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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 964 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (167 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (139 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (157 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (166 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (9 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (298 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (298 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift für Sozialtheorie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access  
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cankiri Karatekin University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Digital Studies / Le champ numerique     Open Access  
Digitális Bölcsészet / Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
E+E : Estudios de Extensión en Humanidades     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Marx-Engels Jahrbuch     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2     

Journal Cover
Humanities
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2076-0787
Published by MDPI Homepage  [205 journals]
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 2: The Digital Griotte: Bessora’s Para/Textual
           

    • Authors: Claire Mouflard
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This article examines Bessora’s literary and digital criticism of postcolonial France, particularly in her first novel, 53 cm, and on her website, Tendre peau de vache. Bessora’s use of digital media in particular allows her to chronicle unofficial discourses on immigration, migration, and identity politics in France as alternative textual productions to her printed novels. Since there is a gap in academic studies regarding author websites and their contents, this study aims to start a conversation on the discursive function of an author’s digital textual productions. Following Jean Baudrillard’s theory in The Spirit of Terrorism according to which a terrorist act is successful when it distances itself from the real and exalts itself in the realm of the symbolic, this article argues that Bessora’s digital discourses on the post-Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack effectively denounce the disappearance of the real in French culture in favor of ideals such as the #jesuischarlie movement. From the publication of 53 cm in 1999 to her commentaries on France’s alienation of the lowest socio-economic class in Le Testament de Nicolas (2016), the self-proclaimed griotte’s print and digital productions complement each other and bring the reader closer to an understanding of institutional neocolonialist practices in France.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 3: The Beat Generation Meets the Hungry
           Generation: U.S.–Calcutta Networks and the 1960s “Revolt of the
           Personal”

    • Authors: Belletto
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This essay explores the relationship between the U.S.-based Beat literary movement and the Hungry Generation literary movement centered in and around Calcutta, India, in the early 1960s. It discusses a trip Allen Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky took to India in 1962, where they met writers associated with the Hungry Generation. It further explains how Lawrence Ferlinghetti, owner of City Lights Books in San Francisco, was inspired to start a new literary magazine, City Lights Journal, by Ginsberg’s letters from India, which included work by Hungry Generation writers. The essay shows how City Lights Journal packaged the Hungry Generation writers as the Indian wing of the Beat movement, and focuses in particular on the work of Malay Roy Choudhury, the founder of the Hungry Generation who had been prosecuted for obscenity for his poem “Stark Electric Jesus.” The essay emphasizes in particular the close relationship between aesthetics and politics in Hungry Generation writing, and suggests that Ginsberg’s own mid-1960s turn to political activism via the imagination is reminiscent of strategies employed by Hungry Generation writers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 4: [Mis-]managing Fisheries on the West Coast of
           Ireland in the Nineteenth Century

    • Authors: John B. Roney
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This study focuses on the cultural heritage of artisan coastal fishing in the west of Ireland in the 19th century. The town and port of Dingle, County Kerry, offers an important case study on the progress of local development and changing British policies. While there was clearly an abundance of fish, the poverty and the lack of capital for improvements in ports, vessels, gear, education, and transportation, left the fishing industry underdeveloped until well after the 1890s. In addition, a growing rift developed between the traditional farmer-fishermen and the new middle-class capitalist companies. After several royal commissions examined the fishing industry, the leading ichthyologists of the day concluded that an abundance of fish could be taken without fear of overfishing. The utilitarian economic principle became dominant, changing the previous non-interventionist policies. In the end, there was little concern for sustainability. The mismanagement of commercial fishing in the west of Ireland stemmed from a series of factors, including the increasing need for protein in Britain, technological developments that allowed greater fish catch, and the Conservative government’s political policy of ‘constructive unionism’ that attempted to develop the Irish economy to preserve the kingdom.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Inscription and ‘Anscription’: Surface
           and System in Cybernetics, Deconstruction, and Don DeLillo

    • Authors: Nathaniel Zetter
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This essay proposes the concept of ‘anscription’, and employs it to re-think some of the typical valences of inscription in media theory. The word is derived from the German anschreiben, which can simply mean, ‘to write up’, but also refers to the specific act, and the set of social relations that come into place, when one writes something up on a blackboard. Not quite encompassed by inscription, it offers an essential counterpart to the term for media-oriented thinkers. The essay draws out this corresponding function through readings of three imagined (but not-quite-imaginary) media, across which emerges a dialectic in the cultural imaginary of inscription. The first comes from the mathematician Norbert Wiener’s description of a mechanism that would translate written text into tactile impressions; the second, from Jacques Derrida’s historical framing of the project of deconstruction in relation to writing systems; and the third, from a thirty-two-page description of an American football game in Don DeLillo’s 1972 novel, End Zone. Each will offer a different exemplification of the function termed ‘anscription’. Just as significantly, each example presents this function in relation to the technical possibilities of media and articulates it through a theory of the body that is entangled with writing.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Sour Beer at the Boar’s Head: Salvaging
           Shakespeare’s Alewife, Mistress Quickly

    • Authors: Christina Romanelli
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Using William Shakespeare’s character Mistress Nell Quickly as an example, this article contends that familiarity with both the literary tradition of alewives and the historical conditions in which said literary tradition brewed aids in revising our interpretation of working-class women on the early modern stage. Mistress Quickly, the multi-faceted comic character in three history plays and a city-comedy, resembles closely those women with whom Shakespeare and his contemporaries would have lived and worked in their day-to-day lives. Rather than dismissing her role as minor or merely comic, as previous criticism largely has, scholarship can embrace this character type and her narrative as an example to complicate teleological progressions for women.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Humanities in
           2018

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Nostalgia, Motherhood, and Adoption: Two
           Contemporary Swedish Examples

    • Authors: Lena Ahlin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This paper explores the notion of nostalgia in two recent Swedish narratives of transnational adoption: Christina Rickardsson’s Sluta aldrig gå, 2016, (published in English as Never Stop Walking in 2017), and Cilla Naumann’s Bära barnet hem (“Carrying the Child Home”, 2015). The two narratives deal with adoption from South America to Sweden, include autobiographical content, and enable a comparison between an adoptee memoir (Rickardsson) and a parent-authored text (Naumann). Both texts center on maternal images, but the analysis suggests that Rickardsson’s narrative echoes the borderland nostalgia characteristic of adoptee writing. The adoptee memoirs, being reflective in mode and restorative in purpose, occupy a borderland between the two forms of nostalgia described by Boym (2001), while interrogating the temporal, spatial and affiliative boundaries of transnational adoption. Naumann’s nostalgic enterprise incorporates the mirrors, doubles and ghosts of reflective nostalgia. These representations are a fruitful means to represent the “other” family, and the alternative lives that were left behind in the process of adoption. Ultimately, her text suggests the limitations of the autobiographical mode and illustrates the capacity of fiction to provide a symbolic register in which to articulate the unspeakable aspects of adoption.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Current Status of European Oyster Decline and
           Restoration in Germany

    • Authors: Bernadette Pogoda
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Marine ecosystems of temperate regions are highly modified by human activity and far from their original natural status. The North Sea, known as an intensively used area, has lost its offshore oyster grounds due to overexploitation in a relatively short time. Native oyster beds as a once abundant and ecologically highly important biogenic reef-type have vanished from the North Sea ecosystem in most areas of both their former distribution and magnitude. Worldwide, oyster stocks have been severely exploited over the past centuries. According to estimates, about 85% of the worldwide oyster reef habitats have been destroyed over the course of the last century. This loss of oyster populations has meant far more than just the loss of a valuable food resource. Oyster reefs represent a characteristic benthic community which offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services: better water quality, local decrease of toxic algal blooms, increase in nutrient uptake, increase of bentho-pelagic coupling, increase in species richness, increase of multidimensional biogenic structures which provide habitat, food, and protection for numerous invertebrate and fish species. The aim of oyster restoration is to promote redevelopment of this valuable missing habitat. The development of strategies, methods, and procedures for a sustainable restoration of the European oyster Ostrea edulis in the German North Sea is currently a focus of marine nature conservation. Main drivers for restoring this ecological key species are the enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the marine environment. Results of these investigations will support the future development and implementation of a large-scale and long-term German native oyster restoration programme to re-establish a healthy population of this once-abundant species now absent from the region.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Migratory Realities: The Interplay of
           Landscapes in the Guyanese Emigrant’s Reality in Jan Lowe
           Shinebourne’s The Godmother and Other Stories

    • Authors: Abigail Persaud Cheddie
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Guyana’s high rate of migration has resulted in a sizeable Guyanese diaspora that continues to negotiate the connection with its homeland. Jan Lowe Shinebourne’s The Godmother and Other Stories opens avenues of understanding the experiences of emigrated Guyanese through the lens of transnational migration. Four protagonists, one each from the stories “The Godmother,” “Hopscotch,” “London and New York” and “Rebirth” act as literary case studies in the mechanisms involved in a Guyanese transnational migrant’s experience. Through a structuralist analysis, I show how the use of literary devices such as titles, layers and paradigms facilitate the presentation of the interplay of landscapes in the transnational migrant’s experience. The significance of the story titles is briefly analysed. Then, how memories of the homeland are layered on the landscape of residence and how this interplay stabilises the migrant are examined. Thirdly, how ambivalence can set in after elements from the homeland come into physical contact with the migrant on the landscape of residence, thereby shifting the nostalgic paradigm into an unstable structure, is highlighted. Finally, it is observed that as a result of the paradigm shift, the migrant must then operate on a shifted interplay that can be confounding. Altogether, the text offers an opportunity to explore migratory realities in the Guyanese emigrant’s experience.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 11: “The Past Is Never Dead. It’s Not Even
           Past”: The Ambivalent Call of Nostalgic Memory in Richard Ford’s Short
           Story “Calling” (A Multitude of Sins, 2001)

    • Authors: Marie-Agnès Gay
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This article focuses on Richard Ford’s short story “Calling,” collected in the volume entitled A Multitude of Sins (2001). It consists of the detailed recalling by a first-person narrator, from the vantage point of adulthood, of a duck-hunting outing with his father at a moment of acute family crisis when he was still a teenager. This episode, redolent of America’s nostalgic motif of male bonding and father-son transmission in the midst of mythical American nature, is shown to have proved a pathetic failure at the time, and the story stages—to pick up Svetlana Boym’s famous distinction between two main types of nostalgia—the enlightening “reflective” effects of recalling this moment of “restorative” longing for the protagonist. However, the highly analytical narrator does not consciously dwell upon the peripheral yet disturbing presence of two grotesque characters that, I contend, are the locus of the implicit meaning of the text. Through precise textual reading and references to Southern Gothic, I indeed argue that the subtext of “Calling” invites the reader to journey back into a region’s (the South’s) troubled collective past and to question its own relation to nostalgia. “Calling” thus also stages the ambivalence of nostalgic longing on the collective plane as it shows willful nostalgic recollection wavering in the face of the return of the historical repressed, that of America’s ineffable original sin.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Perpetual Vanishing: Animal Lives in
           Contemporary Scottish Fiction

    • Authors: Timothy C. Baker
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Animals, writes Akira Mizuta Lippit, ‘exist in a state of perpetual vanishing’: they haunt human concerns, but rarely appear as themselves. This is especially notable in contemporary Scottish fiction. While other national literatures often reflect the ‘animal turn’ in contemporary theory, the number of twenty-first-century Scottish novels concerned with human–animal relations remains disproportionately small. Looking at a broad cross-section of recent and understudied novels, including Mandy Haggith’s Bear Witness (2013), Ian Stephen’s A Book of Death and Fish (2014), Andrew O’Hagan’s The Life and Opinions of Maf the Dog, and of His Friend Marilyn Monroe (2010), Malachy Tallack’s The Valley at the Centre of the World (2018), James Robertson’s To Be Continued (2016), and Sarah Hall’s The Wolf Border (2015) highlights the marginalisation of both nonhuman animals and texts centred on them. The relative absence of engagement with animal studies in Scottish fiction and criticism suggests new opportunities for reevaluating the formulation of environmental concerns in a Scottish context. By moving away from the unified concepts of ‘the land’ to a perspective that includes the precarious relations between humans, nonhuman animals, and their environment, these texts highlight the need for greater, and more nuanced, engagement with fictional representations of nonhuman animals.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Regional Planning and the Environmental
           Impact of Coastal Tourism: The Mission Racine for the Redevelopment of
           Languedoc-Roussillon’s Littoral

    • Authors: Giacomo Parrinello, Renaud Bécot
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Research on the coast has highlighted the role of mass tourism as a driver of littoral urbanization. This article emphasizes the role of public policy by focusing on Languedoc-Roussillon in Mediterranean France. This littoral was the target of a state-driven development initiative known as Mission Racine, which aimed to promote the growth of what was seen as a backward area via the development of seaside tourism. For that purpose, the Mission promoted coordinated interventions including forest management, eradication of mosquitoes, construction of resorts, and transport infrastructure. This large-scale redevelopment significantly reshaped the littoral environment, severely impacted pre-existing forms of coastal activities and launched a new tourism industry. The legacy of the Mission, however, also included innovative land-use planning, which established protected areas and sought to contain urbanization. This case study illustrates the ambiguities of public policies for the coast, which can act alternatively as drivers of development or conservation and at times of both, and therein lies the importance of a contextual analysis of their role.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 1: Dalmatians and Dacians—Forms of Belonging
           and Displacement in the Roman Empire

    • Authors: Alfred Hirt
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Inspired by the catalyst papers, this essay traces the impact of displacement on existing and emerging identities of groups and individuals which were relocated to ‘frontier’ areas in the aftermath of conflict and conquest by Rome during the reign of emperor Trajan. The Dacian Wars, ending in 106 CE with the conquest of Dacia by Roman armies, not only resulted in the deliberate destruction of settlements and the society of the conquered, but also the removal of young Dacian men by forced recruitment into the Roman army, some serving the emperor in the Eastern Egyptian Desert. In turn, the wealth in gold and silver of the newly established Roman province of Dacia was exploited by mining communities arriving from Dalmatia. As a result of these ‘displacements’ caused by war and the shared experience of mining in the remote mountains of Dacia or guarding roads through the desert east of the Nile, we can trace the emergence of new senses of belonging alongside the retainment of fixed group identities.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8010001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 90: Nordic Modernism for Beginners

    • Authors: Susan C. Brantly
      First page: 90
      Abstract: This essay proposes a narrative of the Nordic countries’ relationship to modernism and other major literary trends of the late 19th and 20th centuries, that situates them in conjunction with the rest of Europe. “Masterpieces of Scandinavian Literature: the 20th Century” is a course that has been taught to American college students without expertise in literature or Scandinavia for three decades. This article describes the content and methodologies of the course and how Nordic modernisms are explained to this particular audience of beginners. Simple definitions of modernism and other related literary movements are provided. By focusing on this unified literary historical narrative and highlighting the pioneers of Scandinavian literature, the Nordic countries are presented as solid participants in European literary and cultural history. Further, the social realism of the Modern Breakthrough emerges as one of the Nordic countries distinct contributions to world literature.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040090
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 91: Recognizing the Delians Displaced after
           167/6 BCE

    • Authors: Eliza Gettel
      First page: 91
      Abstract: In 167/6 BCE, the Roman senate granted a request from Athens to control the island of Delos. Subsequently, the Delians inhabiting the island were mandated to leave and an Athenian community was installed. Polybius, who records these events, tells us that the Delians left and resettled in Achaea in the Peloponnese. Scholars have tended to focus on Rome’s motivations for siding with the Athenians rather than on what happened to the Delians. Furthermore, translations have tended to use the broad terminology of ‘migration’ to describe the Delians’ movement. Comparatively, this contribution suggests that modern categories connected to ‘displacement’ can help us recover aspects of the Delians’ experience. Particularly, a shift to the vocabulary of ‘displacement’ highlights the creative agency of the Delians in holding the Athenians accountable for their expulsion and in seeking recognition from Rome of their integration into the Achaean state. The application of these modern categories necessitates reflection on differences in the political, institutional landscapes that have shaped the experience of displacement in the ancient Hellenistic and modern contexts, as well as on variations in experience amongst the Delians. Ultimately, recognizing what these individuals experienced within the evolving third-party arbitration system of the ancient world leads us to think about the indirect violence of expanding political institutions in ‘globalising’ worlds, both ancient and modern.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040091
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 92: Images of the Crowned Buddha along the Silk
           Road: Iconography and Ideology

    • Authors: Rebecca L. Twist
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The interpretation of early Buddha images with a crown has long been a source of debate. Many scholars have concluded that the iconography of the crown is intended to denote Śākyamuni as a cakravartin or universal Buddha. A few have suggested it represents a sambhogakāya Buddha in Mahāyāna Buddhism. This art historical and Buddhological study examines the visual record of early crowned Buddhas along the Silk Road, focusing on the iconographic signifiers of the crown, silk items, and ornaments, and interprets them within a broader framework of Buddhist theoretical principals and practice. Not only is this a visual analysis of iconography, it also considers contemporary Buddhist literary evidence that shows the development of the iconography and ideology of the crowned Buddha. As a result of this examination, I propose that the recurring iconographic evidence and the textual evidence underscore the intention to depict a form of sambhogakāya Buddha as an early esoteric meditational construct. Moreover, many Buddhas perform one of the two mudrās that are particular to the esoteric form of Vairocana Buddha. Therefore, the iconography also signifies the ideology of the archetypal Ādi Buddha as an esoteric conception.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040092
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 93: World Citizens: Pathways for the Development
           of Eco-Citizenship in Higher Education

    • Authors: Hélène Domon
      First page: 93
      Abstract: It is time that universities reexamine what is meant by globalization. Contemporary scholars in the humanities, such as Peter Critchley, Noam Chomsky, Lewis Mumford, Elinor Ostrom, Charles Eisenstein, David Orr, Vandana Shiva, Naomi Klein, Lynn Margulis, Mustafa Tolba, Martha Nussbaum, Henry Giroux, Carolyn Merchant, Paulo Freire, Fritjof Capra, and Pier Luigi Luisi have aptly redefined the concept of “world” as a biological and cultural ecosystem. This paper seeks ways to integrate the theory and practice of eco-citizenship into various cross-disciplinary aspects of higher education, with a focus on curricular adjustments steered by World Languages and Cultures programs. It vests universities with a mission to engage themselves both as places of resistance against the neoliberal privatization of the commons and as the interactive, practical, analytical, and creative grounds needed for a healthy rebuilding of our global community. Through an assertive commitment in favour of eco-citizenship, universities will help clarify and resolve the strong conflict we are witnessing today between neoliberal orientations and an ecological exigency clearly delineated by scientific and humanistic scholarship.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040093
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 94: Oromo Oral Literature for Environmental
           Conservation: A Study of Selected Folksongs in East and West Hararghe
           Zones

    • Authors: Geremew Chala Teresa, Hunduma Dagim Raga
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This paper presents the values, knowledge and beliefs of the environment that are inscribed in the Oromo folksongs with particular reference to Eastern and Western Hararghe zones of Oromia regional state. The paper discusses the various contributions of the Oromo folksongs in conserving the environment. The paper is based on the qualitative data produced through face-to-face interviews, non-participant observations and document analysis of both published and unpublished sources. The data used in this paper were collected from 24 individuals of the community leaders, elders and sheekaas by using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The analysis of the paper is employed in functional, contextual and ecocritical theoretical models. In order to arrive at the various ideas of folksongs connected to the environmental conservation, some selected folksongs were carefully designated. The paper attempts to address the contexts in which the folksongs reflect the viewpoints of environment. It also tries to explore the role of Oromo folksongs and their implications in the efforts of wide-reaching environmental views. The position of this paper is that indigenous knowledge (Oromo folksongs) is an effective vehicle in supplementing the existing efforts of conserving the environment through imagery, metaphoric, and symbolic description. Based on the analysis, this paper addresses the association that the Oromo people have strong reflections of environmental conservation through its folksongs. On the basis of the contextual analysis, we classified the folksongs that have environmental implication into four sub-divisions: (1) for utilitarian reason, (2) for visualization, (3) for aesthetic values and (4) for morality purpose.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040094
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 95: ‘Vision Isolated in Eternity’:
           Nostalgia Catches the Train

    • Authors: Randall Stevenson
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Nostalgia for steam trains in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries offers a further example of the varying responses to railways evident ever since their first development in the nineteenth century. Several of these responses contributed to, and illustrate, the changing roles of temporality, memory and nostalgia in the literature of the modern period. In particular, though modernist literature is often critical of the contribution railways and their timetabling made to the mechanisation of the modern age, the writers concerned also develop affirmatively the new possibilities of momentary, memorable vision which rapid travel offered to the imagination. The development of this kind of vision in modernist writing allows certain forms of intense memory to be recognized as historically specific, though also, as always, shaped by nostalgia’s idiosyncratic, personal aspects.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040095
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 96: In the Traces of Modernism: William Faulkner
           in Swedish Criticism 1932–1950

    • Authors: Mats Jansson
      First page: 96
      Abstract: This article focusses the reception of William Faulkner in Sweden from the first introduction in 1932 until the Nobel Prize announcement in 1950. Through reviews, introductory articles, book chapters, forewords, and translations, the critical evaluation of Faulkner’s particular brand of modernism is traced and analysed. The analysis takes theoretical support from Hans Robert Jauss’ notion of ‘horizon of expectations’, Gérard Genette’s concept of ‘paratext’, and E.D. Hirsh’s distinction between ‘meaning’ and ‘significance’. To pinpoint the biographical and psychologizing tendency in Swedish criticism, Roland Barthes’s notion of ‘biographeme’ is introduced. The analysis furthermore shows that the critical discussion of Faulkner’s modernism could be ordered along an axis where the basic parameters are form and content, aesthetics and ideology, narrator and author, and writer and reader. The problematics adhering to these fundamental aspects are more or less relevant for the modernist novel in general. Thus, it could be argued that the reception of Faulkner in Sweden and Swedish Faulkner criticism epitomize and highlight the fundamental features pertaining to the notion of ‘modernism’, both with regard to its formal and content-based characteristics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040096
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 97: Hard Ground-Soft Politics: The Biennial of
           Graphic Arts in Ljubljana and Biting of the Iron Curtain

    • Authors: Wiktor Komorowski
      First page: 97
      Abstract: In 1955, the Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts was founded. It was the first curatorial initiative that aimed to link graphic artists working around the world and with those divided by the Cold War. The Ljubljana Biennial became a major success and its model quickly spread worldwide, augmenting the international circulation of prints and exchanges of artistic concepts. Over the next twenty years similar exhibitions were established in Krakow, Tallinn, San Juan, Santiago de Chile, Cali, Tokyo, Cairo, Fredrikstad, Frechen, Sofia and Bradford. The Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts offered an opportunity for artists from Yugoslavia, Eastern Europe and Latin America, such as Andrzej Lachowicz, Mauricio Leib Lasansky, Adolfo Quinteros and Aleš Veselý, to exhibit their works alongside the protagonists of the western contemporary graphic art circuit such as Robert Rauschenberg, Antonio Segui, Yozo Hamaguchi, Max Bill and Victor Vasarely. The network of exhibitions that followed the example set by Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts became a window into the world not only for printmakers, but also for a number of artists who were affected by Cold War cultural exclusion. The network of dedicated international print exhibitions created favourable conditions for an emerging third space, which became a platform for communication between the cultures divided by the Iron Curtain. This article focuses on the curatorial assumptions that brought the Biennial of Graphic Arts in Ljubljana to life and questions its position as a cultural cornerstone for the Non-Aligned geopolitical order.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040097
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 98: Constructing the ‘Right Image’:
           Visibility Management and the Palestinian Village of Susiya

    • Authors: Gary Bratchford
      First page: 98
      Abstract: This article focuses on the Palestinian Bedouin village of Susiya in the West Bank of the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the multi-agency efforts to save the village after the Israeli Civil Administration issued a full demolition order to all existing structures in 2012. By analysing a range of creative visual responses to the demolition order, including social media campaigns and video appeals, the paper examines the problematic nature over who and how to produce the ‘right image’ of the village and its struggle. Based upon fieldwork and interviews undertaken between 2013–2014 with activists and community workers, I identify how in an effort to overcome the separation between audience and distant spectator, a number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Human Rights Organisations (HROs), acting on behalf of the village, ultimately weakened rather than strengthened the representation of the villagers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040098
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 99: The Montage Rhetoric of Nordahl
           Grieg’s Interwar Drama

    • Authors: Dean Krouk
      First page: 99
      Abstract: This essay explains the modernist montage rhetoric of Nordahl Grieg’s 1935 drama Vår ære og vår makt in the context of the playwright’s interest in Soviet theater and his Communist sympathies. After considering the historical background for the play’s depiction of war profiteers in Bergen, Norway, during the First World War, the article analyzes Grieg’s use of a montage rhetoric consisting of grotesque juxtapositions and abrupt scenic shifts. Attention is also given to the play’s use of incongruous musical styles and its revolutionary political message. In the second part, the article discusses Grieg’s writings on Soviet theater from the mid-1930s. Grieg embraced innovative aspects of Soviet theater at a time when the greatest period of experimentation in post-revolutionary theater was already ending, and Socialist Realism was being imposed. The article briefly discusses Grieg’s controversial pro-Stalinist, anti-fascist position, before concluding that Vår ære og vår makt represents an important instance of Norwegian appropriation of international modernist and avant-garde theater.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040099
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 100: Performing Devotion: Belief, the Body, and
           the Book of Common Prayer 1775–1840

    • Authors: Laura Davies
      First page: 100
      Abstract: This article examines three texts published between 1775 and 1840 that attempt to model an ideal reading of the Anglican liturgy and to render it on the printed page, exploring the ways in which elocutionary instruction, acting theory and accounts of public worship intersect within them through the figures of inscription and incorporation. Reflecting on the choice of the famous actor David Garrick as an exemplary reader in the two later texts, and drawing on the work of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, it discusses how and why these texts attempt to regulate competing ideas regarding the concepts of performance, embodiment, and assembly. The argument is made that although prescriptive in their demands, to varying degrees these texts acknowledge their own insufficiencies, and recognise not merely the difficulty of the task of transposing oral performance to a series of textual signs, or of accounting for the nature of devout worship, but also a more fundamental excess and irreducibility in the constitution of the self.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040100
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 101: There’s No Nostalgia Like Hollywood
           Nostalgia

    • Authors: Thomas Leitch
      First page: 101
      Abstract: This essay argues that the complexities of the nostalgic impulse in Hollywood cinema are inadequately described by Svetlana Boym’s particular description of Hollywood as “both induc[ing] nostalgia and offer[ing] a tranquilizer” and her highly influential general distinction between restorative and reflective nostalgia. Instead, it contends that Hollywood departs in important ways from the models of both the restorative nostalgia established by the heritage cinema and Great Britain and the reflective nostalgia commonly found in American literature. Using a wide range of examples from American cinema, American literature, and American culture, it considers the reasons why nostalgia occupies a different place and seeks different kinds of expressions in American culture than it does in other national cultures, examines the leading Hollywood genres in which restorative nostalgia appears and the distinctive ways those genres inflect it, and concludes by urging a closer analysis of the more complex, multi-laminated nostalgia Hollywood films offer as an alternative to Boym’s highly influential categorical dichotomy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040101
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 102: Projective Verse: The Spiritual Legacy of
           the Beat Generation

    • Authors: Paul E. Nelson
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Allen Ginsberg’s poetry, poetics or cultural activism; Jack Kerouac’s prose, poetry and his method of composition; Gary Snyder’s environmental and Buddhist consciousness and bioregional ethos, or the opening made by the Beats for Eastern spirituality in the west are of intrinsic value and will be for generations, this paper seeks to posit that it is Michael McClure’s use of Projective Verse, that future generations of writers and readers will come to appreciate as that movement’s spiritual legacy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040102
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 103: Into the Texan Sunset: Metanostalgia,
           Retro-, and Introspection in Lars Gustafsson’s “Where the Alphabet Has
           Two Hundred Letters”

    • Authors: Maria Freij
      First page: 103
      Abstract: If restorative nostalgia concentrates on national past and future and reflective nostalgia on individual memory (Boym 2001), Lars Gustafsson’s “Where the Alphabet Has Two Hundred Letters” does neither. This article argues that Gustafsson’s treatment of the past landscape is metanostalgic, in the sense that nostalgia is a theme and a means, rather than a sentiment, and that the way his tropic reinvention deals with nostalgia differs from other uses. Though the poem partakes in the pastoral tradition, it is less concerned with this mode and more concerned with the notion of ‘effect’, of which Gustafsson has written extensively. Gustafsson has also elaborated on the aspects of ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’, notions that are used to define and extend the poetic landscape and the speaker’s position in, and relation to, it. His poetic landscape encompasses the extremes of continents near and far, but also landscapes temporally removed, which may hold a different status in terms of their impact on ‘effect’, a status that is then not hinging on the obvious hierarchies of traditional nostalgia.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040103
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 104: “She Did Not Notice Me”: Gender,
           Anxiety, and Desire in The Reluctant Fundamentalist

    • Authors: Suzy Woltmann
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Using the recent trend in literary scholarship that theorizes literature in terms of globalization, cosmopolitanism, and dialectic transnational identities, I examine gender and sexual ideology in Mohsin Hamid’s 2007 novel The Reluctant Fundamentalist, a post-9/11 text that explores the intricacies of community and terror. Specifically, I argue that the novel articulates a particularly gendered vision of spatial, social, and political (im)mobility through the narrator’s desires, especially as demonstrated through his romantic interest, and masculine anxieties expressed through his response to American imperialism. The narrator’s view of the United States is inexorably tied to his projection of convoluted desire, and he conflates impotence with frustration at being unable to respond to growing American militaristic power. We as readers wish to identify with a protagonist whose story we slowly learn is largely articulated in terms of his sexual desire and denial: we at first empathize with his desire but then, when discovering its projection is problematic, simultaneously wish to reject it. The interplay of the microcosm of an individual’s failed romantic relationship and the macrocosm of countries at conflict mimics the mobility and liminality of conflicting ideologies.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040104
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 105: Atoning for Nostalgia in Ian McEwan’s
           Atonement

    • Authors: Catherine Delesalle-Nancey
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Many critics have pointed out the ambiguities of Atonement, a postmodernist anti-nostalgic novel that brings to the fore all the traditional topoi of Englishness in order better to denounce them as sham. In Atonement, the nostalgic longing is linked to the desire of Briony (the protagonist/narrator) for a return to a state of innocence which, I will argue through a close analysis of the text and its recurring images, is as much an atoning for her crime as a longing to be at-one in a state of harmony. Literally utopian, this nostalgic longing appears as a fantasy of omnipotence by an immature ego. Yet Briony’s being born into a writer entails a facing of the other within the self, an atoning for her nostalgic bias, not by erasing it, but by acknowledging her full responsibility in it, a process the reader is also invited to go through. From a regressive quest, nostalgia thus turns into an opening to otherness and to new potentialities. The unbridgeable gap between nostalgic desire and its fulfilment is what fuels our longing, keeps us alive and allows for creation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040105
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 106: ‘As If There Was No Fear’: Exploring
           Nostalgic Narrative in Bo Carpelan’s Novel Berg

    • Authors: Nanny Jolma
      First page: 106
      Abstract: This article addresses nostalgic experience and aims at a definition of nostalgic narrative through textual analysis. The target text is Bo Carpelan’s Berg (2005). The novel is analysed with narratological methods focusing on the narrative modes and the techniques of narrative mediation that invite a nostalgic experience in the reader. This side of the phenomenon—the textual aesthetics of nostalgia—has been explored by few scholars, whereas the contextual and cultural aspects of nostalgia have received a lot of attention. This article suggests further ways of analysing how a text evokes nostalgic experience, and thus considers the nostalgic experience of the reader as the definitive core of nostalgic narrative. The nostalgic experience in Berg is intense, reflective, and ambivalent. These qualities are produced on the level of both the narrative discourse and the story: by changes between the narrative modes and by the nostalgic and non-nostalgic content that builds and breaks the idealised narrative. The article suggests that more attention should be paid to the complexity of nostalgic narratives. Furthermore, it highlights that by creating reflectivity and contradictions, the non-nostalgic content also affects the nostalgic narrative.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040106
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 107: Odysseus and the Cyclops: Constructing Fear
           in Renaissance Marriage Chest Paintings

    • Authors: Margaret Franklin
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Recent scholarship addressing access to Homer’s epics during the Italian Renaissance has illuminated the unique importance of visual narratives for the dissemination and interpretation of material associated with the Trojan War and its heroes. This article looks at early fifteenth-century images deriving from the Odyssey that were painted for marriage chests (cassoni) in the popular Florentine workshop of Apollonio di Giovanni. Focusing on Apollonio’s subnarrative of Odysseus’ clash with the Cyclops Polyphemus (the Cyclopeia), I argue that Apollonio showcased this archetypal tale of a failed guest–host relationship to explore contemporary anxieties associated with marriage, an institution that figured prominently in the political and economic ambitions of fifteenth-century patriarchal families.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040107
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 108: Charles Olson’s ‘Projective Verse’
           and the Inscription of the Breath

    • Authors: Brendan C. Gillott
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Charles Olson’s hugely influential essay-manifesto ‘Projective Verse’ is usually understood as proposing a close - and a necessary—link between poetry and body. Some account of Olson’s as a ‘poetics of embodiment’ or a ‘breath-poetics’ is almost ubiquitous in the extant criticism, yet what this might actually mean or imply for poetry and poetry-reading remains unclear. ‘Projective Verse’ is deeply ambivalent about print, seeing in it the ‘closed verse’ Olson looked to replace, while simultaneously idealising the typed-and-printed page as the only medium for the supposed immediacy of the poet’s breath. This essay contends that Olson’s lionisation of the typewriter is accompanied by a suppressed inscriptional register—a concern with carving and engraving—and asks what the substrate hosting this inscription might be. The aims of the piece are twofold: to demonstrate that ‘Projective Verse’ contains a logic of inscription which has gone severely underappreciated; and to argue that this logic runs up against the much better-documented logic of poetic embodiment via the breath in such a way as to deeply trouble criticism’s rather murky understanding of what that latter logic implies, both in Olson’s specific case and for poetry more generally.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040108
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 109: James Joyce and the Epiphanic Inscription:
           Towards an Art of Gesture as Rhythm

    • Authors: Alberto Tondello
      First page: 109
      Abstract: In Agency and Embodiment, Carrie Noland describes gesture as “a type of inscription, a parsing of the body into signifying and operational units”, considering it as a means to read and decode the human body. Through an analysis of James Joyce’s collection of Epiphanies, my paper will examine how gesture, as a mode of expression of the body, can be transcribed on the written page. Written and collected to record a “spiritual manifestation” shining through “in the vulgarity of speech or gesture, or in a memorable phase of the mind itself”, Joyce’s Epiphanies can be considered as the first step in his sustained attempt to develop an art of gesture-as-rhythm. These short pieces appear as the site in which the author seeks, through the medium of writing, to negotiate and redefine the boundaries of the physical human body. Moving towards a mapping of body and mind through the concept of rhythm, and pointing to a collaboration and mutual influence between interiority and exteriority, the Epiphanies open up a space for the reformulation of the relationship between the human body and its environment. Unpacking the ideas that sit at the heart of the concept of epiphany, the paper will shed light on how this particular mode of writing produces a rhythmic art of gesture, fixing and simultaneously liberating human and nonhuman bodies on the written page.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040109
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 110: From Interethnic Alliances to the
           “Magical Negro”: Afro-Asian Interactions in Asian Latin American
           Literature

    • Authors: Ignacio López-Calvo
      First page: 110
      Abstract: This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean) that, under the guise of incorporating the other, favored whiteness while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040110
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 111: Nordic Modernists in the Circus. On the
           Aesthetic Reflection of a Transcultural Institution

    • Authors: Annegret Heitmann
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Around 1900 the circus was not only an important and highly popular cultural phenomenon all over Europe, but also an inspiration to writers and artists at the onset of Modernism. As an intrinsically intermedial form with international performers, it can be seen as an expression of certain important characteristics of modern life like innovation, mobility, dynamics, speed and vigor. Its displays of color and excitement, of bodies in motion and often provocative gender relations were experienced by authors as a challenge to create new aesthetic forms. However, the circus does not only figure prominently in well-known works by Kafka and Thomas Mann and paintings by Degas, Macke or Leger, it is also thematized in texts by Scandinavian authors. When writers like Henrik Ibsen, Herman Bang, Ola Hansson and Johannes V. Jensen referred to the circus in their works, they represented it as an experience of modernity and addressed themes like alterity, mobility, voyeurism, new gender relations and ambivalent emotions. As a self-reflexive sign, the circus even served to represent the fragile status of art in modernity and thus made an important contribution to the development of Modernism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040111
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 112: Dream Poems. The Surreal Conditions of
           Modernism

    • Authors: Louise Mønster
      First page: 112
      Abstract: The article discusses three Swedish dream poems: Artur Lundkvist’s “Om natten älskar jag någon…” from Nattens broar (1936), Gunnar Ekelöf’s “Monolog med dess hustru” from Strountes (1955), and Tomas Tranströmer’s “Drömseminarium” from Det vilda torget (1983). These authors and their poems all relate to European Surrealism. However, they do not only support the fundamental ideas of the Surrealist movement, they also represent reservations about, and corrections to, this movement. The article illuminates different aspects of dream poems and discusses the status of this poetic genre and its relation to Surrealism throughout the twentieth century.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040112
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 113: The Second World War, Imperial, and
           Colonial Nostalgia: The North Africa Campaign and Battlefields of Memory

    • Authors: Eva Kingsepp
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The article addresses the function of (post)colonial nostalgia in a context of multidirectional memory (Rothberg 2009) in contemporary Europe. How can different cultural memories of the Second Word War be put into respectful dialogue with each other' The text is based on a contrapuntal reading (Said 1994) of British and Egyptian popular narratives, mainly British documentary films about the North Africa Campaign, but also feature films and novels, and data from qualitative interviews collected during ethnographic fieldwork in Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt, during visits 2013–2015. The study highlights the considerable differences between the British and Egyptian narratives, but also the significant similarities regarding the use and function of nostalgia. In addition, the Egyptian narrative expresses a profound cosmopolitan nostalgia and a longing for what is regarded as Egypt’s lost, modern Golden Age, identified as the decades before the nation’s fundamental change from western-oriented monarchy to Nasser’s Arab nationalist military state. The common elements between the two national narratives indicate a possibly fruitful way to open up for a shared popular memory culture about the war years, including postcolonial aspects.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040113
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 114: The Flesh Made Word: Bodily Inscription and
           Religion in Celine et Julie Vont en Bateau

    • Authors: McNeil Taylor
      First page: 114
      Abstract: In Celine et Julie Vont en Bateau Jacques Rivette works through his discomfort with the theological function of the author, a discomfort stemming from the material effects of authorship on the bodies of his actors. Examples of bodily incision and bruising proliferate throughout the film, part of a process of violent characterization imposed by an authoring demiurge. The film explores several methods of escape from this process, starting with exotic travel and fairy tales, but culminates around repeated allusions to the crucifixion of Christ. The film advances a heretical Christology by positing God as a sadistic author and the wounded body of Christ as the paradigmatic example of being inscribed as a character against one’s will. As this characterization obviously engenders being inscribed in a narrative as well, the structure of the film probes at the notion of both Christianity and narrative cinema as means of escape.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040114
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 115: Postcards from Chile and Images from an
           Archive: Lighting the Nitrate of the 1973 Coup

    • Authors: Louise Purbrick
      First page: 115
      Abstract: This article examines a mass produced postcard image as a picture of conflict. It considers the postcard as a Benjaminian ‘prismatic fringe’ through which an archive can be viewed, wherein documents of the British trade in Chilean nitrate are juxtaposed with those of General Pinochet’s 1973 military coup. The archive itself is explored as a site of loss and its postcard, an unvarying idealisation, as a particularly problematic but powerful image that renders conflict out of sight.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040115
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 116: The Agency of the Displaced' Roman
           Expansion, Environmental Forces, and the Occupation of Marginal Landscapes
           in Ancient Italy

    • Authors: Perego, Scopacasa
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This article approaches the agency of displaced people through material evidence from the distant past. It seeks to construct a narrative of displacement where the key players include human as well as non-human agents—namely, the environment into which people move, and the socio-political and environmental context of displacement. Our case-study from ancient Italy involves potentially marginalized people who moved into agriculturally challenging lands in Daunia (one of the most drought-prone areas of the Mediterranean) during the Roman conquest (late fourth-early second centuries BCE). We discuss how the interplay between socio-political and environmental forces may have shaped the agency of subaltern social groups on the move, and the outcomes of this process. Ultimately, this analysis can contribute towards a framework for the archaeological study of marginality and mobility/displacement—while addressing potential limitations in evidence and methods.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040116
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 117: “I Shall Endeavor for Her Aims”:
           Women’s Alliances and Relational Figurations of Freedom

    • Authors: Sara Morrison
      First page: 117
      Abstract: In oppressive cultures that marginalize various identity positions, a woman might find it difficult to imagine herself as autonomous or capable of self-definition. Forging alliances with other women offers opportunities for self-discovery, transformation, and autonomous agency. Considering Queen Elizabeth’s correspondence with Safiye Sultana and Phillip Massinger’s The Renegado, this essay argues that tropes of seeing, achieved either through material images or through vivid discursive descriptions, foster imaginative renderings of the possibilities of self-expression and agency. Both cases, one diplomatic and the other dramatic, demonstrate successful—even though temporary and politically motivated—alliances mediated through both patriarchal constraints and material markers of identity. Drawing on these epistolary and dramatic texts, this essay explores tropes of imaginative seeing, the materiality of identity, and physical spaces that enact women’s alliances invested in questions of women’s freedom across tributaries both political and dramatic.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040117
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 118: Ostalgia in Czech Films about Normalisation
           Created Post-1989

    • Authors: Luboš Ptáček
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This piece will introduce Czech ostalgic films set in the normalisation period (1969–1989) and will interpret the basic divide between nostalgic representation of the period and the openly anti-communist stances of the films’ creators. The methodological frame of this research comes from Robert Rosenstone’s approach of representation of history in film. To interpret ostalgia in Czech film, I use ideas from Daphne Berdhal and Svetlana Boym. I described the nostalgic elements and their functions in the structure of the films, taking into account their story, characters, settings, film style, narration, genre, and audience response (identification, causality of emotional experience). Czech ostalgic films about the normalisation period are interpretively ambivalent. The interpretational tension appears out of a fundamental divide between a clear refusal of communism and an idyllic view of the socialist past. They cannot be simply classified into restorative or reflective nostalgia. The younger generation of spectators perceives ostalgic films in the mode of reflective nostalgia; on the other hand, the older generation perceive the films in terms of restorative nostalgia. A different way of perceiving ostalgia reveals a misunderstanding between generations of the current Czech society. Due to singular anti-communist viewpoints and emphasised liberal values, the films cannot be interpreted in a desire for an idealised home in a communist past, but as a desire for a present home and its security, which cannot be clearly conceptualised. The concept of reflective nostalgia can be linked with the theory of Berdhal. The films cannot be perceived as a desire for an idealised home in a communist past due to specific anti-communist viewpoints and highlighted liberal values, but as a need for a home and security that cannot be directly conceptualised. This appearance of reflective nostalgia can be connected with the theory stated by Berdhal.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040118
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 119: Yugonostalgia as a Kind of Love: Politics
           of Emotional Reconciliations through Yugoslav Popular Music

    • Authors: Ana Petrov
      First page: 119
      Abstract: In the aftermath of the Yugoslav wars, listening to Yugoslav popular music has often been seen as a choice charged with political meaning, as a symptom of Yugonostalgia and as a statement against the nationalistic discourses of the post-Yugoslav states. In this article, I will show how the seemingly neutral concept of love is embedded in the music and memory practices in the post-Yugoslav context. In dealing with the issue of love, I draw on the research regarding emotions as social, cultural, and performative categories. The research included the analysis of the interconnectedness of the discourses on love and the discourse on Yugoslavia (promoted by both the performers and the audience). In addition to the striking intertwinement of the two, the actual term love was quite often used when describing the general relation to Yugoslavia, or its music in particular, or the relation of the people from the former country. Pointing to the multifarious meanings and usages of the concept of love as understood in the post-Yugoslav music space, I will argue that Yugonostalgia can be understood as a kind of love. As such, Yugonostalgia can be used for commercial purposes and be a means for the commodification of feelings and memories.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040119
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 120: Narrating Pregnancy and Childbirth:
           Infanticide and the Dramatization of Reproductive Knowledge

    • Authors: Elizabeth Steinway
      First page: 120
      Abstract: In early modern England, infanticide was a crime overwhelmingly associated with women. Both popular texts and legal records depict women accused of infanticide as mothers acting against nature. These figures, however, do not often appear in the period’s drama. Instead, early modern drama includes fictionalized mothers who kill their children beyond infancy and into adulthood. By eschewing portrayals of neonaticide and the trials associated with it, the drama highlights a dependency upon female characters’ verbal narratives of the reproductive body that reinforces pregnancy’s unstable epistemology. I argue that the flexibility of this epistemology allows women, whether female characters in drama or historical women on trial, to distance themselves from the crime of infanticide by reconstructing narratives of both pregnancy and childbirth. Sharing rhetorical devices with the testimonies of women accused of infanticide, dramatic mothers such as Videna in The Tragedie of Gorboduc and Brunhalt in Thierry and Theodoret linguistically sever the biological ties between mother and child, thus disrupting conventional portrayals of reproduction. These parallel strategies position the reproductive female body as a site of resistance to the legal mechanisms designed to interpret it.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040120
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 121: Peculiarities of Nostalgia in Ayn
           Rand’s Novel Atlas Shrugged

    • Authors: Kamila Mirasova
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Quite a number of Russian writers could not accept the October Revolution in 1917 and left the country. Their nostalgia for their motherland in emigration is a well-known fact. The Russian-born American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982) was also driven out of Soviet Russia by a hatred for communism, yet her nostalgia is of a different kind. The purpose of this study is to describe the nature of Ayn Rand’s nostalgia. Discovering, on arrival in the U.S., a reality different from the image she bore in her mind, she did not start missing her homeland but continued longing for her ideal—19th century America. This ideal is fully reflected in her self-made philosophy known as “objectivism”, which underlies her novel Atlas Shrugged. Though philosophically substantiated, the ideal appears to be embodied in trivial myths of the American mass consciousness. The study highlights four of the most popular national myths in her novel. As a result, Rand’s literary works represent popular literature that are not within the mainstream of the Russian émigré literature of that period.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040121
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 122: Matrophobia and Uncanny Kinship: Eva
           Hoffman’s The Secret

    • Authors: Elizabeth Kella
      First page: 122
      Abstract: Eva Hoffman, known primarily for her autobiography of exile, Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language (1989), is also the author of a work of Gothic science fiction, set in the future. The Secret: A Fable for our Time (2001) is narrated by a human clone, whose discovery that she is the “monstrous” cloned offspring of a single mother emerges with growing discomfort at the uncanny similarities and tight bonds between her and her mother. This article places Hoffman’s use of the uncanny in relation to her understanding of Holocaust history and the condition of the postmemory generation. Relying on Freud’s definition of the uncanny as being “both very alien and deeply familiar,” she insists that “the second generation has grown up with the uncanny.” In The Secret, growing up with the uncanny leads to matrophobia, a strong dread of becoming one’s mother. This article draws on theoretical work by Adrienne Rich and Deborah D. Rogers to argue that the novel brings to “the matrophobic Gothic” specific insights into the uncanniness of second-generation experiences of kinship, particularly kinship between survivor mothers and their daughters.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040122
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 123: Video Games as Objects and Vehicles of
           Nostalgia

    • Authors: Péter Kristóf Makai
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Barely 50 years old, video games are among the newest media today, and still a source of fascination and a site of anxiety for cultural critics and parents. Since the 1970s, a generation of video gamers have grown up and as they began to have children of their own, video games have become objects evoking fond memories of the past. Nostalgia for simpler times is evident in the aesthetic choices game designers make: pixelated graphics, 8-bit music, and frustratingly hard levels are all reminiscent of arcade-style and third-generation console games that have been etched into the memory of Generation X. At the same time, major AAA titles have become so photorealistic and full of cinematic ambition that video games can also serve as vehicles for nostalgia by “faithfully” recreating the past. From historical recreations of major cities in the Assassin’s Creed series and L. A. Noire, to the resurrection of old art styles in 80 Days, Firewatch or Cuphead all speak of the extent to which computer gaming is suffused with a longing for pasts that never were but might have been. This paper investigates the design of games to examine how nostalgia is used to manipulate affect and player experience, and how it contributes to the themes that these computer games explore. Far from ruining video games, nostalgia nonetheless exploits the associations the players have with certain historical eras, including earlier eras of video gaming. Even so, the juxtaposition of period media and dystopic rampages or difficult levels critically comment upon the futility of nostalgia.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040123
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 124: Orwell’s Tattoos: Skin, Guilt, and Magic
           in ‘Shooting an Elephant’ (1936)

    • Authors: Lisa Mullen
      First page: 124
      Abstract: This paper considers the significance of the talismanic tattoos on Orwell’s hands, which he acquired in Burma during his time as a colonial policeman from 1922 to 1927. It examines historical evidence suggesting that such tattoos were understood differently by British and Burmese people, and concludes that, for Orwell, their meaning was multilayered: first, they were a means of understanding Burmese culture more intimately; second, they were a psychological attempt to cathect his feelings of guilt about his complicity in colonial injustice by remaking his ‘skin-ego’; and third, they were a gesture towards the possibility that inscription—first in the form of tattoos, and later in the written word—might be a way to understand and process his self-alienation. The paper goes on to examine Orwell’s 1936 essay ‘Shooting an Elephant’ in the light of Orwell’s interest in inscription, and traces its themes of mark-making, magic, and authorship, arguing that these ideas enabled him, at a crucial moment in his development as a writer, to map his experiences of colonialism onto his wider commitment to anti-fascist and anti-authoritarian politics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040124
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 125: Correction: Boschman, Robert, and Bill
           Bunn. 2018. Nuclear Avenue: “Cyclonic Development”, Abandonment, and
           Relations in Uranium City, Canada. Humanities 7: 5

    • Authors: Robert Boschman, Bill Bunn
      First page: 125
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following correction to the paper published in Humanities (Boschman and Bunn 2018). [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040125
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 126: Nightclub as a Liminal Space: Space,
           Gender, and Identity in Lisa See’s China Dolls

    • Authors: Melody Yunzi Li
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Nightclubs flourished in San Francisco’s Chinatown in the late 1930s when it became a nightlife destination. To Chinese Americans, however, San Francisco nightclubs became a new site at the time for them to re-explore their identities. For some, visiting these nightclubs became a way for them to escape from traditional Chinese values. For others, it became a way to satisfy Western stereotypes of Chinese culture. Lisa See’s China Dolls (2015) describes three young oriental women from various backgrounds that become dancers at the popular Forbidden City nightclub in San Francisco in the late 1930s. Through the three girls’ precarious careers and personal conflicts, Lisa See proposes the San Francisco nightclub as both a site for them to articulate their new identities beyond their restricted spheres and a site for them to perform the expected stereotypical Asian images from Western perspectives. It was, at that time, a struggle for the emergence of modern Chinese women but particularly a paradox for Chinese-American women. The space of the Chinese-American nightclub, which is exotic, erotic, but stereotypical, represents contradictions in the Chinese-American identity. Through studying Lisa See’s novel along with other autobiographies of the Chinese American dancing girls, I argue that San Francisco nightclubs, as represented in Lisa See’s novel, embody the paradox of Chinese American identities as shown in the outfits of Chinese American chorus girls—modest cheongsams outside and sexy, burlesque costumes underneath.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040126
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 127: Johann Scheffler (Angelus Silesius): The
           Silesian Mystic as a Boethian Thinker. Universal Insights, Ancient Wisdom,
           and Baroque Perspectives

    • Authors: Albrecht Classen
      First page: 127
      Abstract: This paper offers an analysis of a number of the fascinating, thought-provoking, and yet often deeply puzzling epigrams by the German Baroque poet Johann Scheffler (Angelus Silesius), and illustrates how his enigmatic mystical concepts were influenced, to some extent, by the philosophical thoughts offered by the late antique statesman and thinker Boethius (d. 525). While recent research has already reached new insights into the long-term reception history of Boethius’s De consolatione philosophiae well into the modern age, including by Scheffler, we still face the critical desideratum to determine the meaning of Scheffler’s spiritual insights in direct correlation with Boethius’s fundamental teachings, and hence, to answer the intriguing and challenging question of why Scheffler, along with Boethius, continues to speak to us today, and this perhaps more than ever before. Even though Scheffler pursued deeply religious questions typical of his time, he obviously greatly profited from Boethius’s musings about the meaning of the absolute Goodness, the vagaries of fortune, and the instability of all material existence in the quest for happiness. Many times we observe that Scheffler offers paradoxical and also apophatic statements, but those make surprisingly astounding sense if we read them, especially in light of Boethius’s teachings, as perceived in the seventeenth century. The epigrams thus prove to be the prolific outcome of universal cross-fertilizations and demonstrate the continued impact of antiquity on the modern world and the growing need today to accept the notion of “world literature” not only in a contemporary, transcultural perspectives, but also in terms of universal interactions throughout time.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040127
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 128: Urban Space and Gender Performativity in
           Knut Hamsun’s Hunger and Cora Sandel’s Alberta and Freedom

    • Authors: Unni Langås
      First page: 128
      Abstract: In this article, I discuss the combination of city life and gender performativity in two Norwegian classics, Knut Hamsun’s Hunger (2016) [Sult, 1890] and Cora Sandel’s Alberta and Freedom (1984) [Alberte og friheten, 1931]. These are modernist novels depicting lonely human subjects in an urban space, the first one featuring a man in Kristiania (now Oslo) in the 1880s, the second one a woman and her female acquaintances in Paris in the 1920s. I interpret and compare the two novels by focusing on their intertwined construction of gender performativity and urban space. Gender norms of the city life are critical premises for how the subjects manage to negotiate with different options and obstacles through their modern existences. To both protagonists, inferior femininity is a constant option and threat, but their responses and actions are different. The strategy of the male subject in Hunger is to fight his way up from humiliation by humiliating the female other; the strategy of the female subject in Alberta and Freedom is instead to seek solidarity with persons who have experiences similar to her own. Hamsun’s man and Sandel’s woman both perceive their own bodies as crucial to the interpretation of their physical surroundings. However, while the hero in Hunger must deal with a body falling apart and a confrontation with the world that depends on a totally fragmented bodily experience, the heroine in Alberta and Freedom instead sees herself as a body divided between outer appearance and inner inclinations. Both novels stage a person with writing proclivities in a city setting where the success or failure of artistic work is subjected to the mechanisms of a market economy. Their artistic ambitions are to a large extent decided by their material conditions, which seem to manipulate Hamsun’s hero out of the whole business, and Sandel’s heroine to stay calm and not give up. Yet the novels share the belief in the body’s basis as a denominator for the perception and interpretation of sensual and cognitive impressions of the world.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040128
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 129: Political Messages in African Music:
           Assessing Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, Lucky Dube and Alpha Blondy

    • Authors: Uche Onyebadi
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Political communication inquiry principally investigates institutions such as governments and congress, and processes such as elections and political advertising. This study takes a largely unexplored route: An assessment of political messages embedded in music, with a focus on the artistic works of three male African music icons—Fela Anikulapo-Kuti (Nigeria), Lucky Dube (South Africa), and Alpha Blondy (Côte d’Ivoire). Methodologically, a purposive sample of the lyrics of songs by the musicians was textually analyzed to identify the themes and nuances in their political messaging. Framing was the theoretical underpinning. This study determined that all three musicians were vocal against corruption, citizen marginalization, and a cessation of wars and bloodshed in the continent.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040129
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 130: Prescribed Reading: Reflective Medical
           Narratives and the Rise of the Medimoir: An Interview with Adam Kay

    • Authors: Katy Shaw
      First page: 130
      Abstract: The 21st century has witnessed the rise of a genre of literature that has taken both the reading public and the publishing industry by storm. The ‘medimoir’—or medical memoir—is not in itself a new genre of writing, but has risen to prominence in a contemporary British context of renewed focus on public health and wellbeing, a proliferation of professional confessionals in publishing, and debates about the future of the free-at-point-of-care British National Health Service (NHS). The most prolific medimoir published to date is Adam Kay’s This Is Going to Hurt (2017), a reflective diary that chronicles his time as a trainee gynaecologist in the NHS, and his subsequent exit from medical training in the face of growing personal and political pressures on his profession. This article contextualises and considers the rise of the medimoir, and examines why this genre of medical narrative has become such a critical, literary, and publishing success in the first two decades of the new millennium.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040130
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 131: Nostalgic Nuances in Media in the Red Book
           Magazine Version of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Rich Boy”

    • Authors: Lara Rodríguez Sieweke
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The present article attempts to contribute to both Fitzgerald scholarship and nostalgia studies by examining how text, illustration, and advertisement enter into dialogue in the original magazine format of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s short story “The Rich Boy”. As research is still scarce on Fitzgerald’s stories as they were first published, this field may hold new, potential research paths for this canonical author, a few of which I endeavor to explore here. This paper suggests that this 1926 magazine version offers a unique nostalgic experience that differs from the reading of Fitzgerald’s text in an image-free anthology. It argues that, with some exceptions, these media generally interact in a cohesive way that echoes or reinforces a nostalgic mood. Niklas Salmose’s typology of nostalgic strategies will be used to draw out the nostalgia in these media, and an intermedial approach will be employed to investigate how they engage in nostalgic dialogue.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040131
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 132: Intertextuality in Diane di Prima’s Loba:
           Religious Discourse and Feminism

    • Authors: Estíbaliz Encarnación-Pinedo
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The last three decades have witnessed a significant increase in the academic interest in the Beat Generation. No longer seen as “know-nothing bohemians” (Podhoretz 1958), scholars have extended the scope of Beat studies, either by generating renewed interest in canonical authors, by expanding the understanding of what Beat means, or by broadening the aesthetic or theoretical lens through which we read Beat writers and poets. Among these, the transnational perspective on Beat writing has sparked careful re-examinations of Beat authors and their works that seek to recognize, among other things, the impact that transnational cultures and literatures have had on Beat writers. Diane di Prima’s long poem Loba (Di Prima 1998), a feminist epic the poet started writing in the early 1970s, draws on a vast array of transnational texts and influences. Most notoriously, di Prima works with mythological and religious texts to revise and challenge the representation of women throughout history. This paper explores di Prima’s particular use of world narratives in light of a feminist poetics and politics of revision. Through the example of “Eve” and the “Virgin Mary”, two of the many female characters whose textual representation is challenged in Loba, the first part of the paper considers di Prima’s use of gnostic and Christian discourses and their impact on her feminist politics of revision. The second part of the paper situates Loba in the specific context of Second-Wave feminism and the rise of Goddess Movement feminist groups. Drawing from the previous analysis, this part reevaluates di Prima’s collection in light of the essentialist debate that analyzes the texts arising from this tradition as naïve and apolitical.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040132
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 133: Unreal Homes: Belonging and Becoming in
           Indian Women Narratives

    • Authors: Sofia Cavalcanti
      First page: 133
      Abstract: In an epoch which has to do fundamentally with space, the concept of home has entered the epistemic scene, both as a commodity and a discursive formation. Contemporary Indian women writers, who are a major facet of present Anglophone literature, have often chosen the domestic sphere as the structural framework of their stories. However, despite the traditional idea of home as a static physical site where women’s lives unfold, a more complex and fluid concept emerges from their narratives. After discussing conflicting definitions of home both as a site of belonging and becoming, I will provide a comparative analysis of the short story Mrs. Sen’s by Jhumpa Lahiri and the novel Ladies’ Coupé by Anita Nair. By looking at the transitional spaces inhabited by the women protagonists—respectively, the diasporic space in the U.S. and a train car in India—I will show how home is a psychic-inhabited place taking shape in memory, imagination, and desire. In conclusion, home is an unreal site at the core of women’s subjectivities, transcending the physicality of the homeland or the household and assuming a metonymic significance. Its inward or outward-moving force gives birth to “homeworlds” made of liminal paths where new possibilities of identity construction are produced.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040133
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Rethinking China’s Frontier:
           Archaeological Finds Show the Hexi Corridor’s Rapid Emergence as a
           Regional Power

    • Authors: Heather Clydesdale
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The Chinese government’s expansion of infrastructure in Gansu province has led to the discovery of a number of important ancient tombs in the Hexi Corridor, a thousand kilometer stretch of the Silk Roads linking China to Central Asia. This study investigates recent finds in the context of older excavations to draw a more cohesive picture of the dramatic cultural and political changes on China’s western frontier in the Wei-Jin period (220–317 CE). A survey of archaeological reports and an analysis of tomb distribution along with structural and decorative complexity indicate that after the fall of the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), the nexus of regional power shifted from the eastern Hexi Corridor to Jiuquan and Dunhuang in the west. This phenomenon was related in the rise of magnate families, who emerged from Han dynasty soldier-farmer colonies and helped catalyze the region’s transformation from a military outpost to a semi-autonomous, prosperous haven that absorbed cultural influences from multiple directions. This dynamism, in turn, set the stage for the Hexi Corridor’s ascent as a center of Buddhist art in the fifth and sixth centuries.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 64: Post-War Ecosophic Intuition: About the
           (Im)Possibility of Ecological Coexistence in Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in
           the City by Italo Calvino

    • Authors: Márcio Matiassi Cantarin, Mariana Cristina Marino
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Taking in consideration, alongside Cheryll Glotfelty, that “ecocriticism seeks to evaluate text ideas in terms of their coherence and usefulness in the responses to environmental crisis” (Glotfelty and Fromm 1996, p. 5), and that crisis refers not only to the ecology of the environment but also to that of social relations and the psyche, as proposed by Félix Guattari (1990), understanding that there is a lack of equilibrium among the three registries that provoke the crisis lived by the contemporary individual, in a broad spectrum, this work intends to understand how the character Marcovaldo, from Italo Calvino’s Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City (1963), articulates modes of being, dwelling and surviving in a great metropolis, through the adoption of postures coherent with what we would call, later, ecosophy. In addition to the two aforementioned theorists, the ideas of Garrard (2006) and Serres (1991) will be used. Also, we intend to show how much the stories in the collection hold great potential for ecocritical reading and, therefore, for a response to the level of awareness about the ecological crisis.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Animal Voices: Catherine Louisa Pirkis’
           The Experiences of Loveday Brooke, Lady Detective and the Crimes of
           Animality

    • Authors: Christopher Pittard
      First page: 65
      Abstract: While previous readings of Catherine Louisa Pirkis’ series The Experiences of Loveday Brooke, Lady Detective (1894) have focused on Brooke’s status as New Woman detective, this article considers the series in the context of Pirkis’ own engagement with animal rights and anti-vivisection campaigns in the late nineteenth century. The discussion focuses on one Loveday Brooke story in particular, “The Murder at Troyte’s Hill,” arguing that Pirkis dramatises contemporary anti-vivisectionist rhetoric (that animal experimentation was not only scientifically flawed, but morally damaging, leading to human experimentation). Pirkis’ fiction instead presents a number of contact zones in which human and animal identities are renegotiated, most significantly in the figure of Loveday Brooke herself. The article considers the representation of comparative philology in the story, as an emerging linguistic science which raised anxieties of cultural dissolution and which was often associated with the image of the vivisector. It concludes that the Pirkis stories demonstrate, anticipating Derrida, that to write of the animal in the nineteenth century is inevitably to write about crime, and vice versa; the animal is a perpetual presence in Victorian detective fiction.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 66: ‘Deeds of Darkness’: Thomas
           Hardy and Murder

    • Authors: Minna Vuohelainen
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Critics have often sought to place Thomas Hardy’s fiction within a realist generic framework, with a significant emphasis on Hardy’s Wessex settings, visual imagination and equation of sight with knowledge. Yet Hardy’s writings frequently disturb realist generic conventions by introducing elements from popular nineteenth-century genres, particularly sensation fiction and the Gothic. This essay considers how murder as a plot device troubles generic boundaries in the novels Desperate Remedies (1871), Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) and Tess of the d’Urbervilles (1891). Set against backgrounds with significant non-realist elements, these texts view murder and its punishment from limited, distorted or averted perspectives that articulate a significant social and cultural critique.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Folklore of the Arab World1

    • Authors: Hasan El-Shamy
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Four major stages in the development of interest in folklore in the Arab World may be designated. A neglected (or suppressed) facet of Arab life is the centrality of the khâl. An examination of the impact this familial character has on the social structure of the group regardless of ethnicity and religion is absent. (1) Is the early Islamic period and how religious dogma regarded negatively cultural expressions of polytheism' (2) The age of the spread of Islam and the Arabic language. Religious narratives (mostly “exempla”) dominated the Arab Islamic scene. (3) Is the short-llived era of the emergence of an ephemeral trend towards objectivity and of growth of interest in indigenous culture' In this regard the Basrite Al-Jâhiz (9th C. A.D.) is to be acknowledged as the first folklorist; he treated genuine folklore occurrences and sought to verify their veracity through fieldwork. (4) This stage came in the 1950s when literary scholars became aware of "folklore" as an academic discipline in the West; the attention westerners paid the Arabian Nights triggered interest in that work among some Arab scholars. Along with that European interest, ethnocentric hypotheses about lack of creativity among Semitic groups flourished. Regrettably, these wayward views still find supporters today. With political changes and the emergence of populism, folk groups and their culture varieties acquired special importance. Conflict between religious circles and nonreligious intellectuals over the use of terms turâth/ma’thûr (legacy/Tradition), labels previously reserved for religious heritage. This conflict seems to have abated. Currently, especially in the newly independent Arab Gulf states, “folklore” is proudly held to be a depository of a nation’s memory, history, ‘soul’, and character. However, it should be born in mind that while folklore cultivates positive principles, it also harbors destructive values.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 68: Aurel Stein and the Kiplings: Silk Road
           Pathways of Converging and Reciprocal Inspiration

    • Authors: Geoffrey Kain
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Biographies of the renowned linguistic scholar and archaeological explorer Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1862–1943) inevitably yet briefly refer to the role played by John Lockwood Kipling (1837–1911), as curator of the Lahore Museum—with its extensive collection of ancient Gandharan Greco-Buddhist sculpture—in exciting Stein’s interests in and theories of what likely lay buried under the sands of the Taklamakan Desert. A more insistent focus on the coalescing influences in the Stein-Kipling relationship, including a subsequent line of evident inspiration from Stein to the internationally famed author and Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling (Lockwood’s son; 1865–1936), helps to synthesize some of the highlights of Stein’s first expedition into the remote Tarim Basin of Chinese Turkestan, including and involving the forgeries manufactured by the Uyghur treasure-seeker Islam Akhun.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 69: Sisters on the Soapbox: Elizabeth Gurley
           Flynn and Her Female Free Speech Allies’ Lessons for Contemporary Women
           Labor Activists

    • Authors: Mary Anne Trasciatti
      First page: 69
      Abstract: At a moment when U.S. labor seems its most weak and vulnerable, a wave of teacher strikes and demonstrations led and carried out primarily by women shows promise of revitalizing the movement. Critics allege the strikes and demonstrations are “unseemly,” but popular support for them appears to be growing. Historically, militant strikes and demonstrations have met with significant and sometimes violent resistance from corporate and political entities hostile to labor, and contemporary women in the movement should prepare for pushback. In the past, anti-labor forces have used the law and physical aggression to squeeze labor activists out of public space. Labor has a history of fighting back, beginning with the free speech fights of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in the early twentieth century. These campaigns were the first in U.S. history to claim a First Amendment right to use public space. IWW organizer Elizabeth Gurley Flynn led several of these free speech fights. She and other women free speech fighters played an essential if often overlooked role in popularizing the idea that ordinary people have right to public space. Their tactics and experiences can inform and inspire women at the forefront of a contemporary labor militancy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 70: The Humanities as Contradiction: Against the
           New Enclosures

    • Authors: Christopher Breu
      First page: 70
      Abstract: This essay begins by surveying our current moment in the humanities, diagnosing the language of crisis that frames much of the discourse about them. It argues that the crisis is a manufactured economic one not a symbolic one. The problems with many recent proposals—such as the new aestheticism, surface reading, and postcritique—is that they attempt to solve an economic crisis on the level of symbolic capital. They try to save the humanities by redisciplining them and making them mirror various forms amateur inquiry. I describe these approaches as the new enclosures, attempts at returning the humanities to disciplinarity with the hopes that administrative and neoliberal forces will find what we do more palatable. Instead of attempting to appease such forces by being pliant and apolitical, we need a new workerist militancy (daring to be “bad workers” from the point of view of neoliberal managerial rhetorics) to combat the economic crisis produced by neoliberalism. Meanwhile, on the level of knowledge production, the humanities need to resist the demand to shrink the scope of their inquiry to the disciplinary. The humanities, at their best, have been interdisciplinary. They have foregrounded both the subject of the human and all the complex forces that shape, limit, and exist in relationship and contradiction with the human. The essay concludes by arguing that the humanities, to resist neoliberal symbolic logics, need to embrace both a critical humanism, and the crucial challenges to this humanism that go by the name of antihumanism and posthumanism. It is only by putting these three discourses in negative dialectical tension with each other that we can begin to imagine a reinvigorated humanities that can address the challenges of the twenty-first century.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 71: “Hopefully I Won’t Be Misunderstood.”
           Disability Rhetoric in Jürg Acklin’s Vertrauen ist gut

    • Authors: Alec Cattell
      First page: 71
      Abstract: This essay brings together the fields of German literature, disability studies, and rhetoric in an analysis of the rhetorical strategies and representational implications of disability in Jürg Acklin’s 2009 novel Vertrauen ist gut. Resting on the theory of complex embodiment, the analysis considers the rhetoric of anmut as a literary strategy that invites readers to share imperfect, yet profound, embodied rhetorical connections with the protagonist without rendering invisible the differences that shape embodied experience. Although the characters in Vertrauen ist gut are fictional, this novel provides important insights regarding experiences of precarious embodiment and affirms the value of interdependence while challenging ideals of autonomy and independence. Furthermore, the novel’s narrative within a narrative—and the consequences of the narrator’s interpretation of their significance—challenges readers to use caution when interpreting literary narratives, as their relationship to personal narratives may not always be straightforward.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Citizenship as Barrier and Opportunity for
           Ancient Greek and Modern Refugees

    • Authors: Benjamin Gray
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Some dominant traditions in Refugee Studies have stressed the barrier which state citizenship presents to the displaced. Some have condemned citizenship altogether as a mechanism and ideology for excluding the weak (G. Agamben). Others have seen citizenship as an acute problem for displaced people in conditions, like those of the modern world, where the habitable world is comprehensively settled by states capable of defending their territory and organised in accordance with interstate norms, which leaves very limited space for the foundation of new communities with their own meaningful citizenship (H. Arendt). This paper engages with these prominent approaches, but also with more recent arguments that, when handled and adapted in the right way, the practices and ideology of citizenship also present opportunities for the displaced to form their own meaningful communities, exercise collective agency, and secure rights. It is argued that the evidence from ancient Greece shows that ancient Greek citizenship, an early forerunner of modern models of citizenship, could be imaginatively harnessed and adapted by displaced people and groups, in order to form effective and sometimes innovative political communities in exile, even after opportunities to found new city-states from scratch became quite rare (after c. 500 BC). Some relevant displaced groups experimented with more open and cosmopolitan styles of civic interaction and ideology in their improvised quasi-civic communities. The different kinds of ancient Greek informal ‘polis-in-exile’ can bring a new perspective on the wider debates and initiatives concerning refugee political agency and organisation in the ‘provocations’ in this special issue.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 73: Soviet Central Asia and the Preservation of
           History

    • Authors: Craig Benjamin
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Central Asia has one of the deepest and richest histories of any region on the planet. First settled some 6500 years ago by oasis-based farming communities, the deserts, steppe and mountains of Central Asia were subsequently home to many pastoral nomadic confederations, and also to large scale complex societies such as the Oxus Civilization and the Parthian and Kushan Empires. Central Asia also functioned as the major hub for trans-Eurasian trade and exchange networks during three distinct Silk Roads eras. Throughout much of the second millennium of the Common Era, then under the control of a succession of Turkic and Persian Islamic dynasties, already impressive trading cities such as Bukhara and Samarkand were further adorned with superb madrassas and mosques. Many of these suffered destruction at the hands of the Mongols in the 13th century, but Timur and his Timurid successors rebuilt the cities and added numerous impressive buildings during the late-14th and early-15th centuries. Further superb buildings were added to these cities by the Shaybanids during the 16th century, yet thereafter neglect by subsequent rulers, and the drying up of Silk Roads trade, meant that, by the mid-18th century when expansive Tsarist Russia began to incorporate these regions into its empire, many of the great pre- and post-Islamic buildings of Central Asia had fallen into ruin. This colonization of the region by the Russians, and its later incorporation into the Union of Society Socialist Republics in 1919, brought Central Asia to the attention of Russian and Soviet archaeologists and urban planners. It was these town planners and engineers who were eventually responsible for preserving many of the decaying monuments and historic urban cores of Central Asia, despite the often-challenging ideological constraints they were forced to work under. The paper focuses particularly on the effect of these preservation policy decisions in Uzbekistan, where the process has been best documented. It argues that Soviet authorities struggled constantly with ways of recognizing the need for historical preservation while at the same time creating a new society that had cast off the shackles of its ‘feudal past’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 74: Heterolingualism and the Holocaust:
           Translating the Ineffable in Hélène Berr’s Journal

    • Authors: Stephanie Faye Munyard
      First page: 74
      Abstract: By drawing attention to Hélène Berr’s use of foreign languages and literature as acts of translation, arguably one of the most prominent features of her Journal, this paper hopes to lay the foundation for a more sustained discussion of what translation means for victims of Nazi persecution, as well as of what translation does to their voices and for the continued transmission of their memories. The first section of this paper considers how Hélène Berr uses translation as a communicative aid to expression and argues that foreign languages, literary forms of expression, and also literature itself form part of a broader network of substitute vocabularies that function to help Berr to narrate, or even to translate, the ineffable. After considering the important role that heterolingualism and these substitute vocabularies play in Berr’s narrative, the paper raises some of the distinct challenges that linguistic plurality poses to translators of narratives of Nazi persecution. By drawing on, and comparing, examples from a textual analysis of the (2008) English version of Berr’s Journal, translated by David Bellos, and from the (2009) German edition, translated by Elisabeth Edl, and crucially through assessments of citations from the translators themselves, this paper highlights the significant role that translators, and the practice of translation, play in shaping memories of Nazi persecution.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Powerful Adversaries

    • Authors: Ladelle McWhorter
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 contains yet another assault on higher education in its unprecedented tax on private university endowment income. This paper argues, first, that this and other attacks should not be seen as anti-intellectual efforts to dismantle higher education but rather as intellectually elitist efforts to rid universities of certain programs and personnel and, second, that viewing these efforts as motivated primarily by racism and (hetero)sexism is an analytical and political mistake. Women’s, gender, and sexualities studies programs undermine basic assumptions that ground contemporary right-wing political and economic policy—namely, individualism and economism—by presenting empirical evidence and developing theoretical frameworks focused on historical formations of power networks that produce subjects, preferences, and systems of oppression. The main goal of the radical right is not to purge women and people of color from academia, but to prevent analysis and discussion that reveals the inadequacy of right-wing ontological commitments and neoliberal social theory.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 76: Traces of Traces: Time, Space, Objects, and
           the Forensic Turn in Photography

    • Authors: Paul Lowe
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Images of atrocity are deeply problematic, in that they potentially create a tension between form and content and are often accused of re-victimization, aesthetization of suffering, compassion fatigue and exploitation. As an alternative, therefore, there is considerable potential in examining images associated with atrocity that do not depict the actual act of violence or the victim itself, but rather depict the material presence of the spaces and objects involved in such acts. The temporality of the photograph is also fluid in this type of approach. This paper considers the work of four photographers (Edmund Clark, Ashley Gilbertson, Shannon Jensen, and Fred Ramos) who have used a “forensic aesthetic” in their practice.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 77: Allaying Terror: Domesticating Vietnamese
           Refugee Artisans as Subjects of American Diplomacy

    • Authors: Jennifer Way
      First page: 77
      Abstract: A photograph of a basketmaker and photographs of other refugee artisans published in the August 1956 issue of Interiors magazine iterated some common themes of refugee narratives during a decade of significant migration that saw the United Nations sponsor World Refugee Year in 1959. Of particular interest are the ways the publication of the basketmaker photograph helped to demonstrate how Vietnamese refugee artisans suited the needs of an American State Department-led aid project directed by the industrial designer Russel Wright in South Vietnam from 1955–61. The project aimed to export Vietnamese craft to the American middle class as a way to bring South Vietnam into the Free World during the Cold War. This essay explores how the photograph served the American State Department agenda by characterizing its subject in terms of pathos and need. To this point, it helped to allay American anxieties about supporting refugee artisans by depoliticizing the “refugee problem” and resolving it. In this case, refugee photography expressed how the interests of American diplomacy were linking to the American middle class as a demographic becoming synonymous with consumption and whiteness.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Positioning Ethos in/for the Twenty-First
           Century: An Introduction to Histories of Ethos

    • Authors: James S. Baumlin, Craig A. Meyer
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The aim of this essay is to introduce, contextualize, and provide rationale for texts published in the Humanities special issue, Histories of Ethos: World Perspectives on Rhetoric. It surveys theories of ethos and selfhood that have evolved since the mid-twentieth century, in order to identify trends in discourse of the new millennium. It outlines the dominant theories—existentialist, neo-Aristotelian, social-constructionist, and poststructuralist—while summarizing major theorists of language and culture (Archer, Bourdieu, Foucault, Geertz, Giddens, Gusdorf, Heidegger). It argues for a perspectivist/dialectical approach, given that no one theory comprehends the rich diversity of living discourse. While outlining the “current state of theory,” this essay also seeks to predict, and promote, discursive practices that will carry ethos into a hopeful future. (We seek, not simply to study ethos, but to do ethos.) With respect to twenty-first century praxis, this introduction aims at the following: to acknowledge the expressive core of discourse spoken or written, in ways that reaffirm and restore an epideictic function to ethos/rhetoric; to demonstrate the positionality of discourse, whereby speakers and writers “out themselves” ethotically (that is, responsively and responsibly); to explore ethos as a mode of cultural and embodied personal narrative; to encourage an ethotic “scholarship of the personal,” expressive of one’s identification/participation with/in the subject of research; to argue on behalf of an iatrological ethos/rhetoric based in empathy, care, healing (of the past) and liberation/empowerment (toward the future); to foster interdisciplinarity in the study/exploration/performance of ethos, establishing a conversation among scholars across the humanities; and to promote new versions and hybridizations of ethos/rhetoric. Each of the essays gathered in the abovementioned special issue achieves one or more of these aims. Most are “cultural histories” told within the culture being surveyed: while they invite criticism as scholarship, they ask readers to serve as witnesses to their stories. Most of the authors are themselves “positioned” in ways that turn their texts into “outings” or performances of gender, ethnicity, “race,” or ability. And most affirm the expressive, epideictic function of ethos/rhetoric: that is, they aim to display, affirm, and celebrate those “markers of identity/difference” that distinguish, even as they humanize, each individual and cultural storytelling. These assertions and assumptions lead us to declare that Histories of Ethos, as a collection, presents a whole greater than its essay-parts. We conceive it, finally, as a conversation among theories, histories, analyses, praxes, and performances. Some of this, we know, goes against the grain of modern (Western) scholarship, which privileges analysis over narrative and judges texts against its own logocentric commitments. By means of this introduction and collection, we invite our colleagues in, across, and beyond the academy “to see differently.” Should we fall short, we will at least have affirmed that some of us “see the world and self”—and talk about the world and self—through different lenses and within different cultural vocabularies and positions.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Dehumanized Victims: Analogies and Animal
           Avatars for Palestinian Suffering in Waltz with Bashir and “War
           Rabbit”

    • Authors: Rachel Kunert-Graf
      First page: 79
      Abstract: A common convention in comics and animation is the use of animal stand-ins to provide an access point for human experiences. Whether representing anthropomorphized characters navigating very human experiences or depicting four-legged creatures impacted by human action, this strategy has the manifest intent of fostering viewer identification and empathy. In particular, artists sometimes deploy animal avatars in representations of persecution and historical trauma to avoid depicting identity categories such as race, nationality and sexuality, which constitute the ostensible basis for persecution. In this way, the use of animals to represent human suffering universalizes experiences for which difference matters. In this essay, I explore how these animal stand-ins enable or foreclose empathy with Palestinian victims in the close reading of two primary texts, “War Rabbit” and Waltz with Bashir, which employ animal avatars in place of a direct depiction of Palestinian suffering. These illustrated narratives, one a comic and one an animated film, visually rhyme animal and human suffering and verbally lament the deaths of animals. I argue that both texts fail to unpack the analogies they construct, such that these constructions ultimately represent the actual Palestinians victims as being mute and irrational. Thus this use of animal avatars, which is meant to be foster empathy, is instead oblique, and risks further dehumanizing victims and negating their experiences.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 80: Haunt or Home' Ethos and African
           American Literature

    • Authors: Richard Schur
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The African American rhetorical tradition could be described as a shelter in an alien environment or as a way station on a long journey. A focus on ethos suggests that such a narrow approach to African American literature cannot do justice to these literary texts: how these writers employ images and symbols, craft and deploy examine identities, blend, criticize, and create traditions, explore contemporary issues, and create community. Because of cultural and racist narratives, African Americans could not simply use either the pre-Socratic or Aristotelian approaches to ethos in their fight for social justice. This essay demonstrates how a postclassical approach to ethos that draws on Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and is focused on community-building and self-healing is central to the African American literature and rhetoric.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 81: The Misogynous Politics of Shame

    • Authors: Debra Bergoffen
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Joanna Bourke’s account of the ways that changing ideas of rape reflect the gendered norms of the times, and Eric Reitan’s proposal that rape ought to remain a contested concept amenable to evolving principles of ethical sexual relationships, speak to the ways that social, cultural, and political contexts influence our understanding of sexual violence. Though the criteria that are used to define rape change, one thing remains constant: the raped person is shamed. As she is shamed, she is degraded. This paper argues that until we understand the role that shame plays in enabling sexual violence by humiliating, silencing, and stigmatizing its victims, changes in our depictions of rape will neither disable the personal devastation of being raped nor dismantle the social practices and political institutions that rely on rape to maintain misogynous inequalities. Following the Introduction (Section 1) it is divided into three parts. Section 2, The Shame of Being Human, discusses the psychological and phenomenological accounts of shame. It alerts us to the ways that shame defines us insofar as it reveals the truth of human intersubjectivity and mutual interdependency. Section 3, Debilitating Shame, describes the ways that shame has been exploited to enable and enforce sexed and gendered inequalities. Section 4, Shame: Demanding Justice, examines the ways that shame, in its role as the protector of the self, undermines the effects of debilitating shame and fosters a politics of sexual integrity by affirming the dignity of the interdependencies that tie us to each other.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 82: Victorian Murder and the Digital Humanities

    • Authors: Neil McCaw
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The rapid extension of what has become known as the Digital Humanities has resulted in an array of online resources for researchers within the subdiscipline of Victorian Studies. But the increasingly acquisitive nature of these digital projects poses the question as to what happens once all the information and material we have related to the Victorians has been archived' This paper is an attempt to anticipate this question with specific reference to future digital resources for the study of ‘Victorian murder culture’, and in particular, the essentially textual nature of the nineteenth-century experience of crime. It will argue that there is potential for new forms of digital-humanities archive that offer a more participatory user experience, one that nurtures a cognitively empathic understanding of the complex intertextuality of Victorian crime culture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 83: Silk Road Influences on the Art of Seals: A
           Study of the Song Yuan Huaya

    • Authors: Andrea Chen
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Song Yuan Huaya (the Huaya of the Song and Yuan Dynasties) is a type of seal featuring figurative patterns and sometimes decorated with ciphered or ethnic characters. Their origins are the Song and Yuan Dynasties, although their influence extends to the Ming (1368–1644 CE) and Qing (1644–1912 CE) Dynasties. Although it is based on the Chinese Han seal tradition, Song Yuan Huaya exhibits various elements from the influence of the Silk Road. This is thought to be the first time in Han seal history that the Steppe culture can be seen so abundantly on private seals. This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to analyse, probably for the first time in the field, some cases of Song Yuan Huaya, in which a dialogue between the Han seal tradition and Silk Road culture occurs. The findings will hopefully advance the understanding of the complicated nature of the art history, society, peoples, and ethnic relationships in question, and will serve as the starting point for further studies of intercultural communication during specific historical periods.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 84: The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program:
           Intersections between Feminism and Communication

    • Authors: Carmen Heider
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This paper explores the intersections between feminism and communication in an Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program course that is cross-listed with Social Justice and Women’s and Gender Studies. The paper focuses on the alignment of the Inside-Out curriculum with feminist pedagogical principles and explores, through the structure and content of the course, the ways in which these feminist principles interconnect with communication concepts.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Crank up the Feminism: Poetic Inquiry as
           Feminist Methodology

    • Authors: Sandra L. Faulkner
      First page: 85
      Abstract: In this autoethnographic essay, the author argues for the use of poetic inquiry as a feminist methodology by showing her use of poetry as research method during the past 13 years. Through examples of her poetic inquiry work, the author details how poetry as research offers Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies scholars a means of doing, showing, and teaching embodiment and reflexivity, a way to refuse the mind-body dialectic, a form of feminist ethnography, and a catalyst for social agitation and change. The author uses examples of her ethnographic poetry that critique middle-class White motherhood, address the problems of White feminism, and reflects the nuances of identity negotiation in research and personal life to show the breadth of topics and approaches of poetic inquiry as feminist research practice and feminist pedagogy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 86: It’s in the Water: Byzantine
           Borderlands and the Village War

    • Authors: Jason Moralee
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This essay examines Byzantine military manuals created between the sixth to the tenth centuries for what they can reveal about Byzantine imperial attitudes toward the landscapes of war and those who inhabit them. Of foremost concern in these sources is the maintenance of ‘security’ (Greek: asphaleia) by commanders with the necessary quality of ‘experience’ (Greek: peira). Experience meant knowing how to best exploit the land, including the villages under Byzantine authority, in the prosecution of war. Exploitation in the name of security involved destroying villages, using villages and their inhabitants in ambushes, poisoning and seizing crops, evacuating villages, and using villages for the billeting of, at times undisciplined, soldiers. Villages were thus central to a Byzantine military strategy that is identified here as the ‘village war,’ a strategy that is analogous to security strategies evident in more recent conflicts. Through the juxtaposition of premodern and modern modalities of war, this essay intends to be a pointed reminder that the village war has deep roots in imperialist thought, and that the consequences of the village war profoundly reshape the lives of those caught up in its midst, particularly the peasantry.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 87: Gender, Language and a Lipstick: Creating
           Cultural Change in a World of Paradoxes

    • Authors: Angeliki Alvanoudi
      First page: 87
      Abstract: This paper addresses the paradoxes and possibilities for academic feminism in the Third Millennium drawing on feminist linguistics. It targets the role of language in the construction of social gender, focusing on data from Greek, and shows that gendering discourse can effect cultural change. It is suggested that academic feminists can be agents of cultural change when they promote feminist language reform in the service of challenging the dominant gender order.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 88: Documentary Photography from the German
           Democratic Republic as a Substitute Public

    • Authors: Anne Pfautsch
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This paper discusses artistic documentary photography from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the mid-1970s until the fall of the Berlin Wall, and suggests that it functioned as a substitute public–Ersatzöffentlichkeit–in society. This concept of a substitute public sphere sometimes termed a counter-public sphere, relates to GDR literature that, in retrospect, has been allocated this role. On the whole, in critical discourse certain texts have been recognised as being distinct from GDR propaganda which sought to deliver alternative readings in their coded texts. I propose that photography, despite having had a different status to literature in the GDR, adopted similar traits and also functioned as part of a substitute public sphere. These photographers aimed to expose the existing gap between the propagandised and actual life under socialism. They embedded a moral and critical position in their photographs to comment on society and to incite debate. However, it was necessary for these debates to occur in the private sphere, so that artists and their audience would avoid state persecution. In this paper, I review Harald Hauswald’s series Everyday Life (1976–1990) to demonstrate how photographs enabled substitute discourses in visual ways. Hauswald is a representative of artistic documentary photography and although he was never published in the official GDR media, he was the first East German photographer to publish in renowned West German and European media outlets, such as GEO magazine and ZEITmagazin, before the reunification. In 1990, he founded the ‘Ostkreuz–Agency of Photographers’ with six other East German documentary photographers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 89: Enemy Encounters in the War Poetry of
           Wilfred Owen, Keith Douglas, and Randall Jarrell

    • Authors: Michael Sarnowski
      First page: 89
      Abstract: While some war poets amplify the concept of anonymity for enemy soldiers, projecting an “us vs. them” mentality, other defining voices of war counter this militaristic impulse to dehumanize the enemy. This pivot toward describing the World Wars more like humanitarian crises than an epic of good and evil is most notable in poems that chronicle both real and imagined close-range encounters between combatants. The poem “Strange Meeting” by British First World War soldier Wilfred Owen uses the vision of two enemy soldiers meeting in hell to reinforce his famous notion that war is something to be pitied. As a result of technological advancements in the Second World War and the increasing distance of combat, the poems “Vergissmeinnicht” and “How to Kill” by British Second World War soldier Keith Douglas wrestle with dehumanizing the enemy and acknowledging their humanity. “Protocols” by American Second World War soldier Randall Jarrell is an imagined view of civilian victims, and is a reckoning with the horrors human beings are capable of committing.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030089
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Folklore in Antiquity

    • Authors: Galit Hasan-Rokem, Haim Weiss
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Folklore exists in all human groups, small and big. Since early modernity, scholars have provided various definitions of the phenomenon, but earlier texts may also reveal awareness and reflection on the specific character folklore. In this short article, we wish to explore and look into the various definitions and characterizations of folklore given by ancient writers from various times and cultures. We will try to draw a cultural map of awareness to the phenomenon of folklore in ancient Near-Eastern texts, Greco-Roman culture, the Hebrew Bible, Early Christianity and Rabbinic literature. The main questions we wish do deal with are where and if we can find explicit mention of folklore; which folk genres are dominant in ancient writings and what was the social context of ancient folklore' That is to say, whom those text integrated in social frameworks, enabling their users to gain power or to undermine existing cultural, theological and social structures.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 48: The Loss of Autonomy in Abused Persons:
           Psychological, Moral, and Legal Dimensions

    • Authors: Michelle Ciurria
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This paper tries to resolve a tension in popular conceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). On the one hand, we correctly assume that all abused persons are not the same: they have irreducibly plural personalities. On the other hand, we correctly assume that abused persons suffer from a loss of autonomy. The puzzle is: if abused persons share deficits in autonomy, why does it not follow that they share a set of personality traits' I argue that the psychological states implicated in autonomy-impairment in abused persons are situation-sensitive responses to salient eliciting conditions, not personality traits. This view has substantive moral and legal implications, as it implies that abusers are responsible for inflicting severe moral harms on victim-survivors, and they may also be liable for unlawful abduction and rape, in case the abused person lives with or has sexual contact with the abuser. This is because the conditions of abuse undermine the victim-survivor’s ability to autonomously consent to cohabitation and sexual contact with the abuser. I argue that the best way of protecting people from autonomy-undermining abuse is public education.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 49: The Riddle: Form and Performance

    • Authors: Annikki Kaivola-Bregenhøj
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The article concentrates on the true or the ordinary riddle, which is the best-known of the old riddles. True riddles consist of two parts, one functioning as a question, the other as an answer. In riddling the answerer or riddlee tries to find an acceptable answer to the question. Sometimes riddlees are deliberately misled because the “right” answer is completely unexpected. Riddles are “texts” only in archives and publications; in the field, they are always oral lore closely tied to their performing context. Study of social and cultural contexts is a new part of riddle research. Field researchers’ studies and findings are important. The article includes riddle definitions and analysis of subjects, metaphors and formulae of riddles as well as the functions of riddling. New challenges are the driving force behind research. I attempt to find something new in my material. New for me has been discovering the humour in riddles. Reading dozens and even hundreds of riddle variants begins to give me some idea of the fun and humour inherent in riddles. There are still questions in riddle materials waiting to be asked; it is always possible to discover something new.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Folklore and the Internet: The Challenge of
           an Ephemeral Landscape1

    • Authors: Trevor J. Blank
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Through the lens of memetic folk humor, this essay examines the slippery, ephemeral nature of hybridized forms of contemporary digital folklore. In doing so, it is argued that scholars should not be distracted by the breakneck speed in which expressive materials proliferate and then dissipate but should instead focus on the overarching ways that popular culture and current news events infiltrate digital folk culture in the formation of individuals' cultural inventories. The process of transmission and variation that shapes the resulting hybridized folklore requires greater scrutiny and contextualization.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 51: The Old Wounded: Destructive Plasticity and
           Intergenerational Trauma

    • Authors: Brandon D. C. Fenton
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This article addresses a significant gap in trauma theory and philosophy; namely, it develops a partial theory of the subject of intergenerational trauma. This is accomplished through a close examination of Catherine Malabou’s theory of the subject of trauma, as well as by contact with the research in epigenetics of Rachel Yehuda, and the research on intergenerational trauma among First Nations people in Canada conducted by Amy Bombay and colleagues. It presents original work that is responsive to recent advances in a variety of fields, including philosophy, psychology, social science, and biology.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 52: Exorcising a Demon': Why History Needs
           to Engage with the Whitechapel Murders and Dispel the Myth of ‘Jack the
           Ripper’

    • Authors: Drew Gray
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This article reflects on the current paucity of academic research into the Whitechapel Murders of 1888. Notably it suggests that there has been a tendency for historians of crime in particular to ignore the case and it argues that this has created an unwanted vacuum that has been filled (and exploited) by amateur history and the entertainment industry. This has consequences for how the public view both the murders and the killer, and the entire late Victorian period. The cultural phenomenon of ‘Jack the Ripper’ has been allowed to emerge as a result of this lack of academic engagement and this fuels an industry that continues to portray the murderer, the murdered and the area in which these killings occurred in a manner that does a terrible and ongoing disservice to the women that were so brutally killed. Moreover, the ‘celebration’ of the unknown killer has provided a role model for subsequent misogynist serial murderers and abusers. This article argues that it is time for historians of crime address this situation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 53: Sharing Histories: Teaching and Learning
           from Displaced Youth in Greece

    • Authors: Lisa Trentin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This paper reflects upon my experiences teaching and learning from displaced youth in Greece over a period of eight months in 2017. Following a brief examination of the current challenges in accessing formal education, I examine non-formal education initiatives, summarizing my work with two NGOs in Athens and Chios where I taught lessons in English on ancient Greek art, archaeology, history, and literature. In offering these lessons, my hope was to do more than simply improve students’ language skills or deposit information: I wanted to examine the past to reflect upon the present, exploring themes of migration, forced displacement, and human belonging. Moreover, I wanted to engage students in meaningful connection, to the past and to the present, to one and to others, as a means of building community in and beyond the classroom, at a time when many were feeling alienated and isolated. This paper, therefore, outlines the transformational, liberating learning that took place, citing ancient evidence of displacement and unpacking modern responses by those currently displaced.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 54: On Waxworks Considered as One of the
           Hyperreal Arts: Exhibiting Jack the Ripper and His Victims

    • Authors: Lucyna Krawczyk-Żywko
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The article discusses one of the tropes present in the representations of the Whitechapel killer: the waxworks of either the killer or his victims. These images were shaped by contemporary attitudes: from sensationalism in 1888, through the developing myth and business of ‘Jack the Ripper,’ to the beginnings of attention being paid to his victims. Examined are tableaus created from 1888 to current times, both physical and fictional twenty- and twenty-first-century texts encompassing various media, all of which may be located within the Baudrillardian realm of simulation. What they demonstrate is that the mythical killer keeps overshadowing his victims, who in this part of the Ripper mythos remain to a certain extent as dehumanised and voiceless as when they were actually killed.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 55: Approaching Impersonal Life with Clarice
           Lispector

    • Authors: Fernanda Negrete
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Clarice Lispector’s concern with writing life beyond the limits of identity and representation leads her to posit the univocity of being in a series of surprising corporeal and linguistic gestures to reveal a fundamental shift in time. I explore the convergence between this project in Lispector and both major and minor terms in the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze (from “encounter” and “immanence” to “savage” and “birth”), shedding light on some fundamental aspects of the latter’s transcendental empiricism. Furthermore, focusing especially on the 1973 fiction Água Viva, I show that Lispector’s work insists on impersonal life’s relational condition, which extends to the creation of an original reader-writer relationship, through a mode of receptivity beyond meaning in which feminine and natal approaches are crucial.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 56: On the Philosophical Determination of
           Literature

    • Authors: Jason Kemp Winfree
      First page: 56
      Abstract: This paper traces the influence of German Idealism on the conceptions of literature proffered by Bataille and Blanchot, and it aims to show how that influence registers as a proto-ethics. In the demand that freedom be actualized in the world, German Idealism frames the determination of literature as one-sided, subjective, and abstract. Literary expression is never adequate to what it represents. Precisely because it has no direct bearing on the world of action, however, literature is free to pursue that which the world of action excludes: the density and obscurity of existence itself. In this pursuit, literature recasts the philosophical aspiration of self-knowledge in terms of a fidelity to existence and life in excess of individuality.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Rethinking the Essence of Human and
           Other-Than-Human Communication in the Anthropocene Epoch: A Biosemiotic
           Interpretation of Edgar Morin’s “Complex Thought”

    • Authors: Keith Moser
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to explore the philosophical and linguistic implications of the French philosopher Edgar Morin’s “complex thought.” In stark contrast to standard communicative models which profess that Homo sapiens are the only organisms that are capable of engaging in semiosis, Morin unequivocally proves that other-than-human communication is laden with significance and purpose. Living on an imperiled planet that is increasingly defined by an anthropogenic, ecological calamity that is spiraling further out of control with each passing day, Morin persuasively argues that we must transcend our myopic, anthropocentric frame of reference and adopt a more ecocentric view of communication.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Revisiting Japan’s Fictional Gardens: An
           Ecocritical Reading of Nature Imagery in Contemporary Architectural Essays
           

    • Authors: Catarina Vitorino
      First page: 58
      Abstract: This paper inspects editorial production in the field of Japanese contemporary architecture, screening the contents of essays written during the last decade (2007–2010) by four selected authors in which a recurring interplay with nature-related subjects is noticeable. This analysis highlights the diversity and intrinsic individual originality of these books by relating their specific approach with the overall work themes of each architect and discussing the existence of a common ground among them. While investigating their philosophical and conceptual standpoints, the paper also attempts to contextualize these discourses both within the larger context of architectural theory—particularly of early postmodern ecological approaches—sustainable construction, and in the milieu of Japan, where an imprinted notion of harmonious coexistence between nature and culture has long been mystified from abroad and from within. By assessing its motives and influence and finally questioning the existence of a paradox amidst the multiple existing forms of paraenvironmental architecture, it is discussed whether these narratives and practices manage to communicate ecoliteracy with their audience. Architecture’s inherent traits as a visual, perceptive, and cognitive discipline to reflect contemporary environmental conflicts and encourage paradigm change are also highlighted.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 59: An Eco-Critical Analysis of Climate Change
           and the Unthinkable in Amitav Ghosh’s Fiction and Non-Fiction

    • Authors: Suhasini Vincent
      First page: 59
      Abstract: In his work of non-fiction The Great Derangement (2016), Amitav Ghosh examines the inability of the present generation to grasp the scale of climate change in the spheres of Literature, History and Politics. The central premise in this work of non-fiction is based on the statement that literature will one day be accused of its complicity with the great derangement and of blind acceptance of the climate crisis. This paper will study how Ghosh’s fictional and non-fictional enterprise voices a call for more imaginative and cultural forms of fiction that articulate resistance against materialism that can destroy our planet. We shall see how Ghosh’s fictional enterprise falls within the sphere of postcolonial eco-criticism that considers the phenomenon of “material eco-criticism”. I shall also reveal Ghosh’s environmental advocacy in his works of fiction, The Ibis Trilogy and The Hungry Tide. This paper will analyze how the Ibis Trilogy is not just an exploration of the particularly heinous operation of imperial power leading up to the Opium Wars but is also an eco-critical narrative that articulates resistance against the violence of climate change. A study of The Hungry Tide will also reveal how this hybrid literary text is both a historical account of the Marichjhapi massacre and a plea to preserve the eco-system of our time. I shall thus consider the challenges that climate change poses for the postcolonial writer and the evolving grid of literary forms that shape the narrative imagination.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Neither Sensible, Nor Moderate: Revisiting
           the Antigone

    • Authors: Theodore Koulouris
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In this essay, I try to conceptualise meaningful forms of resistance in the present by revisiting Sophocles’ Antigone, one of the most important texts of western literary tradition. I focus on Antigone’s compulsion to act against Creon’s decree, which turns Sophocles’ heroine into a metonymical expression of (civil) disobedience, sacrifice, and mourning—to my mind, the constitutive elements of effective resistant subjectivity. In my analysis, Antigone’s resistance is transformed from a deeply private, filial duty, essentially seen as heroic, into a rich, public expression of collectivity and solidarity. To illustrate this, I capilatise on Judith Butler’s designation of Antigone firmly in the political, and then proceed to make use of Bonnie Honig’s recalibration of her disobedience as one which transcends solitary action to express the collective, democratic feeling of a whole polis. I then mobilise a three-pronged theoretical framework. Firstly, I analyse the clash of Antigone with Creon through the prism of Jacques Derrida’s work on law and violence. Secondly, I explore the possibility of a biopolitical framing as developed by Giorgio Agamben since, at its core, the clash in the play is enacted within the parameters of a vitiated habeas corpus: from the moment Antigone confesses her misdeed she is treated by Creon, the sovereign, as a non-human—as an animal or, indeed, a miasma. In the last section of this essay, I mobilise the work of Howard Caygill with a view to analysing what I perceive as three discernible yet concatenated stages (or aspects) in the formation of Antigone’s resistant subjectivity: her full awareness of what it means to disobey (hence to resist), her acceptance of sacrifice, and, finally, her commitment to the political potentialities of mourning.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Carpe Diem: Love, Resistance to Authority,
           and the Necessity of Choice in Andrew Marvell and Elizabeth Cary

    • Authors: Michael Bryson
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The theme of love as resistance to authority is the centerpiece of a two-millennia-long tradition in Western poetry known as carpe diem (a phrase credited to the Latin poet Horace). This essay begins by analyzing one of the most famous later examples of carpe diem in English poetry (Andrew Marvell’s 1681 “To His Coy Mistress”), emphasizing the carpe diem ethos’ potential to illustrate both the consequences and the necessity of individual erotic choice—especially female choice—in defiance of authority. It then uses carpe diem’s anti-authoritarian perspective to understand the contrast between the ambivalence of Mariam—torn between a tepid disobedience and regretful loyalty to her husband Herod—and the wholly defiant choices of Salome in Elizabeth Cary’s earlier drama, The Tragedy of Mariam from 1613.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Nomadic Life on the Steppes: An Ecocinematic
           Exploration of Tulpan and Cave of the Yellow Dog

    • Authors: Deborah Adelman
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Ecocinema: (1) analyzes the role of visual media in responding to the environmental crisis; (2) has explicit interest in environmental justice; (3) includes a variety of genres and modes of production; (4) informs viewers of issues of ecological importance; (5) promotes ecocentric ways of framing the world; and (6) has an activist agenda. Ecocinema examines films produced by/with historically marginalized communities underrepresented in film. Using Ecocinema and Fourth Cinema (Barclay), I examined two fictional films featuring nomadic peoples of the Central Asian Steppes whose culture and ecologically low impact lifestyle are threatened and fragile in the global order. Tulpan, a 2008 Kazakh/Russian production by Kazakh-born Sergei Dvortsevoy, tells the story of Asa, a young Kazakh man, returning to his home in the Steppes to establish himself as a shepherd with his own flock. Tulpan features the long takes and slow pacing needed to “retrain the perception” of viewers. Tulpan’s biocentric focus on landscape and animals is equivalent to the focus on the human, reconsidering the human/non-human relationship. Tulpan shows one young man dreaming of a meaningful life rooted in his cultural traditions, struggling to locate himself within contemporary economic, political and cultural realities in a region underrepresented in world film. The Cave of the Yellow Dog, 2005, by Mongolian filmmaker Byambasuren Davaa, tells the story of a Mongolian nomadic family. Davaa, similar to Dvortsevoy, works in documentary and fictional films, uses professional and non-professional actors, and relies on Western funding to make her films. These two films suggest that non-commercial fictional films are an important vehicle for addressing global environmental concerns as they present stories of marginalized people and help us imagine solutions to global problems.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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