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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 856 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (156 journals)
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    - HUMANITIES (266 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (266 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access  
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Motivation Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Mouseion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Patrimônio e Memória     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Human Nature
  [SJR: 1.459]   [H-I: 50]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Memory and Belief in the Transmission of Counterintuitive Content
    • Authors: Aiyana K. Willard; Joseph Henrich; Ara Norenzayan
      Pages: 221 - 243
      Abstract: Abstract Cognitive scientists have increasingly turned to cultural transmission to explain the widespread nature of religion. One key hypothesis focuses on memory, proposing that that minimally counterintuitive (MCI) content facilitates the transmission of supernatural beliefs. We propose two caveats to this hypothesis. (1) Memory effects decrease as MCI concepts become commonly used, and (2) people do not believe counterintuitive content readily; therefore additional mechanisms are required to get from memory to belief. In experiments 1–3 (n = 283), we examined the relationship between MCI, belief, and memory. We found that increased tendencies to anthropomorphize predicted poorer memory for anthropomorphic-MCI content. MCI content was found less believable than intuitive content, suggesting different mechanisms are required to explain belief. In experiment 4 (n = 70), we examined the non-content-based cultural learning mechanism of credibility-enhancing displays (CREDs) and found that it increased participants’ belief in MCI content, suggesting this type of learning can better explain the transmission of belief.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9259-6
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • Gender Interacts with Opioid Receptor Polymorphism A118G and Serotonin
           Receptor Polymorphism −1438 A/G on Speed-Dating Success
    • Authors: Karen Wu; Chuansheng Chen; Robert K. Moyzis; Ellen Greenberger; Zhaoxia Yu
      Pages: 244 - 260
      Abstract: Abstract We examined an understudied but potentially important source of romantic attraction—genetics—using a speed-dating paradigm. The mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (rs1799971) and the serotonin receptor (HTR2A) polymorphism −1438 A/G (rs6311) were studied because they have been implicated in social affiliation. Guided by the social role theory of mate selection and prior genetic evidence, we examined these polymorphisms’ gender-specific associations with speed-dating success (i.e., date offers, mate desirability). A total of 262 single Asian Americans went on speed-dates with members of the opposite gender and completed interaction questionnaires about their partners. Consistent with our prediction, significant gender-by-genotype interactions were found for speed-dating success. Specifically, the minor variant of A118G (G-allele), which has been linked to submissiveness/social sensitivity, predicted greater speed-dating success for women, whereas the minor variant of −1438 A/G (G-allele), which has been linked to leadership/social dominance, predicted greater speed-dating success for men. For both polymorphisms, reverse “dampening” effects of minor variants were found for opposite-gender counterparts. These results support previous research on the importance of the opioid and serotonergic systems in social affiliation, indicating that their influence extends to dating success, with opposite, yet gender-norm consistent, effects for men and women.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9257-8
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion
    • Authors: Hervey C. Peoples; Pavel Duda; Frank W. Marlowe
      Pages: 261 - 282
      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies of the evolution of religion have revealed the cognitive underpinnings of belief in supernatural agents, the role of ritual in promoting cooperation, and the contribution of morally punishing high gods to the growth and stabilization of human society. The universality of religion across human society points to a deep evolutionary past. However, specific traits of nascent religiosity, and the sequence in which they emerged, have remained unknown. Here we reconstruct the evolution of religious beliefs and behaviors in early modern humans using a global sample of hunter-gatherers and seven traits describing hunter-gatherer religiosity: animism, belief in an afterlife, shamanism, ancestor worship, high gods, and worship of ancestors or high gods who are active in human affairs. We reconstruct ancestral character states using a time-calibrated supertree based on published phylogenetic trees and linguistic classification and then test for correlated evolution between the characters and for the direction of cultural change. Results indicate that the oldest trait of religion, present in the most recent common ancestor of present-day hunter-gatherers, was animism, in agreement with long-standing beliefs about the fundamental role of this trait. Belief in an afterlife emerged, followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. Ancestor spirits or high gods who are active in human affairs were absent in early humans, suggesting a deep history for the egalitarian nature of hunter-gatherer societies. There is a significant positive relationship between most characters investigated, but the trait “high gods” stands apart, suggesting that belief in a single creator deity can emerge in a society regardless of other aspects of its religion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9260-0
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood
           Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa ’ afafine
    • Authors: Scott W. Semenyna; Paul L. Vasey
      Pages: 283 - 295
      Abstract: Abstract Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display “gender-shifted” occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa’afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa’afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa’afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women’s CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = −0.62) between these variables in both men and fa’afafine. Among males (both men and fa’afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9258-7
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • Food Aversions and Cravings during Pregnancy on Yasawa Island, Fiji
    • Authors: Luseadra McKerracher; Mark Collard; Joseph Henrich
      Pages: 296 - 315
      Abstract: Abstract Women often experience novel food aversions and cravings during pregnancy. These appetite changes have been hypothesized to work alongside cultural strategies as adaptive responses to the challenges posed by pregnancy (e.g., maternal immune suppression). Here, we report a study that assessed whether data from an indigenous population in Fiji are consistent with the predictions of this hypothesis. We found that aversions focus predominantly on foods expected to exacerbate the challenges of pregnancy. Cravings focus on foods that provide calories and micronutrients while posing few threats to mothers and fetuses. We also found that women who experience aversions to specific foods are more likely to crave foods that meet nutritional needs similar to those provided by the aversive foods. These findings are in line with the predictions of the hypothesis. This adds further weight to the argument that appetite changes may function in parallel with cultural mechanisms to solve pregnancy challenges.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9262-y
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • Mothers and Fathers Perform More Mate Retention Behaviors than Individuals
           without Children
    • Authors: Nicole Barbaro; Todd K. Shackelford; Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford
      Pages: 316 - 333
      Abstract: Abstract Human life history is unique among primates, most notably the extraordinary length of infant dependency and the formation of long-term pair-bonds. Men and women are motivated to remain pair-bonded to maintain the distribution of male-provisioned resources to a woman and her offspring, or to protect offspring from infanticide. Men and women can employ several strategies to retain their mate and prevent their partner from defecting from the relationship, including individual mate retention (behaviors performed alone) and coalitional mate retention (behaviors performed by a close ally). The current research investigates whether men and women with children perform more frequent mate retention behaviors than men and women without children. Participants (n = 1003) currently in a heterosexual romantic relationship completed a survey, reporting whether they had genetic children with their current romantic partner and how frequently they performed various mate retention behaviors. The results indicate that men (n = 262) and women (n = 234) who share genetic children with their current partner performed more frequent individual mate retention behaviors and requested more frequent coalitional mate retention behaviors than men (n = 280) and women (n = 227) who do not share genetic children with their current partner. The results are interpreted as they relate to hypotheses concerning the evolution of pair-bonding in humans, and mate retention behaviors more generally. Limitations of the current research are discussed, and profitable avenues for future research in this domain are suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9261-z
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Complexity of Jokes Is Limited by Cognitive Constraints on Mentalizing
    • Authors: R. I. M. Dunbar; Jacques Launay; Oliver Curry
      Pages: 130 - 140
      Abstract: Abstract Although laughter is probably of deep evolutionary origin, the telling of jokes, being language-based, is likely to be of more recent origin within the human lineage. In language-based communication, speaker and listener are engaged in a process of mutually understanding each other’s intentions (mindstates), with a conversation minimally requiring three orders of intentionality. Mentalizing is cognitively more demanding than non-mentalizing cognition, and there is a well-attested limit at five orders in the levels of intentionality at which normal adult humans can work. Verbal jokes commonly involve commentary on the mindstates of third parties, and each such mindstate adds an additional level of intentionality and its corresponding cognitive load. We determined the number of mentalizing levels in a sample of jokes told by well-known professional comedians and show that most jokes involve either three or five orders of intentionality on the part of the comedian, depending on whether or not the joke involves other individuals’ mindstates. Within this limit there is a positive correlation between increasing levels of intentionality and subjective ratings of how funny the jokes are. The quality of jokes appears to peak when they include five or six levels of intentionality, which suggests that audiences appreciate higher mentalizing complexity whilst working within their natural cognitive constraints.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-015-9251-6
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2016)
  • The God Allusion
    • Authors: Rafael Wlodarski; Eiluned Pearce
      Pages: 160 - 172
      Abstract: Abstract It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others (“mentalizing”), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.
      PubDate: 2016-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9256-9
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2016)
  • The Relative Importance of Sexual Dimorphism, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and
           Color Cues to Health during Evaluation of Potential Partners’ Facial
    • Authors: Justin K. Mogilski; Lisa L. M. Welling
      Abstract: Abstract Sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and coloration in human faces putatively signal information relevant to mate selection and reproduction. Although the independent contributions of these characteristics to judgments of attractiveness are well established, relatively few studies have examined whether individuals prioritize certain features over others. Here, participants (N = 542, 315 female) ranked six sets of facial photographs (3 male, 3 female) by their preference for starting long- and short-term romantic relationships with each person depicted. Composite-based digital transformations were applied such that each image set contained 11 different versions of the same identity. Each photograph in each image set had a unique combination of three traits: sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and color cues to health. Using conjoint analysis to evaluate participants’ ranking decisions, we found that participants prioritized cues to sexual dimorphism over symmetry and color cues to health. Sexual dimorphism was also found to be relatively more important for the evaluation of male faces than for female faces, whereas symmetry and color cues to health were relatively more important for the evaluation of female faces than for male faces. Symmetry and color cues to health were more important for long-term versus short-term evaluations for female faces, but not male faces. Analyses of utility estimates reveal that our data are consistent with research showing that preferences for facial masculinity and femininity in male and female faces vary according to relationship context. These findings are interpreted in the context of previous work examining the influence of these facial attributes on romantic partner perception.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9277-4
  • The Conundrum of Modern Art
    • Abstract: Abstract Two major mechanisms of aesthetic evolution have been suggested. One focuses on naturally selected preferences (Evolutionary Aesthetics), while the other describes a process of evaluative coevolution whereby preferences coevolve with signals. Signaling theory suggests that expertise moderates these mechanisms. In this article we set out to verify this hypothesis in the domain of art and use it to elucidate Western modern art’s deviation from naturally selected preferences. We argue that this deviation is consistent with a Coevolutionary Aesthetics mechanism driven by prestige-biased social learning among art experts. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two studies in which we assessed the effects on lay and expert appreciation of both the biological relevance of the given artwork’s depicted content, viz., facial beauty, and the prestige specific to the artwork’s associated context (MoMA). We found that laypeople appreciate artworks based on their depictions of facial beauty, mediated by aesthetic pleasure, which is consistent with previous studies. In contrast, experts appreciate the artworks based on the prestige of the associated context, mediated by admiration for the artist. Moreover, experts appreciate artworks depicting neutral faces to a greater degree than artworks depicting attractive faces. These findings thus corroborate our contention that expertise moderates the Evolutionary and Coevolutionary Aesthetics mechanisms in the art domain. Furthermore, our findings provide initial support for our proposal that prestige-driven coevolution with expert evaluations plays a decisive role in modern art’s deviation from naturally selected preferences. After discussing the limitations of our research as well as the relation that our results bear on cultural evolution theory, we provide a number of suggestions for further research into the potential functions of expert appreciation that deviates from naturally selected preferences, on the one hand, and expertise as a moderator of these mechanisms in other cultural domains, on the other.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9274-7
  • Review of Daniel Nettle’s Tyneside Neighborhood: Deprivation, Social
           Life and Social Behavior in One British City
    • Authors: Benjamin Campbell
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9273-8
  • Marriage Markets and Male Mating Effort: Violence and Crime Are Elevated
           Where Men Are Rare
    • Abstract: Abstract The negative social outcomes in populations with male-biased sex ratios are a growing concern. In general, the expectation is of heightened violence as a result of excess men engaging in antisocial behavior and crime, thereby threatening societal stability. While intuitive, these claims are largely unsupported in the literature. Using mating market theory as our guide, we examine indicators of male mating effort, including (1) violent competition between men (homicide, aggravated assault) and (2) indicators of uncommitted sexual behavior (rape, sex offenses, and prostitution). Our unit of analysis is U.S. county-level data. We find that counties with more men have lower rates of crime and violent behavior. Our findings challenge conventional claims of male excess leading to elevated levels of violence. Instead, in support of mating market predictions, we find that criminal and violent behavior related to male mating effort is least common in male-biased sex ratios. We discuss the implications of our findings for public policy regarding incarceration and criminal behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9271-x
  • The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part II
    • Authors: Gert Stulp; Rebecca Sear; Susan B. Schaffnit; Melinda C. Mills; Louise Barrett
      Abstract: Abstract Studies of the association between wealth and fertility in industrial populations have a rich history in the evolutionary literature, and they have been used to argue both for and against a behavioral ecological approach to explaining human variability. We consider that there are strong arguments in favor of measuring fertility (and proxies thereof) in industrial populations, not least because of the wide availability of large-scale secondary databases. Such data sources bring challenges as well as advantages, however. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these by examining the association between wealth and reproductive success in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979. We conduct a broad-based exploratory analysis of the relationship between wealth and fertility, employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, and multiple measures of both wealth (income and net worth) and fertility (lifetime reproductive success and transitions to first, second and third births). We highlight the kinds of decisions that have to be made regarding sample selection, along with the selection and construction of explanatory variables and control measures. Based on our analyses, we find a positive effect of both income and net worth on fertility for men, which is more pronounced for white men and for transitions to first and second births. Income tends to have a negative effect on fertility for women, while net worth is more likely to positively predict fertility. Different reproductive strategies among different groups within the same population highlight the complexity of the reproductive ecology of industrial societies. These results differ in a number of respects from other analyses using the same database. We suggest this reflects the impossibility of producing a definitive analysis, rather than a failure to identify the “correct” analytical strategy. Finally, we discuss how these findings inform us about (mal)adaptive decision-making.
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9272-9
  • The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part I
    • Authors: Gert Stulp; Rebecca Sear; Louise Barrett
      Abstract: Abstract Is fertility relevant to evolutionary analyses conducted in modern industrial societies? This question has been the subject of a highly contentious debate, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to this day. Researchers in both evolutionary and social sciences have argued that the measurement of fitness-related traits (e.g., fertility) offers little insight into evolutionary processes, on the grounds that modern industrial environments differ so greatly from those of our ancestral past that our behavior can no longer be expected to be adaptive. In contrast, we argue that fertility measurements in industrial society are essential for a complete evolutionary analysis: in particular, such data can provide evidence for any putative adaptive mismatch between ancestral environments and those of the present day, and they can provide insight into the selection pressures currently operating on contemporary populations. Having made this positive case, we then go on to discuss some challenges of fertility-related analyses among industrialized populations, particularly those that involve large-scale databases. These include “researcher degrees of freedom” (i.e., the choices made about which variables to analyze and how) and the different biases that may exist in such data. Despite these concerns, large datasets from multiple populations represent an excellent opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses in great detail, enriching the evolutionary understanding of human behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9269-4
  • Modernizing Evolutionary Anthropology
    • Authors: Siobhán M. Mattison; Rebecca Sear
      Abstract: Abstract Evolutionary anthropology has traditionally focused on the study of small-scale, largely self-sufficient societies. The increasing rarity of these societies underscores the importance of such research yet also suggests the need to understand the processes by which such societies are being lost—what we call “modernization”—and the effects of these processes on human behavior and biology. In this article, we discuss recent efforts by evolutionary anthropologists to incorporate modernization into their research and the challenges and rewards that follow. Advantages include that these studies allow for explicit testing of hypotheses that explore how behavior and biology change in conjunction with changes in social, economic, and ecological factors. In addition, modernization often provides a source of “natural experiments” since it may proceed in a piecemeal fashion through a population. Challenges arise, however, in association with reduced variability in fitness proxies such as fertility, and with the increasing use of relatively novel methodologies in evolutionary anthropology, such as the analysis of secondary data. Confronting these challenges will require careful consideration but will lead to an improved understanding of humanity. We conclude that the study of modernization offers the prospect of developing a richer evolutionary anthropology, by encompassing ultimate and proximate explanations for behavior expressed across the full range of human societies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9270-y
  • Reproductive Responses to Economic Uncertainty
    • Authors: David A. Nolin; John P. Ziker
      Abstract: Abstract In the face of economic and political changes following the end of the Soviet Union, total fertility rates fell significantly across the post-Soviet world. In this study we examine the dramatic fertility transition in one community in which the total fertility rate fell from approximately five children per woman before 1993 to just over one child per woman a decade later. We apply hypotheses derived from evolutionary ecology and demography to the question of fertility transition in the post-Soviet period, focusing on an indigenous community (Ust’-Avam) in the Taimyr Region, northern Russia. We employ a mixed parametric accelerated failure-time model that allows comparison of age at first birth, interbirth interval, and reproductive postponement or cessation prior to and following 1993. We find that short-term reproductive delay alone does not explain the dramatic drop in fertility in Ust’-Avam. Age at first birth remains constant. Interbirth intervals increase moderately. The estimated fraction of women who have ceased or indefinitely postponed reproducing doubles (for parities 2 through 4) or triples (for nulliparous women). We caution against assuming that environmental harshness necessarily leads to earlier and more rapid reproduction. An evolutionary theory of fertility responses to acute environmental shocks remains relatively undeveloped. In such contexts it is possible that selection favors a conservative reproductive strategy while more information is learned about the new environment. When investigating fertility responses to environmental stressors we suggest researchers examine postponement and stopping behavior in addition to changes in age at first birth and interbirth interval.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9267-6
  • Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia
    • Authors: Kristin Snopkowski
      Abstract: Abstract Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one’s current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women’s risk of “divorce and remarriage,” whereas female income is positively associated with women’s risk of “divorce, but not remarriage.” Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9265-8
  • Home Birth Midwifery in the United States
    • Authors: Bria Dunham
      Abstract: Abstract Human childbirth is distinct in requiring—or at least strongly profiting from—the assistance of a knowledgeable attendant to support the mother during birth. With economic modernization, the role of that attendant is transformed, and increased access to obstetric interventions may bring biomedicine into conflict with anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for childbirth. This article provides an overview of the role of midwifery in human evolution and ways in which this evolutionary heritage is reflected in home birth in the contemporary United States. Opportunities remain for evolutionary scholars to apply their knowledge and skills to strengthen culturally consonant, evolutionarily grounded maternity care within a complex, multilevel, pluralistic medical system.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9266-7
  • The Faith of Sacrifice: Leadership Trade-Offs in an Afro-Brazilian
    • Authors: Montserrat Soler
      Abstract: Abstract Despite secular trends in some countries, prestige-based authority in the form of religious leadership remains hugely influential in the everyday lives of millions of people around the world. Here, the costs and benefits of religious leadership are explored in an urban setting in northeastern Brazil. An economic game, within-group cooperation questionnaires, and social network analyses were carried out among adherents of an Afro-Brazilian religion. Results reveal that leaders display high levels of religious commitment and disproportionally provide cooperative services to group members. On the other hand, initiates cooperate less than leaders but do not differ in levels of received cooperation or social cohesion measures. This may indicate some level of exploitation or free-riding. Demographic and group variables also appear to play an important role in the degree of social cohesion a group achieves. These findings are discussed in the context of non-Western urban settings where religious leadership may represent both an alternative to social advancement and a crucial source of material aid, social support, and a strong sense of community.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9264-9
  • Disgust, Gender, and Social Change
    • Authors: Geoff Kushnick; Daniel M. T. Fessler; Fikarwin Zuska
      Abstract: Abstract Among the Karo of Indonesia, the frequency of matrilateral cross-cousin (impal) marriage has declined in recent decades. We conducted a vignette experiment to assess the contributions of a handful of factors in shaping this pattern. Surprisingly, we found that cosocialization of a hypothetical woman with her impal led to increased judgments of marriage likelihood and decreased feelings of disgust in male and female respondents (n = 154). We also found that females, more than males, judged impal marriage more likely when there were practical advantages. Finally, we found that younger men expressed more disgust in response to impal marriages than did older men, while women displayed an opposite but weaker reaction. This suggests the existence of gender-specific changes in attitudes toward the practice, indicating that a full understanding may require the application of sexual conflict theory. Our study illustrates the potential utility—and limitations—of vignette experiments for studying social change.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12110-016-9263-x
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