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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 971 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (167 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (142 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (160 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (166 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (9 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (299 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (299 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afghanistan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift für Sozialtheorie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access  
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cankiri Karatekin University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Con Texte     Open Access  
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Culturas : Debates y Perspectivas de un Mundo en Cambio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Digital Studies / Le champ numerique     Open Access  
Digitális Bölcsészet / Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Dorsal : Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
E+E : Estudios de Extensión en Humanidades     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Marx-Engels Jahrbuch     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free  
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Humanities
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2076-0787
Published by MDPI Homepage  [215 journals]
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Not Something, Not Nothing, Not Shakespeare:
           Digitized Playbooks and the Question of Access in the Undergraduate
           Literature Classroom

    • Authors: Jordan Windholz
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The digital divide is deeply felt by undergraduate students in resource-restricted universities, but creative, if also labor-intensive, solutions exist for instructors negotiating paywalls and other institutional impediments. In this essay, I argue that teaching early modern drama outside the restraints of the Shakespearean archive and through a host of digital archives, databases, and tools not only engages students in inquiry-based, active learning but also cultivates a critical sense of how digital tools obviate and exacerbate questions of access. To make my case, I describe how I designed and taught a course on non-Shakespearean drama for English majors at Shippensburg University, one of Pennyslvania’s state-funded universities. After describing the mechanics of the course, I further theorize and examine the ways centering digital archives, databases, and tools as course texts enables students to think critically about the content available through these resources as well as the information hierarchies and receptions histories they promulgate.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 62: James Bond’s Biopolitics

    • Authors: Wieland Schwanebeck
      First page: 62
      Abstract: This chapter traces Foucauldian technologies of power in the James Bond universe and characterises the Bond franchise’s biopolitics in the cultural environment of the 1960s and 1970s, when 007 became a mass phenomenon. The majority of the chapter is dedicated to a case study of On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Ian Fleming’s tenth Bond novel (1963) and the sixth film in the EON series (1969). The chapter highlights the intersection between reproduction and fertility on the one hand and the infliction of death and mass genocide on the other, and it examines how James Bond juxtaposes the disciplinary means that are directed against the body (as an organism) on the one hand, and the state-powered regulation of biological processes that control the population on the other. The two versions of On Her Majesty’s Secret Service amount to the franchise’s most straightforward foray into the realm of biopolitics and would pave the way for the franchise’s subsequent biopolitical and eugenic moments, like when the figure of the genocidal villain gets to articulate the franchise’s own subliminal agenda regarding population control and the future of the (British) species.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 63: Translating the Enemy in the ‘Terp’:
           Three Representations in Contemporary Afghan War Fiction

    • Authors: Johnson
      First page: 63
      Abstract: This essay examines the ambivalent relationships between American soldiers deployed to Afghanistan and their unit interpreters in recent fictional works by Joydeep Roy-Bhattacharya, Luke Mogelson, and Will Mackin. In these works, the interpreter characters often occupy the liminal space between who is a friend and who is an enemy, serving as an ally to American military units while also reflecting projections of soldiers’ assumptions about the enemy in relation to themselves. Most prominent in encounters with ‘terps’ are the discursive tactics employed intentionally and institutionally as boundaries by American forces that attempt to keep terps ‘othered’—particularly tactics that prevent terps from exhibiting idealized American masculinity, and those of Islamophobic racism. The three terps in the study point to a rupture in the optimistic views about multiculturalism, where the terp translates an awareness of a cultural chasm instead of a bridge. In fictional narratives, more than finding agency in crossing boundaries, terps are fundamental in signifying where boundaries exist as they are caught in their interstices, as well as in critiquing the sources of those boundaries.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Out of Time: Accomplices in Post-Carceral
           World-Building

    • Authors: Benjamin J. Hall, Rhiannon M. Cates, Vicki L. Reitenauer
      First page: 64
      Abstract: An article in which a faculty member, a university staff member and former student, and a currently incarcerated student and teaching assistant collaboratively examine their experiences as co-teachers and co-learners in a humanities-based prison classroom, and as co-authors of the article itself. Fostered by the faculty member’s pedagogical approach and design of the course, the authors pose that critical practices of writing and learning are dynamic sites of imagination and collaboration, and in turn, avenues by which informed and intentional futures can be enacted. Locating their practice and experience of partnership within a prison, the authors enter their co-created and individual narratives into a discussion of the liberatory potentiality of written and collaborative “world-building” to identify, resist, and replace mechanisms of harm and oppression, effectively bringing a post-carceral world into being.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Nomadic Narrative in Charlotte
           Brontë’s Villette

    • Authors: Jungah Kim
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Various critics have examined Charlotte Brontë’s Villette’s missing ending as a proof of Lucy Snowe’s unreliability in leaving the narrative purposefully ambiguous to escape her possible negative ending. I, however, interpret the ending as one of the ways in which she actively and positively refuses the concept of closure, and rather, creates, what I would call, a nomadic narrative. Nomadic narrative is term I coined based on the idea of Rosi Braidotti’s nomadic theory and Georg Lukács’s The Theory of the Novel to re-imagine Lucy’s narration and narrative, not as a concealment, but as an embracement of her nomadic subjectivity and acknowledgement that she has no true end. I further argue that nomadic narrative is a narrative that fractures and recreates itself through its gaps and rewritten portions, gaining its own sense of agency. Unlike narratives that only fixate on protagonists, nomadic narrative becomes an open and posthuman space that allows the incorporation of nonhuman subjects.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 66: (Re)moving the Masses: Colonisation as
           Domestic Displacement in the Roman Republic

    • Authors: Evan Jewell
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Metaphors move—and displace—people. This paper starts from this premise, focusing on how elites have deployed metaphors of water and waste to form a rhetorical consensus around the displacement of non-elite citizens in ancient Roman contexts, with reference to similar discourses in the contemporary Global North and Brazil. The notion of ‘domestic displacement’—the forced movement of citizens within their own sovereign territory—elucidates how these metaphors were used by elite citizens, such as Cicero, to mark out non-elite citizens for removal from the city of Rome through colonisation programmes. In the elite discourse of the late Republican and early Augustan periods, physical proximity to and figurative equation with the refuse of the city repeatedly signals the low social and legal status of potential colonists, while a corresponding metaphor of ‘draining’ expresses the elite desire to displace these groups to colonial sites. The material outcome of these metaphors emerges in the non-elite demographic texture of Julius Caesar’s colonists, many of whom were drawn from the plebs urbana and freedmen. An elite rationale, detectable in the writings of Cicero, Livy, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and others, underpins the notion of Roman colonisation as a mechanism of displacement. On this view, the colony served to alleviate the founding city—Rome—of its surplus population, politically volatile elements, and socially marginalised citizens, and in so doing, populate the margins of its empire too. Romulus’ asylum, read anew as an Alban colony, serves as one prototype for this model of colonisation and offers a contrast to recent readings that have deployed the asylum as an ethical example for contemporary immigration and asylum seeker policy. The invocation of Romulus’ asylum in 19th century debates about the Australian penal colonies further illustrates the dangers of appropriating the asylum towards an ethics of virtue. At its core, this paper drills down into the question of Roman colonists’ volition, considering the evidence for their voluntary and involuntary movement to a colonial site and challenging the current understanding of this movement as a straightforward, series of voluntary ‘mass migrations’. In recognising the agency wielded by non-elite citizens as prospective colonists, this paper contends that Roman colonisation, when understood as a form of domestic displacement, opens up another avenue for coming to grips with the dynamics of ‘popular’ politics in the Republican period.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020066
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 67: Lend Us Your Earbuds:
           Shakespeare/Podcasting/Poesis

    • Authors: Devori Kimbro, Michael Noschka, Geoffrey Way
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Podcasts by nature break down traditional economic barriers to making and accessing content. With low costs to both distribute and access, does podcasting provide a new outlet for academics, practitioners, and audiences to explore typically “high-minded” art or scholarly discussions usually blocked by the price of a theater ticket or a subscription to a paywalled database' To answer these questions, we define a poetics of podcasting—one that encourages humanities thinking par excellence—and, more importantly, carries with it implications for humanities studies writ large. To think in terms of poetics of podcasting shifts attention to the study of how we can craft, form, wright, and write for and with different communities both inside and outside the academy. In examining the current field of Shakespeare studies and podcasting, we argue podcasting incorporates elements ranging from the “slow” professor movement, to composition studies, to the early modern print market, discussing different methods that are both inspired by and disrupt traditional forms of knowledge production in the process.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020067
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 68: Digital Preservation of Indigenous Culture
           and Narratives from the Global South: In Search of an Approach

    • Authors: Uttaran Dutta
      First page: 68
      Abstract: This research seeks to digitally preserve cultural histories and artifacts, which are practiced/produced in the underserved indigenous spaces of rural eastern India. This paper is a case study of co-developing Sangraksha—a digital humanities application. The application seeks to facilitate the process of writing history from the below by underrepresented populations at the margins. The villages in this research were geographically remote and socio-economically underdeveloped. The research populations represented individuals who possessed low levels of literacy, limited language proficiency in English and mainstream Indic languages (e.g., Hindi and Bengali), as well as limited familiarity with computers and computing environments. Grounded in long-term ethnographic engagements in the remote Global South, this study explored a range of cultural, aesthetic, and contextual factors that were instrumental in shaping and co-generating digital humanities solutions for under-researched international populations. On one hand, the research initiative sought to co-create a culturally meaningful and welcoming digital environment to make the experience contextually appropriate and user-friendly. On the other hand, grounded in visual and sensory methodologies, this research used community generated imageries and multimedia (audio, photographs and audio-visual) to make the application inclusive and accessible. Moreover, the application-development attempt also paid close attention to intercultural, local-centric, community-driven co-design aspects to make the approach socially-embedded and sustainable in the long term.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 69: Mourid Barghouti’s I Saw Ramallah: The
           Impossible Return of the Displaced Autobiographer

    • Authors: Alsaleh
      First page: 69
      Abstract: This article examines and problematizes the idea of return in the autobiography of Mourid Barghouti’s Ra’aytu Ram Allah (I Saw Ramallah). After thirty years of living in Egypt and Budapest, Barghouti returned to his hometown Ramallah in 1996 for a short visit that composes the core of his text. I investigate how Barghouti’s text unveils the Palestinian exile as a permanent state, but also as a challenged, resisted, or accepted the process of shifting people and places over time. By re-examining this autobiography within the frame of reading it as a displaced text, (or “displaced autobiography”) I show how I Saw Ramallah seeks to move beyond the state of exile and expose its aftermath, especially when the displaced person is back in his or her homeland. I also explore how the author’s return to his original place invokes the memory of a remote past, inviting a buried or forgotten selfhood. I argue that by recalling this past, which occurred before displacement, a displaced autobiographer like Barghouti attempts to “fix” Palestine as a land for the people who have memories and history in it.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020069
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 70: Personal Narratives of Mental Illness:
           Redressing Madness in the Singaporean Fiction of Amanda Lee Koe

    • Authors: Yit
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Amanda Lee Koe’s short stories (2013) redress the limited tolerance for the mad citizen-subject, whose subjectivity is obscured, if not erased, by medical prescriptions. Official and often state-sanctioned conceptualizations of the peculiar mind are grievously justified in behavioral manifestations deemed socially unacceptable. Koe’s stories about idiosyncratic Singaporeans illustrate the way personal experiences—of memory loss, homosexual tendencies, and emotional self-expressions—are informed by, and in turn inform, the biopolitical regulation of Singaporean citizens rendered objects of biopower. In this way, her stories invite a meditation on the state, people and power. Foregrounding fractured and unorthodox characters, these stories serve to intensify individual voices articulated in personal narratives addressing affective experiences, including sadness culminating in loneliness. Furthermore, the stories attest to socially constructed norms instigating the repudiation and criminalization of sexual deviants. Significantly, they add to the “cultural apparatus”—which C.W. Mills defines as “the source of Human Variety—of styles of living and of ways to die”—by questioning the nation’s ideological imperatives, including heterosexual norms, social insistence on mono-cultural marriages and state/family-endorsed medical intervention. Offering a critique of ideological state apparatus embedded within the power structures inherent to psychopathology, Koe’s Ministry of Moral Panic challenges the established ways of viewing “Others” who are ostensibly “mad”. Consequently, her stories mediate a broadening human experience, by calling for inclusivity amid the social rejection and insular treatment of afflicted subjects with alleged disorders.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020070
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 71: The Prague Orgy: The Life of Writers in a
           Totalitarian State According to Philip Roth

    • Authors: Michal Sýkora
      First page: 71
      Abstract: This paper deals with the way Philip Roth depicted writers in Czechoslovakia in the 1970s in his novella The Prague Orgy, the final part of the Zuckerman Bound tetralogy. Researchers often read The Prague Orgy in the context of the entire tetralogy and accentuate the contact with Jewish topics. The primary focus of the paper is how Roth views Czech writers and their lives through the eyes of his long-term hero (and fictional alter-ego) Nathan Zuckerman and how he perceives life in a totalitarian state. The Prague Orgy is discussed as a somewhat abstract story about the writer’s freedom and responsibility of their work. There are three types of writers in The Prague Orgy: The émigré (Sisovsky), the dissenter (Bolotka), and the pro-regime (Novak). Each of them, in an interview with Roth’s hero, formulates his attitude to the regime. Zuckerman is fascinated by the life of opposition artists, their experience of freedom (realized in the private sphere), and the social response to their work. Although the reality of life in Czechoslovakia under communism is not the main topic of the novella, the paper concludes that the depiction of life of Czech underground intellectuals interested mostly in sex is in consonance with the picture of Czech dissent in official regime propaganda.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020071
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 72: Home as Love: Transcending Positionality in
           Leila Aboulela’s The Translator

    • Authors: Ghadir K. Zannoun
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Contrary to hegemonic Western representations of Muslim women as victims of Islam and Muslim men, Sudanese-Scottish Leila Aboulela’s The Translator depicts a Muslim woman, Sammar, whose sense of home and belonging is predicated on her romantic love for her late cousin and husband, Tarig. Therefore, after his death, she feels alienated from her home in Sudan and leaves for Aberdeen, Scotland, where she is ostracized because she is Muslim. While this Muslim identity proves indispensable for her survival and gradual healing, ultimate normalcy and belonging are restored when she reclaims the world of love and acceptance she has lost with Tarig’s death through a new relationship. The romantic love and the language she uses in this relationship allow Sammar to restore the sense of being and the belonging she had at home within the spaces she occupies in Aberdeen, ending her alienation and reclaiming her subjectivity. Using feminist theory and postcolonial theories of place and identity, as well as Lila Abu-Lughod’s notion of emotional discourse as a pragmatic act, this study investigates the novel’s depiction of place and identity as constructed entities embedded in emotion. This depiction, this study proposes, undermine various positionalities and binaries, such as self/other and east/west, allowing Aboulela to approach them more critically.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020072
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 73: ‘Daring, Unusual Things’: Bertolt
           Brecht’s Photo-Epigrams as Poetic Inventions

    • Authors: Alizadeh
      First page: 73
      Abstract: This essay explores the aesthetics of Bertolt Brecht’s compositions of poetry with photography in the so-called photo-epigrams of his 1955 book War Primer. The photo-epigrams have mostly been viewed and appreciated as interventions in photography; but in this essay I aim to show their novelty and efficacy as poetic inventions. To do so, I draw on Karl Marx’s and Walter Benjamin’s views apropos the decline of poetry under modern, industrial capitalism to argue that Brecht, in his photo-epigrams, is responding to—and attempting to counter—a specific problem at the heart of modern poetry: the crisis in perceptibility and accessibility. By coupling poems with photographs—in unique and uniquely politicised ways—Brecht provides a resonant critique of the deadly ideologies of the ruling classes engaged in World War II, as well as a method for addressing the decline in the readability of poetry in the modern era.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020073
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 74: Productive Remembering of Childhood:
           Child–Adult Memory-Work with the School Literary Canon

    • Authors: Justyna Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Mateusz Marecki, Ewa Chawar, Magdalena Kaczkowska, Katarzyna Kowalska, Aleksandra Kulawik, Maja Ożlańska, Milena Palczyńska, Natalia Parcheniak, Eryk Pszczołowski
      First page: 74
      Abstract: This essay, co-written by adult and child researchers, marks an important shift in the field of children’s literature studies because it promotes an academic practice in which children are actively involved in decision-making. In our polyphonic account of the collaboration, we draw on the ideas of productive remembering, re-memorying, and child-led research to advance a new pedagogical approach to the current, adult-centered literary school canon in Poland, which was compiled in 2017 by a panel of politically appointed experts. We exemplify our proposal by discussing “Staś and Nel in the 21st Century”: Do Long-established School Readings Connect Generations'”, a participatory research project conducted at a primary school in Wrocław, Poland, in spring 2018. As we argue, selected texts from the canon may catalyze memories of childhood from older readers that can be shared with younger readers to develop their own connections with these texts. Such an exchange may open new individual and collective remembering spaces linking intragenerational perspectives with intergenerational meanings and resulting in a school canon that promotes both national cohesion and openness to other cultures. Seen thus, our approach can be adopted in school and other settings to engage children and adults as co-creators of particular memory-work methods. In broader terms, it can promote a critical and action-oriented understanding of the heritage of childhood in Poland and elsewhere.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020074
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 75: Women’s Ageing as Disease

    • Authors: Sara Zadrozny
      First page: 75
      Abstract: In the medical humanities, there has been a growing interest in diagnosing disease in fictional characters, particularly with the idea that characters in Charles Dickens’s novels may be suffering from diseases recognised today. However, an area that deserves greater attention is the representation of women’s ageing as disease in Victorian literature and medical narratives. Even as Victorian doctors were trying to cure age-related illnesses, they continued to employ classical notions of unhealthy female ageing. For all his interest in medical matters, the novelist Charles Dickens wrote about old women in a similar vein. Using close reading to analyse Victorian gerontology alongside Charles Dickens’s novels Dombey and Son (1848) and Great Expectations (1861), this article examines narratives of female ageing as disease. It concludes by pointing to the ways that Victorian gerontology impacts on how we view women’s ageing as ‘diseased’ today.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020075
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 76: Treading Other Paths within Afro-Diasporic
           Contexts: Unilab Students’ Experiences, Challenges, and Perspectives

    • Authors: Cristiane Santos Souza
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In this paper, I discuss some of the processes that characterized the creation and consolidation of the University of International Integration of Afro-Brazilian Lusophony (Unilab) in Bahia, as part of the expansion project of public higher education in Brazil that was implemented during the Lula presidency (2003–2010) and defined in the government’s internationalization and regionalization project. To this end, I reviewed the literature and institutional documents from the past four years and analyzed observations of daily campus life. I highlight some challenges as well as possibilities for young international students, particularly young Africans from the five Portuguese-speaking countries, and for Brazilian nationals, too, which arise from the implementation of this public higher education expansion program in the Recôncavo Baiano region. Finally, I conclude with observations about the cultural diversity and social reality inherent to the context and discuss the conceptual and practical challenges and possibilities arising from that intercultural reality.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020076
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 77: Tamar Yoseloff as Ekphrasist, and Her Hidden
           Sweetheart: ‘I Took His Heart, Placed It/in an Ivory Case’

    • Authors: Huen
      First page: 77
      Abstract: This article investigates Tamar Yoseloff’s different engagements with the visual arts in her ekphrastic poems by focusing on her first collection Sweetheart (1998). There are many critical studies about the poetic ekphrastic tradition, but there is rarely an in-depth investigation into a poet’s dedication to ekphrasis. This article suggests that Tamar Yoseloff’s dedication to ekphrasis is traceable to her earliest work. With a close analysis of three poems from Sweetheart—‘The Two Fridas’, ‘The Arnolfini Marriage’ and ‘The Visible Man’, I argue that the book is a sustained exploration of the autobiographical and biographical enigmas represented in visual artworks and artefacts, as well as our identification with these enigmas. It is hoped that this article could initiate a discussion about the tradition of poets dedicated to ekphrasis being as long as the tradition of modern ekphrasis.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020077
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 78: The Future Modernism of No-Oil Norway:
           Øyvind Rimbereid’s “Solaris Corrected”

    • Authors: Per Thomas Andersen
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The article is a literary analysis of the poem “Solaris Corrected” by the Norwegian poet Øyvind Rimbereid. The work is a poetical science fiction where the oil industry in the North Sea is seen from a retrospective point of view, conveyed in a future language. As a part of the modernist tradition in Scandinavian literature, Rimbereid’s work can be read as a significant renewal of the poetic heritage from among others Rolf Jacobsen and Harry Martinson.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020078
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 79: Painting a Bibliography: Excerpts from
           SPEECH

    • Authors: Magi
      First page: 79
      Abstract: The following excerpts—rearranged especially for this condensed reading space—are from a project entitled SPEECH (Nightboat Books 2019): a book of poetry, prose, and images from an archive of paintings that were made by the author during the time of the book’s writing [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020079
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 80: Contested Spaces: The Heterotopias of the
           Victorian Sickroom

    • Authors: Amanda Caleb
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Both the invalid and the sickroom pervade the writings of the Victorian period, particularly in fiction, medical guidebooks, and autobiographies. The sickroom is a space that separates the invalid from the healthy space of the house and defines the invalid body as other. However, as a space that is both marginalized and central, the sickroom is molded by the medical and social views of sickness and the individualized experience of illness. This article contextualizes the Victorian sickroom by conceptualizing it through the lens of Foucault’s heterotopia of deviation, which represents the medicalized act of dividing practices to physically separate those deemed sick from healthy people and spaces. The sickroom functions as a heterotopia in three ways: physical space created by medical authority; textual space contested through invalid narratives; and bodily space, whereby the sickroom is mapped onto the invalid’s body. Thus, the sickroom as heterotopia reveals the contentiousness of invalidism and the limitations of medical authority and power.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020080
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 81: “I Will Always Be Crossing Ocean Parkway;
           I Have Crossed It; I Will Never Cross It.” Marianna De Marco Torgovnick,
           Crossing Ocean Parkway

    • Authors: Eleonora Rao
      First page: 81
      Abstract: In Crossing Ocean Parkway (1994), scholar and literary critic Marianna De Marco Torgovnick—now Professor of English at Duke University—traces her story as an Italian-American girl growing up in a working-class Italian neighborhood of New York City that could not satisfy her desire for learning and for upward mobility. De Marco’s personal experiences of cultural border crossings finds here specific spatial reference especially through Ocean Parkway, “a wide, tree-lined street in Brooklyn, a symbol of upward mobility, and a powerful state of mind” (p. vii). Border crossing or trespassing inform this text. De Marco moved from an Italian immigrant milieu to a sophisticated Jewish community, via her marriage, and from a minority group to a successful career in academia. There are also crossings between being a professional, a wife, a mother, and a daughter; between being an insider and an outsider; between longing to be free and the desire to belong; between safety and danger, joy and mourning, nostalgia and contempt. In representing her younger self as “outsider” to her received community, she provides a sharp analysis of the tensions within American society.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020081
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 82: “A Doll’s House Conquered Europe”:
           Ibsen, His English Parodists, and the Debate over World Drama

    • Authors: Christian
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The London premieres of Henrik Ibsen’s plays in the late 1880s and 1890s sparked strong reactions both of admiration and disgust. This controversy, I suggest, was largely focused on national identity and artistic cosmopolitanism. While Ibsen’s English supporters viewed him as a leader of a new international theatrical movement, detractors dismissed him as an obscure writer from a primitive, marginal nation. This essay examines the ways in which these competing assessments were reflected in the English adaptations, parodies, and sequels of Ibsen’s plays that were written and published during the final decades of the nineteenth century, texts by Henry Herman and Henry Arthur Jones, Walter Besant, Bernard Shaw, Eleanor Marx and Israel Zangwill, and F. Anstey (Thomas Anstey Guthrie). These rewritings tended to respond to Ibsen’s foreignness in one of three ways: Either to assimilate the plays’ settings, characters, and values into normative Englishness; to exaggerate their exoticism (generally in combination with a suggestion of moral danger); or to keep their Norwegian settings and depict those settings (along with characters and ideas) as ordinary and familiar. Through their varying responses to Ibsen’s Norwegian origin, I suggest, these adaptations offered a uniquely practical and concrete medium for articulating ideas about the ways in which art shapes both national identity and the international community.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020082
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 83: Erratum: Insects and the Kafkaesque:
           Insectuous Re-Writings in Visual and Audio-Visual Media. Humanities 2017,
           6, 74

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 83
      Abstract: The editorial team would like to make the following changes to the published paper by Grammatikopoulos (2017): [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020083
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 84: Romanian Users’ YouTube
           “Shakespeares”: Digital Localities in Global Fields

    • Authors: Mihai
      First page: 84
      Abstract: The cultural production of “Shakespeare” on the Internet has received growing attention in recent years, particularly in reference to newcomers in the field such as media users or “prosumers”. This is potentiated by the connectivity of digital platforms and growing access to digital means of production and distribution. From a field perspective on digital cultural production, participation online can be seen as a socially situated activity, often differentiated and marked by the habitus of digital media users. The present article aims firstly to discuss the utility of a field conceptualization of the cultural production of Shakespeare online, with reference to the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Secondly, through a critical framework derived from cultural and media economies, this article analyses Romanian appropriations of Shakespeare’s works on YouTube as cultural productions inscribed in both the global digital economy and also in the local cultural field. Thirdly, based on an overview of Romanian producers who have published Shakespeare videos and on the analysis of their visibility and circulation online, as well as their chosen genres and discourses, I argue that the Romanian digital (re)production of Shakespeare is situated at the periphery of both the national and the global digital field. User-made Shakespeare productions are yet to find valuation in the local cultural and media fields, being situated in an illegitimate location for appropriating Shakespeare. This will be contextualized in the larger discourse regarding the fundamental role of curation, but also in light of recent concerns about privileged locations, languages, and algorithmic bias across online cultural production, circulation, and consumption.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020084
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 85: Fish- and Shellmiddens from Galicia
           (Northwest Spain): Reflections upon a Neglected Coastal Cultural Heritage
           from the Iberian Peninsula

    • Authors: de Agüero, Fernández-Rodríguez, Roselló-Izquierdo, Llorente-Rodriguez, Bejega-García, Fuertes-Prieto, Morales-Muñiz
      First page: 85
      Abstract: The physiographical features of the Galician sea, in particular its temperature, marine currents and plankton richness, have turned its waters into one of the most biologically diversified marine regions of the planet. The 1500 km of shorelines from this Northwest Iberian region are dotted with rías (Galician fjords) where settlements devoted to fishing and trade have existed since prehistoric times. These activities left abundant testimonies in terms of archaeological deposits. In recent decades, urban/industrial development, as well as a number of natural agents (e.g., storms, sea level rise, climate change), is rapidly erasing the evidences of this rich cultural heritage. Loss of fish and shellmiddens in particular will hamper our ability to infer traditional lifeways, doing away with evidence that is crucial to monitoring past climatic changes and to inferring those biological conditions under which marine species and coastal populations thrived in the past. This paper surveys some issues dealing with the coastal bio-archaeological heritage of Galicia, and the risks these deposits face. It concludes with a proposal to save this increasingly threatened marine heritage.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020085
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 86: ‘Mobile Phones and the Internet, Mate’:
           (Social) Media, Art, and Revolution in Omar Robert Hamilton’s The City
           Always Wins

    • Authors: Claire Chambers
      First page: 86
      Abstract: In his novel about the Egyptian Revolution, The City Always Wins (2017), Omar Robert Hamilton shows that the alternative media possess mass engagement and global reach, while threatening power. However, over the course of his novel Hamilton traces the crushing of the ‘Twitter revolution’ and the rise of a disillusionment and despair among the revolutionaries. This downward trajectory is typified both in the appellative journey from Hamilton’s non-profit media collective Mosireen—‘those who insist’—to the novel’s similar group, portentously named Chaos; and in the text’s reverse-chronological structure of ‘Tomorrow’, ‘Today’, and ‘Yesterday’. The author uses Twitter as an archive of an alternative, resistant history of revolutionary struggle; he embeds Tweets in the fabric of this experimental novel; and social media posts interrupt and punctuate the narrative as in the real life of his millennial characters. In this article I explore the novel’s representations of (social) media and the impact these have both on everyday lives and modes of protest. Despite promising beginnings, the internet ultimately turns ‘toxic’ and is depicted as a Pandora’s box of dis- and misinformation, conspiracy theories, fake news, and the manipulations of state media lackeys. A more lasting alternative to media may be ‘creative insurgency’. As such, I conclude this article by discussing what art can achieve that (citizen) journalism cannot, and how this applies to the novel’s portrayals of art, particularly music.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020086
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 87: Researching Child Authors: Which Questions
           (Not) to) Ask

    • Authors: Wesseling
      First page: 87
      Abstract: It used to be taken for a given fact that children’s literature is written by adults for children. This assumption is contested by the emergence of “another children’s literature”, namely literature about, for, and by children. Facilitated by digital platforms, this alternative type of children’s literature is gathering momentum, compelling us to rethink the (im)possibilities of children’s creative agency. As research into children’s literature is largely premised upon the asymmetry between adult authorship and juvenile readership, we need to rethink some fundamental tenets of this academic field in order to come to terms with child authorship. This article reviews leading publications on the topic, to address the question of how we can best acknowledge, facilitate, and appreciate children’s creative agency as an indispensable dimension of their emergent citizenship. Methodological deliberations are illustrated with references to primary works by child authors about topical societal issues such as ethnic conflict, homelessness, and migration. Its aim is not so much to provide a complete survey of all available publications on the topic, but rather to stake out representative publications that exemplify more and less fruitful approaches to the problem at hand.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020087
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 88: On the Colonial Past of Anthropology:
           Teaching Race and Coloniality in the Global South

    • Authors: Maria Andrea dos Santos Soares
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This article addresses some of the discussions taking place at the Social Sciences program of the Afro-Brazilian International University for Lusophone Integration (UNILAB), such as the coloniality of knowledge, racial hierarchies, and anthropology’s complicity in colonialism. The article reviews current literature and draws on ethnographic fieldwork for two main purposes: First, to analyze how Afro–Brazilians, and Afro–Brazilian culture have been depicted and used in the process of national formation. Second, to examine the role that social and anthropological analysis played by dismissing “race” and “racism” as a structuring feature of Brazilian society. I propose that the ethics of an anthropological praxis aiming to create the necessary conditions for a different kind of knowledge to emerge, would be critically reflective about its own process of knowledge production, and aware as well, of voices and locations where this knowledge is being produced. The process of decolonization relies on epistemological choices made in the field, at the institutional level within the departments and programs, and in classrooms.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020088
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 89: Appetite, Anatomy, and Desire in Caroline
           Era Poetry and Theatre

    • Authors: Suzy Woltmann
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The Caroline Era in early modern England was characterized by political instability and theological revolution. In response, there were ideological attempts to regulate desire and a distinct focus on the creation of a public persona. These crises led to anxieties about gender, performance, and the body. Literary production at this time was founded in political conflict and was both a response to and an escape from these events. In this article, I argue that early modern writers literarily regulate gender and bodies through the personal, political and theological happenings that they respond to within their work. John Donne’s metaphysical poetry and George Herbert’s The Temple express the anxiety of desire involved in the process of seeking God. These texts translate this through the language of eros, bodily sacrificial connection to the Divine Logos, and communion that focuses on digestion and inclusion in the corporeal universe as a means to achieve the divine moment. Similarly, John Ford’s The Broken Heart portrays anxieties about desire and appetite through female anatomization. The portrayals of desire, anxiety, and appetite in these texts (all first published in 1633) are representative of the historical, political, and religious ideological structures that informed their creation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020089
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 90: Destination Antwerp! Fan Tourism and the
           Transcultural Heritage of A Dog of Flanders

    • Authors: Lincoln Geraghty
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Antwerp, the fictional home of Nello & Patrasche from A Dog of Flanders (1872) written by Marie Louise de la Ramée, attracts thousands of tourists every year to see the city and get close to the fictional text. European children’s literature such as this inspires dedicated fans who long to make more real the imagined spaces described by authors. The city and associated monuments and markers become sites of secular pilgrimage; people traveling to them experience children’s literary culture as localheritage. Traveling across borders, visiting these European spaces of children’s literature, taking official and unofficial tours, and listening to the stories which people share while physically present help to secure a place in which international fans can play with notions of local identity and culturalheritage. Or, as Yi-Fu Tuan argues, “When space feels thoroughly familiar to us, it has become place.” This case study seeks to interrogate the importance of place in the transcultural fan community of A Dog of Flanders. I analyse the touristic pilgrimage to Antwerp and the social/communal rituals associated with what John Urry calls the “mediatised gaze” as fans inhabit spaces typically reserved for city locals. This paper also considers the importance of place in the transcultural fan community of European children’s literature, discussing how glocalization allows texts to travel across international borders and encourage transcultural appropriation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020090
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 91: The Civic Scale: Strategies of Emplacement
           in Dambudzo Marechera and Ivan Vladislavić

    • Authors: Liam Kruger
      First page: 91
      Abstract: This paper identifies and intervenes in the problems posed by reading postcolonial texts as representative, or encompassing of, the nation with which they are associated. Alternatively, it proposes that reading at the scale of the city offers a method for circumventing the elision of particularity which occurs when the nation, continent or globe are foregrounded in Western or Western-facing responses to these texts. The paper models what such a “scaled-down” reading might look like, attending to Dambudzo Marechera’s House of Hunger (1978) and Ivan Vladislavic’s Portrait With Keys: Joburg and What-What (2006), and their intricate relationships to the urban spaces of Harare and Johannesburg, respectively. At stake in these analyses are opportunities to identify what Jacques Rancière terms dissensus, or political contestation, rendered in spatial terms. This establishes a pliable counterdiscourse of the city which seeks and discerns meaning not through consensus or “sanctioned representation”; but through the complexities of affective attachments, the plurality of experiences, and the teeming heterogeneity of physical and literary spaces that have been previously flattened.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020091
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 92: Terrestrial Cosmopolitanism, Posthumanism,
           and Multispecies Modes of Being in Cereus Blooms at Night

    • Authors: Sara V. Press
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Cosmopolitanism has generally been used to describe a philosophy that imagines all humans as citizens of a single “human” community. This article explores a terrestrial cosmopolitanism that challenges the colonial discourse of human exceptionalism by extending the democratization of people to include environmental bodies within their global context, replacing hierarchies with collectivities to reveal humanism’s underrepresented others. Examining interspecies alliances in Shani Mootoo’s Cereus Blooms at Night, I look towards terrestrial cosmopolitanism as an alternative to anthropocentric forms of cosmopolitanism that continue to reinscribe colonialist aspirations and ontologically exclusionary practices. Mootoo’s work decenters how we think about humans and the environment and offers a nuanced depiction of a positive interspecies community that resists harmful humanist taxonomies. Reading the novel’s protagonist, Mala, as a posthuman figure, I argue that her rejection of human language, in conjunction with her nonhuman interactions, positions her as a keeper of collectivity, as she creates a third space of subjectivity in her garden that blurs the boundaries between humans and nonhumans.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020092
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 93: ‘A Marriage of Freud and Euclid’:
           Psychotic Epistemology in The Atrocity Exhibition and Crash

    • Authors: Samuel Francis
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The writings of J.G. Ballard respond to the sciences in multiple ways; as such his (early) writing may productively be discussed as science fiction. However, the theoretical discipline to which he publicly signalled most allegiance, psychoanalysis, is one whose status in relation to science is highly contested and complex. In the 1960s Ballard signalled publicly in his non-fiction writing a belief in psychoanalysis as a science, a position in keeping with psychoanalysis’ contemporary status as the predominant psychological paradigm. Various early Ballard stories enact psychoanalytic theories, while the novel usually read as his serious debut, The Drowned World, aligns itself allusively with an oft-cited depiction by Freud of the revelatory and paradigm-changing nature of the psychoanalytic project. Ballard’s enthusiastic embrace of psychoanalysis in his early 1960s fiction mutated into a fascinatingly delirious vision in some of his most experimental work of the late 1960s and early 1970s of a fusion of psychoanalysis with the mathematical sciences. This paper explores how this ‘Marriage of Freud and Euclid’ is played out in its most systematic form in The Atrocity Exhibition and its successor Crash. By his late career Ballard was acknowledging problems raised over psychoanalysis’ scientific status in the positivist critique of Karl Popper and the work of various combatants in the ‘Freud Wars’ of the 1990s; Ballard at this stage seemed to move towards agreement with interpretations of Freud as a literary or philosophical figure. However, despite making pronouncements reflecting changes in dominant cultural appraisals of Freud, Ballard continued in his later writings to extrapolate the fictive and interpretative possibilities of Freudian and post-Freudian ideas. This article attempts to develop a deeper understanding of Ballard’s ‘scientific’ deployment of psychoanalysis in The Atrocity Exhibition and Crash within the context of a more fully culturally-situated understanding of psychoanalysis’ relationship to science, and thereby to create new possibilities for understanding the meanings of Ballard’s writing within culture at large.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020093
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 94: National Trauma and Romantic Illusions in
           Percy Shelley’s The Cenci

    • Authors: Lisa Kasmer
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Percy Shelley responded to the 1819 Peterloo Massacre by declaring the government’s response “a bloody murderous oppression.” As Shelley’s language suggests, this was a seminal event in the socially conscious life of the poet. Thereafter, Shelley devoted much of his writing to delineating the sociopolitical milieu of 1819 in political and confrontational works, including The Cenci, a verse drama that I argue portrays the coercive violence implicit in nationalism, or, as I term it, national trauma. In displaying the historical Roman Cenci family in starkly vituperous manner, that is, Shelley reveals his drive to speak to the historical moment, as he creates parallels between the tyranny that the Roman pater familias exhibits toward his family and the repression occurring during the time of emergent nationhood in Hanoverian England, which numerous scholars have addressed. While scholars have noted discrete acts of trauma in The Cenci and other Romantic works, there has been little sustained criticism from the theoretical point of view of trauma theory, which inhabits the intersections of history, cultural memory, and trauma, and which I explore as national trauma. Through The Cenci, Shelley implies that national trauma inheres within British nationhood in the multiple traumas of tyrannical rule, shored up by the nation’s cultural memory and history, instantiated in oppressive ancestral order and patrilineage. Viewing The Cenci from the perspective of national trauma, however, I conclude that Shelley’s revulsion at coercive governance and nationalism loses itself in the contemplation of the beautiful pathos of the effects of national trauma witnessed in Beatrice, as he instead turns to a more traditional national narrative.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020094
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 95: Music of the Tabom: An Emblem of Identity

    • Authors: Benjamin Amakye-Boateng
      First page: 95
      Abstract: This paper discusses how music functions as an emblem of identity for the Afro-Brazilian community in Accra, Ghana, known as the Tabom. The paper provides a contextual and analytical study of the complete musical enactment as practiced by this community, and argues, that the Tabom musical genre, known as Agbe, serves the purpose of creating and negotiating identity as found in their use of music within Tabom socio-cultural, religious, and political ceremonies. In this paper, I argue that Agbe is not only an organized sound in Tabom culture, but rather, it is one of the strongest cultural elements that serves as an emblem of identity relating to the life and culture of the Tabom community in Accra. Relying on ethnographic research design, Agbe is presented as the focus of study, subjecting the context in which it is performed to study and analysis. Moreover, the relationships between the Agbe ensemble and their performance context, as well as live events are discussed with the intent of conveying meanings of singing, drumming, dancing, and other related artistic expressions as they all contribute to help the Tabom to negotiate their identity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020095
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 96: Lincoln in the Bardo: “Uh, NOT a
           Historical Novel”

    • Authors: Merritt Moseley
      First page: 96
      Abstract: While George Saunders’s Lincoln in the Bardo (2017) has many of the characteristics of the traditional historical novel—lapse of time, incorporation of historical characters, focus on important world-historical events and conditions—it intriguingly challenges the boundaries of the genre by an unsettling approach to verisimilitude. In addition, its fragmentation and an unusual approach to narrative help to qualify it as a neo-historical novel. The author’s thoughts on historical fiction help to clarify its positioning.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020096
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 97: A Dialogue on the Constructions of GLBT and
           Queer Ethos: “I Belong to a Culture That Includes …”

    • Authors: Jane Hoogestraat, Hillery Glasby
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Invoking a dialogue between two scholars, authors Jane Hoogestraat and Hillery Glasby discuss the exigence for, construction of, and differentiation between LGBT and queer ethos. Drawing from Larry Kramer’s The Normal Heart and the construction of a gay identity, the text explores connections between queer theory, LGBT(Q) ethos, and queer futurity, ultimately arguing for a more nuanced and critical understanding of the undecidability and performativity of LGBT and queer ethos. In framing LGBT and queer ethos as being at the same time a self and socially constructed and mediated—legitimate and illegitimate—ethos can be understood not only as a site for rhetorical agency, but also as an orientation and a form of activism. Finally, the text offers a case study of Adrienne Rich’s “Yom Kippur,” which is a poem that offers a queer (and) Jewish perspective on identity—from an individual and community level—exhibiting both an LGBT and queer ethos.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020097
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 98: Senses of Echo Lake: Michael Palmer, Stanley
           Cavell, and the Moods of an American Philosophical Tradition

    • Authors: Richard Deming
      First page: 98
      Abstract: This essay explores a philosophical tradition that Stanley Cavell has traced out and which he emphasizes as being American inasmuch as it is arises out of the thinking of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. It then investigates how the poems of the avant-garde poet Michael Palmer link with, overlap with, this strain of American philosophy in terms of how it enacts an understanding of what we might call “philosophical mood,” on outlook based on the navigation of representation, generative self-consciousness, and doubt that amounts to a form of epistemology. The essay does not trace the influence—direct or otherwise of Cavell and his arguments for philosophy on the poems, despite a biographical connection between Cavell and Palmer, his former student. Instead it brings out the way that one might fruitfully locate Palmer’s work within an American literary/philosophical continuum. The article shows how that context opens up the work to a range of important existential and ethical implications. I endeavor to show that Notes for Echo Lake, Palmer’s most important collection, locates itself, its language, within such a frame so as to provide a place for readerly encounters with the limitations of language. These encounters then are presented as an opportunity for a deeper understanding of subjectivity and for attuning oneself to the role that active reading and interpretation might play in moral perfectionism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020098
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 99: The American Film Musical and the
           Place(less)ness of Entertainment: Cabaret’s “International
           Sensation” and American Identity in Crisis

    • Authors: Florian Zitzelsberger
      First page: 99
      Abstract: This article looks at cosmopolitanism in the American film musical through the lens of the genre’s self-reflexivity. By incorporating musical numbers into its narrative, the musical mirrors the entertainment industry mise en abyme, and establishes an intrinsic link to America through the act of (cultural) performance. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin’s notion of the chronotope and its recent application to the genre of the musical, I read the implicitly spatial backstage/stage duality overlaying narrative and number—the musical’s dual registers—as a means of challenging representations of Americanness, nationhood, and belonging. The incongruities arising from the segmentation into dual registers, realms complying with their own rules, destabilize the narrative structure of the musical and, as such, put the semantic differences between narrative and number into critical focus. A close reading of the 1972 film Cabaret, whose narrative is set in 1931 Berlin, shows that the cosmopolitanism of the American film musical lies in this juxtaposition of non-American and American (at least connotatively) spaces and the self-reflexive interweaving of their associated registers and narrative levels. If metalepsis designates the transgression of (onto)logically separate syntactic units of film, then it also symbolically constitutes a transgression and rejection of national boundaries. In the case of Cabaret, such incongruities and transgressions eventually undermine the notion of a stable American identity, exposing the American Dream as an illusion produced by the inherent heteronormativity of the entertainment industry. The film advocates a cosmopolitan model of cultural hybridity and the plurality of identities by shedding light on the faultlines of nationalist essentialism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020099
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 100: New Formalism in the Classroom: Re-Forming
           Epic Poetry in Wordsworth and Blake

    • Authors: Matthew Leporati
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in “New Formalism,” a close attention to textual language and structure that departs from the outdated and regressive stances of old formalisms (especially “New Criticism”) by interrogating the connections between form, history, and culture. This article surveys the contributions of New Formalism to Romanticism studies and applies its techniques to two canonical texts, suggesting that New Formalism is useful both for literary criticism and teaching literature. Opening with a survey of New Formalist theory and practices, and an overview of the theoretical innovations within New Formalism that have been made by Romantic scholars, the article applies New Formalist techniques to William Wordsworth’s Prelude and William Blake’s Milton: a Poem. Often read as poems seeking to escape the dispiriting failure of the French Revolution, these texts, I argue, engage the formal strategies of epic poetry to enter the discourse of the period, offering competing ways to conceive of the self in relation to history. Written during the Romantic epic revival, when more epics were composed than at any other time in history, these poems’ allusive dialogue with Paradise Lost and with the epic tradition more broadly allows them to think through the self’s relationship to the past, a question energized by the Revolution Controversy. I explore how Wordsworth uses allusion to link himself to Milton and ultimately Virgil, both privileging the past and thereby asserting the value of the present as a means of reiterating and restoring it; Blake, in contrast, alludes to Milton to query the very idea of dependence on the past. These readings are intertwined with my experiences of teaching, as I have employed New Formalism to encourage students to develop as writers in response to texts. An emphasis on form provides students with concrete modes of entry into discussing literature and allows instructors to help students identify and revise the forms and structures of their own writing in response to literature.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020100
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 101: Genius and Genitality: William S. Burroughs
           Reading Wilhelm Reich

    • Authors: Thomas Antonic
      First page: 101
      Abstract: This article explores the impact of Wilhelm Reich’s theories and writings on the works and thinking of William S. Burroughs. Reich’s significance for Burroughs’ fiction is beyond doubt, as the appearance of Reich’s discoveries and inventions, such as orgones and orgone accumulators, in Burroughs’ major works demonstrates. Yet to date, no attempt has been made in academia to make all those references to Reich in Burroughs’ complete œuvre visible. In order to make the thinking of the Austrian-American psychoanalyst and scientist comprehensible for readers not familiar with Reich, the first section will provide a brief biographical outline. In the subsequent sections, the article will describe how Burroughs and other Beat writers discovered Reich, how and to what extent Burroughs incorporated Reich in his texts throughout his career and what opinions Burroughs expressed about Reich in interviews and letters. For the first time, with a summary as undertaken in this article and by documenting most of the references to Reich in Burroughs’ work, the importance of the former to the latter is revealed in a compact form.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020101
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 102: Ethical Mimesis and Emergence Aesthetics

    • Authors: Josephine Donovan
      First page: 102
      Abstract: In nature the transformation of dead matter (objects) into living matter endowed with green energy or subjectivity is called emergence. Art itself, I argue, is an emergence phenomenon, enacting and replicating in theme and form emergence in nature. Literature thus conceived is about the emergence of spirit. It depicts forces that suppress spirit and enables the spiritual in nature to find expression. It gives voice to spirit rising. Mimesis is thus reconceived as a replication of the natural phenomenon of emergence, which brings to life what has hitherto been seen as object, dead matter. This article outlines the concept of emergence in current philosophical and scientific theories; examines the aesthetic precursors of emergence theory in certain Frankfurt School theorists, notably Theodor Adorno; and applies emergence aesthetic theory to a contemporary novel, Richard Powers’ The Overstory (2018).
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020102
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 3: The Beat Generation Meets the Hungry
           Generation: U.S.–Calcutta Networks and the 1960s “Revolt of the
           Personal”

    • Authors: Belletto
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This essay explores the relationship between the U.S.-based Beat literary movement and the Hungry Generation literary movement centered in and around Calcutta, India, in the early 1960s. It discusses a trip Allen Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky took to India in 1962, where they met writers associated with the Hungry Generation. It further explains how Lawrence Ferlinghetti, owner of City Lights Books in San Francisco, was inspired to start a new literary magazine, City Lights Journal, by Ginsberg’s letters from India, which included work by Hungry Generation writers. The essay shows how City Lights Journal packaged the Hungry Generation writers as the Indian wing of the Beat movement, and focuses in particular on the work of Malay Roy Choudhury, the founder of the Hungry Generation who had been prosecuted for obscenity for his poem “Stark Electric Jesus.” The essay emphasizes in particular the close relationship between aesthetics and politics in Hungry Generation writing, and suggests that Ginsberg’s own mid-1960s turn to political activism via the imagination is reminiscent of strategies employed by Hungry Generation writers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 4: [Mis-]managing Fisheries on the West Coast of
           Ireland in the Nineteenth Century

    • Authors: John B. Roney
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This study focuses on the cultural heritage of artisan coastal fishing in the west of Ireland in the 19th century. The town and port of Dingle, County Kerry, offers an important case study on the progress of local development and changing British policies. While there was clearly an abundance of fish, the poverty and the lack of capital for improvements in ports, vessels, gear, education, and transportation, left the fishing industry underdeveloped until well after the 1890s. In addition, a growing rift developed between the traditional farmer-fishermen and the new middle-class capitalist companies. After several royal commissions examined the fishing industry, the leading ichthyologists of the day concluded that an abundance of fish could be taken without fear of overfishing. The utilitarian economic principle became dominant, changing the previous non-interventionist policies. In the end, there was little concern for sustainability. The mismanagement of commercial fishing in the west of Ireland stemmed from a series of factors, including the increasing need for protein in Britain, technological developments that allowed greater fish catch, and the Conservative government’s political policy of ‘constructive unionism’ that attempted to develop the Irish economy to preserve the kingdom.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Inscription and ‘Anscription’: Surface
           and System in Cybernetics, Deconstruction, and Don DeLillo

    • Authors: Nathaniel Zetter
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This essay proposes the concept of ‘anscription’, and employs it to re-think some of the typical valences of inscription in media theory. The word is derived from the German anschreiben, which can simply mean, ‘to write up’, but also refers to the specific act, and the set of social relations that come into place, when one writes something up on a blackboard. Not quite encompassed by inscription, it offers an essential counterpart to the term for media-oriented thinkers. The essay draws out this corresponding function through readings of three imagined (but not-quite-imaginary) media, across which emerges a dialectic in the cultural imaginary of inscription. The first comes from the mathematician Norbert Wiener’s description of a mechanism that would translate written text into tactile impressions; the second, from Jacques Derrida’s historical framing of the project of deconstruction in relation to writing systems; and the third, from a thirty-two-page description of an American football game in Don DeLillo’s 1972 novel, End Zone. Each will offer a different exemplification of the function termed ‘anscription’. Just as significantly, each example presents this function in relation to the technical possibilities of media and articulates it through a theory of the body that is entangled with writing.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Sour Beer at the Boar’s Head: Salvaging
           Shakespeare’s Alewife, Mistress Quickly

    • Authors: Christina Romanelli
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Using William Shakespeare’s character Mistress Nell Quickly as an example, this article contends that familiarity with both the literary tradition of alewives and the historical conditions in which said literary tradition brewed aids in revising our interpretation of working-class women on the early modern stage. Mistress Quickly, the multi-faceted comic character in three history plays and a city-comedy, resembles closely those women with whom Shakespeare and his contemporaries would have lived and worked in their day-to-day lives. Rather than dismissing her role as minor or merely comic, as previous criticism largely has, scholarship can embrace this character type and her narrative as an example to complicate teleological progressions for women.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Humanities in
           2018

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Nostalgia, Motherhood, and Adoption: Two
           Contemporary Swedish Examples

    • Authors: Lena Ahlin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This paper explores the notion of nostalgia in two recent Swedish narratives of transnational adoption: Christina Rickardsson’s Sluta aldrig gå, 2016, (published in English as Never Stop Walking in 2017), and Cilla Naumann’s Bära barnet hem (“Carrying the Child Home”, 2015). The two narratives deal with adoption from South America to Sweden, include autobiographical content, and enable a comparison between an adoptee memoir (Rickardsson) and a parent-authored text (Naumann). Both texts center on maternal images, but the analysis suggests that Rickardsson’s narrative echoes the borderland nostalgia characteristic of adoptee writing. The adoptee memoirs, being reflective in mode and restorative in purpose, occupy a borderland between the two forms of nostalgia described by Boym (2001), while interrogating the temporal, spatial and affiliative boundaries of transnational adoption. Naumann’s nostalgic enterprise incorporates the mirrors, doubles and ghosts of reflective nostalgia. These representations are a fruitful means to represent the “other” family, and the alternative lives that were left behind in the process of adoption. Ultimately, her text suggests the limitations of the autobiographical mode and illustrates the capacity of fiction to provide a symbolic register in which to articulate the unspeakable aspects of adoption.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Current Status of European Oyster Decline and
           Restoration in Germany

    • Authors: Bernadette Pogoda
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Marine ecosystems of temperate regions are highly modified by human activity and far from their original natural status. The North Sea, known as an intensively used area, has lost its offshore oyster grounds due to overexploitation in a relatively short time. Native oyster beds as a once abundant and ecologically highly important biogenic reef-type have vanished from the North Sea ecosystem in most areas of both their former distribution and magnitude. Worldwide, oyster stocks have been severely exploited over the past centuries. According to estimates, about 85% of the worldwide oyster reef habitats have been destroyed over the course of the last century. This loss of oyster populations has meant far more than just the loss of a valuable food resource. Oyster reefs represent a characteristic benthic community which offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services: better water quality, local decrease of toxic algal blooms, increase in nutrient uptake, increase of bentho-pelagic coupling, increase in species richness, increase of multidimensional biogenic structures which provide habitat, food, and protection for numerous invertebrate and fish species. The aim of oyster restoration is to promote redevelopment of this valuable missing habitat. The development of strategies, methods, and procedures for a sustainable restoration of the European oyster Ostrea edulis in the German North Sea is currently a focus of marine nature conservation. Main drivers for restoring this ecological key species are the enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment. Results of these investigations will support the future development and implementation of a large-scale and long-term German native oyster restoration programme to re-establish a healthy population of this once-abundant species now absent from the region.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Migratory Realities: The Interplay of
           Landscapes in the Guyanese Emigrant’s Reality in Jan Lowe
           Shinebourne’s The Godmother and Other Stories

    • Authors: Abigail Persaud Cheddie
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Guyana’s high rate of migration has resulted in a sizeable Guyanese diaspora that continues to negotiate the connection with its homeland. Jan Lowe Shinebourne’s The Godmother and Other Stories opens avenues of understanding the experiences of emigrated Guyanese through the lens of transnational migration. Four protagonists, one each from the stories “The Godmother,” “Hopscotch,” “London and New York” and “Rebirth” act as literary case studies in the mechanisms involved in a Guyanese transnational migrant’s experience. Through a structuralist analysis, I show how the use of literary devices such as titles, layers and paradigms facilitate the presentation of the interplay of landscapes in the transnational migrant’s experience. The significance of the story titles is briefly analysed. Then, how memories of the homeland are layered on the landscape of residence and how this interplay stabilises the migrant are examined. Thirdly, how ambivalence can set in after elements from the homeland come into physical contact with the migrant on the landscape of residence, thereby shifting the nostalgic paradigm into an unstable structure, is highlighted. Finally, it is observed that as a result of the paradigm shift, the migrant must then operate on a shifted interplay that can be confounding. Altogether, the text offers an opportunity to explore migratory realities in the Guyanese emigrant’s experience.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 11: “The Past Is Never Dead. It’s Not Even
           Past”: The Ambivalent Call of Nostalgic Memory in Richard Ford’s Short
           Story “Calling” (A Multitude of Sins, 2001)

    • Authors: Marie-Agnès Gay
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This article focuses on Richard Ford’s short story “Calling,” collected in the volume entitled A Multitude of Sins (2001). It consists of the detailed recalling by a first-person narrator, from the vantage point of adulthood, of a duck-hunting outing with his father at a moment of acute family crisis when he was still a teenager. This episode, redolent of America’s nostalgic motif of male bonding and father-son transmission in the midst of mythical American nature, is shown to have proved a pathetic failure at the time, and the story stages—to pick up Svetlana Boym’s famous distinction between two main types of nostalgia—the enlightening “reflective” effects of recalling this moment of “restorative” longing for the protagonist. However, the highly analytical narrator does not consciously dwell upon the peripheral yet disturbing presence of two grotesque characters that, I contend, are the locus of the implicit meaning of the text. Through precise textual reading and references to Southern Gothic, I indeed argue that the subtext of “Calling” invites the reader to journey back into a region’s (the South’s) troubled collective past and to question its own relation to nostalgia. “Calling” thus also stages the ambivalence of nostalgic longing on the collective plane as it shows willful nostalgic recollection wavering in the face of the return of the historical repressed, that of America’s ineffable original sin.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Perpetual Vanishing: Animal Lives in
           Contemporary Scottish Fiction

    • Authors: Timothy C. Baker
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Animals, writes Akira Mizuta Lippit, ‘exist in a state of perpetual vanishing’: they haunt human concerns, but rarely appear as themselves. This is especially notable in contemporary Scottish fiction. While other national literatures often reflect the ‘animal turn’ in contemporary theory, the number of twenty-first-century Scottish novels concerned with human–animal relations remains disproportionately small. Looking at a broad cross-section of recent and understudied novels, including Mandy Haggith’s Bear Witness (2013), Ian Stephen’s A Book of Death and Fish (2014), Andrew O’Hagan’s The Life and Opinions of Maf the Dog, and of His Friend Marilyn Monroe (2010), Malachy Tallack’s The Valley at the Centre of the World (2018), James Robertson’s To Be Continued (2016), and Sarah Hall’s The Wolf Border (2015) highlights the marginalisation of both nonhuman animals and texts centred on them. The relative absence of engagement with animal studies in Scottish fiction and criticism suggests new opportunities for reevaluating the formulation of environmental concerns in a Scottish context. By moving away from the unified concepts of ‘the land’ to a perspective that includes the precarious relations between humans, nonhuman animals, and their environment, these texts highlight the need for greater, and more nuanced, engagement with fictional representations of nonhuman animals.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Regional Planning and the Environmental
           Impact of Coastal Tourism: The Mission Racine for the Redevelopment of
           Languedoc-Roussillon’s Littoral

    • Authors: Giacomo Parrinello, Renaud Bécot
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Research on the coast has highlighted the role of mass tourism as a driver of littoral urbanization. This article emphasizes the role of public policy by focusing on Languedoc-Roussillon in Mediterranean France. This littoral was the target of a state-driven development initiative known as Mission Racine, which aimed to promote the growth of what was seen as a backward area via the development of seaside tourism. For that purpose, the Mission promoted coordinated interventions including forest management, eradication of mosquitoes, construction of resorts, and transport infrastructure. This large-scale redevelopment significantly reshaped the littoral environment, severely impacted pre-existing forms of coastal activities and launched a new tourism industry. The legacy of the Mission, however, also included innovative land-use planning, which established protected areas and sought to contain urbanization. This case study illustrates the ambiguities of public policies for the coast, which can act alternatively as drivers of development or conservation and at times of both, and therein lies the importance of a contextual analysis of their role.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Portugal in the European Network of Marine
           Science Heritage and Outreach (19th–20th Centuries)

    • Authors: Inês Amorim, Bruno Pinto
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The gradual consciousness of the scientific and economic riches of marine life is rooted in the legacy of some pillars of scientific production and dissemination in institutions such as natural history museums, aquariums, and maritime stations. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues of these scientific collections of species (marine or others) is their contextual interpretation which demands its original collection point, collectors, and original aims. The current research focuses on the origin of collections of marine specimens in Portugal as well as their historical evolution. In this particular approach, we assess the connection of the Portuguese natural history museums, universities and aquariums to similar European institutions since the mid-19th century, crossing primary sources from different archives. It was possible to reconstruct connections with the Zoological Station of the bay of Naples (Italy), the Maritime Museum of Monaco, and Aquariums of Monaco, France, and England. We identify both informers and the circulation of zoological specimens that underpin Museums and Aquariums collections that are today important scientific heritage repositories for a larger understanding of marine biodiversity and its threats, and core places of aesthetic contemplation and of philosophical discussion about the evolution of scientific knowledge.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 15: African by Exposure: Caregivers, Madness,
           and the Contagious Other in García Márquez’s Of Love and Other Demons
           and Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea

    • Authors: Meredith L. Harvey
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The following article discusses Gabriel García Márquez’s Of Love and Other Demons and Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea. Specifically, this article will discuss the parallel ways that two novels critique the nature of postcolonial development in the Caribbean, particularly in regard to race and hybridity. Within the novels, the child protagonists and their African/black creole nursemaids follow surprisingly similar plots, though the settings, contexts, and styles of the two texts differ greatly. In these two novels while the white protagonists both die because of their hybrid navigation of their environment, their nurse/mothers survive, largely because of their maintenance of African practices. In many ways, the nurse mothers’ survival and attempts to heal their charges present potential antidotes for the “disease” produced by slavery. The purpose of this paper is to explore those parallel developments in plot, and to look at the ways the two texts disrupt and reinforce colonial hegemonic norms through their depictions of both the nurses and their charges.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Extractive Poetics: Marine Energies in
           Scottish Literature

    • Authors: Alexandra Campbell
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Following the recent call to ‘put the ocean’s agitation and historicity back onto our mental maps and into the study of literature’ (Yaeger 2010), this article addresses the histories and cultures of marine energy extraction in modern Scottish literature. The burgeoning discipline of the Energy Humanities has recently turned its attentions towards Scottish literature as a valuable area of study when contemplating the relationships between energy and cultural production. Most recently, scholars have focused their analysis on the histories of North Sea oil and gas production and have worked to juxtapose the long histories of land clearance in the Highlands and islands alongside contemporary narratives of exile and exploitation experienced by Scotland’s coastal oil communities. The forms of spatial injustice incurred through the recent histories of what Derek Gladwin terms ‘Oil Clearance’ (Gladwin 2017) or Graeme Macdonald identifies as ‘petro-marginalisation’ (Macdonald 2015), is often solely registered through terrestrial environments. This article urges the adoption of an oceanic perspective, one which registers how the extractive politics of modern petroculture in Scotland not only presents major challenges for terrestrial environments and communities, but holds specific ramifications for the ways in which we currently imagine and interact with oceanic space. Indeed, as Macdonald has noted, the North Sea is in many ways ‘wholly regarded as a productive environment of marine capitalism synonymous with oil’ (2015). What does it mean to read the ocean through oil' By adopting an oceanic perspective, this article considers the ways in which the exploitative dynamics of offshore petroculture in the 1970s coincides with an incredibly damaging and problematic cultural construction of the ocean. But as Scotland moves towards a new era of low-carbon energy production, how might this construction of the ocean change' The closing half of this article considers the ways in which the extractivist histories and spatial injustices of petroculture are resisted through contemporary poetic engagements with new marine-based energy technologies, namely, wave and tidal power. In examining a range of work from artists and poets such as Alec Finlay, Laura Watts, Lila Matsumoto and Hannah Imlach, this article further argues that the recent turn towards marine renewables not only signals a new future for a low-carbon Scotland, but that the advent of renewable technologies provides contemporary poets with new materials through which to imagine alternative models of community, power, and relation in an era of environmental change.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 17: The Geography of ‘Otherness’: Spaces of
           Conflict in Smaro Kamboureli’s in the Second Person

    • Authors: Rocco De Leo
      First page: 17
      Abstract: In today’s “liquid” society, boundaries and limits are shifting or disorienting: belonging to no place, not knowing where ‘home’ is, underlines the sense of uncertainty and in-betweenness experienced by people. This contribution suggests five spatial issues Greek-born Canadian author Smaro Kamboureli has to negotiate with in her ‘poetic diary’ in the second person, where she investigates the duality of the self, displaying the double “I” of the writer’s split subjectivity on a concrete (Greece) as well as abstract (language) place of living. Kamboureli’s account of a duel with and a paradoxical courting of what was and is now for her “the place of language” is related to the awareness of inhabiting a “third” zone of expectations: the difference of origin, of country, of point of view. In conclusion, the different levels of spatial negotiations Kamboureli has had to come to terms with have made her a completely different person. Her life on the border, epitomized in turn by airports, boats, Greece, and the Greek islands, is indeed an endless research of, as well as a conflict with, the ‘Other’, which opens up questions about the relativity of the space/place dichotomy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 18: Latin American Cities: From Subservient
           Reproductions to Intercontinental Dialogues

    • Authors: Clovis Ultramari, Fernanda Cantarim, Manoela Jazar
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper investigates the circulation of ideas regarding the city among selected countries in Latin America. It discusses convergences between academic and scientific institutions and investigative weakness in partnerships between Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. It identifies two historical moments: one of vertical dialogues between Latin America and central countries in the elaboration of urban plans (20th century) and another of contemporary academic exchange signalling a horizontal dialogue that is fragile and sporadic but distinct from those observed in the past. Empirical reference is obtained from the analysis of scientific events and papers published by distinguished post-graduate programs concerning urban topics in selected countries, during the time frame of 2000–2015. The methodological approach is based on a bibliographic review and content analysis. Results indicate that the old “one-way” of transfer of urban planning ideas from central countries to Latin America is changing; slowly, the continent has been growing more independent in terms of knowledge creation and circulation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Subverting the Nation-State Through
           Post-Partition Nostalgia: Joginder Paul’s Sleepwalkers

    • Authors: Amrita Ghosh
      First page: 19
      Abstract: With the advent of the Progressive Writers Movement, Urdu Literature was marked with a heightened form of social realism during the Partition of British India in 1947. Joginder Paul, once a part of this movement, breaks away from this realist tradition in his Urdu novella, Khwabrau (Sleepwalkers), published in 1990. Sleepwalkers shifts the dominant realist strain in the form and content of Urdu fiction to open a liminal “third space” that subverts the notion of hegemonic reality. Sleepwalkers is based on a time, many years after the Partition in the city of Karachi, and focuses on the “mohajirs” from Lucknow who construct a mnemonic existential space by constructing a simulacrum of pre-Partition Lucknow (now in India). This paper examines the reconceptualization of spaces through the realm of political nostalgia and the figure of the refugee subject “performing” this nostalgia. This nostalgic reconstruction of space, thus, becomes a “heterotopia” in Foucauldian terms, one that causes a rupture in the unities of time and space and the idea of nation-hood. The refugee subjects’ subversion of the linearity of time opens a different time in the narration of a nation that necessitates that the wholeness of the “imagined” physical space of a nation be questioned.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Of Mirrors and Bell Jars. Heterotopia and
           Liminal Spaces as Reconfigurations of Female Identity in Sylvia Plath

    • Authors: Carmen Bonasera
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The poetry of Sylvia Plath (1932–1963) has received a considerable number of critical responses, among which spatial analysis occupies a minor position, although her texts explore complex relationships between subject and context. Drawing from a threefold theoretical apparatus (Bachelard’s theory of the poetic space, the Foucauldian concept of heterotopia, and the trope of liminality), this article focuses on the analysis of Plath’s increasing use of in-between spaces and objects of transition and transformations (mirrors, thresholds, windows), as well as on her predilection for heterotopic and alienating sceneries (hospital rooms, cemeteries), in both her poetry and prose. The study first acknowledges Plath’s choice of spatial imagery as a progressive orientation towards transitional states and places of otherness and ambivalence. Then, it highlights the specific role of heterotopic and liminal spaces in the process of reconfiguration of female identity. Given the impossibility for the female subject to rely on imprisoning domestic spheres to suture the edges of her fragmented self, reconceptualization of her own consciousness only becomes possible in the movement across a threshold. The analysis finally determines that the poetic evocation of spaces of conflict and difference paradoxically contributes to the shaping of female identity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Monitoring and Managing Human Stressors to
           Coastal Cultural Heritage in Svalbard

    • Authors: Holmgaard, Thuestad, Myrvoll, Barlindhaug
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Svalbard’s cultural heritage sites are important remnants of an international history in the High North. Cultural heritage in the Arctic is being impacted by climate and environmental change as well as increased human activity. Tourism is a potential cause of transformation in cultural heritage sites, such as increased wear and tear, creation of paths and traces as people walk through cultural environments. Cultural heritage management is therefore an increasingly challenging endeavor as management authorities must take under consideration multiple impacts and threats to cultural heritage sites in a changing environment. Based on research conducted in Svalbard from 2014 to 2016 on methods for long-term systematic cultural heritage monitoring, this paper will discuss dilemmas for a sustainable use and management of vulnerable cultural heritage sites in the Arctic.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Hidden in Plain Sight: Tourism Planning,
           Afro-Colombian Society and Community in Barú, Colombia

    • Authors: Evan Ward
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This article builds upon the scholarship of Alina Helg and other historians working on questions of racial identity in Colombia, and the Caribbean section of that country more specifically. Colombia is unique in that its identity is indigenous, African, as well as European. Its Afro-Colombian elements are often overlooked by virtue of the mestizo identity that has dominated settlement of its Andean highlands around the capital, Bogota. Using technical and social reports from tourism development on Barù Island, near Cartagena, this article explores the Afro-Colombian communities that established themselves on the island in the wake of emancipation in the mid-19th century, as well as the efforts of these communities to protect their rights. I also examine recent Constitutional Court decisions supporting the rights of Afro-Colombian communities like those on Barù against the developmental ambitions of governmental and private tourism developers who were intent on transforming the island into a mass tourism destination. The article concludes that recent legal shifts towards protecting Afro-Colombian rights secured a recent victory in favor of the islanders vis-à-vis designs of the state to impose its vision of global tourism development there.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 23: From Maps to Stories: Dangerous Spaces in
           Agatha Christie’s Homes

    • Authors: Debora A. Sarnelli
      First page: 23
      Abstract: In the common imagination, home denotes the physical space where human beings find protection, intimacy, and bliss. Home is a place of affection and warmth. This article proposes to analyze the perception of the place called home within Christie’s narratives and how her fictional households are deprived of their protective value and become as blood soaked as the hard-boiled dirty back alleys. The article focuses on how every room occupies a different role in Christie’s fictional houses. There are safe rooms—the busiest rooms of the household where murder never happens—and dangerous rooms. The dangerous room—the murder scene—is described through the use of a map offered by the first-person narrator. The map provides the reader with important spatial information: this is the very place where the murder was perpetrated.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Nubia Still Exists: On the Utility of the
           Nostalgic Space

    • Authors: Menna Agha
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The Egyptian government displaced all Nubian villages to build the High Dam. New generations of Egyptian Nubians still identify as displaced and live in a nostalgic virtual space that carries a rendition of a paradise-like old Nubia. I investigate this spatial phenomenon by surveying Nubian literary and oral tradition, which displays signs of belonging to a geography that is no longer material. This paper lays out a conceptualisation of this space of nostalgia perpetuated in a metanarrative of a utopian lost land, that poses it as a disembodied territory while nostalgia is territoriality. From my position as a Nubian woman and a scholar, I use auto-ethnographic tools to methodically decode and layout this territory. The paper offers empirical evidence of the effect of these virtual territories on materialised spatial production and, therefore, argues that Nubians remain space makers by carving their own virtual territory and that Nubia still exists.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 25: Female Relays, Rice-Workers and flâneuse:
           The geo parler femme in Renata Viganò’s Work

    • Authors: Stefanovska
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The aim of this article was to reflect on how settings are used as narrative practices in the work of Renata Viganò, one of the most famous Italian female writers. Drawing upon Well’s concept of geo parler femme, this article examined the extent to which the setting plays a role in Viganò’s fictional works and essays. Focusing on the most common stereotypes of gendered spatiality, the intention of the analysis was to point out that at specific historical moments, such as the Italian resistance movement and the post-war years, the traditional gender assignment of spaces was no longer valid. The idea of a well distinguished ‘limit’ that separates certain places as feminine from others as masculine in time of war becomes blurred and destabilizes the traditional dichotomy of public–private spaces. The dialectic masculine–feminine places are nonexistent and often completely reversed, turning the setting into one of the main narrative practices in novels, such as L’Agnese va a morire or Una storia di ragazze, as well as in politically engaged essays dedicated to female partisans and rice-workers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 26: Enemy and Officers in Emilio Lussu’s Un
           anno sull’Altipiano

    • Authors: Marcucci
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This essay explores the concept of enemy in Emilio Lussu’s WWI memoir Un anno sull’Altipiano (A Soldier on the Southern Front, 1938). The memoir portrays the conflict on the oft-forgotten Alpine Front, where Italian and Austro-Hungarian armies clashed from 1915 to 1918 in a series of battles fought at high altitudes. I argue that two crucial dynamics of modern warfare shape the concept of enemy in WWI literature: the impossibility of close-range encounters, which was due to the superiority of defensive firepower, and hatred for one’s own officers, which stemmed from the corrosive environment of the trenches, where the aggressive attitude of high-ranking officers often led hundreds of thousands to pointless death. I show how, in Lussu’s memoir, these dynamics subvert the traditional image of the enemy as imposed by military propaganda, and finally elicit feelings of empathy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 27: The Making of a Terrorist: Imagining
           Combatants’ Points of View in Troubles Literature

    • Authors: Callan
      First page: 27
      Abstract: This article analyzes portrayals of paramilitary fighters in Irish literature from the Troubles (1968–1998). While the conflict between Protestant loyalists and Catholic nationalists has provoked many literary responses, most focus on noncombatants. This article reads Edna O’Brien’s novel House of Splendid Isolation (1994) and Anne Devlin’s story “Naming the Names” (1986), two texts that succeed in portraying paramilitary characters as complex individuals who are not wholly defined by their violent acts, but each reaches a limit of imagination as well. In House of Splendid Isolation the paramilitary character Mac chooses silence over justifying himself to a hostile audience, and in “Naming the Names” the stream of consciousness style becomes increasingly fragmented, suggesting the paramilitary narrator is on the verge of a breakdown. As a result, both characters remain enigmatic, with aspects of their motives and thinking not fully intelligible. Both texts show that it is a struggle for a noncombatant to understand a paramilitary’s point of view, but these texts make readers want to engage in that struggle.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 28: How Karen Tei Yamashita Literalizes
           Feminist Subversion: Extreme Domesticity, Space-Off Reversals, and
           Virtual Resistances in Tropic of Orange

    • Authors: Frank
      First page: 28
      Abstract: In Tropic of Orange (1997), Karen Tei Yamashita builds an expansive narrative on the premise that the Tropic of Cancer shifts mysteriously from its actual latitude, barely north of Mazatlán, México, to that of L.A.’s latitude: from 23.43692° north of the Equator to 34.0522° N. By doing so, Yamashita literally takes that which is “south of the border” and repositions it in a hub of neoliberal hegemony; that is, she takes what is below (“sub-”) and puts it on top (“-vert”). I read such a literal and magically realistic move as an allegorical template that guides the novel in its entirety, but more specifically, in its repositioning of women from their spaces of relegation to spaces animated by their resistances to such relegation; from spaces of dependency to spaces characterized by feminine influence. This essay examines three strategies through which feminist subversions may be accomplished according to Yamashita’s textual template: The first follows Susan Fraiman’s theory of Extreme Domesticity (Fraiman 2017) as it tracks how subservient spaces of home and household can become sites of nonconformity; the second takes its cue from the cinematic strategies of “space-off” and “reversal” as examples of how marginal or negative spaces can be leveraged against the male gaze (c.f. José Rodríguez Herrera’s analysis of Sarah Polley’s film adaptation of Alice Munro’s “The Bear Came Over The Mountain,” Herrera 2013); and the third engages my own notion of a spatial virtuality (“that which is present without being local,” Munro 2014) as a mode of resistance that culminates, ultimately, in “a condition of literature,” that is to say, a condition in which Tropic of Orange refers to the conditions of its own making instead of referring to the conditions that create it (ibid.). My tripartite method thus highlights and celebrates the domestic, cinematic, and technological spaces of Yamashita’s writing, respectively, just as it articulates how these spaces might also be read as subversively feminist and feminizing. But it also meditates formally and contextually, as Tropic of Orange’s condition of literature implies, a sort of ablated feminist narratology, even as it works toward feminist narratological ends.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Illicit Motherhood: Recrafting Postcolonial
           Feminist Resistance in Edna O’Brien’s The Love Object and Jhumpa
           Lahiri’s Hell-Heaven

    • Authors: Dibyadyuti Roy
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Cultural constructions of passive motherhood, especially within domestic spaces, gained currency in India and Ireland due to their shared colonial history, as well as the influence of anti-colonial masculinist nationalism on the social imaginary of these two nations. However, beginning from the latter half of the nineteenth century, postcolonial literary voices have not only challenged the traditional gendering of public and private spaces but also interrogated docile constructions of womanhood, particularly essentialized representations of maternity. Domestic spaces have been critical narrative motifs in these postcolonial texts through simultaneously embodying patriarchal domination but also as sites where feminist resistance can be actualized by “transgress(ing) traditional views of … the home, as a static immobile place of oppression”. This paper, through a comparative analysis of maternal characters in Edna O’Brien’s The Love Object and Jhumpa Lahiri’s Hell-Heaven, argues that socially disapproved/illicit relationships in these two representative postcolonial Irish and Indian narratives function as matricentric feminist tactics that subvert limiting notions of both domestic spaces and gendered liminal postcolonial subjectivities. I highlight that within the context of male-centered colonial and nationalist literature, the trope of maternity configures the domestic-space as the “rightful place” for the existence of the feminine entity. Thus, when postcolonial feminist fiction reverses this tradition through constructing the “home and the female-body” as sites of possible resistance, it is a counter against dual oppression: both colonialism and patriarchy. My intervention further underscores the need for sustained conversations between the literary output of India and Ireland, within Postcolonial Literary Studies, with a particular acknowledgement for space and gender as pivotal categories in the “cultural analysis of empire”.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Meeting the Enemy in World War I Poetry:
           Cognitive Dissonance as a Vehicle for Theme

    • Authors: David Poynor
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Some World War I poems show an enemy soldier up close. This choice usually proves very effective for expressing the general irony of war, to be sure. However, I submit that showing interaction with the enemy also allows the speaker space to wrestle with internal conflict, guilt, or cognitive dissonance, and that it allows—or even forces—readers to participate in that struggle along with the speaker. While the poets’ writings no doubt had therapeutic effects for the poets themselves, I focus more on the literary effects, specifically arguing that the poems are powerful to us readers since they heighten the personal exposure of the poets’ psyches and since they make us share the dissonance as readers. I consider poems by Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, Robert Graves, Ford Madox Ford, Herbert Read, and Robert Service.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 31: “‘The Mighty Meaning of the Scene’”
           Feminine Landscapes and the Future of America in Margaret Fuller’s
           Summer on the Lakes, in 1843

    • Authors: Kathleen Healey
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Like many of her contemporaries, Margaret Fuller had great hopes for the West. The Western lands, open for America’s future, held the promise of what America could become. In Summer on the Lakes, Fuller sketches what she hopes America will become. Using the landscape aesthetics of her age, such as the work of Andrew Jackson Downing and the Hudson River School of landscape painting, Fuller describes the ideal landscape as one that is more feminine and nurturing, one in which humankind lives in harmony with nature. Fuller’s landscape descriptions both point to a better future for America and critique the values of her contemporaries. Fuller contrasts America’s more male vision of conquest of the land with her feminine ideal of harmony with nature—a cultivated garden—to show what America’s future should be, as it builds westward.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 32: From Politics to Pope: An Account of the
           Group Aesthetic

    • Authors: Rob Breton
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This paper discusses the study of Chartist and working-class literatures, noting that the pronounced development of aesthetic criticism in these areas uncomfortably corresponds with the rejection of “aesthetics” in other fields. Chartist, working-class, and laboring-class scholars have broken free from monolithically sociological or political readings that only a generation ago too often dismissed artistic endeavors as, at best, merely a re-accenting of the mainstream. Current studies focus on the aesthetic innovations that emerged out of working-class entanglements with mainstream counterparts. The paper argues that the rejection of “aesthetics” generally fails to recognize marginalized and group aesthetics (including the critical work done on marginalized and group aesthetics) and specifically what it meant for a political cohort—the Chartists are my example—to think aesthetically.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Language Vitality of Spanish in Equatorial
           Guinea: Language Use and Attitudes

    • Authors: Grace A. Gomashie
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This study investigates the use of and attitudes towards, Spanish in the multilingual Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the only African country with Spanish as an official language. The Spanish dialect of Equatorial Guinea is an understudied area, although descriptive research on the Spanish language spoken there began in the 1950s. Very few research studies have been carried out on the sociolinguistic dynamic of this multilingual country. Four scales of language vitality were utilized and it was demonstrated that Spanish in Equatorial Guinea is not endangered and continues to thrive. An online survey was also performed to assess Spanish language use and attitudes towards the Equatoguinean variety of Spanish. Respondents were highly educated, middle-class and spoke at least two languages. It was observed that Spanish was the functional language in almost all the sociocultural contexts or domains. Equatorial Guineans share that Spanish is important to their identity as the only Spanish-speaking country in Africa.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 34: A Proposal for Afro-Hispanic Peoples and
           Culture as General Studies Course in African Universities

    • Authors: Purity Ada Uchechukwu
      First page: 34
      Abstract: After centuries of denial, suppression and marginalization, the contributions of Afro-Hispanics/Latinos to the arts, culture, and the Spanish spoken in the Americas is gradually gaining recognition as Afro-descendants pursue their quest for visibility and space in Spanish America. Hand in hand with this development is the young generation of Afro-Latinos who, are proud to identify with the black race. Ironically, the young African student has very little knowledge of the presence and actual situation of Afro-descendants in Spanish-speaking America. This is because many African universities still follow the old colonial system which excludes knowledge of the presence and cultures of the once enslaved Africans in the Spanish speaking world. Thus, while Afro-descendants are fighting for visibility and recognition in Spanish America, they remain almost invisible in the African continent. The aim of this paper is to propose a curriculum, Afro-Hispanic Peoples and Culture, as a general studies course in African universities. Such a curriculum would create in Africa the much-needed visibility and contributions of Afro-descendants in Spanish-speaking America, and also foster collaborative works between young African academics and their counterparts in the Americas.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” and
           Holocaust Literature

    • Authors: Michael Robinson
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” has been notorious since its first publication in 1948, but rarely, if ever, has it been read in light of its immediate historical context. This essay draws on literature, philosophy, and anthropology from the period to argue that Jackson’s story, which scholars have traditionally read through the lens of gender studies, invokes the themes of Holocaust literature. To support this argument, the essay explores imaginative Holocaust literature from the period by David Rousset, whose Holocaust memoir The Other Kingdom appeared in English translation in 1946, anthropological discourse from the period on scapegoating and European anti-Semitism, and critical discourse on the Holocaust and anti-Semitism from the period by Hannah Arendt and Theodor Adorno. The analysis finds that, in representing the phenomena of scapegoating and death selection in a small town in the US, Jackson’s story belongs to an abstract discourse on Holocaust-related themes and topics that was actively produced at midcentury, as evidenced partly by Rousset’s influential memoir. A master of the horror genre, Jackson could have drawn on her own experience of anti-Semitism, along with her known interest in the study of folklore, to contribute this chilling representation of the personal experience of death selection to a discourse on Holocaust-related themes. As this article shows, the abstract discourse Jackson’s story joined is marked by abstraction, skepticism about, or disinterest in ethnic difference and anthropological concepts. Due to the fact that this article features comparative analysis of Holocaust literature, a sub-topic is the debate among scholars concerning the ethics of literary representation of the Shoah and of analysis of Holocaust memoir. Jackson’s story and its context invoke perennially important questions about identity and representation in discourse about the Shoah and anti-Semitism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 36: From Wounded Knee to Sacred Circles: Oglala
           Lakota Ethos as “Haunt” and “Wound”

    • Authors: Craig A. Meyer
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Oglala Lakota ethos manifests a pre-Socratic/Heideggerian variant of ethos: ethos as “haunt”. Within this alternative to the Aristotelian ethos-as-character, Oglala ethos marks out the “dwelling place” of the Oglala Lakota people. That is, the Oglala Lakota ground their cultural- and self-identity in the land: their ethology, in effect, expresses an ecology. Thus, an Oglala Lakotan ethos cannot be understood apart from its nation’s understanding of the natural world—of its primacy and sacredness. A further aspect of the Oglala Lakotan ethos rests in the nation’s history of conflict with EuroAmericans. Through military conflict, forced displacement, and material/economic exploitation of reservation lands, an Oglala Lakota ethos bears within itself a woundedness that continues to this day. Only through an understanding of ethos-as-haunt, of cultural trauma or woundedness, and of the ways of healing can Oglala Lakota ethos be fully appreciated.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 37: The Metropolitan Bay: Spatial Imaginary of
           Imperial St. Petersburg and Maritime Heritage of the Gulf of Finland

    • Authors: Alexei Kraikovski, Julia Lajus
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The paper aims to discuss the multifaceted links between the marine environment of the Gulf of Finland and the representations of the large complex of cultural heritage related to the city of St. Petersburg. The paper is based on a spatial imaginary of Greater St. Petersburg as the cultural and technological unity of the city and adjacent waterscapes in the times of the Russian Empire. This concept is instrumental to see the historical links between the parts of the heritage complex that has by now disintegrated and has been separated by state borders.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Spatial and Psychophysical Domination of
           Women in Dystopia: Swastika Night, Woman on the Edge of Time and The
           Handmaid’s Tale

    • Authors: Elisabetta Di Minico
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Analyzing Burdekin’s Swastika Night Piercy’s Woman on the Edge of Time and Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale the article aims to examine the relations between space, gender-based violence, and patriarchy in women’s writing. Hitlerdom in Swastika Night, the mental hospital and the future dystopian New York in Woman on the Edge of Time, and Gilead in The Handmaid’s Tale are spatial and social nightmares. The authorities that rule these dystopias imprison women in restricted spaces first, limit their vocabulary and daily actions, deprive them of their beauty, freedom and consciousness, and impose maternity or sexuality upon them. My analysis will connect the limitation of space with the psychophysical domination the objectification and the disempowerment of the female gender. Hoping also to shed light on the dynamics and the reasons for contemporary real gender-based violence and depreciation, the study will be focused on: 1. the ways space contributes to the creation, the stability and the dominion of dystopian powers; 2. the representation and the construction of female figures, roles and identities; 3. the techniques of control, manipulation and oppression used by patriarchal powers against women; 4. the impact of sex, sexuality and motherhood on women’s bodies; and 5. the possible feminist alternatives or solutions proposed by the novels.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 39: Hip-Hop Ethos

    • Authors: Anthony Kwame Harrison, Craig E. Arthur
      First page: 39
      Abstract: This article excavates the ethos surrounding hip hop, starting from the proposition that hip hop represents a distinct yet pervasive expression of contemporary black subjectivity, which crystalized in 1970s New York City and has since proliferated into a potent ethos of the subaltern embraced within socially marginalized youth communities throughout the world. The article begins by outlining the black diasporic traditions of expressive performance that hip hop issues from, as discussed through the work of Zora Neale Hurston and Amiri Baraka. In the remainder of the article, a blueprint of hip hop’s ethos is presented based on five fundamental tenets: (1) properties of flow, layering, and rupture; (2) a principle of productive consumption; (3) the production of excessive publicity or promotion—what hip-hop affiliates refer to as “hype”; (4) embracing individual and communal entrepreneurship; and (5) a committed politics of action and loyalty. While acknowledging hip hop’s malleability and refusal to be neatly characterized, the article maintains that its characteristic spirit embodies these core doctrines.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 40: The Gatekeeper within: Early Modern English
           Architectural Tropes of Female Consent

    • Authors: Elisa Oh
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This essay maps out a constellation of early modern English feminine gatekeeper tropes that represent female sexual consent and imagine a gendered Cartesian dualism. This trope’s inherent mind–body divide grants the female subject’s mind a greater measure of rationality and autonomy from the body than other early modern discourses of feminine virtue, such as humoralism. However, it can also undercut feminine agency in self-regulation by placing all the responsibility and blame on the woman’s mind in cases of sexual harrassment and assault. Hadrian Dorrell’s Avisa, Shakespeare’s Lucrece, Thomas Heywood’s Jane Shore, and Christopher Marlowe’s Hero represent a spectrum of feminine mental complicity in extramarital sex, yet their mental “gatekeepers” are all suspected of failure. Shakespeare’s Juliet and Cressida literalize this gatekeeper trope and render it a material allegory when they negotiate with male suitors at literal portals on stage, a window and a chamber door. Examining the extraordinary pressures put on feminine “gatekeeper” minds in early modern texts allows us to discern contemporary willingness to blame the victims of sexual assault.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 41: A Dark, Inner Life and a Society in Crisis:
           Nina Bouraoui’s Standard

    • Authors: Lisa Marchi
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Situating close readings of Nina Bouraoui’s latest novel Standard (2014) within the context of a critique of neoliberalism and of the ongoing geopolitical uprisings in the Arab world, this essay presents the novel as a fine literary and affective exploration of personal concerns relating to sex, gender, and desire as well as a sociohistorical chronicle detailing how representations of personal and intimate relations may illuminate wider social ills together with the mechanism of contemporary political life. Drawing on critical work on affect by Sara Ahmed, Lauren Berlant, Judith Butler, and Judith/Jack Halberstam, this article argues that through its focus on affect, the text contributes to the unveiling and critical questioning of the biopolitical maneuvers that dispose life to precarity and of the ensuing desire for freedom, dignity, and rebellion.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Innovating Shakespeare: The Politics of
           Technological Partnership in the Royal Shakespeare Company’s The Tempest
           (2016)

    • Authors: Amy Borsuk
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This article examines the Royal Shakespeare Company’s (RSC) recent focus on digital ‘innovation’ by analysing the relationship between their emerging digital-focused business practices and digital performance practice for The Tempest (2016). To assess this relationship, I first review the socioeconomic context of 21st century neoliberal UK economic policy that encourages arts organisations such as the RSC to participate in innovative digital production practices. I follow with a definition and deconstruction of ‘innovation’ as a key term in UK economic policy. I then demonstrate how the RSC has strategically become involved in innovation practices throughout the 2010s. I will then analyse the digital, motion-capture performance practices the RSC developed in partnership with Intel and motion-capture studio The Imaginarium for The Tempest. In doing so, I will demonstrate that The Tempest serves to legitimise the RSC’s status as a competitor and collaborator in the wider digital economy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 43: Lucy Hutchinson and Margaret Cavendish:
           Civil War and Enemy Commiseration

    • Authors: Yousef Deikna
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Lucy Hutchinson (1620–1681) and Margaret Cavendish (1623–1673), prolific writers from the seventeenth century, came of age in one of the most difficult times in British history. Blair Worden, an eminent historian, writes, “The political upheaval of the mid-seventeenth century has no parallel in English history,” and none of the previous conflicts “has been so far-reaching, or has disrupted so many lives for so long, or has so imprinted itself on the nation’s memory” (2009, p. 1). Hutchinson and her husband, John, were on the side of the parliamentarians in the Civil War while Cavendish and her husband, William, were stout royalists. Instead of showing aggressive stances against their enemies, Hutchinson and Cavendish engaged expansively in a language of empathizing with the enemy in order to lessen the extreme partisanship of that period. Focusing specifically on Hutchinson’s Memoirs of the Life of Colonel John Hutchinson, and Cavendish’s Sociable Letters, among other writings, I argue that during the political impasse which characterized the English Civil War writings, the perspectives advanced by Hutchinson and Cavendish highlight the valuation of human life regardless of political allegiance, augmenting the odds for peaceful co-existence, in which empathy is foregrounded over, and at times alongside, loss and agony as a result of the Civil War aftermath. Suzanne Keen’s groundbreaking research in Empathy and The Novel draws upon examples from the Victorian period to illustrate her understanding of empathy, but she also states that “I feel sure they also pertain to the hopes of authors in earlier periods as well” (2007, p. 142), which is a position taken wholeheartedly in this article. Using a cognitive literary approach where authorial empathic constructions are analyzed, Hutchinson’s and Cavendish’s closely read texts portray an undeniable level of commiseration with the enemy with the goal of abating violence and increasing cooperation and understanding.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 44: Creaturely Life in “We Come as
           Friends”

    • Authors: Vrbancic, Bozic-Vrbancic
      First page: 44
      Abstract: In this article we focus on the analysis of a 2014 Austrian–French documentary We come as friends (110 min), written, directed, and produced by Hubert Sauper. We come as friends is a documentary about a corporate, polycentric, contemporary colonization of South Sudan. It is described by Sauper as “a modern odyssey, a dizzying, science fiction-like journey into the heart of Africa”. It is about Sudan, the continent’s biggest country, at the moment when it was divided into two nations in a 2011 referendum. It documents, according to Sauper, much more than the separation of the predominantly Christian south from the mostly “Muslim Arabs” of the rest of the Sudan; it shows how “an old ‘civilizing’ pathology reemerges—that of colonialism, clash of empires, and yet new episodes of bloody (and holy) wars over land and resources”. Inspired by Eric Santner’s concept of “creaturely life” we analyze a natural history of the present and creaturely expressions in We come as friends.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 45: Digital Humanities’ Shakespeare
           Problem

    • Authors: Laura Estill
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Digital humanities has a Shakespeare problem; or, to frame it more broadly, a canon problem. This essay begins by demonstrating why we need to consider Shakespeare’s position in the digital landscape, recognizing that Shakespeare’s prominence in digital sources stems from his cultural prominence. I describe the Shakespeare/not Shakespeare divide in digital humanities projects and then turn to digital editions to demonstrate how Shakespeare’s texts are treated differently from his contemporaries—and often isolated by virtue of being placed alone on their pedestal. In the final section, I explore the implications of Shakespeare’s popularity to digital humanities projects, some of which exist solely because of Shakespeare’s status. Shakespeare’s centrality to the canon of digital humanities reflects his reputation in wider spheres such as education and the arts. No digital project will offer a complete, unmediated view of the past, or, indeed, the present. Ultimately, each project implies an argument about the status of Shakespeare, and we—as Shakespeareans, early modernists, digital humanists, humanists, and scholars—must determine what arguments we find persuasive and what arguments we want to make with the new projects we design and implement.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 46: @Shakespeare and @TwasFletcher: Performances
           of Authority

    • Authors: Nora J. Williams
      First page: 46
      Abstract: ‘@Shakespeare: Trying to keep incognito with #WSCongress16 in town. If a scholar sees me I just say, “Hullo, lovely to meet you. I’m Peter Holland”/@TwasFletcher: Tell them you’re Me!’ (1 August 2016). This article looks at the anonymously-managed @Shakespeare account and its performance of Shakespeare’s authority on social media, in the context of the parody bot account @TwasFletcher. I argue that authority is established and performed by @Shakespeare through interaction with other authoritative accounts, literary in-jokes, engagement with academic conferences, and, most crucially, anonymity. The destabilising or undermining of Shakespeare’s online authority as performed by @TwasFletcher, is especially significant for its lack of anonymity: created by Hofstra University professor and associate dean Vimala C. Pasupathi, @TwasFletcher raises questions about how scholars who are not white, cis-het men make space for themselves within the authority commanded by Shakespeare, especially online. By inserting Fletcher into Shakespeare, Pasupathi herself performs authority in opposition to Shakespeare and the dominant idea of who a Shakespeare scholar should be or what s/he should do. This essay will therefore argue that two meanings of “authority”—recognized as true or valid on the one hand, and domineering, autocratic, or imposing on the other—play out through the relationship between @Shakespeare and @TwasFletcher on Twitter.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 47: The Voice of Skogula in ‘Beasts Royal’
           and a Story of the Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal) as Seen through a
           Whale’s-Eye View

    • Authors: Cristina Brito
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Patrick O’Brian inspired this work, with his 1934 book of chronicles “Beasts Royal,” where he gives a voice to animals. Therein, among other animals, we find Skogula, a young sperm whale journeying with his family group across the South Seas and his views on the surrounding world, both underwater and on land. This paper tells a story of historical natural events, from the viewpoint of a fin whale that travelled, rested and stranded in the Tagus estuary mouth (Lisbon, Portugal) during the early 16th century. It allows us to move across time and explore the past of this estuarine ecosystem. What kind of changes took place and how can literature and heritage contribute to understand peoples’ constructions of past environments, local maritime histories and memories' In the second part of this essay we present a fictional short story, supported on historical documental sources and imagery research where Lily, the whale, is the main character. Thus, we see the Tagus estuary as perceived through this whale’s-eye view. Finally, we discuss past earthquakes, whale strandings, the occurrence of seals and dolphins and peoples’ perceptions of the Tagus coastal environment across time. We expect to make a contribution to the field of the marine environmental humanities. We will do so both by addressing, by means of this literary approach, the writing of “new thalassographies,” oceanic historiographies and “historicities” and by including all intervening actors—people, animals and the physical space—in the understanding of the past of more-than-human aquatic worlds.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Children’s Literature in Translation:
           Towards a Participatory Approach

    • Authors: Vanessa Joosen
      First page: 48
      Abstract: In the Netherlands and Flanders, more or less a fifth of all children’s books are translations. The decision of what gets translated and funded is, for the most part, informed by adults’ decisions. This paper offers a first step towards a more participatory approach to the translation of books for young readers by investigating children’s understanding of translation processes and the criteria that they put forward as desirable for the international circulation of children’s books. It presents the findings from interviews and a focus group talk with child members of the “Kinder- en Jeugdjury Vlaanderen”, a children’s jury in which the jurors read both original and translated works. While the children did not always realize which books were translated, they did express clear views on their preferred translation strategies, highlighting the potential to learn about other cultures while also voicing concern about readability. They cared less about exporting their own cultural heritage to other countries, and put the focus on the expansion of interesting stories to read as the main benefit of translations. While this project still involved a fairly high level of adult intervention, it makes clear the potential of children to contribute to decisions about the transnational exchange of cultural products developed for them.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 49: Protest and Apology in the Arctic: Enacting
           Citizenship in Two Recent Swedish Films

    • Authors: Lydia Kokkola, Annbritt Palo, Lena Manderstedt
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Today, Sweden enjoys a positive international reputation for its commitment to human rights issues, for instance, in relation to the recent migrant crisis. Abuses committed by the Swedish state against certain ethnic groups within the country are less well known, both within and beyond its borders. These included systematic attempts to curtail the use of indigenous and local languages, thereby causing communicative and ideological rifts between children and their parents. These policies were enacted through the school system from the 1920s until the 1970s, and particularly affected people living in the Arctic region where the national borders are disputed. In this article, we examine two twenty-first-century films set during this era, featuring feisty female characters responding to the school policy. Elina: As though I wasn’t there is a children’s film created by people “outside” the cultural group represented; and Sámi Blood features an adolescent protagonist (and her older self), created by “insiders” of the cultural group represented. In both films, the female protagonists’ relative lack of agency within the state school system is contrasted with their powerful connections to the Arctic landscape. We seek to examine how these films contribute to the work of apology, beginning with a public acknowledgement of the wrongs of the past. Whilst one of the films concludes with a celebration of the female protagonists’ agency, the other proffers a more ambiguous portrayal of power in relation to culture, nationality, and identity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Very Strange Sit-Coms: J. G. Ballard,
           Psychopathology, and Online Participatory Media

    • Authors: Martin Gleghorn
      First page: 50
      Abstract: “We’re all going to be starring in our own sit-coms, and they’ll be very strange sit-coms too, like the inside of our heads.”—J. G. Ballard, Extreme Metaphors. Ballard’s prediction about the possibility of projecting the inside of our own heads is highly illuminating in light of contemporary discourses on participatory media culture and online video-sharing platforms. This is not least due to the documented instances of violence and sexual deviance surrounding prominent figures on YouTube that lend a considerable amount of credence to what Ballard described, in his 1977 short story ‘The Intensive Care Unit’, as a ‘liberating affectlessness [that] allowed those who wished to explore the fullest range of sexual possibility and paved the way for the day when a truly guilt-free sexual perversity and, even, psychopathology might be enjoyed by all.’ This article examines how Ballard’s preoccupation with this ‘liberating affectlessness’—or as he notably termed it in his introduction to Crash, ‘the death of affect’—compares to the impetus that psychologists such as Jonathan Rottenberg and Sheri L. Johnson place upon an ‘affective science’ approach to exploring and treating psychopathology—an approach that they affirm has ‘tremendous potential to facilitate scientific work on the role of emotions in psychopathology.’ This active interplay between emotion and affect (or the calculated lack of) on one hand, and psychopathology on the other that Ballard and Rottenberg and Johnson investigate from different angles also feeds into discourses on online participatory media and the ways that users engage with online media. Specifically, this section of the article will draw upon the roles of private and public spaces, and the breakdown of traditional barriers between them, as well as the commercial factors that define and underpin this new media culture. ‘The Intensive Care Unit’ and later novels such as Cocaine Nights (1996) play upon these themes as a means of anticipating and demonstrating how, in Ballard’s fiction as well as in real-life instances, psychopathology emerges in the breakdown of the barriers between lives lived excessively on screen and the external, sensory and emotional world.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Regulating Desire: The Nature of Exhaustion
           in Ali Smith’s Hotel World and Ewan Morrison’s Tales from the Mall

    • Authors: Michael Paye
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This article offers an ecocritical analysis of Ali Smith’s Hotel World (2001) and Ewan Morrison’s Tales from the Mall (2012). Through a combination of the world-ecology paradigm, feminist approaches, and queer theory, I argue that these texts connect normative desires to capitalism’s “organization of nature.” The opening section of the article links Nancy Fraser’s work on social reproduction to Jason Moore’s argument that nature, in world-ecological terms, provides the “free gifts” (of work, energy, and even care) necessary for capitalist productivity. Morrison’s and Smith’s texts register this dynamic, positioning hierarchy, sexism, and the uneven experience of neoliberal violence in relation to enclosure, attacks on women, and environmental destruction. I detail how Hotel World binds suburban ecology to normative regulation, while Tales from the Mall connects land clearance to the geographical organization of class inequality. I then contend that the psychological and physical exhaustion of women in both works can be understood in relation to capitalism’s reduction of nature to an appropriable resource that provides comfort and pleasure for wealthy consumers. The article ends with an examination of how the texts reject liberal fantasies of benevolent capitalist globalization in the context of Scotland specifically, indicating the need for new narratives that challenge capitalism’s ecological regime.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 52: Environmental Catastrophe as Morphogenesis:
           Inhuman Transformations in Ballard’s Climate Novels

    • Authors: Moritz Ingwersen
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This paper offers a discussion of J. G. Ballard’s first four novels, The Wind From Nowhere (1962), The Drowned World (1962), The Drought (1965), and The Crystal World (1966) that centers on their portrayal of environmental transformation. Drawing on revised conceptualizations of the second law of thermodynamics and recent materialist scholarship, I illustrate how Ballard invokes material transformations that are ambivalently coded as terminal stasis and morphogenesis. In anticipations of the paradigm of the Anthropocene and ecocritical approaches to global climate change, Ballard’s novels re-embed the human in an ecology of inhuman forces and modes of self-organization that radically challenge entrenched ontological divisions and systemic boundaries. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which emergent structures, such as hurricanes and crystals identify his landscapes as dissipative systems far from equilibrium and rife with potential for the spontaneous generation of form. This resonance with scientific frameworks reveals itself in poetic registers that parallelize metaphors of life and death, and hinge on an estrangement of not only landscape, but also temporality, thus literalizing what it might mean to understand the human as a geological subject in the age of the Anthropocene.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 53: How the American Working Class Views the
           “Working Class”

    • Authors: William H. Thelin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This article reviews the complications in understanding some of the conflicting tenets of American working-class ethos, especially as it unfolds in the college classroom. It asserts that the working class values modesty, straightforwardness, and hard work and has a difficult time accepting an ethos based in formal education. The article also discusses some of the performance aspects of working-class texts and explores the difficulties that outsiders face in trying to analyze/critique working-class experience.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Demonizing the Enemy, Literally: Tolkien,
           Orcs, and the Sense of the World Wars

    • Authors: Robert T. Tally
      First page: 54
      Abstract: A seemingly inescapable feature of war is the demonization of the enemy, who becomes somehow less human and more deserving of death in times of military strife, which unsurprisingly helps to justify the violence against them. This article looks at the development, character, and role of the orcs—creatures that are in some senses, literally demonized—in J. R. R. Tolkien’s writings in connection with the ideological need to demonize the enemy in World Wars I and II. Yet, in creating an enemy whom the heroes could kill without compunction, Tolkien also betrayed his own sympathy for the devils, perhaps owing to his own experiences as a soldier. This ambiguity pervades Tolkien’s writings, even as his demonized orcs are dispatched by the thousands, thus shaping the sense of warfare and our experience of it according to the desire to simplify, and make more comprehensible, the martial narrative.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Body Fluids and Fluid Bodies:
           Trans-Corporeal Connections in Contemporary German Narratives of Illness

    • Authors: Katja Herges
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Medicine uses body fluids for the construction of medical knowledge in the laboratory and at the same time considers them as potentially infectious or dirty. In this model, bodies are in constant need of hygienic discipline if they are to adhere to the ideal of the closed and clean organism without leakage of fluids. In contrast, psychoanalytical feminist body theory by Julia Kristeva (1982), Elisabeth Grosz (1989) and Margrit Shildrick (1999) has deconstructed the abject body and its fluids in Western culture and medicine. While postmodern feminism has often focused on discourses about bodies and illness to the neglect of their materiality, more recently, material feminism has drawn particular attention to lived material bodies with fluid boundaries and evolving corporeal practices (Alaimo and Hekman 2007). Stacy Alaimo has developed a model of the trans-corporeal body that is connected with the environment through fluid boundaries and exchanges (2010, 2012). Influenced by these trends in feminist body theory, illness narratives, often based on autobiographical experiences of female patients or their caregivers, have increased in recent decades in the West (Lorde 1980; Mairs 1996; Stefan 2007; Schmidt 2009; Hustvedt 2010). Such narratives often describe explicitly the material and affective aspects of intimate bodily experiences. In this article, I analyze two German quest illness narratives: Charlotte Roche’s pop novel Feuchtgebiete (2008) and Detlev Buck’s German-Cambodian film Same Same But Different (2010) that is based on the memoir Wohin Du auch gehst by German journalist Benjamin Prüfer (2007). In both narratives, the protagonists and their partners struggle in their search for love and identity with illness or injury in relation to body fluids, including hemorrhoids and HIV. I argue that Feuchtgebiete and Same Same But Different not only critique medical and cultural discourses on body (fluids) and sexuality but also foreground a feminist trans-corporeal concept of the body and of body fluids that is open to fluid identities and material connections with the (global) environment. At the same time, the conventional and sentimental ending of these quest narratives undermines the possibilities of the trans-corporeal body and its fluid exchanges.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Depictions of American Indians in George
           Armstrong Custer’s My Life on the Plains

    • Authors: Danielle Johannesen
      First page: 56
      Abstract: General George Armstrong Custer remains one of the most iconic and mythologized figures in the history of the American West. His infamous defeat at the 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn largely defines his legacy; historical scholarship and popular representations of Custer consistently focus on his “Last Stand.” However, Custer was also a writer with a keen appreciation for arts and culture. This article analyzes Custer’s descriptions of American Indians in his memoir My Life on the Plains (1874). I trace how Custer’s descriptions of Indians and Indian culture clearly reveal a colonial mindset; yet, Custer regularly reflects on Indians and Indian culture with interest, curiosity, and even respect. I analyze these moments of potential commiseration and question whether these moments depart from a colonial mindset. Additionally, I analyze how Custer constructs Indians as the “enemy” and show how these constructions are problematic, yet critical for Custer’s aestheticizing of military conflict. Ultimately, I argue that Custer’s memoir is deserving of increased attention as a literary text and show how to reveal complexities and contradictions with literary and historical implications.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 57: “Our Self-Undoing”: Christina
           Rossetti’s Literary and Somatic Expressions of Graves’ Disease

    • Authors: Mary Arseneau, Emery Terrell
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Victorian poet Christina Rossetti (1830–1894) was frequently troubled by poor health, and her mid-life episode of life-threatening illness (1870–1872) when she suffered from Graves’ disease provides an illuminating case study of the ways that illness can be reflected in poetry and prose. Rossetti, her family, and her doctors understood Graves’ disease as a heart condition; however, Rossetti’s writing reflects a different paradigm, presenting themes of self-attack and a divided self that uncannily parallel the modern understanding of Graves’ disease as autoimmune in nature. Interestingly, these creative representations reflect an understanding of this disease process that Rossetti family documents and the history of Victorian medicine demonstrate Rossetti could not have been aware of. When the crisis had passed, Rossetti’s writing began to include new rhetoric and imagery of self-acceptance and of suffering as a means of spiritual improvement. This essay explores the parallels between literary and somatic metaphors: Rossetti’s body and art are often simultaneously “saying” the same thing, the physical symptoms expressing somatically the same dynamic that is expressed in metaphor and narrative in Rossetti’s creative writing. Such a well-documented case history raises questions about how writing may be shaped by paradigms of illness that are not accessible to the conscious mind.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 58: “Divided by a Common Language”: The Use
           of Verbatim in Carol Ann Duffy and Rufus Norris’ My Country; A Work in
           Progress

    • Authors: Shauna O’Brien
      First page: 58
      Abstract: ‘My Country; A Work in Progress’ written and arranged by the poet Carol Ann Duffy is a verbatim play that uses interviews conducted with people from various regions in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland to explore the causes of the EU referendum result. With the recent rise of populism across Europe, Britain, and America, an increased scepticism of established news media organisations, and a widespread disillusionment with the so-called political elite class, verbatim theatre’s “claim to veracity” and use of real-life testimonies seems to provide an attractive forum for both playwrights and audiences to investigate the underlying causes prompting these political and social movements. This paper examines how Duffy’s highly-fragmented arrangement of My Country’s verbatim voices in tandem with their re-citation and reterritorialization in the bodies of the performers on the stage ironically undermines the “claim to veracity” that its verbatim approach implies.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Spectral Sterility in Bucknill and Tuke’s
           A Manual of Psychological Medicine and Bulwer Lytton’s A Strange Story

    • Authors: Ford
      First page: 59
      Abstract: This essay identifies and examines a narrative structure—here called the sterility plot—that is shown to recur in British mid-19th century psychiatric texts and imaginative literature engaging mental science. Treating physicians Bucknill and Tuke’s A Manual of Psychological Medicine and novelist Bulwer Lytton’s A Strange Story as influential case studies, it explores in particular the Gothic-styled spectralisation used by both Victorian medical and literary authors to characterize females whose mental disorders are depicted as bound with a short- or long-term inability to reproduce. The narratives thereby gender, pathologize, and suspensefully dramatize the plot trajectory of mentally ill patients’ clinical and fictional case histories, which, taken together, is argued to reveal mid-century medico-cultural anxieties about the health of Britain’s imperial future being threatened by potentially sterile Englishwomen.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Two 1916s: Sebastian Barry’s A Long
           Long Way

    • Authors: Haas
      First page: 60
      Abstract: As Paul Fussell has shown, the First World War was a watershed moment for 20th century British history and culture. While the role of the 36th (Ulster) Division in the Battle of the Somme has become a part of unionist iconography in what is now Northern Ireland, the experience of southern or nationalist Irish soldiers in the war remains underrepresented. Sebastian Barry’s 2005 novel, A Long Long Way is one attempt to correct this historical imbalance. This article will examine how Barry represents the relationship between the First World War and the 1916 Easter Rising through the eyes of his politically-conflicted protagonist, Willie Dunne. While the novel at first seems to present a common war experience as a means of healing political divisions between Ireland and Britain, this solution ultimately proves untenable. By the end of the novel, Willie’s hybrid English–Irish identity makes him an outcast in both places, even as he increasingly begins to identify with the Irish nationalist cause. Unlike some of Barry’s other novels, A Long Long Way does not present a disillusioned version of the early 20th century Irish nationalism. Instead, Willie sympathizes with the rebels, and Barry ultimately argues for a more inclusive Irish national identity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
 
 
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