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 Frontiers in Digital HumanitiesNumber of Followers: 8     Open Access journal ISSN (Online) 2297-2668 Published by Frontiers Media  [86 journals]
• More Real Than Ideal: Household and Community Diversity at Metapontum,
South Italy

• Authors: Andrew H. F. Cabaniss
Abstract: Empirical studies of ancient cities must break down communities into their component parts, but frequently encounter difficulty with the scarcity of excavated domestic structures (e.g. Kramer 1982, 673). I introduce to the archaeological literature the entropy estimating statistical bootstrap (EESB), a tool developed in information theory and computational social science by DeDeo et al. (2013) which provides a way to assess how representative a small dataset is of a parent population, categorized according to some useful typology. This method can be used to decide when small datasets can add further detail to our quantitative studies of archaeological settlements or when they need to be rejected as too small. I then illustrate its uses within the context of urban demography by examining the distribution of house forms to calculate household characteristics specific to Metapontum, an ancient Greek city. Future applications will include building larger urban datasets that are empirically grounded in the specific evidence for each community, facilitating the work of research programs such as urban scaling.
PubDate: 2019-06-11T00:00:00Z

• Cities Through the Ages: One Thing or Many'

• Authors: Michael E. Smith, José Lobo
Abstract: The variability among cities, from the ancient world to the present, can be organized usefully in two ways. First, a focus on the dominant urban activities and processes leads to the recognition of two basic urban types: economic cities and political cities. Most cities today are economic cities in which growth proceeds through agglomeration processes. By contrast, most cities in the ancient world (and some today) are political cities, in which power and administration play a major role in structuring cities and generating change. Second, an alternative focus on processes of social interaction within the urban built environment leads to the recognition that there is only one kind of settlement that includes all cities—economic and political; past and present. Cities in this sense are settings for “energized crowding.” Processes of interaction generate both economic and political growth, and they produce and influence the built forms and social characteristics of all cities. Our model helps scholars distinguish the unique from the universal traits of cities today and in the past.
PubDate: 2019-06-06T00:00:00Z

• The Origins of Trypillia Megasites

• Authors: John Chapman, Bisserka Gaydarska, Marco Nebbia
Abstract: The Trypillia megasites of Ukraine are the largest known settlements in 4th millennium BC Europe and possibly the world. With the largest reaching 320ha in size, megasites pose a serious question about the origins of such massive agglomerations. Most current solutions assume maximum occupation, with all houses occupied at the same time, and target defence against other agglomerations as the cause of their formation. However, recent alternative views of megasites posit smaller long-term occupations or seasonal assembly places, creating a settlement rather than military perspective on origins. Shukurov et al. (2015)'s model of Trypillia arable land-use demonstrates that subsistence stresses begin when site size exceeded 35ha. Over half of the sites dated to the Trypillia BI stage - the stage before the first megasites - were larger than 35ha, suggesting that some form of buffering involving exchange of goods for food was in operation. There were two settlement responses to buffering:- clustering of sites with enhanced inter-site exchange networks and the creation of megasites. The trend to increased site clustering can be seen from Phase BI to CI, coeval with the emergence of megasites. We can therefore re-focus the issue of origins on why create megasites in site clusters. In this article, we discuss the two strategies in terms of informal network analysis and suggest reasons why, in some cases, megasites developed in certain site clusters. Finally, we consider the question of whether Trypillia megasites can be considered as 'cities'.
PubDate: 2019-05-31T00:00:00Z

• Understanding AWE: Can a Virtual Journey, Inspired by the Overview Effect,
Lead to an Increased Sense of Interconnectedness'

• Authors: Ekaterina R. Stepanova, Denise Quesnel, Bernhard E. Riecke
Abstract: Immersive technology, such as virtual reality, provides us with novel opportunities to create and explore affective experiences with a transformative potential mediated through awe. The profound emotion of awe, that is experienced in response to witnessing vastness and creates the need for accommodation that can lead to restructuring of one's worldview and an increased feeling of connectedness. An iconic example of the powers of awe is observed in astronauts who develop instant social consciousness and strong pro-environmental values in response to the overwhelming beauty of Earth observed from space. Here on Earth, awe can also be experienced in response to observing vast natural phenomenon or even sometimes in response to some forms of art, presenting vast beauty to its audience. Can virtual reality provide a new powerful tool for reliably inducing such experiences' What are some unique potentials of this emerging medium'This paper describes the evaluation of an immersive installation "AWE" – Awe-inspiring Wellness Environment. The results indicate that the experience of being in "AWE" can elicit some components of awe emotion and induce minor cognitive shifts in participant's worldview similar to the Overview Effect, while this experience also has its own attributes that might be unique to this specific medium. Comparing the results of this study to other virtual environments designed to elicit Overview Effect provides insights on the relationship between design features and participant's experience. The qualitative results highlight the importance of perceived safety, personal background and familiarity with the environment, and the induction of a small visceral fear reaction as a part of the emotional arc of the virtual journey – as some of the key contributers to the affective experience of the immersive installation. Even though the observed components of awe and a few indications of cognitive shift support the potential of Virtual Reality as a transformative medium, many more iterations of the design and research tools are required before we can achieve and fully explore a profound awe-inspiring transformative experience mediated through immersive technologies.
PubDate: 2019-05-22T00:00:00Z

• Socio-Material Archaeological Networks at Çatalhöyük a
Community Detection Approach

• Authors: Camilla Mazzucato
Abstract: Vast in scale and densely inhabited, Late Neolithic Near Eastern megasites have been variously considered in relation to urbanity. Often viewed as failed experiments on the path to proper urbanism or proto-urban sites, these settlements reveal few signs of hierarchical social stratification despite their large size; as such, they represent a challenge for the understanding of early processes of community formation and social integration. Drawing upon a wide range of data and using socio-material network analysis as a methodological tool, this paper explores the way the late Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük was organized internally and specifically the way individual houses were embedded in the wider social fabric of the site. This study sheds light on the nature of the networks of social engagement and affiliation that emerge in the Holocene within large early agricultural communities and the way such networks were manifested.
PubDate: 2019-05-09T00:00:00Z

• Space—A Virtual Frontier: How to Design and Evaluate a Virtual Reality
Experience of the Overview Effect

• Authors: Ekaterina R. Stepanova, Denise Quesnel, Bernhard E. Riecke
Abstract: A select group of people have an amazing opportunity to see the Earth from a unique perspective – in outer space. The effect this experience has on an individual is described as extraordinary and profound, consisting of a cognitive shift in worldview that leads to the understanding of the fragility and vulnerability of the planet, and an increased feeling of connectedness. This experience, termed the Overview Effect'', has been reported by many astronauts and space travelers. Its key outcome – an enhanced feeling of interconnectedness – contributes to both one's well-being and the sense of responsibility for the Earth. If this profoundly positive experience can be accessible to more people than just space travelers, a healthier and more caring society may be created, where individuals deeply feel the interconnection of all living beings and responsibility for our collective future. Given virtual reality (VR) technology's potential to induce experiences affecting an immersant in a similar way as a real experience, we see an opportunity to leverage this technology to attempt to elicit the Overview Effect as a virtual experience. Through a virtual installation, the experience could be made accessible to people around the world, and for researchers to study this otherwise rare phenomenon. This article builds the case for VR as a tool for inducing the Overview Effect, and proposes guidelines for: 1) the design of the experience; 2) evaluation methods for assessing if, or to what degree, the experience was achieved. We invite researchers and VR creators to utilize and expand on the guidelines proposed in this paper to design transformative VR experiences that induce positive change, and promote a feeling of connectedness and care for each other, and our Spaceship Earth.
PubDate: 2019-04-25T00:00:00Z

• Learning, Probability and Logic: Toward a Unified Approach for
Content-Based Music Information Retrieval

• Authors: Helene-Camille Crayencour, Carmine-Emanuele Cella
Abstract: Within the last fifteen years, the field of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) has made tremendous progress in the development of algorithms for organizing and analyzing the ever-increasing large and varied amount of music and music-related data available digitally. However, the development of content-based methods to enable or improve multimedia retrieval still remains a central challenge.In this perspective paper, we critically look at the problem of automatic chord estimation from audio recordings as a case study of content-based algorithms, and point out several bottlenecks in current approaches: expressiveness and flexibility are obtained to the expense of robustness and vice-versa; available multimodal sources of information are little exploited; modeling multi-faceted and strongly interrelated musical information is limited with current architectures; models are typically restricted to short-term analysis that does not account for the hierarchical temporal structure of musical signals.Dealing with music data requires the ability to handle both uncertainty and complex relational structure at multiple levels of representation. Traditional approaches have generally treated these two aspects separately, probability and learning being the standard way to represent uncertainty in knowledge, while logical representation being the standard way to represent knowledge and complex relational information.We advocate that the identified hurdles of current approaches could be overcome by recent developments in the area of Statistical Relational Artificial Intelligence (StarAI) that unifies probability, logic and (deep) learning. We show that existing approaches used in MIR find powerful extensions and unifications in StarAI, and we explain why we think it is time to consider the new perspectives offered by this promising research field.
PubDate: 2019-04-16T00:00:00Z

• From Social Networks to Publishing Platforms: A Review of the History and
Scholarship of Academic Social Network Sites

• Authors: Katy Jordan
Abstract: Social network sites enable people to easily connect to and communicate with others. Following the success of generic platforms such as Facebook, a variety of online services launched during the mid 2000s in order to bring the benefits of online social networking to an academic audience. However, it is not clear whether these academic social network sites (ASNS) are primarily aligned with social networking or alternative publishing, and functionalities continue to change. Now ten years since the launch of the three main platforms which currently lead the market (Academia.edu, ResearchGate, and Mendeley), it is timely to review how and why ASNS are used. This paper discusses the history and definition of ASNS, before providing a comprehensive review of the empirical research related to ASNS to-date. Five main themes within the research literature are identified, including: the relationship of the platforms to Open Access publishing; metrics; interactions with others through the platforms; platform demographics and social structure; and user perspectives. Discussing the themes in the research both provides academics with a greater understanding of what ASNS can do and their limitations, and identifies gaps in the literature which would be valuable to explore in future research.
PubDate: 2019-03-12T00:00:00Z

• Index-Driven Digitization and Indexation of Historical Archives

• Authors: Giovanni Colavizza, Maud Ehrmann, Fabio Bortoluzzi
Abstract: The promise of digitization of historical archives lies in their indexation at the level of contents. Unfortunately, this kind of indexation does not scale with the speed of digitization if done manually. In this article we present a method to bootstrap the deployment of a content-based information system for digitized historical archives, relying on extant indexing tools. Such indexes were commonly prepared to search within homogeneous records when the archive was still current. We present a conceptual model to describe and manipulate historical indexing tools. We then introduce a systematic approach for their use in order to guide digitization campaigns and to index digitized historical records. Eventually, we exemplify the approach with a case study on the indexation system of the X Savi alle Decime in Rialto, a Venetian magistracy in charge for the exaction - and related record keeping - of a tax on real estate in early modern Venice.
PubDate: 2019-03-11T00:00:00Z

• Mapping by Observation: Building a User-Tailored Conducting System From
Spontaneous Movements

• Authors: Álvaro Sarasúa, Julián Urbano, Emilia Gómez
Abstract: Metaphors are commonly used in interface design within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Interface metaphors provide users with a way to interact with the computer that resembles a known activity, giving instantaneous knowledge or intuition about how the interaction works. A widely used one in Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) is the conductor-orchestra metaphor, where the orchestra is considered as an instrument controlled by the movements of the conductor.We propose a DMI based on the conductor metaphor that allows to control tempo and dynamics and adapts its mapping specifically for each user by observing spontaneous conducting movements (i.e. movements performed on top of fixed music without any instructions). We refer to this as mapping by observation given that, even though the system is trained specifically for each user, this training is not done explicitly and consciously by the user. More specifically, the system adapts its mapping based on the tendency of the user to anticipate or fall behind the beat and observing the Motion Capture descriptors that best correlate to loudness during spontaneous conducting.We evaluate the proposed system in an experiment with twenty four (24) participants where we compare it with a baseline that does not perform this user-specific adaptation. The comparison is done in a context where the user does not receive instructions and, instead, is allowed to discover by playing. We evaluate objective and subjective measures from tasks where participants have to make the orchestra play at different loudness levels or in synchrony with a metronome. Results of the experiment prove that the usability of the system that automatically learns its mapping from spontaneous movements is better both in terms of providing a more intuitive control over loudness and a more precise control over beat timing. Interestingly, the results also show a strong correlation between measures taken from the data used for training and the improvement introduced by the adapting system. This indicates that it is possible to estimate in advance how useful the observation of spontaneous movements is to build user-specific adaptations. This opens interesting directions for creating more intuitive and expressive DMIs, particularly in public installations.
PubDate: 2019-02-25T00:00:00Z

• Corrigendum: An Attempt to Estimate the Impact of the Spread of Economic
Flows on Latenian Urbanization

• Authors: Clara Filet
PubDate: 2019-02-22T00:00:00Z

• Technology Enhanced Learning: The Role of Ontologies for Feedback in Music
Performance

• Authors: Matthew John Yee-King, Thomas Wilmering, Maria Teresa Llano Rodriguez, Maria Krivenski, Mark d'Inverno
Abstract: In this paper, we present an analysis of feedback as it occurs in classroom-based and technology supported music instrument learning. Feedback is key to learning in music education, and we have developed technology based on ideas from social media and audio annotation which aims to make feedback more effective. The analysis here aims to enhance our understanding of technology-mediated feedback. The result of this analysis is three ontologies describing feedback and feedback systems. First, we developed the \emph{teacher's ontology} using a qualitative, observational approach to describe the types of feedback that music instrument tutors give to their students. We used this ontology to inform the design of an online music annotation platform for music students. Second, we developed the \emph{grounded ontology} using a grounded theory approach, based on 2,000 annotations made by students and tutors using the annotation platform. We compare the grounded and teacher's ontologies by examining structural, semantic and expressive features. Through this comparison, we find that the grounded ontology includes elements of the teacher's ontology as well as elements relating to practical and social aspects of the annotation platform, while the teacher's ontology contains more domain knowledge. The third ontology is a formalisation of the transactional capabilities of the platform, and we refer to it as the \emph{platform ontology}. We present it using the OWL language, and we show how this allows us to develop several practical use cases, including the use of semantic web capabilities in music education contexts.
PubDate: 2019-01-28T00:00:00Z

• Large-Scale Urban Prototyping for Responsive Cities: A Conceptual
Framework

• Authors: Peter Buš
Abstract: Despite ubiquitous urbanization and worldwide standardization, there is a lack of better differentiation between cities towards more customized environments. Although current advancements in computational design and digital fabrication technologies have been successfully applied in various architectural scales, they have rarely, if ever, been implemented in a larger urban context that can lead to broader benefit and responses for citizens. This research aims to describe the potential of digital fabrication methods for large-scale urban applications that can subsequently lead to more diverse and unique urban environments. This paper summarizes state-of-the-art principles for large-scale building construction that have been implemented in the past, along with current research and practice, and outlines a conceptual framework for possible future directions for large quantities of automatic and bespoke construction deliveries for future customized urban scenarios. This article also outlines the effects of end-users’ participation on urban developments using online users’ interface to inform building processes. To address aspects of end-users’ engagement in customization of cities, the article elaborates the question of responsiveness, where the citizen actively interacts with the environment and building technology and vice versa in order to customize the urban space. This is theoretically and conceptually explained and illustrated in a case study related to the formerly industrial harbor area of Tanjong Pagar in the city of Singapore, which is a test-bed for new urban developments on 325 ha of waterfront land in the downtown port area within the context of a tropical city.
PubDate: 2019-01-24T00:00:00Z

• Topic Modeling of Everyday Sexism Project Entries

• Authors: Sophie Melville, Kathryn Eccles, Taha Yasseri
Abstract: The Everyday Sexism Project documents everyday examples of sexism reported by volunteer contributors from all around the world. It collected 100,000 entries in 13+ languages within the first 3 years of its existence. The content of reports in various languages submitted to Everyday Sexism is a valuable source of crowdsourced information with great potential for feminist and gender studies. In this paper, we take a computational approach to analyze the content of reports. We use topic-modelling techniques to extract emerging topics and concepts from the reports, and to map the semantic relations between those topics. The resulting picture closely resembles and adds to that arrived at through qualitative analysis, showing that this form of topic modeling could be useful for sifting through datasets that had not previously been subject to any analysis. More precisely, we come up with a map of topics for two different resolutions of our topic model and discuss the connection between the identified topics. In the low-resolution picture, for instance, we found Public space/Street, Online, Work related/Office, Transport, School, Media harassment, and Domestic abuse. Among these, the strongest connection is between Public space/Street harassment and Domestic abuse and sexism in personal relationships. The strength of the relationships between topics illustrates the fluid and ubiquitous nature of sexism, with no single experience being unrelated to another.
PubDate: 2019-01-22T00:00:00Z

• Languages for Computer Music

• Authors: Roger B. Dannenberg
Abstract: Specialized languages for computer music have long been an important area of research in this community. Computer music languages have enabled composers who are not software engineers to nevertheless use computers effectively. While powerful general-purpose programming languages can be used for music tasks, experience has shown that time plays a special role in music computation, and languages that embrace musical time are especially expressive for many musical tasks. Time is expressed in procedural languages through schedulers and abstractions of beats, duration and tempo. Functional languages have been extended with temporal semantics, and object-oriented languages are often used to model stream-based computation of audio. This chapter considers models of computation that are especially important for music programming, how these models are supported in programming languages, and how this leads to expressive and efficient programs. Concrete examples are drawn from some of the most widely used music programming languages.
PubDate: 2018-11-30T00:00:00Z

• I am Streaming in a Room

• Authors: Chris Chafe
Abstract: Internet Acoustics is the study of sound traveling through the Internet, treating it as an acoustical medium just like air or water. Real-time streaming of sound, something commonplace nowadays, can be exploited for its own "physics" of propagation. In a digitally-connected telecommunication world, rooms of the kind which will be described enclose remotely collaborating musicians in their own reverberated sound. The ambiance which results is the product of an acoustical loop which creates room-like resonances. They are created between Internet endpoints which recirculate sound echoes on the paths between them.These are synthesized acoustical spaces engineered to resemble actual rooms and distinct from other kinds of online rooms where "room" is used metaphorically for gatherings of users participating in teleconference or chat applications. The present article describes room-like internet reverberation for local area and wide area networking, respectively named LAIR and WAIR. Aspects of the medium, algorithms used and the resulting musical experiences are detailed.
PubDate: 2018-11-26T00:00:00Z

• Computational Models of Expressive Music Performance: A Comprehensive and
Critical Review

• Authors: Carlos E. Cancino-Chacón, Maarten Grachten, Werner Goebl, Gerhard Widmer
Abstract: Expressive performance is an indispensable part of music making.When playing a piece, expert performers shape various parameters (tempo,timing, dynamics, intonation, articulation, etc.) in ways that are notprescribed by the notated score, in this way producing an expressiverendition that brings out dramatic, affective, and emotionalqualities that may engage and affect the listeners.Given the central importance of this skill for many kinds of music, expressiveperformance has become an important research topic for disciplines likemusicology, music psychology, etc. This paper focuses on a specific thread of research: work oncomputational music performance models. Computational modelsare attempts at codifying hypotheses about expressive performance in terms ofmathematical formulas or computer programs, so that they can be evaluated insystematic and quantitative ways. Such models can serve at least two main purposes:they permit us to systematically study certain hypotheses regarding performance;and they can be used as tools to generate automated or semi-automated performances,in artistic or educational contexts.The present article presents an up-to-date overview of the state of the artin this domain. We explore recent trends in the field, such as a strong focus ondata-driven (machine learning); a growing interest in interactive expressive systems,such as conductor simulators and automatic accompaniment systems; and an increasedinterest in exploring cognitively plausible features and models.We provide an in-depth discussion of several important design choices insuch computer models, and discuss a crucial (and still largely unsolved)problem that is hindering systematic progress: the question of how toevaluate such models in scientifically and musically meaningful ways.From all this, we finally derive some research directions that should be pursuedwith priority, in order to advance the field and our understandingof expressive music performance.
PubDate: 2018-10-24T00:00:00Z

• Design to Robotic Assembly: An Exploration in Stacking

• Authors: Yu-Chou Chiang, Henriette Bier, Sina Mostafavi
Abstract: The Design-to-Robotic-Assembly project presented in this paper showcases an integrative approach for stacking architectural elements with varied sizes in multiple directions. Several processes of parametrization, structural analysis, and robotic assembly are algorithmically integrated into a Design-to-Robotic-Production method. This method is informed by the systematic control of density, dimensionality, and directionality of the elements while taking environmental, functional, and structural requirements into consideration. It is tested by building a one-to-one prototype, which is presented and discussed in the paper with respect to the development and implementation of the computational design workflow coupled with robotic kinematic simulation that is enabling the materialization of a multidirectional and multidimensional assembly system.
PubDate: 2018-10-15T00:00:00Z

• Editorial: Computational Linguistics and Literature

• Authors: Stan Szpakowicz, Anna Feldman, Anna Kazantseva
PubDate: 2018-09-27T00:00:00Z

• Literary Myths in Mixed Reality

• Authors: Martha Vassiliadi, Stella Sylaiou, George Papagiannakis
Abstract: It is well known that the Decadent movement in European literature (fin de siècle) depends on the narrative of the antiquity, as it is revealed from the discoveries of archaeology in the second half of the 19th century. Amid the ruins of the past authors, painters and poets re-conceptualize time and history through a modernist vision based on an imaginary reconfiguration of the antiquity. In this context, the myth of a city (Pompeii) or of a woman (Salomé) offer examples, which would illustrate in a great variety the synergy of a multi-temporal and multi-cultural memory of the myth. In this paper we identify a "content-based" shortcoming of modern Mixed Reality (MR) intangible and tangible digital heritage storytelling applications for digital humanities. It is an important problem as the very nature of these applications is often been identified with either misguided storytelling, or non-compelling, non-engaging narratives, except the initial captivating moments due to the immersive 3D visual simulation. We propose a new concept that forthcoming MR applications can draw from: "Literature-based MR Presence". Based on modern literature excerpts associated with the real heritage sites, digital narratives can achieve new depths of Presence (phenomenon of behaving and feeling as if we are in the virtual/augmented world created by computerized displays). They would evoke deeper sensations if their dramaturgical plots were based on literary texts associated with the heritage sites, from users, as similar to those often associated with cognitive presence, e.g. when someone is feeling of being transported in an alternate reality when simply reading a compelling novel or poem. We examine modern MR simulations and serious games for digital heritage and propose this conceptual framework to study them under this new concept, in order to achieve heightened feeling of Presence in the virtual heritage simulations, based on recent novel h/w advances. Two cases of a tangible historical place (Pompeii) and an intangible character (Salome) are identified as cultural heritage items, with associated reconstruction examples via Mixed Reality simulations and corresponding early modern literary works.
PubDate: 2018-09-14T00:00:00Z

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