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 National Academy Science Letters   [SJR: 0.203]   [H-I: 9]   [4 followers]  Follow         Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)    ISSN (Print) 0250-541X - ISSN (Online) 2250-1754    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2352 journals]
• Offline Handwritten Numeral Recognition using Combination of Different
Feature Extraction Techniques
• Authors: Munish Kumar; M. K. Jindal; R. K. Sharma; Simpel Rani Jindal
Abstract: A handwritten numeral recognition system using a combination of different feature extraction techniques has been presented in this paper. Initially, we have prepared a skeleton of the numeral, so that meaningful feature information about the numeral can be extracted. For feature extraction, a combination of four types of features, namely, centroid features, diagonal features, zoning features, and peak extent based features has been used. SVM classifier has been considered for classification purpose. For experimental results, 6000 samples of isolated handwritten numerals have been considered. The proposed system achieves maximum recognition accuracy of 96.3% using five-fold cross validation technique.
PubDate: 2018-02-23
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0606-x

• Soil Carbon Stability Assessment by Humus Desorption Using Simple First
Order Exponential Equation in a Toposequence of Western Himalayan Region
• Authors: Lungmuana; Nayan Ahmed; Tapan Gorai; S. C. Datta
Abstract: A chemical method based on batch desorption of adsorbed humus on clay-humus complex by sodium hydroxide-sodium pyrophosphate solution was used to assess the stability of humus C through the desorption rate constant using simple first order exponential equation in a toposequence of Western Himalaya region of India. The rate constant values were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in hill top (0.305 day−1) and narrow valley (0.184 day−1) than side slope (0.125 day−1) and broad valley (0.11 day−1) suggesting higher stability of soil C in side slope and broad valley. This variation implies that clay particles are active in binding humus C and soil texture plays an important role in stabilizing soil C.
PubDate: 2018-02-22
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0609-2

• Juniperus chinensis L. (Cupressaceae): A New Taxa Record for Himalaya and
Extension of Geographic Distribution in South Asia
• Authors: Bikarma Singh; Phalisteen Sultan; Yashbir Singh Bedi
Abstract: The present communication reports an extended distribution of Juniperus chinensis L. in the Indian Himalaya where it has been collected from Gurez valley of Jammu and Kashmir state. This record extends the known geographic distribution from Central and Southeast Asia to South Asia. Current finding strongly supports a relationship between northern Himalayan range of India and southern hill ranges of China. A detailed revised description, photographs, cone phenology, associated species and threat status as per IUCN have been provided for easy identification.
PubDate: 2018-02-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0610-9

• Towards Elementary Algebra for On-Line Knowledge Processing of Pattern
Cube
• Authors: Vivek Tiwari; Ramjeevan Singh Thakur
Abstract: Pattern warehousing is the most significant new technology to model, store, retrieve and manipulate the patterns. Pattern cube and On-Line Knowledge Processing (OLKP) are introduced in this work to make pattern representation and processing more efficient. OLKP is the process of carrying out operations over the patterns which are stored in the pattern warehouse. The complexities of operations on semantic rich patterns make inappropriate the standard algebra database technology. Moreover, there is no qualified model for OLKP introduced till date. In this work, we address this issue by introducing Pattern Cube and Pattern Algebra with the underlying fundamental operators to support. For simplicity, association kinds of patterns are used to illustrate various operations and properties.
PubDate: 2018-02-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0611-8

• Assay of Genetic Architecture for Identification of Waterlogging Tolerant
Pigeonpea Germplasm
• Authors: Yashwant Kumar Yadava; Rajesh Kumar Singh; Pawan Kumar; Pushpendra Kumar; M. K. Yadav; Anupam Barh; H. D. Upadhayay; Rajendra Kumar
Abstract: The experiment was conducted to identify the waterlogging stress tolerant genotypes in pigeonpea. Waterlogging treatment was given to the plants at vegetative stage after treatment the survival rate was assessed. Out of 128 germplasm pool, 38 survived and the survival rate was estimated along with Mahalanobis D2 cluster analysis. The range of survival percentage for both pot and field were found between 26.6 and 73.3 with the standard deviation of 14.82 for pot screening and 14.29 for field screening. The pot survival percentage mean for all 38 accessions were found higher than field survival which clearly indicates that environment poses an effect on the performance of the genotypes. The Mahalanobis cluster analysis revealed five clusters. Out of five clusters, two were found comparatively tolerant than the others. The tolerant germplasm can also be used as donor parents in hybridization programs for development of water logging-tolerant genotypes. The identified tolerant germplasms may be utilized to incorporate waterlogging tolerance in the short-duration pigeonpea pool.
PubDate: 2018-02-21
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0614-5

• Design of a Wide Band, Low-Noise Differential Voltage Controlled Ring
Oscillator in 90 nm CMOS Process
• Authors: Shabbir Majeed Chaudhry; Zain Shabbir
Abstract: This paper presents a low noise, differential voltage controlled ring oscillator (VCRO) with a wide tuning range. A CMOS varactor based differential delay cell has also been proposed, which not only minimizes phase noise but reduces the power consumption and chip area of the VCRO, as well. The VCRO has been implemented in UMC 90 nm 1P-9M Cu with low-K SP, CMOS process technology. The frequency tuning range of the proposed VCRO is 852.8 MHz to 5.98 GHz and the controlling voltage range is 0–0.8 V. The phase noise observed was − 102.4 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 MHz. The proposed VCRO consumes a power of 1.19 mW at a supply voltage of 1 V and occupies a chip area of 35 × 50 μm2.
PubDate: 2018-02-20
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0613-6

• Additional Results for the Peristaltic Transport of Viscous Nanofluid in
an Asymmetric Channel with Effects of the Convective Conditions
• Authors: Abdelhalim Ebaid; Emad H. Aly
Abstract: Exact theoretical solutions were obtained for the peristaltic transport of viscous nanofluid in an asymmetric channel in presence of the convective conditions. Therefore, on comparing the present results with those published approximate ones by using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM), great remarkable differences and contradictions have been detected. It was also shown that the published approximate solutions does not satisfy the boundary conditions of the studied problem. In addition, it was mentioned that the current work have many advantages over those obtained by using the HPM and, hence, reveals firmly that the researchers have to be very careful on using the homotopy perturbation method to solve the governing equations of a peristalsis flow, otherwise, a spurious physical sight is to be obtained.
PubDate: 2018-02-20
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0607-9

• A High Gain, Bulk Driven Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) for
Wireless Body Area Networks
• Authors: Shabbir Majeed Chaudhry; Umair Munir Minhas; Farhat Abbas
Abstract: This paper presents a bulk driven operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) operating in weak inversion region. The OTA is designed and implemented in 1P-9M Standard UMC 90 nm CMOS Process, and achieves a gain of 94.4 dB and a unity gain bandwidth of 48.97 MHz. Positive feedback, gm boosted, source degeneration is employed at the input of bulk driven differential pair of the amplifier. An NMOS differential pair is used at the output stage to enhance the gain as well as the bandwidth. The OTA consumes power as low as 57 nW. Comparison with the previously reported designs is made on the basis of gain, noise power spectral density and bandwidth. The results show significant improvement in the performance of the proposed OTA as compared to previously reported designs. The effective chip area of this OTA is 0.0147 mm2.
PubDate: 2018-02-20
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-018-0612-7

• Robust Recognition of English Speech in Noisy Environments Using Frequency
Warped Signal Processing
• Authors: Navneet Upadhyay; Hamurabi Gamboa Rosales
Abstract: The performance level of speech recognizer drops significantly when there is an acoustic mismatch between training and operational environments. A speech recognizer is called robust if it preserves good recognition accuracy even in the mismatch conditions. Present study addresses the recognition of English speech in noisy environments and presents the comparative study of various frequency scales used in parameterization based on the average recognition rate. For the robust automatic speech reorganization, a front end signal enhancement component, spectral subtraction algorithm, is used to prefilter the noisy input speech prior fed to the recognizer. A number of frequency warped scales namely, perceptual scales viz, Mel scale, Bark scale, equivalent rectangular bandwidth rate scale, and a non-perceptual scale called uniform scale are used in the parameterization for feature extraction from enhanced speech. A suite of experiments is carried out to evaluate the performance of the speech recognizer, with and without the use of a front end signal enhancement component, in a variety of noisy environments. Recognition accuracy is tested in terms of word linguistic levels on a wide range of signal to noise ratios for both stationary and non-stationary noises.
PubDate: 2018-01-25
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0597-7

• First Report of Anastrophyllum lignicola (Anastrophyllaceae,
Marchantiophyta) from Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalaya of India
• Authors: Shuvadeep Majumdar; D. K. Singh
Abstract: Anastrophyllum lignicola Schill & D.G. Long, earlier known only from Bhutan and China, is described for the first time in Indian Bryoflora from subalpine forests of Hotspring–Jachhup in Anjaw district of Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalaya. The species is characterized by ellipsoid, usually 2-celled to sometimes 1-celled, red or purplish red gemmae. The Indian plants of the species have comparatively little stouter stem, smaller leaves and larger gemmae. Key to the Indian species of the genus Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. has been provided.
PubDate: 2017-11-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0580-3

• Modelling and Forecasting Marine Fish Production in Odisha Using Seasonal
ARIMA Model
• Authors: Rohan Kumar Raman; T. V. Sathianandan; A. P. Sharma; B. P. Mohanty
Abstract: Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) is one of the most popular models in time series data analysis. In the present study, total marine fish landings (quaterwise) in Odisha during the period 1985–2012 has been analysed to estimate the effect of possible intervention and also for short term forecasting by fitting ARIMA model in two situations: one by accounting for intervention in the model and the other with log transformed data. ARIMA model with log transformed data performed better than the model with intervention component based on Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion of model selection. The model was used to forecast fish landings for the years 2013–2015.
PubDate: 2017-11-08
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0581-2

• An ED-Based Enhanced Energy Efficient Cross Layer Model for Mobile
Wireless Sensor Network
• Authors: Sudhakar Pandey; Deepika Agrawal
Abstract: Present study indicates to improve network performances which use cross-layer approach. Application of transmission power control technique to dynamically adjust transmission power results in significant reduction of energy consumption. Along with this, a weight is calculated by considering ‘ED’, associated with each node to reduce control overhead. ‘E’ stands for energy while ‘D’ stands for degree. Control overhead reduction during route discovery and dynamic adjustment of transmission power improves network performance and reduces energy consumption. The results are compared with popular algorithm which proved that proposed algorithm performs better in terms of efficiency metrics.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0591-0

• Inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting
Rhizobacteria in Modulating Phosphorus Dynamics in Turmeric Rhizosphere
• Authors: Shanti Chaya Dutta; Bijoy Neog
Abstract: Rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) are widely used for their medicinal as well as flavoring properties and in order to concentrate on biological means of promoting turmeric cultivation in Assam, North East India, a greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi association in modulating soil phosphatase activity and phosphorus uptake by plants. The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alone and in combination with phosphate solubilizing and nitrogen fixing bacteria was assessed on turmeric rhizosphere and treated plants exhibited an enhanced phosphatase activity of 18.11–21.19 µg p-nitrophenol g−1 h−1 at 90 days and 18.33–21.39 µg p-nitrophenol g−1 h−1 at 150 days after planting and then reduced to 13.89–16.60 µg p-nitrophenol g−1 h−1 at the time of harvest i.e. at 210 days after planting as compared to control. Phosphatase activity showed a rapid increase in dual and consortium inoculation in comparison to mono inoculation. A significantly higher available phosphorus concentration (7.10–8.50 mg kg−1 soil) in rhizospheric soil was observed at 90 days after planting in all the treated plants over control. Total phosphorus uptake by plants inoculated with all the treatment types were significantly higher (21.40–26.32 mg plant−1) compared with the control. This study suggests a synergistic interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on phosphorus dynamics in the rhizosphere of turmeric plants.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0582-1

• MAP Based V-BLAST Transmission to Improve Network Lifetime in Virtual MIMO
Based Wireless Sensor Networks
• Authors: K. Rajeswari; M. A. Bhagyaveni
Abstract: One of the major issues in wireless sensor network is to reduce the energy consumption and to improve the network lifetime. Present work describes about the maximum a posterior estimate based V-BLAST transmission is used to improve the network life time of energy constrained networks. Here the sensors are randomly distributed and for data transmission V-BLAST method is used. Before transmitting data, the source node has to choose cooperative nodes and at each hop the selection of cooperative nodes is necessary. For proper selection of cooperative nodes, both prior and posterior probabilities are considered. The posterior probability is calculated with the knowledge of prior probability. The prior parameters are residual energy ( $${\text{R}}_{\text{e }}$$ ) and distance ( $${\text{D}}_{\text{t }}$$ ) of the intermediate nodes. The post conditions are channel interference ( $${\text{C}}_{\text{i }}$$ ), delay for transmitting ( $${\text{T}}_{\text{d }}$$ ) data to intermediator node, overload ( $${\text{O}}_{\text{l }}$$ ) at an intermediator node.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0578-x

• Stability and Stabilization of Linear Fractional Order Systems with Input
Delay Using Linear Matrix Inequalities
• Authors: Saeed Shakibaie; Saeed Balochian
Abstract: Stability and stabilization of delayed linear fractional order systems with input delay using linear matrix inequalities were considered in the present study. At first, the input delay fractional order system was changed into a free delay fractional order system using an alternate variable. Thereafter, using a state feedback, the systems were turned into a closed loop. Later on, the system stabilization was examined by applying linear matrix inequality theorems and, finally, an example was used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0598-6

• CPW Fed Dual Notched Band UWB Antenna for Indoor Communication Systems
• Authors: Priyadarshi Suraj; Vibha Rani Gupta; Manish Saxena
Abstract: A co-planar waveguide fed ultra-wideband antenna with dual notches at 4 and 5.4 GHz is proposed. Two modified complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) shaped etched slots on the radiating patch generate the required dual notches. The notch positions are functions of CSRR profile dimensions. In order to improve the pass band characteristics of the proposed structure, defected ground structures (DGS) are introduced, one close to the feed line (lower DGS) and other at the upper corner edge. The structure is small in size measuring 26.75 × 33.5 × 1.6 s mm3.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0585-y

• Frullania larjiana S.K. Singh &amp; D.K. Singh, a New Addition to
South Indian Bryoflora
• Authors: A. K. Asthana; Priyanshu Srivastava; Ichha Omar
Abstract: Frullania larjiana S.K. Singh & D.K. Singh has recently been identified from Eastern Ghats region in Tamil Nadu which is a new addition to the Bryoflora of South India. Thus range of distribution of this taxon has been extended from western Himalaya to South India. The species was earlier known from western Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh) by its circumscription only and was considered as endemic to that area.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0583-0

• Plant Emergence and t 50 Responses of Two Chickpea Cultivar Differing in
Seed Coat Colour to PEG-Osmopriming at Sub-optimal Temperature
• Authors: Amrit Lamichaney; P. K. Katiyar
Abstract: The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) priming on seedling emergence was assessed in two cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) differing in testa colour (Kripa-light coloured; DCP 92-3-yellowish brown) at optimal (20 °C) and sub optimal (14 and 30 °C) temperatures using sterilized sand and soil as substrate. PEG primed seeds performed better in sand. In soil, primed Kripa seeds failed to emerge at sub optimal temperatures while unprimed seeds emerged at all temperatures. DCP 92-3 was able to maintain the emergence as that of sand at all temperature but reduced significantly in terms of final emergence and time to reach 50% germination (t50) following osmopriming. Such contrasting performance of osmoprimed seeds in sand and soil may be attributed to decrease in seed tannin content following PEG osmopriming. Kripa and DCP 92-3 had a seed tannin content of 206.4 ± 2.2 and 550 ± 2.2 mg/100 g seed fresh weight respectively, which was reduced to 101.6 ± 2.6 and 394.7 ± 6.1 mg/100 g seed fresh weight following priming. The result suggests using of cultivars with high tannin content when sowing has to be done at sub optimal temperatures.
PubDate: 2017-11-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0599-5

• Stigmatic Movement Promotes Cross Pollination in Rheum webbianum Royle: An
Important Endemic Medicinal Plant of Kashmir Himalaya
• Authors: Aijaz Hassan Ganie; Bilal Ahmad Tali; Zafar A. Reshi; Irshad A. Nawchoo
Abstract: Rheum webbianum Royle is an important endemic medicinal plant species growing in Western Himalaya. The plant species has been categorized as vulnerable in this region. Keeping in view its medicinal importance and the threatened nature, the present study has been carried out to understand its breeding behavior which may prove helpful in the conservation and sustainable use of this important medicinal plant. The unique movement of stigmas avoids self-pollination in the species. In addition, protandry and high pollen/ovule ratio also favours cross pollination in the species. The species has adapted to the cross pollination in order to generate the genetic variability to withstand the harsh environmental conditions in alpines where the species grows. This genetic variability is maintained by vegetative reproduction through rhizomes.
PubDate: 2017-11-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0579-9

• Autophagy: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine’ 16 to the
Intra-Cellular Suicidal Process
• Authors: Aparna Banerjee; Rajib Bandopadhyay
Abstract: Yoshinori Ohsumi from Tokyo Institute of Technology of Japan had received the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 for discovering the mechanism of cell’s self-eating autophagy, which is remarkable research in itself for cellular suicidal mediated cell recycling.
PubDate: 2017-11-03
DOI: 10.1007/s40009-017-0576-z

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