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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 1111 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (221 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (185 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (210 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (156 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (7 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (243 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (89 journals)

HUMANITIES (243 journals)                  1 2 3     

Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adeptus     Open Access  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription  
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arion : A Journal of Humanities and the Classics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access  
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access  
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
German Research     Hybrid Journal  
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal  
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Human Nature
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 41]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-4776 - ISSN (Online) 1045-6767
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Fetal Protection
    • Abstract: Abstract Pregnancy involves puzzling aversions to nutritious foods. Although studies generally support the hypotheses that such aversions are evolved mechanisms to protect the fetus from toxins and/or pathogens, other factors, such as resource scarcity and psychological distress, have not been investigated as often. In addition, many studies have focused on populations with high-quality diets and low infectious disease burden, conditions that diverge from the putative evolutionary environment favoring fetal protection mechanisms. This study tests the fetal protection, resource scarcity, and psychological distress hypotheses of food aversions in a resource-constrained population with high infectious disease burden. The role of culture is also explored. In the first of two studies in Tamil Nadu, India, we investigated cultural explanations of pregnancy diet among non-pregnant women (N = 54). In the second study, we conducted structured interviews with pregnant women (N = 94) to determine their cravings and aversions, resource scarcity, indices of pathogen exposure, immune activation, psychological distress, and emic causes of aversions. Study 1 found that fruits were the most commonly reported food that pregnant women should avoid because of their harmful effects on infants. Study 2 found modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis for food aversions. It also found that pregnant women most commonly avoided fruits as well as “black” and “hot” foods. Aversions were primarily acquired through learning and focused on protecting the infant from harm. Our findings provide modest support for the fetal protection hypothesis and surprisingly strong support for the influence of cultural norms and learning on dietary aversions in pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
       
  • Sexually Transmitted Pathogens, Depression, and Other Manifestations
           Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated whether sexually transmitted infections and lifestyle variables are associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as well as particular manifestations commonly associated with PMS. Data were gathered from medical records of 500 regularly cycling women. The following infectious agents were investigated: human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Bivariate tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate whether these pathogens were associated with headache, pain, nausea, and depression. Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and two common manifestations of PMS: depression and pain. Trichomonas vaginalis was significantly correlated with headache and Gardnerella vaginalis with nausea. None of the illness manifestations was significantly associated with the tested lifestyle variables: dietary calcium supplementation, alcohol and drug use, exercise, and smoking. These associations provide a basis for assessment of infectious causation of PMS and several manifestations of illness that are commonly associated with PMS.
      PubDate: 2015-08-14
       
  • The Fitness Effects of Men’s Family Investments
    • Abstract: Abstract Men’s investments in parenting and long-term reproductive relationships are a hallmark feature of human reproduction and life history. The uniqueness of such male involvement among catarrhines has driven an extensive debate surrounding the selective pressures that led to and maintain such capacities in men. Three major pathways have been proposed through which men’s involvement might confer fitness benefits: enhancing child well-being, increasing couple fertility, and decreasing likelihood of partner desertion. Previous research has explored the impact of father involvement on these factors individually, but here we present novel research that explores all three pathways within the same population, the Mayangna/Miskito horticulturalists of Nicaragua. Furthermore, we expand the traditional dichotomous measure of father presence/absence by using a continuous measure of overall male investment, as well as two continuous measures of its subcomponents: direct care and wealth. We find that men’s investments are associated with children’s growth and possibly with wife’s marital satisfaction; however, they are not associated with couple fertility.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07
       
  • Reciprocity on Demand
    • Abstract: Abstract Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31
       
  • Review of Alice Dreger’s Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics,
           Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science
    • PubDate: 2015-07-28
       
  • Before Cumulative Culture
    • Abstract: Abstract In the 7 million years or so since humans shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees we have colonized more of the planet’s terrestrial habitat than any other mammalian species and come to account for more biomass than all other terrestrial vertebrates combined. Chimpanzees, in contrast to and under pressure from ourselves, have veered toward extinction. There are multiple reasons for the stark evolutionary trajectories humans and chimpanzees have taken. Recent theoretical and empirical interest has focused on the emergence of cumulative culture whereby technological innovations are progressively incorporated into a population’s stock of skills and knowledge, generating ever more sophisticated repertoires. Here we look at the role of high-fidelity imitation and intention-reading in the establishment of cumulative culture. By focusing on the lithic record, we aim to identify when in our evolutionary history these skills became part of our ancestors’ behavioral repertoire. We argue that evidence of cooperative construction in stone tool manufacture, along with speculation regarding changes to the mirror neurone system, hint at the foundations of overimitation and shared intentionality around 2 million years ago. However, these are not the only ingredients of cumulative culture, which is why we do not see convincing evidence for it until slightly more than a million years later.
      PubDate: 2015-07-09
       
  • Chimpanzees’ Bystander Reactions to Infanticide
    • Abstract: Abstract Social norms—generalized expectations about how others should behave in a given context—implicitly guide human social life. However, their existence becomes explicit when they are violated because norm violations provoke negative reactions, even from personally uninvolved bystanders. To explore the evolutionary origin of human social norms, we presented chimpanzees with videos depicting a putative norm violation: unfamiliar conspecifics engaging in infanticidal attacks on an infant chimpanzee. The chimpanzees looked far longer at infanticide scenes than at control videos showing nut cracking, hunting a colobus monkey, or displays and aggression among adult males. Furthermore, several alternative explanations for this looking pattern could be ruled out. However, infanticide scenes did not generally elicit higher arousal. We propose that chimpanzees as uninvolved bystanders may detect norm violations but may restrict emotional reactions to such situations to in-group contexts. We discuss the implications for the evolution of human morality.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
       
  • The Curse of Curves
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines the associations between objective and subjective measurements and impressions of body shape and cold pressor pain reporting in healthy adults. On the basis of sexual selection theory (SST), we hypothesized that body characteristics that are universally preferred by the opposite sex—specifically, lower waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) in women and higher shoulder-to-hip ratios (SHR) in men—and characteristics (e.g., proportion of body fat in women) that infer attractiveness differently across cultures will correspond to higher experimental pain reporting in women and lower pain reporting in males. A convenience sample of young adults (n = 96, 58 females, 18–24 years; mean age = 19.4) was measured for body mass index (BMI), WHR, SHR, and subjective body impressions (SBI), along with cold pressor pain reporting. The findings showed that BMI was positively associated with WHR and less-positive SBI in both sexes. Consistent with SST, however, only BMI and WHR predicted variability in pain expression in women, whereas only SHR predicted variability in men. Subjective body impressions were positively associated with SHR among males and unrelated to WHR among females, yet only females showed a positive association between SBI and higher pain reporting. The findings suggest that sexually selected physical characteristics (WHR and SHR) and culturally influenced somatic (BMI) and psychological (SBI) indicators of attractiveness correspond with variability in pain reporting, potentially reflecting the general tendency for people to express clusters of sexually selected and culturally influenced traits that may include differential pain perception.
      PubDate: 2015-06-06
       
  • People’s Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases
    • Abstract: Abstract People’s judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people’s judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people’s judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.
      PubDate: 2015-06-05
       
  • Biological Conditions and Economic Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Average stature is now a well-accepted measure of material and economic well-being in development studies when traditional measures are sparse or unreliable, but little work has been done on the biological conditions for individuals on the nineteenth-century U.S. Great Plains. Records of 14,427 inmates from the Nebraska state prison are used to examine the relationship between stature and economic conditions. Statures of both black and white prisoners in Nebraska increased through time, indicating that biological conditions improved as Nebraska’s output market and agricultural sectors developed. The effect of rural environments on stature is illustrated by the fact that farm laborers were taller than common laborers. Urbanization and industrialization had significant impacts on stature, and proximity to trade routes and waterways was inversely related to stature.
      PubDate: 2015-06-04
       
  • Testing Theories about Ethnic Markers
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a modern society utilize the accents of unfamiliar individuals to make social decisions in hypothetical economic games that measure interpersonal trust, generosity, and coordination. A total of 4603 Danish participants completed a verbal-guise study administered over the Internet. Participants listened to four speakers (two local and two nonlocal) and played a hypothetical Dictator Game, Trust Game, and Coordination Game with each of them. The results showed that participants had greater faith in coordinating successfully with local speakers than with nonlocal speakers. The coordination effect was strong for individuals living in the same city as the particular speakers and weakened as the geographical distance between the participants and the speakers grew. Conversely, the results showed that participants were not more generous toward or more trusting of local speakers compared with nonlocal speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate.
      PubDate: 2015-05-24
       
  • Competence and the Evolutionary Origins of Status and Power in Humans
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper I propose an evolutionary model of human status that expands upon an earlier model proposed by Henrich and Gil-White Evolution and Human Behavior, 22,165–196 (2001). According to their model, there are two systems of status attainment in humans—“two ways to the top”: the dominance route, which involves physical intimidation, a psychology of fear and hubristic pride, and provides coercive power, and the prestige route, which involves skills and knowledge (competence), a psychology of attraction to experts and authentic pride, and translates mainly into influence. The two systems would have evolved in response to different selective pressures, with attraction to experts serving a social learning function and coinciding with the evolution of cumulative culture. In this paper I argue that (1) the only one way to the top is competence because dominance itself involves competence and confers prestige, so there is no such thing as pure dominance status; (2) dominance in primates has two components: a competitive one involving physical coercion and a cooperative one involving competence-based attraction to high-ranking individuals (proto-prestige); (3) competence grants the same general type of power (dependence-based) in humans and other primates; (4) the attractiveness of high rank in primates is homologous with the admiration of experts in humans; (5) upon the evolution of cumulative culture, the attractiveness of high rank was co-opted to generate status differentials in a vast number of culturally generated domains of activity. I also discuss, in this perspective, the origins of hubristic pride, authentic pride, and nonauthoritarian leadership.
      PubDate: 2015-05-07
       
  • Sexual Functioning and Commitment to Their Current Relationship among
           Breastfeeding and Regularly Cycling Women in Manila, Philippines
    • Abstract: Abstract This project investigates the relationship between lactation and female sexual functioning and relationship commitment among partnered women in urban Manila. Previous literature suggests that the time after giving birth is often rife with lower sexual functioning and relationship dissatisfaction. Given the important role of caregiving by multiple individuals in humans, the current cross-sectional study suggests that female sexuality may decline immediately after giving birth but then may increase afterwards. Non-cycling, breastfeeding (n = 86); cycling, breastfeeding (n = 48); and nulliparous, regularly cycling (n = 105) women were recruited from neighborhood health centers in Manila to complete questionnaires that assessed sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction, along with demographic variables. Cycling, breastfeeding women report the highest sexual functioning scores and commitment scores. Females undergoing life history trade-offs between mating effort and parenting effort during the postpartum phase may employ a strategy in which they continue investment both in their offspring and in a romantic relationship. Variations in self-reported sexual functioning, level of commitment in a relationship, and love toward her current partner may indicate that breastfeeding women engage in sexual activities as part of a relationship maintenance strategy. Cultural and life history factors will serve as a framework for the findings. The current findings suggest women in Manila may experience a post-birth increase in sexual functioning that may be higher than pre-pregnancy levels. Future studies should incorporate a longitudinal component or a memory recall on pre-pregnancy and post-birth sexual functioning levels.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07
       
  • Clarification: Surnames and Social Mobility in England
    • PubDate: 2015-03-27
       
  • Laughter’s Influence on the Intimacy of Self-Disclosure
    • Abstract: Abstract If laughter functions to build relationships between individuals, as current theory suggests, laughter should be linked to interpersonal behaviors that have been shown to be critical to relationship development. Given the importance of disclosing behaviors in facilitating the development of intense social bonds, it is possible that the act of laughing may temporarily influence the laugher’s willingness to disclose personal information. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by comparing the characteristics of self-disclosing statements produced by those who had previously watched one of three video clips that differed in the extent to which they elicited laughter and positive affect. The results show that disclosure intimacy is significantly higher after laughter than in the control condition, suggesting that this effect may be due, at least in part, to laughter itself and not simply to a change in positive affect. However, the disclosure intimacy effect was only found for observers’ ratings of participants’ disclosures and was absent in the participants’ own ratings. We suggest that laughter increases people’s willingness to disclose, but that they may not necessarily be aware that it is doing so.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
       
  • Parenting and Environmental Risk
    • Abstract: Abstract The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers’ experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06
       
  • Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena
    • Abstract: Abstract Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
       
  • With the Help of Kin?
    • Abstract: Abstract Relatives play an important role in human reproduction according to evolutionary theories of reproductive behavior, but previous empirical studies show large differences in the effects of kin on fertility outcomes. In our paper we examine the effect of co-resident kin and non-kin on the length of birth intervals over the reproductive life course of Dutch women born between 1842 and 1920. We estimate Cox proportional hazard models for parity progression based on the presence of kin and non-kin in the household while controlling for a large number of individual and community-level characteristics. We find that couples living with their brothers experienced shorter birth intervals whereas couples residing with a widowed father had relatively longer birth intervals. The effects of these types of kin on reproduction were most pronounced up to the birth of the fifth child, but not thereafter. We found no effect for mothers or other types of kin.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
       
  • Not by Strength Alone
    • Abstract: Abstract The Asymmetric War of Attrition (AWA) model of animal conflict in evolutionary biology (Maynard Smith and Parker in Nature, 246, 15–18, 1976) suggests that an organism’s decision to withdraw from a conflict is the result of adaptations designed to integrate the expected value of winning, discounted by the expected costs that would be incurred by continuing to compete, via sensitivity to proximate cues of how quickly each side can impose costs on the other (Resource Holding Potential), and how much each side will gain by winning. The current studies examine whether human conflict expectations follow the formalized logic of this model. Children aged 6–8 years were presented with third-party conflict vignettes and were then asked to predict the likely winner. Cues of ownership, hunger, size, strength, and alliance strength were systematically varied across conditions. Results demonstrate that children’s expectations followed the logic of the AWA model, even in complex situations featuring multiple, competing cues, such that the actual relative costs and benefits that would accrue during such a conflict were reflected in children’s expectations. Control conditions show that these modifications to conflict expectations could not have resulted from more general experimental artifacts or demand characteristics. To test the selectivity of these effects to conflict, expectations of search effort were also assessed. As predicted, they yielded a different pattern of results. These studies represent one of the first experimental tests of the AWA model in humans and suggest that future research on the psychology of ownership, conflict, and value may be aided by formalized models from evolutionary biology.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
       
  • Toward a Reality-Based Understanding of Hadza Men’s Work
    • Abstract: Abstract Observations of Hadza men foraging out of camp and sharing food in camp show that men seeking to maximize the flow of calories to their families should pursue large game, and that hunting large game does not pose a collective action problem. These data also show that Hadza men frequently pursued honey, small game, and fruit, and that by doing so, provided a more regular flow of food to their households than would a putative big game specialist. These data support our earlier studies demonstrating that the goal of family provisioning is a robust predictor of Hadza men’s behavior. As before, the show-off and costly signaling hypotheses advanced by Hawkes and colleagues fail as both descriptions of and explanations for Hadza men’s work.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15
       
 
 
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