed a verbal-guise study administered over the Internet. Participants listened to four speakers (two local and two nonlocal) and played a hypothetical Dictator Game, Trust Game, and Coordination Game with each of them. The results showed that participants had greater faith in coordinating successfully with local speakers than with nonlocal speakers. The coordination effect was strong for individuals living in the same city as the particular speakers and weakened as the geographical distance between the participants and the speakers grew. Conversely, the results showed that participants were not more generous toward or more trusting of local speakers compared with nonlocal speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate.
      PubDate: 2015-05-24
  • Competence and the Evolutionary Origins of Status and Power in Humans
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper I propose an evolutionary model of human status that expands upon an earlier model proposed by Henrich and Gil-White Evolution and Human Behavior, 22,165–196 (2001). According to their model, there are two systems of status attainment in humans—“two ways to the top”: the dominance route, which involves physical intimidation, a psychology of fear and hubristic pride, and provides coercive power, and the prestige route, which involves skills and knowledge (competence), a psychology of attraction to experts and authentic pride, and translates mainly into influence. The two systems would have evolved in response to different selective pressures, with attraction to experts serving a social learning function and coinciding with the evolution of cumulative culture. In this paper I argue that (1) the only one way to the top is competence because dominance itself involves competence and confers prestige, so there is no such thing as pure dominance status; (2) dominance in primates has two components: a competitive one involving physical coercion and a cooperative one involving competence-based attraction to high-ranking individuals (proto-prestige); (3) competence grants the same general type of power (dependence-based) in humans and other primates; (4) the attractiveness of high rank in primates is homologous with the admiration of experts in humans; (5) upon the evolution of cumulative culture, the attractiveness of high rank was co-opted to generate status differentials in a vast number of culturally generated domains of activity. I also discuss, in this perspective, the origins of hubristic pride, authentic pride, and nonauthoritarian leadership.
      PubDate: 2015-05-07
  • Sexual Functioning and Commitment to Their Current Relationship among
           Breastfeeding and Regularly Cycling Women in Manila, Philippines
    • Abstract: Abstract This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07
  • Clarification: Surnames and Social Mobility in England
    • PubDate: 2015-03-27
  • Laughter’s Influence on the Intimacy of Self-Disclosure
    • Abstract: Abstract If laughter functions to build relationships between individuals, as current theory suggests, laughter should be linked to interpersonal behaviors that have been shown to be critical to relationship development. Given the importance of disclosing behaviors in facilitating the development of intense social bonds, it is possible that the act of laughing may temporarily influence the laugher’s willingness to disclose personal information. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by comparing the characteristics of self-disclosing statements produced by those who had previously watched one of three video clips that differed in the extent to which they elicited laughter and positive affect. The results show that disclosure intimacy is significantly higher after laughter than in the control condition, suggesting that this effect may be due, at least in part, to laughter itself and not simply to a change in positive affect. However, the disclosure intimacy effect was only found for observers’ ratings of participants’ disclosures and was absent in the participants’ own ratings. We suggest that laughter increases people’s willingness to disclose, but that they may not necessarily be aware that it is doing so.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
  • Parenting and Environmental Risk
    • Abstract: Abstract The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers’ experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06
  • Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena
    • Abstract: Abstract Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
  • With the Help of Kin?
    • Abstract: Abstract Relatives play an important role in human reproduction according to evolutionary theories of reproductive behavior, but previous empirical studies show large differences in the effects of kin on fertility outcomes. In our paper we examine the effect of co-resident kin and non-kin on the length of birth intervals over the reproductive life course of Dutch women born between 1842 and 1920. We estimate Cox proportional hazard models for parity progression based on the presence of kin and non-kin in the household while controlling for a large number of individual and community-level characteristics. We find that couples living with their brothers experienced shorter birth intervals whereas couples residing with a widowed father had relatively longer birth intervals. The effects of these types of kin on reproduction were most pronounced up to the birth of the fifth child, but not thereafter. We found no effect for mothers or other types of kin.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
  • Not by Strength Alone
    • Abstract: Abstract The Asymmetric War of Attrition (AWA) model of animal conflict in evolutionary biology (Maynard Smith and Parker in Nature, 246, 15–18, 1976) suggests that an organism’s decision to withdraw from a conflict is the result of adaptations designed to integrate the expected value of winning, discounted by the expected costs that would be incurred by continuing to compete, via sensitivity to proximate cues of how quickly each side can impose costs on the other (Resource Holding Potential), and how much each side will gain by winning. The current studies examine whether human conflict expectations follow the formalized logic of this model. Children aged 6–8 years were presented with third-party conflict vignettes and were then asked to predict the likely winner. Cues of ownership, hunger, size, strength, and alliance strength were systematically varied across conditions. Results demonstrate that children’s expectations followed the logic of the AWA model, even in complex situations featuring multiple, competing cues, such that the actual relative costs and benefits that would accrue during such a conflict were reflected in children’s expectations. Control conditions show that these modifications to conflict expectations could not have resulted from more general experimental artifacts or demand characteristics. To test the selectivity of these effects to conflict, expectations of search effort were also assessed. As predicted, they yielded a different pattern of results. These studies represent one of the first experimental tests of the AWA model in humans and suggest that future research on the psychology of ownership, conflict, and value may be aided by formalized models from evolutionary biology.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Toward a Reality-Based Understanding of Hadza Men’s Work
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations of Hadza men foraging out of camp and sharing food in camp show that men seeking to maximize the flow of calories to their families should pursue large game, and that hunting large game does not pose a collective action problem. These data also show that Hadza men frequently pursued honey, small game, and fruit, and that by doing so, provided a more regular flow of food to their households than would a putative big game specialist. These data support our earlier studies demonstrating that the goal of family provisioning is a robust predictor of Hadza men’s behavior. As before, the show-off and costly signaling hypotheses advanced by Hawkes and colleagues fail as both descriptions of and explanations for Hadza men’s work.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
  • Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network
    • Abstract: Abstract Anthropologists have documented substantial cross-society variation in people’s willingness to treat strangers with impartial, universal norms versus favoring members of their local community. Researchers have proposed several adaptive accounts for these differences. One variant of the pathogen stress hypothesis predicts that people will be more likely to favor local in-group members when they are under greater infectious disease threat. The material security hypothesis instead proposes that institutions that permit people to meet their basic needs through impartial interactions with strangers reinforce a tendency toward impartiality, whereas people lacking such institutions must rely on local community members to meet their basic needs. Some studies have examined these hypotheses using self-reported preferences, but not with behavioral measures. We conducted behavioral experiments in eight diverse societies that measure individuals’ willingness to favor in-group members by ignoring an impartial rule. Consistent with the material security hypothesis, members of societies enjoying better-quality government services and food security show a stronger preference for following an impartial rule over investing in their local in-group. Our data show no support for the pathogen stress hypothesis as applied to favoring in-groups and instead suggest that favoring in-group members more closely reflects a general adaptive fit with social institutions that have arisen in each society.
      PubDate: 2014-10-07
  • Diversity in Human Behavioral Ecology
    • Abstract: Abstract As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist’s thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective.
      PubDate: 2014-10-03
  • Leadership in an Egalitarian Society
    • Abstract: Abstract Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact or differentially benefit from collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action.
      PubDate: 2014-09-21
  • Causes, Consequences, and Kin Bias of Human Group Fissions
    • Abstract: Abstract Fissions of human communities are monumental occasions with consequences for cultural and genetic variation and divergence through time by means of serial founder effects. An ethnographic review shows that most human group fissions are fueled primarily by internal political conflict and secondarily by resource scarcity. As found for other social animals, human fissions lead to subgroups that have higher levels of relatedness as compared with the original community because of kin-biased assortment known as the lineal effect. Fission processes that increase the average relatedness of subgroups are important because relatedness governs how strongly kin/group selection favors social behaviors such as warfare, peacekeeping, and other forms of collection action. However, random individual assortment is not an appropriate null model for evaluating lineage assortment because nuclear families and extended households are expected to remain together, which in and of itself forces higher relatedness in smaller subgroups. We develop a lineage assortment index where low values represent subgroups with coefficients of relatedness near those expected if nuclear and extended households had chosen to associate into random groupings. Two fissions of Ache villages (Paraguay) are examples of this type of fission with a low lineage assortment index not significantly different from zero as evaluated with controlled simulations. On the other extreme, a lineage assortment index near unity represents a lineal fission that maximizes the relatedness of subgroups such as the perfect split of a lineage into sublineages. A fission of Piaroa (Venezuela) fits this scenario. While previous discussions of fission have emphasized similarities among human studies and even other social mammals, we highlight the full range of potential kin bias in the formation of new communities.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
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