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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 994 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (169 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (142 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (164 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (165 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (9 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (317 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (317 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afghanistan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift für Sozialtheorie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access  
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cankiri Karatekin University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Studies Journal     Open Access  
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Con Texte     Open Access  
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Culturas : Debates y Perspectivas de un Mundo en Cambio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Digital Studies / Le champ numerique     Open Access  
Digitális Bölcsészet / Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Dorsal : Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
E+E : Estudios de Extensión en Humanidades     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
EAU Heritage Journal Social Science and Humanities     Open Access  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fa Nuea Journal     Open Access  
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal of Graduate School, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies (HASSS)     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Humanity Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jednak Książki : Gdańskie Czasopismo Humanistyczne     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities     Open Access  
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Nature
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • Does Kin-Selection Theory Help to Explain Support Networks among Farmers
           in South-Central Ethiopia'
    • Abstract: Social support networks play a key role in human livelihood security, especially in vulnerable communities. Here we explore how evolutionary ideas of kin selection and intrahousehold resource competition can explain individual variation in daily support network size and composition in a south-central Ethiopian agricultural community. We consider both domestic and agricultural help across two generations with different wealth-transfer norms that yield different contexts for sibling competition. For farmers who inherited land rights from family, firstborns were more likely to report daily support from parents and to have larger nonparental kin networks (n = 180). Compared with other farmers, firstborns were also more likely to reciprocate their parents’ support, and to help nonparental kin without reciprocity. For farmers who received land rights from the government (n = 151), middle-born farmers reported more nonparental kin in their support networks compared with other farmers; nonreciprocal interactions were particularly common in both directions. This suggests a diversification of adult support networks to nonparental kin, possibly in response to a long-term parental investment disadvantage of being middle-born sons. In all instances, regardless of inheritance, lastborn farmers were the most disadvantaged in terms of kin support. Overall, we found that nonreciprocal interactions among farmers followed kin selection predictions. Direct reciprocity explained a substantial part of the support received from kin, suggesting the importance of the combined effects of kin selection and reciprocity for investment from kin.
      PubDate: 2019-11-15
       
  • Explaining Fairness
    • Abstract: Fairness is undoubtedly an essential normative concept in humans and promotes cooperation in human societies. The fact that fairness exists is puzzling, however, because it works against the short-term interest of individuals. Theories of genetic evolution, cultural evolution, and gene-culture coevolution identify plausible mechanisms for the evolution of fairness in humans. Such mechanisms include kin selection, the support of group-beneficial moral norms through ethnic markers, free partner choice with equal outside options, and free partner choice with reputation as well as spite in small populations. Here, we present the results of a common-pool resource game experiment on sharing. Based on data from 37 multiethnic villages in a subsistence agricultural population in Foutah Djallon, Guinea, we show that fair behavior in our experiment increased with increasing ethnic homogeneity and market integration. Group size and kinship had the opposite effect. Overall, fair behavior was not conditional on reputation. Instead, the ability of the different village populations to support individuals’ fairness in situations lacking the opportunity to build a positive reputation varied significantly. Our results suggest that evolutionary theory provides a useful framework for the analysis of fairness in humans.
      PubDate: 2019-11-15
       
  • Fear of Violence among Colombian Women Is Associated with Reduced
           Preferences for High-BMI Men
    • Abstract: Recent studies reveal that violence significantly contributes to explaining individual’s facial preferences. Women who feel at higher risk of violence prefer less-masculine male faces. Given the importance of violence, we explore its influence on people’s preferences for a different physical trait. Masculinity correlates positively with male strength and weight or body mass index (BMI). In fact, masculinity and BMI tend to load on the same component of trait perception. Therefore we predicted that individuals’ perceptions of danger from violence will relate to preferences for facial cues to low-BMI. In two studies in Colombia, men and women from Bogota, Medellin, and surrounding communities were shown pairs of faces transformed to epitomize the shape correlates of men with high or low-BMI. The images were of European, Salvadoran, or Colombian men. Participants were asked to choose the face they considered most attractive. Subsequently, participants answered a survey about their health (e.g., frequency of illnesses the past year), media access (e.g., frequency of Internet use), education level (e.g., graduating from high school), and experiences/perceptions of violence in study 1 and about specific types of violence (public and domestic) in study 2. Results from both studies showed that women who experienced/perceived higher levels of violence preferred faces of low-BMI Salvadoran men. Preferences for low-BMI facial cues were significantly explained by violence (public or domestic), even after controlling for all other variables (including age, education, health, and media access). These results may reflect women’s strategy to avoid male partners capable of inflicting harm.
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
       
  • Near the Knuckle
    • Abstract: Irish Travellers constitute a pre-demographic-shift population living among a post-demographic-shift one. Their socio-medico profile identifies them as largely on fast life-history trajectories. In addition, they are strongly religious (typically using no contraception), highly sexually behaviorally dimorphic, with strong traditions of male-male competition (bare-knuckle fighting) and quasi-symbolic bride capture (“grabbing”). Their male-male competitions thus allow for the comparative testing of a number of interesting theories pertaining to the nature and function of types of violence in society. As a pilot study, we used expert raters (some naive to the hypotheses) to analyze a number of real-life bare-knuckle competitions in terms of the support said spectacles offered to theories of this sort of violence as reinforcing ideas of antisociality, hierarchical promotion, intersexual signaling, or maintenance of within-group equality. We found good evidence to support theories of within-group, prosocial hierarchical functions for these contests. Limitations and implications for future research, such as direct measurement of fitness, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-07-25
       
  • Roles of Technical Reasoning, Theory of Mind, Creativity, and Fluid
           Cognition in Cumulative Technological Culture
    • Abstract: Cumulative technological culture can be defined as the progressive diversification, complexification, and enhancement of technological traits through generations. An outstanding issue is to specify the cognitive bases of this phenomenon. Based on the literature, we identified four potential cognitive factors: namely, theory-of-mind, technical-reasoning, creativity, and fluid-cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to test which of these factors—or a combination thereof—best predicted the cumulative performance in two experimental, micro-society conditions (Communication and Observation conditions; n = 100 each) differing in the nature of the interaction (verbal, visual) allowed between participants. The task was to build the highest possible tower. Participants were also assessed on the four aforementioned cognitive factors in order to predict cumulative performance (tower height) and attractiveness. Our findings indicate that technical-reasoning skills are the best predictor of cumulative performance (tower height), even if their role may be restricted to the specific technological domain. Theory-of-mind skills may have a facilitator role, particularly in the Communication condition. Creativity can also help in the generation of novel ideas, but it is not sufficient to support innovation. Finally, fluid cognition is not involved in cumulative technological culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that domain-specific knowledge (i.e., technical-reasoning skills) remains critical for explaining cumulative technological culture.
      PubDate: 2019-07-22
       
  • The Proximate Causes of Waorani Warfare
    • Abstract: In response to recent work on the nature of human aggression, and to shed light on the proximate, as opposed to ultimate, causes of tribal warfare, we present a record of events leading to a fatal Waorani raid on a family from another tribe, followed by a detailed first-person observation of the behavior of the raiders as they prepared themselves for war, and upon their return. We contrast this attack with other Waorani aggressions and speculate on evidence regarding their hormonal underpinnings. On-the-ground ethnographic observations are examined in light of the neuroendocrinological literature. The evidence suggests a chain of causality in launching lethal violence, beginning with a perceived injury, culminating in a massacre, and terminating in rejoicing. Although no blood or saliva samples were taken at the time of this raid, the behaviors were consistent with a deliberate initiation of the hormonal cascade characterizing the “fight-or-flight” response, along with other hormonal changes. We conclude with observations on the stratified interrelationships of the cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrinological causes of aggression leading to coalitional male homicide.
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
       
  • Complex Sociality of Wild Chimpanzees Can Emerge from Laterality of Manual
           Gestures
    • Abstract: Humans are strongly lateralized for manual gestures at both individual and population levels. In contrast, the laterality bias in primates is less strong, leading some to suggest that lateralization evolved after the Pan and Homo lineages diverged. However, laterality in humans is also context-dependent, suggesting that observed differences in lateralization between primates and humans may be related to external factors such as the complexity of the social environment. Here we address this question in wild chimpanzees and examine the extent to which the laterality of manual gestures is associated with social complexity. Right-handed gestures were more strongly associated with goal-directed communication such as repair through elaboration in response to communication failure than left-handed gestures. Right-handed gestures occurred in evolutionarily urgent contexts such as in interactions with central individuals in the network, including grooming reciprocity and mating, whereas left-handed gestures occurred in less-urgent contexts, such as travel and play. Right-handed gestures occurred in smaller parties and in the absence of social competition relative to left-handed gestures. Right-handed gestures increased the rate of activities indicating high physiological arousal in the recipient, whereas left-handed gestures reduced it. This shows that right- and left-handed gestures differ in cognitive and social complexity, with right-handed gestures facilitating more complex interactions in simpler social settings, whereas left-handed gestures facilitate more rewarding interactions in complex social settings. Differences in laterality between other primates and humans are likely to be driven by differences in the complexity of both the cognitive skills underpinning social interactions and the social environment.
      PubDate: 2019-06-24
       
  • Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers
    • Abstract: There is a well-entrenched schism on the frequency (how often), intensity (deaths per 100,000/year), and evolutionary significance of warfare among hunter-gatherers compared with large-scale societies. To simplify, Rousseauians argue that warfare among prehistoric and contemporary hunter-gatherers was nearly absent and, if present, was a late cultural invention. In contrast, so-called Hobbesians argue that violence was relatively common but variable among hunter-gatherers. To defend their views, Rousseauians resort to a variety of tactics to diminish the apparent frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare. These tactics include redefining war, censoring ethnographic accounts of warfare in comparative analyses, misconstruing archaeological evidence, and claiming that outside contact inflates the intensity of warfare among hunter-gatherers. These tactics are subject to critical analysis and are mostly found to be wanting. Furthermore, Hobbesians with empirical data have already established that the frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare is greater compared with large-scale societies even though horticultural societies engage in warfare more intensively than hunter-gatherers. In the end I argue that although war is a primitive trait we may share with chimpanzees and/or our last common ancestor, the ability of hunter-gatherer bands to live peaceably with their neighbors, even though war may occur, is a derived trait that fundamentally distinguishes us socially and politically from chimpanzee societies. It is a point often lost in these debates.
      PubDate: 2019-04-05
       
  • Prosocial Emotion, Adolescence, and Warfare
    • Abstract: Examining the costs and motivations of warfare is key to conundrums concerning the relevance of this troubling phenomenon to the evolution of social attachment and cooperation, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood—the developmental time period during which many participants are first recruited for warfare. The study focuses on Samburu, a pastoralist society of approximately 200,000 people occupying northern Kenya’s semi-arid and arid lands, asking what role the emotionally sensitized, peer-driven adolescent life stage may have played in the cultural and genetic coevolution of coalitional lethal aggression. Research in small-scale societies provides unparalleled opportunities for sharply defined variables, particularly in age generation societies in which all young men are initiated into “warriorhood.” Proposing an epigenetic and component behavior approach, we examine whether raiding activities such as number of raids, killing, and sparing enemy lives associate with DNA methylation in two candidate genes: MAOA, linked to mood and arousal, and NR3C1, linked to stress and immune response. We report statistically significant associations between the epigenetic variables and the combat (exposure) variables of overall raiding activity and reportedly showing mercy to enemies. In contrast, epigenetic variables did not associate with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom scores (a potential outcome measure), and the only combat variable associated with PTSD (but not DNA methylation) was losing one’s own livestock in a raid. These findings raise important questions concerning the mechanisms driving warfare’s paradoxical mix of violent and altruistic behaviors.
      PubDate: 2019-04-02
       
  • Exploring Warfare and Violence from a Cross-Cultural Perspective
    • Abstract: This special issue of Human Nature presents selected works from the 2015 and 2017 “Warfare, Environment, Social Inequality, and Pro-Sociability” (WESIPS) conferences held at the Center for Cross-Cultural Study in Seville, Spain. These investigations explore the manifestations of indigenous warfare and violence from a host of theoretical perspectives. Topics range from the origins of warfare to the psychological repercussions of combat, the relationship between warfare and status, as well as the documentation of peace processes among warring groups. This issue also examines the effects of militarization and coercive conservation on indigenous peoples.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
       
  • The Impacts of Conservation and Militarization on Indigenous Peoples
    • Abstract: There has been a long-standing debate about the roles of San in the militaries of southern Africa and the prevalence of violence among the Ju/'hoansi and other San people. The evolutionary anthropology and social anthropological debates over the contexts in which violence and warfare occurs among hunters and gatherers are considered, as is the “tribal zone theory” of warfare between states and indigenous people. This paper assesses the issues that arise from these discussions, drawing on data from San in Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. Utilizing cases of how San have been affected by military forces and wildlife conservation agencies in what became protected areas in southern Africa, this article shows that indigenous peoples have been treated differentially by state and nongovernmental organizations involved in anti-poaching, shoot-to-kill, and forced resettlement policies. Particular emphasis is placed on the !Xun and Khwe San of southern Angola and northern Namibia and the Tshwa San of western Zimbabwe and northern Botswana, who have been impacted by militarization and coercive conservation efforts since the late nineteenth century. Principal conclusions are that conservation and militarization efforts have led to a reduction in land and resources available to indigenous people, higher levels of poverty, increased socioeconomic stratification, and lower levels of physical well-being. San have responded to these trends by engaging in social activism, forming community-based institutions, and pursuing legal actions aimed at obtaining human rights and equitable treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
       
  • Social Signaling and the Warrior-Big-Man among the Western Dani
    • Abstract: We employ the Social Signaling Model (SSM) and life history of a Western Dani big-man, Tibenuk, to analyze a neglected curiosity in the career of the big-man type. The big-man is renowned as an economic entrepreneur, the master of material displays. In New Guinea, however, big-men had invariably first gained fame and some influence as eminent warriors. The SSM accounts for this two-part career path by proposing that small-scale social organization rests on honest, competitive signaling of individual and collective fighting strength, with leaders being those who excel in these contests. The performances for which big-men are already known, conspicuous ceremonial displays, broadcast this strength indirectly. Explicitly conceptualized as symbolic fighting, they constituted indexical proxies for their sponsors’ individual and collective willingness and ability to fight. Success on the battlefield, though, signaled fighting strength more directly. Men therefore had to demonstrate strength on both the battlefield and the ceremonial ground if they were to become big-men. This was Tibenuk’s achievement. When he was young and at his physical peak, he demonstrated outstanding capability in war. War is a young man’s game, however, and as his physical capacities waned, he shifted to politics, an older man’s game, honing his political talents and developing extensive political networks that allowed him to sponsor massive pig feasts, the principal form of conspicuous ceremonial display. Tibenuk’s career also reveals synergies between warrior and political talents that hitherto have been overlooked in big-man analysis.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
       
  • Is War in Our Nature'
    • Abstract: The Seville Statement on Violence rejected the view that violence and war were in any way rooted in human nature and proclaimed that they were merely a cultural artifact. This paper points out both the valid and invalid parts of the statement. It concludes that the potential for both war and peace is embedded in us. The human behavioral toolkit comprises a number of major tools, respectively geared for violent conflict, peaceful competition, or cooperation, depending on people’s assessment of what will serve them best in any given circumstance. Conflict is only one tool—the hammer—in our diverse behavioral toolkit. However, all three behavioral strategies are not purely learned cultural forms. This naive nature/nurture dichotomy overlooks the heavy and complex biological machinery that is necessary for the working of each of them and the interplay between them. They are all very close under our skin and readily activated because they have all been very handy during our long evolutionary past. At the same time, they are variably calibrated to particular conditions through social learning, which means that their relative use may fluctuate widely. Thus, state authority has tilted the menu of human choices in the direction of the peaceful options in the domestic arena, and changing economic, social, and political conditions may be generating a similar effect in the international arena.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
       
  • Review of Nam C. Kim and Marc Kissel’s Emergent Warfare in Our
           Evolutionary Past
    • PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Evolutionary Models of Leadership
    • Authors: Zachary H. Garfield; Robert L. Hubbard; Edward H. Hagen
      Abstract: This study tested four theoretical models of leadership with data from the ethnographic record. The first was a game-theoretical model of leadership in collective actions, in which followers prefer and reward a leader who monitors and sanctions free-riders as group size increases. The second was the dominance model, in which dominant leaders threaten followers with physical or social harm. The third, the prestige model, suggests leaders with valued skills and expertise are chosen by followers who strive to emulate them. The fourth proposes that in small-scale, kin-based societies, men with high neural capital are best able to achieve and maintain positions of social influence (e.g., as headmen) and thereby often become polygynous and have more offspring than other men, which positively selects for greater neural capital. Using multiple search strategies we identified more than 1000 texts relevant to leadership in the Probability Sample of 60 cultures from the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF). We operationalized the model with variables and then coded all retrieved text records on the presence or absence of evidence for each of these 24 variables. We found mixed support for the collective action model, broad support for components of the prestige leadership style and the importance of neural capital and polygyny among leaders, but more limited support for the dominance leadership style. We found little evidence, however, of emulation of, or prestige-biased learning toward, leaders. We found that improving collective actions, having expertise, providing counsel, and being respected, having high neural capital, and being polygynous are common properties of leaders, which warrants a synthesis of the collective action, prestige, and neural capital and reproductive skew models. We sketch one such synthesis involving high-quality decision-making and other computational services.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-019-09338-4
       
  • Review of K. L. Kramer and B. F. Codding’s Why Forage' Hunters and
           Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century
    • Authors: Benjamin C. Campbell
      PubDate: 2019-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-09337-x
       
  • Life History in a Postconflict Society
    • Authors: Janko Međedović
      Abstract: Previous theoretical accounts have predicted that warfare and intergroup conflict are environmental factors that contribute to the emergence of a fast life-history strategy. However, this assumption has never been directly empirically tested. We examined youth who grew up in a territory that experienced violent intergroup conflict and compared them with a control group (N = 215) on various life-history measures: age of first sexual intercourse, mating behavior, desired timing of marriage and first reproduction and desired number of children. We also measured other characteristics (family dysfunction and economic poverty) to explore the congruence between them and exposure to conflict. Participants from the postconflict society showed indications of faster life-history strategy: greater mating effort, a tendency to marry and have their first child sooner, and a larger desired number of children. Furthermore, interactions between exposure to conflict and participants’ sex were found: females from a postconflict society want to have their child earlier, and males have elevated short-term mating success. Finally, the exposure to violent conflict turned out to have congruent effects with economic poverty but not troublesome family relations. The findings are in accordance with life-history theory and show the adaptiveness of human behavior related to fitness optimization in hostile and dangerous environments.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-09336-y
       
  • Reframing HIV Stigma and Fear
    • Authors: Caitlyn D. Placek; Holly Nishimura; Natalie Hudanick; Dionne Stephens; Purnima Madhivanan
      Abstract: HIV stigma and fears surrounding the disease pose a challenge for public health interventions, particularly those that target pregnant women. In order to reduce stigma and improve the lives of vulnerable populations, researchers have recognized a need to integrate different types of support at various levels. To better inform HIV interventions, the current study draws on social-ecological and evolutionary theories of reproduction to predict stigma and fear of contracting HIV among pregnant women in South India. The aims of this study were twofold: compare the social-ecological model to a modified maternal-fetal protection model and test a combined model that included strong predictors from each model. The study took place in 2008–2011 in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. Using data from a cross-sectional survey and biological indicators of health, we statistically modeled social-ecological variables representing individual, interpersonal, and community/institutional levels. Participants were 645 pregnant women. The social-ecological and combined models were the best-fitting models for HIV-related stigma, and the combined model was the best fit for HIV-related fear. Our findings suggest that combining reproductive life history factors along with individual, interpersonal, and community/institutional factors are significant indicators of HIV-related stigma and fear. Results of this study support a multifaceted approach to intervention development for HIV-related stigma and fear. The combined model in this study can be used as a predictive model for future research focused on HIV stigma and fear, with the intent that dual consideration of social-ecological and evolutionary theories will improve public health communication efforts.
      PubDate: 2019-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-09335-z
       
  • When Saying “Sorry” Isn’t Enough: Is Some Suicidal Behavior a Costly
           Signal of Apology'
    • Authors: Kristen L. Syme; Edward H. Hagen
      Abstract: Lethal and nonlethal suicidal behaviors are major global public health problems. Much suicidal behavior (SB) occurs after the suicide victim committed a murder or other serious transgression. The present study tested a novel evolutionary model termed the Costly Apology Model (CAM) against the ethnographic record. The bargaining model (BRM) sees nonlethal suicidal behavior as an evolved costly signal of need in the wake of adversity. Relying on this same theoretical framework, the CAM posits that nonlethal suicidal behavior can sometimes serve as an honest signal of apology in the wake of committing a severe transgression, thereby repairing valuable social relationships. To test this hypothesis, the CAM was operationalized into a set of variables, and two independent coders coded 473 text records on suicidal behavior from 53 cultures from the probability sample of the Human Relations Area Files. The results indicated that in ethnographic accounts of suicidal behavior, transgressions, punishment, and shame were relatively common, supporting the CAM, but explicit motives to apologize and evidence of forgiveness were rare, contrary to the CAM. The theoretical variables of the CAM nevertheless formed a cluster distinct from the BRM, and a subset of cases of suicidal behavior were largely related to transgressions and other CAM variables rather than BRM or other variables. Support for the CAM varied widely across cultures, but there was evidence for it in every major geographical region. Exploratory analyses suggested that the CAM is potentially more likely to occur in response to severe conflicts concerning transgressions committed against nonkin. Furthermore, in text records that involved transgressions, male suicidal behavior was most frequently associated with murder, whereas female suicidal behavior was most frequently associated with sexual transgressions. In conclusion, the results provided mixed support for the hypothesis that some instances of suicidal behavior function to send a costly signal of apology to those harmed by a transgression.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-9333-3
       
  • Foraging Performance, Prosociality, and Kin Presence Do Not Predict
           Lifetime Reproductive Success in Batek Hunter-Gatherers
    • Authors: Thomas S. Kraft; Vivek V. Venkataraman; Ivan Tacey; Nathaniel J. Dominy; Kirk M. Endicott
      Abstract: Identifying the determinants of reproductive success in small-scale societies is critical for understanding how natural selection has shaped human evolution and behavior. The available evidence suggests that status-accruing behaviors such as hunting and prosociality are pathways to reproductive success, but social egalitarianism may diminish this pathway. Here we introduce a mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional dataset based on 45 years of research with the Batek, a population of egalitarian rain forest hunter-gatherers in Peninsular Malaysia, and use it to test the effects of four predictors of lifetime reproductive success: (i) foraging return rate, (ii) sharing proclivity, (iii) cooperative foraging tendency, and (iv) kin presence. We found that none of these factors can explain variation in lifetime reproduction among males or females. We suggest that social egalitarianism, combined with strikingly low infant and juvenile mortality rates, can mediate the pathway between foraging, status-accruing behavior, and reproductive success. Our approach advocates for greater theoretical and empirical attention to quantitative social network measures, female foraging, and fitness outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-018-9334-2
       
 
 
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