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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 1066 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (217 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (174 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (200 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (153 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (228 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (87 journals)

HUMANITIES (228 journals)                  1 2 3     

Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription  
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arion : A Journal of Humanities and the Classics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access  
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Popular Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal  
Claroscuro     Open Access  
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Continental Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access  
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Études de lettres     Open Access  
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
German Research     Hybrid Journal  
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Human Nature
   [11 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2208 journals]   [SJR: 1.042]   [H-I: 35]
  • Causes, Consequences, and Kin Bias of Human Group Fissions
    • Abstract: Abstract Fissions of human communities are monumental occasions with consequences for cultural and genetic variation and divergence through time by means of serial founder effects. An ethnographic review shows that most human group fissions are fueled primarily by internal political conflict and secondarily by resource scarcity. As found for other social animals, human fissions lead to subgroups that have higher levels of relatedness as compared with the original community because of kin-biased assortment known as the lineal effect. Fission processes that increase the average relatedness of subgroups are important because relatedness governs how strongly kin/group selection favors social behaviors such as warfare, peacekeeping, and other forms of collection action. However, random individual assortment is not an appropriate null model for evaluating lineage assortment because nuclear families and extended households are expected to remain together, which in and of itself forces higher relatedness in smaller subgroups. We develop a lineage assortment index where low values represent subgroups with coefficients of relatedness near those expected if nuclear and extended households had chosen to associate into random groupings. Two fissions of Ache villages (Paraguay) are examples of this type of fission with a low lineage assortment index not significantly different from zero as evaluated with controlled simulations. On the other extreme, a lineage assortment index near unity represents a lineal fission that maximizes the relatedness of subgroups such as the perfect split of a lineage into sublineages. A fission of Piaroa (Venezuela) fits this scenario. While previous discussions of fission have emphasized similarities among human studies and even other social mammals, we highlight the full range of potential kin bias in the formation of new communities.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
       
  • Early Humans’ Egalitarian Politics
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake—who takes what, when, how—summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes “who brings what to a team’s common good.” In this view, Rawls’s (1971) famous virtual “veil of ignorance” mainly conceals politics’ antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real “adapted veil of ignorance” concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans’ sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality—dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans’ darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans’ brightest qualities—egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans’ unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting this now-ill-adapted veil of ignorance, thus uncovering the tight functional relations between egalitarian team solidarity and the evolution of human uniqueness.
      PubDate: 2014-07-05
       
  • Men’s Physical Strength Moderates Conceptualizations of Prospective
           Foes in Two Disparate Societies
    • Abstract: Abstract Across taxa, strength and size are elementary determinants of relative fighting capacity; in species with complex behavioral repertoires, numerous additional factors also contribute. When many factors must be considered simultaneously, decision-making in agonistic contexts can be facilitated through the use of a summary representation. Size and strength may constitute the dimensions used to form such a representation, such that tactical advantages or liabilities influence the conceptualized size and muscularity of an antagonist. If so, and given the continued importance of physical strength in human male-male conflicts, a man’s own strength will influence his conceptualization of the absolute size and strength of an opponent. In the research reported here, male participants’ chest compression strength was compared with their estimates of the size and muscularity of an unfamiliar potential antagonist, presented either as a supporter of a rival sports team (Study 1, conducted in urban California, and Study 2, conducted in rural Fiji) or as a man armed with a handgun (Study 3, conducted in rural Fiji). Consistent with predictions, composite measures of male participants’ estimates of the size/strength of a potential antagonist were inversely correlated with the participant’s own strength. Therefore, consonant with a history wherein violent intrasexual selection has acted on human males, a man’s own physical strength influences his representations of potential antagonists.
      PubDate: 2014-07-04
       
  • Perceived Extrinsic Mortality Risk and Reported Effort in Looking after
           Health
    • Abstract: Abstract Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.
      PubDate: 2014-07-03
       
  • The Two Sides of Warfare
    • Abstract: Abstract Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (a) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve for defenses than for attacks. (b) Risk aversion, deterrence, and the interplay of migration levels and brutality can change evolutionary dynamics substantially. (c) Unexpectedly, one occasional simulation outcome is a dynamically stable state of “tolerated intergroup theft,” raising the question as to whether corresponding patterns also exist in real intergroup conflicts. Finally, possible implications for theories of the coevolution of bellicosity and altruism in humans are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-06-14
       
  • I Want What She’s Having
    • Abstract: Abstract A variety of non-human females do not select male partners independently. Instead they favor males having previous associations with other females, a phenomenon known as mate copying. This paper investigates whether humans also exhibit mate copying and whether consistent positive information about a man’s mate value, and a woman’s age and self-perceived mate value (SPMV), influence her tendency to copy the mate choices of others. Female university students (N = 123) rated the desirability of photographed men pictured alone or with one, two, or five women represented by silhouettes. In accordance with the visual arrays, men were described as currently in a romantic relationship; having previously been in one, two, or five relationships; or not having had a romantic relationship in the past 4 years. Women generally rated men pictured with one or two previous partners as more desirable than those with none. Men depicted with five previous partners, however, were found to be less desirable. Younger, presumably less experienced women had a greater tendency to mate copy compared with older women, but high SPMV did not predict greater levels of mate copying. The findings reaffirmed and expanded those suggesting that women do not make mate choices independently.
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
       
  • Review of Robert Trivers’s        class="a-plus-plus">The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit
           
    • PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Human Males Appear More Prepared Than Females to Resolve Conflicts with
           Same-Sex Peers
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate sex differences in proximate mechanisms that precede the termination of conflicts. In Study 1, we asked women and men to report their intensity of anger in response to hypothetical, common transgressions involving a same-sex roommate. Direct verbal and physical aggression elicited the highest-intensity anger for both sexes, although overall women reported more intense anger than men to all transgressions. In Study 2, we examined sex differences in subjective and physiological reactions to a conflict using a role-playing scenario. Following recall of a conflict involving direct aggression and role-playing a reaction to it, compared with men, women reported their anger would dissipate less quickly and they would take longer to reconcile. Women also exhibited increased heart rate, but little change in cortisol, whereas men exhibited little change in heart rate but increased cortisol production. We interpret the results as indicating that women are less prepared than men to resolve a conflict with a same-sex peer.
      PubDate: 2014-05-21
       
  • Grandparental Effects on Fertility Vary by Lineage in the United Kingdom
    • Abstract: Abstract Grandparental presence is known to correlate with the number of grandchildren born, and this effect may vary according to grandparental sex and lineage. However, existing studies of grandparental effects on fertility mostly concern traditional subsistence societies, while evidence from contemporary developed societies is both scarce and mixed. Here, we explore how grandparents affect the transition to second and subsequent children in the contemporary United Kingdom. The longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (n = 10,295 families) was used to study the association between grandparental investment and parents’ probability of having a new child within 4.5 years. Results show that contact with paternal grandparents is associated with higher probability of parents having a second child. In contrast, contact with maternal grandparents is associated with lower probability of having a third or subsequent child. Kin may have opposite effects on fertility even in contemporary societies, which may explain the lack of consistent effects of grandparental investment on fertility in previous studies.
      PubDate: 2014-05-18
       
  • Adaptive Content Biases in Learning about Animals across the Life Course
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior work has demonstrated that young children in the US and the Ecuadorian Amazon preferentially remember information about the dangerousness of an animal over both its name and its diet. Here we explore if this bias is present among older children and adults in Fiji through the use of an experimental learning task. We find that a content bias favoring the preferential retention of danger and toxicity information continues to operate in older children, but that the magnitude of the bias diminishes with age and is absent in adults. We also find evidence that fitness costs likely impact the types of mistakes that participants make in their attributions of dangerousness and poisonousness. These results suggest that natural selection has shaped the way in which we learn and make inferences about unfamiliar animal species over ontogeny, and that future research is needed on how content biases may vary across the life course.
      PubDate: 2014-04-03
       
  • Father Absence and Reproduction-Related Outcomes in Malaysia, a
           Transitional Fertility Population
    • Abstract: Abstract Father absence is consistently associated with children’s reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters’ age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2014-03-08
       
  • The Primary Parental Investment in Children in the Contemporary USA is
           Education
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper tests the Trivers-Willard hypothesis that high-status individuals will invest more in sons and low-status individuals will invest more in daughters using data from the 2000 to 2010 General Social Survey and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We argue that the primary investment U.S. parents make in their children is in their children’s education, and this investment is facilitated by a diverse market of educational choices at every educational level. We examine two measures of this investment: children’s years of education and the highest degree attained. Results show that sons of high-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than daughters, whereas daughters of low-status fathers receive more years of education and higher degrees than sons. Further analyses of possible mechanisms for these findings yield null results. We also find that males are more likely to have high-status fathers than females.
      PubDate: 2014-03-08
       
  • Using Multilevel Models to Estimate Variation in Foraging Returns
    • Abstract: Abstract Distributions of human foraging success across age have implications for many aspects of human evolution. Estimating the distribution of foraging returns is complicated by (1) the zero-inflated nature of hunting returns, as many if not most trips fail, and (2) the substantial variation among hunters, independent of age. We develop a multilevel mixture analysis of human foraging data to address these difficulties. Using a previously published 20-year record of hunts by 147 individual Aché hunters in eastern Paraguay, we estimate returns-by-age functions for both hunting failures and the size of harvests, while also estimating the heterogeneity among hunters. Consistent with previous analyses, we find that most hunters peak around 40 years of age. We can also show, however, that much more of the variation among Aché hunters arises from heterogeneity in failure rates (zero returns), not harvest sizes. We also introduce a new R package, glmer2stan, to assist in defining and fitting similar multilevel mixture models.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • The Population Ecology of Despotism
    • Abstract: Abstract Since despotism is a common evolutionary development in human history, we seek to understand the conditions under which it can originate, persist, and affect population trajectories. We describe a general system of population ecology equations representing the Ideal Free and Despotic Distributions for one and two habitats, one of which contains a despotic class that controls the distribution of resources. Using analytical and numerical solutions we derive the optimal concession strategy by despots with and without subordinate migration to an alternative habitat. We show that low concessions exponentially increase the time it takes for the despotic habitat to fill, and we discuss the trade-offs despots and subordinates confront at various levels of exploitation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, higher levels of despotism do not necessarily cause faster migration to alternative habitats. We further show how, during colonization, divergent population trajectories may arise if despotic systems experience Allee-type economies of scale.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • How Well Do Men’s Faces and Voices Index Mate Quality and
           Dominance'
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous studies have used self-ratings or strangers’ ratings to assess men’s attractiveness and dominance, attributes that have likely affected men’s access to mates throughout human evolution. However, attractiveness and dominance include more than isolated impressions; they incorporate knowledge gained through social interaction. We tested whether dominance and attractiveness assessed by acquaintances can be predicted from (1) strangers’ ratings made from facial photographs and vocal clips and (2) self-ratings. Two university social fraternities, their socially affiliated sororities, and independent raters evaluated men’s short- and long-term attractiveness, fighting ability, and leadership ability. Ratings made by unfamiliar men using faces, but not voices, predicted acquaintance-rated fighting and leadership ability, whereas ratings made by unfamiliar women from faces and voices predicted acquaintance-rated short- and long-term attractiveness. Except for leadership, self-ratings aligned with peers’ evaluations. These findings support the conclusion that faces and voices provide valuable information about dominance and mate quality.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
       
  • Eusociality in History
    • Abstract: Abstract For more than 100,000 years, H. sapiens lived as foragers, in small family groups with low reproductive variance. A minority of men were able to father children by two or three women; and a majority of men and women were able to breed. But after the origin of farming around 10,000 years ago, reproductive variance increased. In civilizations which began in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China, and then moved on to Greece and Rome, kings collected thousands of women, whose children were supported and guarded by thousands of eunuchs. Just a few hundred years ago, that trend reversed. Obligate sterility ended, and reproductive variance declined. For H. sapiens, as for other organisms, eusociality seems to be an effect of ecological constraints. Civilizations rose up in lake and river valleys, hemmed in by mountains and deserts. Egalitarianism became an option after empty habitats opened up.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
       
  • Intergenerational and Sibling Conflict Under Patrilocality
    • Abstract: Abstract Here we argue that models developed to examine cooperation and conflict in communal breeders, using a “tug-of-war” model of reproductive skew generated by incomplete control, are an appropriate way to model human kinship systems. We apply such models to understand the patterns of effort put into competition between father and son and between brothers in conflict over family resources in a patrilineal kinship system. Co-resident kin do not necessarily emerge with equal shares of the cake in terms of reproductive output. The models show that, depending on the efficiency with which they can gain more control of the resource, on the marriage system, and on the relatedness of the partners in conflict, individuals can do better to help their relatives breed rather than fight each other for the resources needed to reproduce. The models show that when a son’s father is still breeding with his mother, sons should not compete for any share of reproduction. However, under polygyny, increased effort is spent on father/son and brother/brother conflict. Fathers will win the majority of reproduction if dominant to sons (in contrast to the finding that daughters-in-law win in conflict over mothers-in-law in patrilocal kinship systems, which has been suggested as explaining the evolution of menopause). Hence who wins in the sharing of reproduction depends not just on which sex disperses but also on the relative competitive ability of all individuals to exploit family resources. Anthropologists have long argued that cultural norms can reduce conflict. These formal evolutionary models help us to quantify the effects of reproductive conflict in families, throwing light on the evolutionary basis not just of patterns of reproductive scheduling, but also human kinship and marriage systems.
      PubDate: 2013-12-22
       
  • Primate Sociality to Human Cooperation
    • Abstract: Abstract Developmental psychologists identify propensities for social engagement in human infants that are less evident in other apes; Sarah Hrdy links these social propensities to novel features of human childrearing. Unlike other ape mothers, humans can bear a new baby before the previous child is independent because they have help. This help alters maternal trade-offs and so imposes new selection pressures on infants and young children to actively engage their caretakers’ attention and commitment. Such distinctive childrearing is part of our grandmothering life history. While consequences for other cooperative activities must surely follow, the novel rearing environments set up by helpful grandmothering can explain why natural selection escalated preferences and motivations for interactivity in our lineage in the first place, and why, unlike other aspects of infant development, social sensitivities are not delayed in humans compared with genus Pan.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • The Insectan Apes
    • Abstract: Abstract I present evidence that humans have evolved convergently to social insects with regard to a large suite of social, ecological, and reproductive phenotypes. Convergences between humans and social insects include: (1) groups with genetically and environmentally defined structures; (2) extensive divisions of labor; (3) specialization of a relatively restricted set of females for reproduction, with enhanced fertility; (4) extensive extramaternal care; (5) within-group food sharing; (6) generalized diets composed of high-nutrient-density food; (7) solicitous juveniles, but high rates of infanticide; (8) ecological dominance; (9) enhanced colonizing abilities; and (10) collective, cooperative decision-making. Most of these convergent phenotypic adaptations stem from reorganization of key life-history trade-offs due to behavioral, physiological, and life-historical specializations. Despite their extensive socioreproductive overlap with social insects, humans differ with regard to the central aspect of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. This difference may be underpinned by the high energetic costs of producing offspring with large brains.
      PubDate: 2013-12-04
       
  • Eusociality: From the First Foragers to the First States
    • Abstract: Abstract People have always been social. Ethnographic evidence suggests that transfers of food and labor are common among contemporary hunter-gatherers, and they probably were common in Paleolithic groups. Archaeological evidence suggests that cooperative breeding went up as we settled down: as territory defenders became more successful breeders, their helpers’ fertility would have been delayed or depressed. And written evidence from the Neolithic suggests that the first civilizations were often eusocial; emperors fathered hundreds of children, who were provided for and protected by workers in sterile castes. Papers in this issue of Human Nature look at helpers and workers across the eusociality continuum—from hardworking grandmothers and grandfathers, to celibate sisters and brothers, to castrated civil servants—from the first foragers to the first states.
      PubDate: 2013-11-30
       
 
 
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