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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 898 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (165 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (119 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (161 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (269 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (269 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access  
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription  
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Culturas     Open Access  
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mouseion     Open Access  
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Patrimônio e Memória     Open Access  
Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Human Nature
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 41]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Disgust, Gender, and Social Change
    • Abstract: Abstract Among the Karo of Indonesia, the frequency of matrilateral cross-cousin (impal) marriage has declined in recent decades. We conducted a vignette experiment to assess the contributions of a handful of factors in shaping this pattern. Surprisingly, we found that cosocialization of a hypothetical woman with her impal led to increased judgments of marriage likelihood and decreased feelings of disgust in male and female respondents (n = 154). We also found that females, more than males, judged impal marriage more likely when there were practical advantages. Finally, we found that younger men expressed more disgust in response to impal marriages than did older men, while women displayed an opposite but weaker reaction. This suggests the existence of gender-specific changes in attitudes toward the practice, indicating that a full understanding may require the application of sexual conflict theory. Our study illustrates the potential utility—and limitations—of vignette experiments for studying social change.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
  • The Conditions Favoring Between-Community Raiding in Chimpanzees, Bonobos,
           and Human Foragers
    • Abstract: Abstract Chimpanzees, bonobos, and human foragers share a fission-fusion social system and a mating system of joint male resource defense polygyny. Within-community skew in male strength varies among and within species. In this study, we extend a mathematical model of within-group male coalition formation among primates to derive the conditions for between-community conflicts in the form of raids. We show that the main factor affecting the presence of successful raiding is the likelihood of major discrepancies in party strength, which are set by party size distributions (and thus community size) and the skew in strength. This study confirms the functional similarities between the raiding of chimpanzees and human foragers, and it supports the “imbalance of power” hypothesis for raiding. However, it also proposes two amendments to this model. First, the absence of raiding in bonobos may be attributable more to potential female involvement in defense against raids, which increases the size of defensive coalitions. Second, the model attributes some of the raiding in humans to major contrasts in instantaneous fighting ability created by surprise raids on unarmed victims; it also draws attention to the distinction between minor raids and major raids that involve multiple bands of the same community.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • The Complexity of Jokes Is Limited by Cognitive Constraints on Mentalizing
    • Abstract: Abstract Although laughter is probably of deep evolutionary origin, the telling of jokes, being language-based, is likely to be of more recent origin within the human lineage. In language-based communication, speaker and listener are engaged in a process of mutually understanding each other’s intentions (mindstates), with a conversation minimally requiring three orders of intentionality. Mentalizing is cognitively more demanding than non-mentalizing cognition, and there is a well-attested limit at five orders in the levels of intentionality at which normal adult humans can work. Verbal jokes commonly involve commentary on the mindstates of third parties, and each such mindstate adds an additional level of intentionality and its corresponding cognitive load. We determined the number of mentalizing levels in a sample of jokes told by well-known professional comedians and show that most jokes involve either three or five orders of intentionality on the part of the comedian, depending on whether or not the joke involves other individuals’ mindstates. Within this limit there is a positive correlation between increasing levels of intentionality and subjective ratings of how funny the jokes are. The quality of jokes appears to peak when they include five or six levels of intentionality, which suggests that audiences appreciate higher mentalizing complexity whilst working within their natural cognitive constraints.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • Gender Interacts with Opioid Receptor Polymorphism A118G and Serotonin
           Receptor Polymorphism −1438 A/G on Speed-Dating Success
    • Abstract: Abstract We examined an understudied but potentially important source of romantic attraction—genetics—using a speed-dating paradigm. The mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (rs1799971) and the serotonin receptor (HTR2A) polymorphism −1438 A/G (rs6311) were studied because they have been implicated in social affiliation. Guided by the social role theory of mate selection and prior genetic evidence, we examined these polymorphisms’ gender-specific associations with speed-dating success (i.e., date offers, mate desirability). A total of 262 single Asian Americans went on speed-dates with members of the opposite gender and completed interaction questionnaires about their partners. Consistent with our prediction, significant gender-by-genotype interactions were found for speed-dating success. Specifically, the minor variant of A118G (G-allele), which has been linked to submissiveness/social sensitivity, predicted greater speed-dating success for women, whereas the minor variant of −1438 A/G (G-allele), which has been linked to leadership/social dominance, predicted greater speed-dating success for men. For both polymorphisms, reverse “dampening” effects of minor variants were found for opposite-gender counterparts. These results support previous research on the importance of the opioid and serotonergic systems in social affiliation, indicating that their influence extends to dating success, with opposite, yet gender-norm consistent, effects for men and women.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
  • Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji
    • Abstract: Abstract Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14
  • Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait “high gods” stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
  • Mothers and Fathers Perform More Mate Retention Behaviors than Individuals
           without Children
    • Abstract: Abstract Human life history is unique among primates, most notably the extraordinary length of infant dependency and the formation of long-term pair-bonds. Men and women are motivated to remain pair-bonded to maintain the distribution of male-provisioned resources to a woman and her offspring, or to protect offspring from infanticide. Men and women can employ several strategies to retain their mate and prevent their partner from defecting from the relationship, including individual mate retention (behaviors performed alone) and coalitional mate retention (behaviors performed by a close ally). The current research investigates whether men and women with children perform more frequent mate retention behaviors than men and women without children. Participants (n = 1003) currently in a heterosexual romantic relationship completed a survey, reporting whether they had genetic children with their current romantic partner and how frequently they performed various mate retention behaviors. The results indicate that men (n = 262) and women (n = 234) who share genetic children with their current partner performed more frequent individual mate retention behaviors and requested more frequent coalitional mate retention behaviors than men (n = 280) and women (n = 227) who do not share genetic children with their current partner. The results are interpreted as they relate to hypotheses concerning the evolution of pair-bonding in humans, and mate retention behaviors more generally. Limitations of the current research are discussed, and profitable avenues for future research in this domain are suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05
  • Memory and Belief in the Transmission of Counterintuitive Content
    • Abstract: Abstract Cognitive scientists have increasingly turned to cultural transmission to explain the widespread nature of religion. One key hypothesis focuses on memory, proposing that that minimally counterintuitive (MCI) content facilitates the transmission of supernatural beliefs. We propose two caveats to this hypothesis. (1) Memory effects decrease as MCI concepts become commonly used, and (2) people do not believe counterintuitive content readily; therefore additional mechanisms are required to get from memory to belief. In experiments 1–3 (n = 283), we examined the relationship between MCI, belief, and memory. We found that increased tendencies to anthropomorphize predicted poorer memory for anthropomorphic-MCI content. MCI content was found less believable than intuitive content, suggesting different mechanisms are required to explain belief. In experiment 4 (n = 70), we examined the non-content-based cultural learning mechanism of credibility-enhancing displays (CREDs) and found that it increased participants’ belief in MCI content, suggesting this type of learning can better explain the transmission of belief.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21
  • The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood
           Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa ’ afafine
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display “gender-shifted” occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa’afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa’afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa’afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women’s CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = −0.62) between these variables in both men and fa’afafine. Among males (both men and fa’afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21
  • A Biocultural Investigation of Gender Differences in Tobacco Use in an
           Egalitarian Hunter-Gatherer Population
    • Abstract: Abstract In the developing world, the dramatic male bias in tobacco use is usually ascribed to pronounced gender disparities in social, political, or economic power. This bias might also reflect under-reporting by woman and/or over-reporting by men. To test the role of gender inequality on gender differences in tobacco use we investigated tobacco use among the Aka, a Congo Basin foraging population noted for its exceptionally high degree of gender equality. We also tested a sexual selection hypothesis—that Aka men’s tobacco use is related to risk taking. Tobacco use, income, tobacco purchases, tobacco sharing, reasons for using tobacco, risk taking, and other variables were measured using structured surveys and peer reports. Tobacco use was verified by testing for salivary cotinine, a nicotine metabolite. Contrary to expectations, we found a very large male bias in tobacco use. Low levels of use among females appeared to be explained by aversions to tobacco, concerns over its negative effects on fetal health, and a desire to attract husbands, who prefer nonsmoking wives. High male use appeared to be related to a desire to enhance hunting abilities and attract and/or retain wives, who prefer husbands that smoke. We conclude that low levels of smoking by Aka women are better explained by the hypothesis that women evolved to avoid plant toxins to protect their fetuses and nursing infants. High male use might be better explained by sexual selection. We also highlight the important role that recreational drugs appear to play in hunter-gatherer sharing relationships.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19
  • Does Sexual Conflict between Mother and Father Lead to Fertility
    • Abstract: Abstract Fertility decline is a great challenge to evolutionary approaches to human behavior. In this study, we apply the perspective of sexual conflict between mother and father to the fertility decline. We predict that, under serial monogamy allowing for mate changes, the ideal number of children for women should be smaller than that for men, because the cost of reproduction for women should be higher than that for men. Our reasoning is that if the cost of child-bearing and child-rearing is higher for women than men, and if women, who therefore would want a smaller number of children than their husbands, have gained more power in reproductive decision-making within a couple owing to the modernization of society, fertility should decline. Until now, few evolutionary studies have analyzed empirical data in modern developed societies with such a perspective. Our questionnaire survey in an urban area in Japan revealed that mothers did experience greater cost during childcare than fathers. However, in contrast to our prediction, we found no sex differences in the ideal number of children between mothers and their husbands in many cases. About 60% of parents remembered wanting two children when they were childless. Moreover, mothers and their husbands had equal power in their decision-making regarding having children. After presenting these results, we discuss some perspectives to advance our understanding of fertility decline in terms of sexual conflict.
      PubDate: 2016-03-30
  • The God Allusion
    • Abstract: Abstract It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others (“mentalizing”), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.
      PubDate: 2016-03-29
  • The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract We present formal evolutionary models for the origins and persistence of the practice of Female Genital Modification (FGMo). We then test the implications of these models using normative cross-cultural data on FGMo in Africa and Bayesian phylogenetic methods that explicitly model adaptive evolution. Empirical evidence provides some support for the findings of our evolutionary models that the de novo origins of the FGMo practice should be associated with social stratification, and that social stratification should place selective pressures on the adoption of FGMo; these results, however, are tempered by the finding that FGMo has arisen in many cultures that have no social stratification, and that forces operating orthogonally to stratification appear to play a more important role in the cross-cultural distribution of FGMo. To explain these cases, one must consider cultural evolutionary explanations in conjunction with behavioral ecological ones. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for policies designed to end the practice of FGMo.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
  • Why Go There? Evolution of Mobility and Spatial Cognition in Women and
    • Abstract: Abstract Males in many non-monogamous species have larger ranges than females do, a sex difference that has been well documented for decades and seems to be an aspect of male mating competition. Until recently, parallel data for humans have been mostly anecdotal and qualitative, but this is now changing as human behavioral ecologists turn their attention to matters of individual mobility. Sex differences in spatial cognition were among the first accepted psychological sex differences and, like differences in ranging behavior, are documented for a growing set of species. This special issue is dedicated to exploring the possible adaptive links between these cognitive and ranging traits. Multiple hypotheses, at various levels of analysis, are considered. At the functional (ultimate) level, a mating-competition hypothesis suggests that range expansion may augment mating opportunities, and a fertility-and-parental-care hypothesis suggests that range contraction may facilitate offspring provisioning. At a more mechanistic (proximate) level, differences in cue availability may support or inhibit particular sex-specific navigation strategies, and spatial anxiety may usefully inhibit travel that would not justify its costs. Studies in four different cultures—Twe, Tsimane, Yucatec Maya, and Faroese—as well as an experimental study using virtual reality tools are the venue for testing these hypotheses. Our hope is to stimulate more research on the evolutionary and developmental processes responsible for this suite of linked behavioral and cognitive traits.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
  • Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya
    • Abstract: Abstract Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men’s regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability.
      PubDate: 2015-12-09
  • Sex Differences in Exploration Behavior and the Relationship to Harm
    • Abstract: Abstract Venturing into novel terrain poses physical risks to a female and her offspring. Females have a greater tendency to avoid physical harm, while males tend to have larger range sizes and often outperform females in navigation-related tasks. Given this backdrop, we expected that females would explore a novel environment with more caution than males, and that more-cautious exploration would negatively affect navigation performance. Participants explored a novel, large-scale, virtual environment in search of five objects, pointed in the direction of each object from the origin, and then navigated back to the objects. We found that females demonstrated more caution while exploring as reflected in the increased amounts of pausing and revisiting of previously traversed locations. In addition, more pausing and revisiting behaviors led to degradation in navigation performance. Finally, individual levels of trait harm avoidance were positively associated with the amount of revisiting behavior during exploration. These findings support the idea that the fitness costs associated with long-distance travel may encourage females to take a more cautious approach to spatial exploration, and that this caution may partially explain the sex differences in navigation performance.
      PubDate: 2015-12-09
  • Review of David C. Geary’s Evolution of Vulnerability : Implications
           for Sex Differences in Health and Development
    • PubDate: 2015-12-02
  • No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane
    • Abstract: Abstract Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6–82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities.
      PubDate: 2015-11-21
  • Geographical Cues and Developmental Exposure
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study assessed potential relationships among childhood wayfinding experience, navigational style, and adult wayfinding anxiety in the Faroe Islands. The Faroe Islands are of interest because they have an unusual geography that may promote the use of an orientational style of navigation (e.g., use of cardinal directions). Faroese adults completed questionnaires assessing (1) their permitted childhood range sizes, (2) the types of navigational strategies they use, and (3) the amount of anxiety they experience when navigating in adulthood. Males had more childhood wayfinding experience, used the orientation strategy at a higher rate, and showed lower levels of wayfinding anxiety. When compared with other cultures, both Faroese women and men appear to embrace orientation strategies at an unusually high rate. Childhood experience was not conclusively linked to later wayfinding anxiety. However, the current findings raise the possibility that children who have particularly small ranges in childhood may be especially anxious when navigating in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2015-11-14
  • Sex Differences in Mobility and Spatial Cognition
    • Abstract: Abstract The fertility and parental care hypothesis interprets sex differences in some spatial-cognitive tasks as an adaptive mechanism to suppress women’s travel. In particular, the hypothesis argues that estrogens constrain travel during key reproductive periods by depressing women’s spatial-cognitive ability. Limiting travel reduces exposure to the dangers and caloric costs of navigating long distances into unfamiliar environments. Our study evaluates a collection of predictions drawn from the fertility and parental care hypothesis among the Twe and Himba people living in a remote region of Namibia. We find that nursing mothers travel more than women at any other stage of their reproductive career. This challenges the assumption that women limit travel during vulnerable and energetically demanding reproductive periods. In addition, we join previous studies in identifying a relationship between spatial ability and traveling among men, but not women. If spatial ability does not influence travel, hormonally induced changes in spatial ability cannot be used as a mechanism to reduce travel. Instead, it appears the fitness consequences of men’s travel is a more likely target for adaptive explanations of the sex differences in spatial ability, navigation, and range size.
      PubDate: 2015-11-14
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Heriot-Watt University
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