Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 1022 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (174 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (148 journals)
    - DEMOGRAPHY AND POPULATION STUDIES (171 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (165 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (9 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (327 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (327 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Afghanistan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agriculture and Human Values     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift für Sozialtheorie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access  
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cankiri Karatekin University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Studies Journal     Open Access  
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Con Texte     Open Access  
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy     Open Access  
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Culturas : Debates y Perspectivas de un Mundo en Cambio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Digital Studies / Le champ numerique     Open Access  
Digitális Bölcsészet / Digital Humanities     Open Access  
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Dorsal : Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
E+E : Estudios de Extensión en Humanidades     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
EAU Heritage Journal Social Science and Humanities     Open Access  
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fa Nuea Journal     Open Access  
Fields: Journal of Huddersfield Student Research     Open Access  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Humanities and Social Science Research     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal of Graduate School, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies (HASSS)     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Humanity Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iztapalapa : Revista de ciencias sociales y humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jednak Książki : Gdańskie Czasopismo Humanistyczne     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Burirum Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Surin Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajapruk University     Open Access  
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities     Open Access  
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Humanities
Number of Followers: 15  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2076-0787
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 28: Oromo Orature: An Ecopoetic Approach, Theory
           and Practice (Oromia/Ethiopia, Northeast Africa)

    • Authors: Dibaba
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Using available empirical data of Oromo Orature, particularly folksongs, obtained from the field through interview and observation in Oromia, central Ethiopia, in 2009 and 2010, and other sources in print, this study has two objectives to tackle. First, reflecting upon the questions of a native model of origin narratives in relation to ecology, this study examines some examples of Oromo ecopoetics to determine: (a) how ecology and creative process conspire in the production of folksongs and performance, and (b) how the veil of nature hidden in the opacity of songs is revealed through the rites of creative process and performance as the human and ecological realms intersect. When put in relation to ecology, I theorize, the ecocultural creative act and process go beyond the mundane life activities to determine the people’s use (of nature), perceptions, and implications. Second, damages to the ecology are, I posit, damages to ecoculture. Drawing on the notion of ecological archetypes, thus, the study makes an attempt to find a common ground between the idea of recurrent ecological motifs in Oromo orature and the people’s ecological identity. The findings show that the political and social attitudes the Oromo songs embody are critical of authorities and the injustices authorities inflict on peoples and the environment they live in. For the folksinger, singing folksongs is a form of life, and through performance, both the performance and the song sustain the test of time. In its language, critique, imagination, and cultural referents, Oromo Orature is a voice of the people who rely on traditional agricultural life close to nature along with facing challenges of the dominating religious, political and scientific cultures.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h9020028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 8: ‘There’s No Return Route, Is
           There'’: Conor O’Callaghan’s After-Irish Diasporic Aesthetic

    • Authors: Alexander Wortley
      First page: 8
      Abstract: In this article, I examine Conor O’Callaghan’s poetry in the context of post- or after-Irishness and migration. The idea of a traditional Irish national literature has diminished in importance and relevance in recent years. Irish writers are now more sensitized to alternative modes of identification, unbound by the constraints of a singular concept of ‘Irishness’. This is especially significant for migrant writers, who are geographically removed from Ireland. O’Callaghan (born 1968) is himself a migrant: having lived in America, he now lives in England. Drawn from his experiences of transnational migration, O’Callaghan explores the different locales that he has known. He also feels free to write about suburban life, love, and the internet in an often quick-witted vernacular. What then is O’Callaghan’s aesthetic response to the experience of migrancy' Does O’Callaghan’s poetry exhibit an after-Irish diasporic aesthetic' Although O’Callaghan’s poetry is imbued with a diasporic multi-locatedness, both intellectual and geographical, his sense of Irish identity remains strong, and his poetry also often expresses a desire for rootedness.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Why the West Could Not Hear Beale Street:
           Baldwin’s World-Sense of Female Sexuality

    • Authors: Amy Yeboah
      First page: 9
      Abstract: While scholars have noted James Baldwin’s revisionary and transformative literary approach to social constructions of race, class, gender, and crime, there has been very little conversation in that vein regarding If Beale Street Could Talk (1974). Upon its publication, many critics issued negative reviews of the novel, failing to recognize how Baldwin’s view of female sexuality both embraced notions of the body and constructs from an African-centered world-sense. Using a range of theoretical resources from Africana Studies, this paper analyzes how moving beyond Western frameworks regarding knowledge, sexual discourse, and behavior offers a new interpretation of Baldwin’s aims that reclaims and re-imagines Black sexual politics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 10: From Braemar to Hollywood: The American
           Appropriation of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Pirates

    • Authors: Hill, Eidam
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The pirate tropes that pervade popular culture today can be traced in large part to Robert Louis Stevenson’s 1883 novel, Treasure Island. However, it is the novel’s afterlife on film that has generated fictional pirates as we now understand them. By tracing the transformation of the author’s pirate captain, Long John Silver, from N. C. Wyeth’s illustrations (1911) through the cinematic performances of Wallace Beery (1934) and Robert Newton (1950), this paper demonstrates that the films have created a quintessentially “American pirate”—a figure that has necessarily evolved in response to differences in medium, the performances of the leading actors, and filmgoers’ expectations. Comparing depictions of Silver’s dress, physique, and speech patterns, his role vis-à-vis Jim Hawkins, each adaptation’s narrative point of view, and Silver’s departure at the end of the films reveals that while the Silver of the silver screen may appear to represent a significant departure from the text, he embodies a nuanced reworking of and testament to the author’s original.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Disability Ethos as Invention in the United
           States’ Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Centuries

    • Authors: Emily D. Stones, Craig A. Meyer
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This article posits that disability activists routinely present a disability “ethos of invention” as central to the reformation of an ableist society. Dominant societal approaches to disability injustice, such as rehabilitation, accessibility, and inclusion, may touch upon the concept of invention; but, with ethotic discourse, we emphasize disability as generative and adept at producing new ways of knowing and being in the world. We identify an “ethos of invention” as driving early resistance to socially constructed “normalcy”, leading the push for cross-disability alliances to incorporate intersectional experiences and propelling the discursive move from inclusion to social justice. Through our partial re-telling of disability rights history, we articulate invention as central to it and supporting its aims to affirm disability culture, reform society through disabled perspectives and values, and promote people with disabilities’ full participation in society.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 12: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Humanities
           in 2019

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not[...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 13: Sonic Rhetorics as Ethics in Action: Hidden
           Temporalities of Sound in Language(s)

    • Authors: Katz
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Sonic rhetorics has become a major area of study in the field of rhetoric, as well as composition and literature. Many of the underlying theories of sonic rhetorics are based on post-Heideggerian philosophy, new materialism, and/or posthumanism, among others. What is perhaps similar across these theories of sonic rhetoric is their “turn” from language and the human in general. This short essay explores sonic rhetorics by examining three temporal dimensions found in language. Specifically, the essay focuses on the more obvious sonic dimensions of time in prosody, and then at deeper levels temporal dimensions in a couple of brief but revealing examples from ancient languages (classical Greek, and Biblical Hebrew). Further, this essay suggests some ways in which time is related to ethics in practice and action. For example, just as time is involved in the continuous creation of our increasingly vast, expanding, infinite but bounded universe, Levinas might say that time is necessary to create the ethical space, or perhaps “hypostasis,” one needs for the possibility to encounter “l’autre”—the Other. Beyond prosody, propriety, even kairos, are hidden temporal dimensions of language that may render sonic rhetorics forms of ethical practice.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 14: Pirates and Publicity: The Making and
           Unmaking of Early Modern Pirates in English and Scottish Popular Print

    • Authors: Macfarlane
      First page: 14
      Abstract: This essay contrasts scholarship on printed authority within buccaneer ethnographies, contemporary apologetics for colonial enterprise, and the role of publicity in the delineation of piracy within print to ask: ‘when is a pirate not a pirate'’. Beginning with the ethnographies relating to the buccaneers’ crossing of the Isthmus of Darien during the ‘Pacific Adventure’ (1679–1682), this paper describes how the buccaneers escaped prosecution through their literary materials and became socially rehabilitated as credible explorers. Drawing on materials which highlight the diverse readings of piracy within the different ‘news-cultures’ and maritime traditions which existed in the Atlantic archipelago, this paper develops an argument for a ‘popular’ conception and interpretation of piracy within publicity and periodical print which reflects its utility within competing political and maritime enterprises. Using contrasting examples of the negotiation and renegotiation of what constituted ‘piracy’ within the promotion of the attempted colonisation of the Isthmus of Darien by the Company of Scotland (1696–1700), and the literary campaign which surrounded the trial of the crew of the Worcester for piracy in 1705, this essay argues for the role of ‘public opinion’ and popular print culture in the making and unmaking of pirates in early modern anglophone print.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 15: Detective Fiction in a Post-Truth World: Eva
           Rossmann’s Patrioten

    • Authors: McChesney
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Detective fiction is known as a genre that is concerned with revealing truths, both in the fictional world of the text as well as in the society after which it is patterned. The current socio-political environment, however, has been described as an era of post-truth politics and political propaganda, in which truth is more often determined by the relative strength of its representation. While some contemporary crime novels continue to propagate a reassuring message of truth, select Austrian narratives reflect this new so-called post-truth world. Bringing together theories of detective fiction and post-truth discourse, this article demonstrates how Eva Rossmann’s 2017 crime novel Patrioten (Patriots) adapts the themes and structures of traditional detective narratives to expose a society in which certainty is determined less by objective facts than by their construction in the media and socio-political discourse. The analysis concludes that the novel’s thematic and formal innovations help to redefine the socio-critical potential of contemporary detective fiction by showing the imminent dangers of an unregulated post-truth society.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 16: Introduction: Alienated Majesty: On Reading
           as Othering

    • Authors: Adam Zachary Newton
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Diese Gewähr eines moralischen Gewinns liegt in einer geistigen Disziplin, die gegenüber dem einzigen, was ungestraft verletzt werden kann, der Sprache, das höchste Maß einer Verantwortung festsetzt und wie keine andere geeignet ist, den Respekt vor jeglichem andern Lebensgut zu lehren [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Something Super-Wicked This Way Comes:
           Genre, Emergency, Expectation, and Learning to Die in Climate-Change
           Scotland

    • Authors: Hinde
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This article approaches the issue of climate change and the response to it in Scotland from the perspective of genres of expectation and normality, focusing in particular on the relationship between genre, the political imagination, and calls for ‘climate realism’. Functioning partly as provocation and partly as a piece of critical theory on the problematic aspects of contemporary genres of expectation in Scotland, it discusses the push for normality as a driving force in the construction of imagined futures in the context of climate change, problematising how this fits with established expectations of the Scottish political imaginary and its futurity. Using the work of the scholar of genre and affect Lauren Berlant and her identification of genre as a means of ‘moving on’, it considers the idea of materially contingent narratives as an exit strategy from the present moment. To illustrate this, it briefly discusses Jenni Fagan’s contemporary climate change novel The Sunlight Pilgrims as an example of ‘irrealist’ confrontation of climate change and how this relates to the concept of the Anthropocene as an everyday experience. Ultimately, it concludes that contemporary attempts at climate realism require engagement with the irreal material circumstances of climate change and the fundamentally ‘super-wicked’ nature of climate processes in order to escape the constraints of progress, restoration, and normalisation as genre structures in discussion of climate futures.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 18: Erratum: Introduction to “Re-Mapping
           Cosmopolitanism”. Humanities 2019, 8, 127

    • Authors: Barker, Zorn
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The authors would like to make the following changes to the published paper (Barker and Zorn 2019) [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Somatic Narratives about Illness. Biometric
           

    • Authors: Ewelina Twardoch-Raś
      First page: 19
      Abstract: This article proposes investigating how the problem of chronic and deadly diseases and bodily injuries is explored in selected contemporary artistic projects based on biometric technologies and medical imaging. All of the projects that will be analysed use specific medical tools and methods (e.g., roentgenography or bio-tracking) to provide detailed, affective images of disability and illness. Nonetheless, these projects were created as pieces of art that combine visual and verbal elements: photographs, collages, and other illustrated stories (e.g., “biometric diaries” or open-source art). On the one hand, they show the “inner” and often invisible face of illness and suffering, but on the other hand they also raise questions related to algorithmic reductionism and politicization of such forms of representation of disease. This article will focus on artistic projects created by Diane Covert, Salvatore Iaconesi and Laurie Frick. It refers to the ‘ethos of health’ and the conception of ethopolitics (Nicolas Rose) to show the place in contemporary biopolitical society of illness (Thomas Lemke), which can be seen as an exceptional form of the body’s condition. Moreover, it considers the problem of the politicization of the biological body and affective experiences (Britta Timm Knudsen and Carsten Stage) and the category of untold histories explored by Joanne Garde-Hansen and Kristyn Gorton.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 20: ‘I see where I stand’ Detachment and
           Engagement in Harry Clifton’s Poetry

    • Authors: Benjamin Keatinge
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This essay reads Harry Clifton’s poetry as a body of work that illustrates the poet’s engagement with and detachment from the poetry of his peers. It notes Clifton’s chosen routes of travel in Africa, Asia, and Europe, his interest in Ireland and its elsewheres and his endeavours to find an ideal distance to write from. It also elucidates his Irish subject matter, his involvement with journals, editors and publishers as well as his critical readings of 20th-century Irish poetry. The essay engages with important strands of current critical thinking that have sought to examine a post-nationalist Ireland with Clifton being seen as a bridge between an older and younger circle of writers. Neither hermetic nor sociable, Clifton emerges as a poet engaging with concentric circles of Irish poetry on his own terms.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 21: The Open Constructed Public Sphere:
           Aeschylus’ The Suppliant Women in a Version by David Greig

    • Authors: Rodríguez
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This article looks at the ‘public’ ‘place’ of drama in Britain at present by offering an analysis of a contemporary version of an ancient Greek play by Aeschylus, entitled The Suppliant Women, written by David Greig, directed by Ramin Gray, and first performed at the Royal Lyceum Theatre Edinburgh in 2016. Following an agonistic (Chantal Mouffe), rather than a consensual (Jürgen Habermas) model of the public sphere, it argues that under globalisation, three cumulative and interwoven senses of the public sphere, the discursive, the spatial, and the individual and his/her/their relation to a larger form of organisation, despite persisting hegemonic structures that perpetuate their containment, have become undone. This is the kind of unbounded model of public sphere Greig’s version of Aeschylus’ The Suppliant Women seems to suggest by precisely offering undoings of discourses, spaces, and individualisations. In order to frame the first kind of undoing, that is, the unmarking of theatre as contained, the article uses Christopher Balme’s notion of ‘open theatrical public sphere’, and in order to frame the second, that is, the undoing of elements ‘in’ Greig’s version, the article utilises Greig’s concept of ‘constructed space’. The article arrives then at the notion of the open constructed public sphere in relation to The Suppliant Women. By engaging with this porous model of the public sphere, The Suppliant Women enacts a protest against exclusionary, reductive models of exchange and organisation, political engagement, and belonging under globalisation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 22: “Sing the Bones Home”: Material Memory
           and the Project of Freedom in M. NourbeSe Philip’s Zong!

    • Authors: Fink
      First page: 22
      Abstract: M. NourbeSe Philip’s 2008 book-length poem Zong! represents maritime materialities below the sea’s surface in relation to aesthetic geographies of the sea in the aftermath of slavery as an abyss of loss, thereby extending modernist aesthetics while offering a strategic and revisionary response to male-centered modernist writing. Keen attention into the sea as an innovating and renewing source reveals that the poem imagines the sea as a literal, formal, and thematic agent for the “decontamination” of language—which, Philip maintains, is contaminated by imperialism—and of the received history about slavery. The poem focuses its investigation on the case of the 1781 Zong massacre and the Gregson v. Gilbert maritime insurance case that arose in its wake. Zong! mourns the massacre of 150 Africans who were thrown overboard so that owners of the slave ship could collect insurance money on lost “cargo”. In conversation with Caribbean poets and thinkers, such as Grace Nichols, and African oral traditions, the poem explores forms of memory that go beyond the non-history officially afforded to the enslaved and their descendants. Throughout the poem, the sea is a site of decontamination through which Zong! stages its attempt to recover the unrecoverable. While many scholars have understandably focused on the events aboard the ship, a small number of ecocritical readings have highlighted the poem’s engagement with the materiality of the sea. Drawing on postcolonial ecocriticism and black feminist theories of the human, this article will discuss the sea as a material geography, going deeper to investigate the poem’s rarely discussed focus on biological and chemical materiality as juxtaposed to representations of black women’s flesh, arguing that it functions as a feminist provocation to both human exceptionalism and the racial boundaries of the human.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 23: Entropy’s Enemies: Postmodern Fission and
           Transhuman Fusion in the Post-War Era

    • Authors: Jordan Burr
      First page: 23
      Abstract: In the early to mid-twentieth century, thermodynamic entropy—the inevitable diffusion of usable energy in the Universe—became a ubiquitous metaphor for the dissolution of Western values and cultural energy. Many Golden Age science fiction writers portrayed twentieth century technological progress as anti-entropic, a sign of Universal progress and unity which might postpone or negate both cultural and thermodynamic forms of entropy. Following the evolutionary metaphysics of Georg Hegel and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Golden Age science fiction writers like Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov imagined the creation of powerful collective beings whose unitary existence signified the defeat of entropy. In contrast, later literary postmodernists like Thomas Pynchon and Pamela Zoline often accepted and even exalted in the chaotic, liberating potential of entropy. In postmodern fiction, the disorder of entropy was often compared favorably to the stifling hegemony of cultural universalism. More broadly, these two responses might be understood to represent two societal stages of grief-- denial and acceptance—to the new trauma introduced to the world by the parallel concepts of cultural entropy and a Universal “heat death.”
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 24: Modernist Women Writers and Whimsy: Marianne
           Moore and Dorothy Parker

    • Authors: May
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This article assesses the work of Dorothy Parker (1893–1967) and Marianne Moore (1887–1972) in relation to the aesthetic category of whimsy. It considers how whimsy has been used as a term of dismissal for American women poets, outlines ways both writers’ receptions have been informed by this context, and explores questions of cost, worth, and value raised by their work. It situates whimsy in relation to Sianne Ngai’s account of diminutive modes in Our Aesthetic Categories (2015) and suggests why American women’s modernist poetry can be a useful context for exploring the aesthetic and cultural associations of whimsy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 25: The Great Displacement: Reading Migration
           Fiction at the End of the World

    • Authors: De Bruyn
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This paper examines how contemporary works of fiction and nonfiction reflect on anticipated cases of climate dislocation. Building on existing research about migrant agency, climate fiction, and human rights, it traces the contours of climate migration discourse before analyzing how three twenty-first-century novels enable us to reimagine the “great displacement” beyond simplistic militarized and humanitarian frames. Zooming in on stories by Mohsin Hamid, John Lanchester, and Margaret Drabble that envision hypothetical calamities while responding to present-day refugee “crises”, this paper explains how these texts interrogate apocalyptic narratives by demilitarizing borderscapes, exploring survivalist mindsets, and interrogating shallow appeals to empathy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 26: Shell Shock and the Legacy of the Victorian
           Past in the Present: Remembering WWI in Pat Barker’s Another World

    • Authors: Elodie Rousselot
      First page: 26
      Abstract: In her 1998 novel Another World, Pat Barker draws from a topic on which she has written previously with great success—the First World War and the experiences of its combatants—and yet approaches that topic from a completely different perspective. The novel returns to the Great War to consider notions of ‘shell shock’, attitudes towards WWI veterans, and the problems surrounding remembering past violence, but what is perhaps surprising about Another World is that it uses a Victorian storyline to address these concerns, and presents the First World War through the means of references to nineteenth-century culture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Exploring Intimacy in Collaborative
           Photographic Narratives of Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Agnese Sile
      First page: 27
      Abstract: A life-limiting illness brings about heightened awareness of mortality and reshapes close relationships. Couples must often negotiate and adjust their actions to sustain intimate bonds. Through analysis of two projects—Dorothea Lynch’s and Eugene Richards’s collaborative project Exploding into Life (1986) that documents Lynch’s experience living with breast cancer through photographs and text, and Angelo Merendino’s e-book The Battle we Didn’t Choose—My Wife’s Fight with Breast Cancer (2013), I explore how couples make sense of and communicate illness experience. Exploding into Life and Merendino’s project are not only explorations of Lynch’s and Jennifer’s experiences living with breast cancer; the works also question what it means to be seen through the eyes of the other. The projects share similar experiences; however, they are situated in two different historical moments. Taking Arthur Kleinman’s argument of illness experience as social and political as a starting point, I question the limits of experience and examine how the photographs and the accompanying text articulate and mediate private expressions of illness, and what motivates the participants of the photographic act to make their experiences public. The study is informed by Arthur W. Frank’s dialogical narrative analysis and some of the writings by Thomas G. Couser, Roland Barthes, and Michel Foucault.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2020-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2020)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 1: (Un)Earthing Civilization: Holocene Climate
           Crisis, City-State Origins and the Birth of Writing

    • Authors: Nigel Clark
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Today, concern about population displacement triggered by climate change is prompting some sovereign states to tighten security measures, as well as inciting ethically and politically motivated calls to relax border controls. This paper explores resonances between the current climate predicament and events in the mid-Holocene. Paleoclimatic and archaeological evidence is reviewed, suggesting that an abrupt turn to cooler, drier weather in the 4th millennium BCE triggered high volume migration to fertile river valleys—most fully documented in Mesopotamia but also visible in other regions around the world. This unprecedented agglomeration of bodies has been linked to the emergence of intensive irrigated agriculture and the rise of city-states. In conversation with the ancient Sumerian Gilgamesh epic, this paper draws upon archaeological research to conceptualize urban wall building and emergent practices of graphical notation as different forms of mediation. Both city walls and early writing, it is argued, deal with the interplay of mobilism and sedentarism, and both ‘media’ entail tactile, plastic use of local materials—namely riverbank clay. This paper addresses the paradox that the underpinning of ‘civilization’ by these once experimental media may now be fundamentally restricting socio-political, cultural, cognitive and embodied capacities to engage effectively with climate-driven upheaval. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010001
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 2: Gendered Spaces Captured in Cultural
           Representations: Conceptualising the Indian Experience in Arundhati
           Roy’s The Ministry of Utmost Happiness

    • Authors: Swapna Gopinath
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Spatiality has emerged as a significant component in analyzing gendered experiences, and cultural expressions reveal this complex yet dynamic relationship in several ways. While some forms of art approach it in a direct, straightforward manner, literature does it, perhaps, in aesthetically diverse ways. Arundhati Roy has foregrounded the space and gender relationship in several ways, with language emerging as the most intricate tool to depict this relationship. Her second and latest novel, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness (2017) is a novel that has space as a prominent character and the gender identities, depicted in this novel, are challenging and interesting, especially in the context of modern India. From the transgender identity of the protagonist who resides in the heterotopic space of a cemetery to the female characters who sustain themselves in the conflict-ridden Kashmir valley, the novel experiments with possibilities using linguistic styles as the most appropriate and significant tool. Roy’s experiments with form, with regards to gendered spatial experiences, will be explored in this paper. I will work within the framework of thirdspace and heterotopia as postulated by Soja and Foucault. This paper will analyse the depiction of gender within social spaces using the tools of Cultural Studies.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010002
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 3: ‘I’ve Put a Yule Log on Your Grate’:
           Lynette Roberts’s ‘Naïve’ Modernism

    • Authors: Siriol McAvoy
      First page: 3
      Abstract: In this article, I suggest that Lynette Roberts develops a ‘naïve’ modernism that emphasizes tropes of folk art, home-made craft, and creative labour as a therapeutic response to war and a means of carving out a public role for the woman writer in the post-war world. Bringing high modernist strategies down to earth through an engagement with localized rural cultures, she strives to bridge the divide between the public and the private in order to open up a space for the woman writer within public life. As part of my discussion, I draw on Rebecca L. Walkowitz’s contention that literary style—conceived broadly as ‘attitude, stance, posture, and consciousness’—is crucial to modernist writers’ attempts to think in—and beyond—the nation. Embracing a liberating openness to experience and ‘amateurish’ passion, Roberts’s ‘home-made’ style challenges imperial constructions of nationhood centred in authority and control with a more collective, constructivist, improvisatory concept of belonging (Roberts 2005, p. xxxvi). Probing the intersections between folk art, national commitments, and global feminist projects in British modernism, I investigate how a radically transformed ‘naïve’ subtends the emergence of a new kind of feminist modernism, rooted in concepts of collective making and creative labour.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 4: The Amazon Rainforest of Pre-Modern
           Literature: Ethics, Values, and Ideals from the Past for Our Future. With
           a Focus on Aristotle and Heinrich Kaufringer

    • Authors: Albrecht Classen
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The tensions between the STEM fields and the Humanities are artificial and might be the result of nothing but political and financial competition. In essence, all scholars explore their topics in a critical fashion, relying on the principles of verification and falsification. Most important proves to be the notion of the laboratory, the storehouse of experiences, ideas, imagination, experiments. For that reason, here the metaphor of the Amazon rainforest is used to illustrate where the common denominators for scientists and scholars rest. Without that vast field of experiences from the past the future cannot be built. The focus here is based on the human condition and its reliance on ethical ideals as already developed by Aristotle. In fact, neither science nor humanities-based research are possible without ethics. Moreover, as illustrated by the case of one of the stories by Heinrich Kaufringer (ca. 1400), human conditions have always been precarious, contingent, puzzling, and fragile, especially if ethics do not inform the individual’s actions. Pre-modern literature is here identified as an ‘Amazon rainforest’ that only waits to be explored for future needs.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 5: Orkney Ecologies

    • Authors: Rebecca Ford
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Inspired by Felix Guattari’s Three Ecologies ([1989] 2000), this article explores recent Orkney literature with an environmental focus (Working the Map—ed. J & F Cumming and M. MacInnes; Ebban an’ Flowan—Finlay, A., Watts, L. and Peebles, A.; The Outrun—A. Liptrot; Swimming With Seals—V. Whitworth) in terms of Orkney ecologies—which are always personal, environmental and cultural. Informed by fieldwork carried out in Orkney, looking at discourse around the development of marine renewable energy in the islands, it argues for the use of ecological dialogism, an approach to language and communication which recognises meaning-making as embodied and emergent within a meshwork (Ingold 2011) of lived experience. It explores the texts as part of an ecology of meaning-making within the naturalcultural (Haraway 2007) world, in which environment, social relations and human subjectivity are inextricably entangled. In this view, literary texts can be approached, not as isolated examples of individual creative expression, but as moments of emergent meaning-making in the dialogue between individual, cultural and environmental ecologies, reaching beyond the page into a living meshwork, where we can think in terms of ‘Ecology as Text, Text as Ecology’ (Morton 2010). These Orkney ecologies entangle the natural, personal, cultural and technological, through and as, stories, emphasising interdependence and care for both human and more-than-human relationships. Such moments of connection offer hope of new narrative possibilities with which to face the uncertainty of an Anthropocene future.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 6: The Early Literary Evolution of the Notorious
           Pirate Henry Avery

    • Authors: Richard Frohock
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Henry Avery (alternately spelled Every) was one of the most notorious pirates of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, and scholars have written much about Avery in an effort to establish the historical details of his mutiny and acts of piracy. Other scholars have focused on the substantial literary production that his life occasioned; the early literary history of Avery’s exploits evolves quickly away from the known facts of his life, offering instead a literary trajectory of accumulated tropes about Avery’s motivations, actions, and transformations. This literary invention of Avery is a compelling subject in itself, particularly as writers used his story to explore pressing philosophical and political concerns of the period. In this essay, I consider how early fictions about Avery look well beyond the history of a particular pirate to ruminate on topical ideas about the state of nature, the origins of civil society, and human tendencies toward self-interest and corruption that seem—inevitably—to accompany power and threaten civil order, however newly formed or ostensibly principled.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 9, Pages 7: Slippery Pirates: Generic Conventions and
           Discursive Instability in John Fletcher and Philip Massinger’s Pirate
           Plays

    • Authors: Susanne Gruss
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The term piracy marks a slippery category in early modern England: as a legal denomination, it describes the feats of armed robbery at sea for which pirates were prosecuted but their state-sanctioned counterparts, privateers, were not; in a seaman’s professional life, being a pirate was often a phase rather than a stable marker of self-identification. Like their real-life models, literary pirates are contradictory creatures—they shed their pirate identity as quickly as they have adopted it, are used for veiled socio-political commentary, or trimmed to size in order to fit generic constraints. The slipperiness of the pirate has made him (and sometimes her) an attractive figure for early modern playwrights. I argue that John Fletcher and Philip Massinger appropriate the discursive instability of piratical individuals for their pirate plays. Rather than looking at the ideological and political implications of piracy, I analyze the pirate figures in Fletcher and Massinger’s The Double Marriage (1621) and The Sea Voyage (1622) as well as in Massinger’s The Renegado (1623–1624) and The Unnatural Combat (1624–1625) as literary creations. Alternating between the heroic and the villainous, their pirates are convenient plot devices that are attuned to the evolving generic conventions of the early Stuart stage in general and early Stuart tragicomedy in particular.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 154: The Rhetoric of Krishna versus the
           Counter-Rhetoric of Vyas: The Place of Commiseration in the Mahabharat

    • Authors: Bhushan Aryal
      First page: 154
      Abstract: In the context of the mixed perception among scholars whether the Mahabharat is a pacifist or a militant text, this paper analyzes the rhetorical project of the epic to examine its position on violence. Highlighting the existence of two main arguments in the Mahabharat, this paper argues that the author has crafted a grand rhetorical project to question the dominant war ideology of the time that Krishna presents as the divine necessity. Historically, the emergence of Krishna—one of the major characters of the epic—as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu in Hindu tradition and the extraction and elevation of the Bhagavad Gita from the epic as an independent text have undermined the complexity of Vyas’ rhetoric. This paper places Krishna’s argument within the broad rhetorical scheme of the epic and demonstrates how Vyas has represented Krishna’s rhetoric of ‘just war’ only to illustrate its pitfalls. By directing his narrative lens to the devastating consequences of the war in the later parts of the epic, Vyas problematizes Krishna’s insistence on the need to suppress human emotions to attain a higher cognitive and ontological condition. What emerges is the difference between how Vyas and Krishna view the status of feeling: the scientist Krishna thinks that human emotions and individual lives are trivial, incidental instances in the cosmic game—something not worthy of a warrior’s concern; Vyas’ rhetoric, this paper argues, restores the significance of ordinary human emotions. It is a war—not human life and feeling—that arises as a futile enterprise in Vyas’ rhetoric.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040154
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 155: Reading (with) Hannah Arendt: Aesthetic
           Representation for an Ethics of Alterity

    • Authors: Andreea Deciu Ritivoi
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Hannah Arendt’s interest in literature was part of a broader concern, which was inspired by her reading of Kant, with the role played by aesthetic representation in ethical and political judgment. Her rich repertoire of writings about literature deserves to be considered alongside the works more commonly associated with the ethical turn in literary studies. Arendt’s unique contribution, I argue here, is a heightened awareness of the assimilative tendencies of aesthetic and cultural representation, coupled with a critique of empathy as potentially illusory or even condescending when confronted with a political judgment that is set up to absorb difference. To recognize alterity requires us, if we follow Arendt, to understand otherness “in acting and speaking,” as she argued in The Human Condition. Much of her philosophical and political work was dedicated to understanding the obstacles facing human togetherness, so that she could suggest ways for us to overcome them. Aesthetic representation, in her view, was one of the most effective strategies for achieving community because it offers a reconstruction of another’s viewpoints that invites both an imaginative projection and a sustained cognitive effort.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040155
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 156: Mortifying Earthly Desires in Toni
           Morrison’s Home

    • Authors: Tosha K. Sampson-Choma
      First page: 156
      Abstract: As is true of all of Toni Morrison’s texts, Home does not shy away from difficult topics, particularly those related to sexuality. In this instance, her novel reveals the contestation between the societal narrative of Black male sexual depravity and the struggle to assert an authentic, strong, good, identity that privileges mutually balanced relationships. While characters falter and make mistakes, Morrison’s text is about redemption and reconciliation to the ideals of a self-created theology steeped in a rich African and African American cultural heritage and tradition. This essay argues that Morrison uses a biblical theme to create a culturally relevant theology that shifts the narrative away from Black male depravity to a place of deliberate, conscientious, mutually beneficial relationships.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040156
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 157: In Search of the Iraqi Other: Iraqi Fiction
           in Diaspora and the Discursive Reenactment of Ethno-Religious Identities

    • Authors: Hanoosh
      First page: 157
      Abstract: In Iraqi fiction, the prerogative to narrate the experience of marginal identities, particularly ethno-religious ones, appeared only in the post-occupation era. Traditionally, secular Iraqi discourse struggled to openly address “sectarianism” due to the prevalent notion that sectarian identities are mutually exclusive and oppositional to national identity. It is distinctly in post-2003 Iraq—more precisely, since the sectarian violence of 2006–2007 began to cut across class, civil society, and urban identities—that works which consciously refuse to depict normative Iraqi identities with their mainstream formulations became noticeable. We witness this development first in the Western diaspora, where Iraqi novels exhibit a fascination with the ethno-religious culture of the Iraqi margins or subalterns and impart a message of pluralistic secularism. This paper investigates the origins of the taboo that proscribed articulations of ethno-religious subjectivities in 20th-century Iraqi fiction, and then culls examples of recent diasporic Iraqi novels in which these subjectivities are encoded and amplified in distinct ways. In the diasporic novel, I argue, modern Iraqi intellectuals attain the conceptual and political distance necessary for contending retrospectively with their formative socialization experiences in Iraq. Through a new medium of marginalization—the diasporic experience of the authors themselves—they are equipped with a newfound desire to unmask subcultures in Iraq and to write more effectively about marginal aspects of Iraqi identity inside and outside the country. These new diasporic writings showcase processes of ethnic and religious socialization in the Iraqi public sphere. The result is the deconstruction of mainstream Iraqi identity narratives and the instrumentalization of marginal identities in a nonviolent struggle against sectarian violence.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040157
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 158: Anthropocene Shiftings: Response to Perego,
           E. and Scopacasa, R. The Agency of the Displaced' Roman Expansion,
           Environmental Forces, and the Occupation of Marginal Landscapes in Ancient
           Italy. Humanities 2018, 7, 116

    • Authors: Carol Farbotko
      First page: 158
      Abstract: In this response to Elisa Perego and Rafael Scopacasa’s article, I reflect on connections across time and space from an Anthropocenic perspective that is, by urgent necessity, open to the unexpected. In Ancient Italy, and contemporary Tuvalu and Brazil, it is possible to find similarly unexpected ends being achieved among populations that move, whose lives are lived on ground that cannot be assumed to be inert: earth has agency, and over time, it shifts, or is flooded, or buries things. When non-elites are moving into marginal places where life is tough, where earthly agency cannot be ignored, such people are also finding themselves at the centre of major turning points in history. Mobility and survival in marginal places can offer a way to live a less colonized life.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040158
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 159: Mediating Climate, Mediating Scale

    • Authors: Anne Pasek
      First page: 159
      Abstract: Climate communication is seemingly stuck in a double bind. The problem of global warming requires inherently trans-scalar modes of engagement, encompassing times and spaces that exceed local frames of experience and meaning. Climate media must therefore negotiate representational extremes that risk overwhelming their audience with the immensity of the problem or rendering it falsely manageable at a local scale. The task of visualizing climate is thus often torn between scales germane to the problem and scales germane to individuals. In this paper I examine how this scalar divide has been negotiated visually, focusing in particular on Ed Hawkins’ 2016 viral climate spiral. To many, the graphic represents a promising union of political and scientific communication in the public sphere. However, formal analysis of the gif’s reception suggest that the spiral was also a site of anxiety and negative emotion for many viewers. I take these conflicting interpretations as cause to rethink current assumptions about best practices and desirable outcomes for scalar mediations of climate and their capacities to mobilize a wide range of reactions and interpretations—some more legibly political and some more complicatedly affective, yet all nevertheless integral to the work of building a holistic response to the climate crisis.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040159
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 160: Affect and Porosity: Ethics and Literature
           between Teresa Brennan and Hélène Cixous

    • Authors: Walker
      First page: 160
      Abstract: In her posthumously published work The Transmission of Affect, Teresa Brennan challenges the modern ego’s understanding of itself as self-contained. This illusion, she argues, is supported by what she refers to as the “foundational fantasy”. In explaining what this means, Brennan rejects a bounded sense of the self, arguing that affect (both positive and negative) circulates energetically between subjects. In patriarchal cultures, mothers (and “feminine beings”) act as repositories of projected fear, typically carrying the greater burden of the negative affects—anger, aggression, and envy. Importantly, Brennan’s work brings the question of intersubjective boundaries to the fore, arguing that these are open, and that any account of ethical relations between self and other needs to acknowledge this. Drawing on pre-modern sources, she develops a new theory of intersubjective and energetic affectivity and, in a positive vein, offers love—in the form of attention and discernment—as the positive gift of affect that can potentially circulate between bodies, infusing intersubjective relations with life. Brennan’s work on the transmission of affect offers a bold and very political philosophical intervention into early twenty-first century ethical accounts. Her exploration of the intricacies of our relational entanglements with others and the material world challenges our understanding of what it means to be a self in relation to others. In effect, her account of the transmission of affect highlights the other’s vulnerability to my affect, to my hostile projections, even as it accounts for the flow of affect in both directions. In a slightly different way, Hélène Cixous offers us an account of our relations with others that focusses on the self’s openness to the force of the other, the self’s vulnerability to the dangerous other. Here, the other is the focus of a potential threat, a potential undoing of the self. For Cixous, writing is the place of witness to the unfolding of this vulnerability or porosity between two (entre deux). While this essay focuses on Brennan’s philosophical account, and the potentially paradoxical nature of her work to produce a theory of affect, it offers a brief discussion of the ways in which Cixous’s focus on literature and writing provide a different frame for appreciating the challenge that Brennan’s work makes. It explores the important ways in which Cixous extends Brennan’s philosophical concerns to the domains of literature and writing. Throughout her work, Brennan calls for us to invent or reinvent a vocabulary for the exploration of discernment, the protective attitude of thoughtfulness that opens us to the other. Cixous’s work, I argue, embodies this call in hopeful and optimistic ways. As such, it allows us to think of literature and writing as privileged sites for the exploration of our complex intersubjective relations.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040160
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 161: Re-Framing Hottentot: Liberating Black
           Female Sexuality from the Mammy/Hottentot Bind

    • Authors: Nanda
      First page: 161
      Abstract: Taking up Michele Wallace’s call to interrogate popular cultural forms and unravel their relationship with the political discourse of the time, this paper begins by examining the popular discourse about Black female sexuality in the USA. White, cis-hetero-patriarchal cultural and visual imagination still represents Black women either as asexual and maternal mammies or as the deviant ‘Other’ that is as Venus Hottentots or ‘hypersexual’ Jezebels. Maternal and sexual scripts were first naturalized by popular and scientific discourse(s), and then covertly deployed by the dominant white hetero-patriarchal set up to mask the exploitation of Black women, and constrict the opportunities of growth that were available to them even after the emancipation. This paper analyzes how Black women writers like Elizabeth Alexander and Alice Walker, and visual artists such as Renee Cox develop an oppositional gaze, to use Hooks’s phrase, and ‘re-frame’ the Venus Hottentot from their radical and subversive points of view. Building on theoretical insights of Gina Dent, Cornel West, and Audre Lorde, this paper engages with the oft-neglected relationship between pleasure, desire, identity, and Black female sexuality. Thus, Black female sexuality that has been expunged and/or termed ‘deviant’ actually becomes a source of empowerment for Black women.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040161
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 162: Living up to Her “Avant-Guardism”: H.D.
           and the Senescence of Classical Modernism

    • Authors: Hobson
      First page: 162
      Abstract: In a journal entry from 1957, H.D. writes that Adorno’s description of the aging of modernist music might easily apply to the fate of her own work in the post-war period: “Among other fascinating things, he [Adorno] says that Bartók ‘could not quite live up to his own avant-guardism’ [sic] […]. I felt the phrase applied, in a way, to myself and my Helen sequence” (H.D. 2015, p. 40). H.D.’s remark refers to her long poem, Helen in Egypt (1960), which, with its engagement with classical sources and epic themes, seemed to some to be a throwback to an earlier modernist period in which Pound, Joyce, Eliot and H.D. herself had looked to ancient models as a means of reinvigorating modern literature. What did it mean for H.D. to feel that her work had outlived its time, to be a first-generation modernist still writing in that mode after many of her peers and their achievements had passed into history' This article explores H.D.’s sense that her practice was at odds with contemporary demands for poetry to answer to immediate historical concerns. It also considers her case against the critics in letters, notes and in Helen in Egypt which contains its own defense of the relevance of classical modernism to the post-war present day.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040162
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 163: To Dwell in Grace: Physical and Spiritual
           Situatedness in Marilynne Robinson’s Lila

    • Authors: Kathryn Ludwig
      First page: 163
      Abstract: This article explores Marilynne Robinson’s use of space in her 2014 novel Lila to illustrate a dynamic relationship between the religious and the secular. The titular character’s movement among a variety of physical spaces raises questions about the possibility of “dwelling” in the sense of belonging to a place or community. Characters’ earthly situatedness points to larger questions of spiritual situatedness and identity. Robinson’s novel is posited as a valuable point of reference for postsecular studies, a critical perspective through which the role of the religious in literary studies is being redefined.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040163
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 164: Attention, Representation, and Unsettlement
           in Katherena Vermette’s The Break, or, Teaching and (Re)Learning the
           Ethics of Reading

    • Authors: Cynthia R. Wallace
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Theories of literary ethics often emphasize either content or the structural relationship between text and reader, and they tend to bracket pedagogy. This essay advocates instead for an approach that sees literary representation and readerly attention as interanimating and that considers teaching an important aspect of an ethics of reading. To support these positions, I turn to Katherena Vermette’s 2016 novel The Break, which both represents the urgent injustice of sexualized violence against Indigenous women and girls and also metafictionally comments on the ethics of witnessing. Describing how I read with my students the novel’s insistent thematization of face-to-face encounters and practices of attention as an invitation to read with Emmanuel Levinas and Simone Weil, I explicate the text’s self-aware commentary on both the need for readers to resist self-enlargement in their encounters with others’ stories and also the danger of generalizing readerly responsibility or losing sight of the material realities the text represents. I source these challenges both in the novel and in my students’ multiple particularities as readers facing the textual other. Ultimately, the essay argues for a more careful attention to which works we bring into our theorizing of literary ethics, and which theoretical frames we bring into classroom conversations.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040164
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 165: Theorizing Conscious Black Asexuality
           through Claire Kann’s Let’s Talk about Love

    • Authors: Brittney Miles
      First page: 165
      Abstract: Asexuality is often defined as some degree of being void of sexual attraction, interest, or desire. Black asexual people have been made invisible, silent, or pathologized in most fiction, scholarly literature, and mainstream LGBTQ movements. Claire Kann’s 2018 young adult romance novel, Let’s Talk About Love, explores Black asexuality at the intersection of race and (a)sexuality. Through the story of the Black, bi-romantic, asexual, 19 year-old college student Alice Johnston, this text illuminates the diversity of Black sexuality in the Black Diaspora. Using a Black feminist sociological literary analysis to complete a close reading of the novel, I interrogate what Let’s Talk about Love offers for defining a Black asexual politic. To consider Black asexual politics beyond the controlling images of the asexual Mammy figure, and not merely in juxtaposition to the hypersexual Jezebel, calls us to instead center agency and self-definition. This project seeks to answer what Conscious Black Asexuality is, why it is a necessary concept for asexuality studies and the Diaspora, where we locate Black asexuality in Black history, and how Let’s Talk about Love by Claire Kann presents a depiction of Black agentic queerness that reclaims agency and intimacy within one’s sexual politics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040165
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 166: Afropolitan Sexual and Gender Identities in
           Colonial Senegal

    • Authors: Babacar M’Baye
      First page: 166
      Abstract: Drawing from Achille Mbembe’s theorization of Afropolitanism as an opportunity for modern Africans “to experience several worlds” and develop flux, hybrid, and constantly mobile identities (“Afropolitanism” 29), this essay attempts to make an intervention into the ways in which this phenomenon appeared in colonial Senegalese culture. A neglected site of Afropolitanism was the colonial metropolis of Dakar which reflected subversive homosexual or transgender identities during the 1940s and 50s. Focusing on key writings such as Armand Corre’s book, L’ethnographie criminelle d’après les observations et les statistiques judiciaires recueillies dans les colonies françaises [criminal ethnography based on judiciary observations and statistics gathered from French colonies] (1894) and Michael Davidson’s travelogue, “Dakar” (1970), this essay wants to uncover a part of the silenced and neglected history of sexual and gender variances in colonial Senegalese culture. In these texts, one finds salient examples of Afropolitanism which were deployed as tools of resistance against homophobia and transphobia and as means of affirming erotic, sensual, and transgressive identities. In the end, colonial Senegalese culture transcended gender and sexual binaries in order to provide space for recognizing and examining Afropolitan sensibilities that have thus far been neglected in African studies scholarship.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040166
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 167: Gwendolyn Brooks and the Legacies of
           Architectural Modernity

    • Authors: Gill
      First page: 167
      Abstract: This essay reads the work of poet, Gwendolyn Brooks, in terms of its critical engagement with the architectural modernity of her home city, Chicago. Taking her poetry from A Street in Bronzeville (1945) through to the 1968 collection, In the Mecca, as a primary focus, the essay traces the significance of Chicago style architecture on Brooks’ aesthetic. It was in Chicago that some of the first tall office buildings were designed; it was here that structural steel and glass were first used to distinctive architectural effect, and it was here, in 1893, that the World’s Columbian Exposition was held – an event that, for better or worse, was to shape American architecture well into the twentieth century. Brooks’ poetry is alert to this history, attuned to contemporary debates about urban design and sensitive to architectural experience and affect. This context informs and shapes her work in often unexpected ways. Her approach is often oblique (registered in metaphor, style, and voice) but nevertheless incisive in its rendering of the relationship between architecture, modernity and power.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040167
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 168: “Zwischen allen Stühlen”: Reflections
           on Judaism in Germany in Victor Klemperer’s Post-Holocaust Diaries

    • Authors: Sepp
      First page: 168
      Abstract: This article focuses as a case study on Victor Klemperer’s diaristic representation of German-Jewish identity and culture after 1945 in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the GDR. The contribution shows how Klemperer’s professional and social situation remained very uncomfortable even in East Germany. For the diarist, the communist code ‘antifascist/fascist’, just like the code ‘German/un-German’ before it, was tantamount to concealing Jewish origin. His post-Holocaust journals provide an immediate insider’s view of Jewish life in Germany after the Holocaust from the perspective of a victim of active persecution. Against this backdrop, the contribution examines how the author’s original German nationalism gradually makes way, caught between contradictory impulses of assimilation and decreed Jewish identity, for a much more complex understanding of his own cultural identity. Klemperer’s diaries highlight a number of tensions that ultimately reflect on the disjunction between living and writing: The divide between a single and changing self lies at the heart of his diaries after 1945, which depict an astute, complex psychogram of the assimilated German-Jewish bourgeoisie that survived the Holocaust and tried to continue living in communist Germany.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040168
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 169: “Always Trembling on the Brink of
           Poetry”: Katherine Mansfield, Poet

    • Authors: Gerri Kimber
      First page: 169
      Abstract: Today, Katherine Mansfield is well known as one of the most exciting and cutting-edge exponents of the modernist short story. Little critical attention, however, has been paid to her poetry, which seems a strange omission, given how much verse she wrote during the course of her life, starting as a very young schoolgirl, right up until the last months prior to her death in 1923. Even Mansfield devotees are not really familiar with any poems beyond the five or six that have most frequently been anthologised since her death, and few editions of her poetry have ever been published. Mansfield’s husband, John Middleton Murry, edited a slim volume, Poems, in 1923, within a few months of her death, followed by a slightly extended edition in 1930, and Vincent O’Sullivan edited another small selection, also titled Poems, in 1988. Unsurprisingly, therefore, critics and biographers have paid little attention to her poetry, tending to imply that it is a minor feature of her art, both in quantity and, more damagingly, in quality. This situation was addressed in 2016, when EUP published a complete and fully annotated edition of Mansfield’s poems, edited by myself and Claire Davison, incorporating all my recent manuscript discoveries, including a collection of 36 poems—The Earth Child—sent unsuccessfully by Mansfield to a London publisher in 1910. This discovery in 2015 revealed how, at the very moment when Mansfield was starting to have stories accepted for commercial publication, she was also taking herself seriously as a poet. Indeed, had the collection been published, perhaps Mansfield might now be celebrated as much for her poetry as for her short stories. Therefore, this article explores the development of Mansfield’s poetic writing throughout her life and makes the case for her reassessment as an innovative poet and not just as a ground-breaking short story writer.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040169
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 170: Islamic Ethos: Examining Sources of
           Authority

    • Authors: Lana Oweidat
      First page: 170
      Abstract: This paper investigates the construction of Islamic ethos in the early Islamic period, highlighting what constitutes the guiding principles of its authority. As a religion that is currently subject to many ugly charges, a careful examination of its core historic values provides a counternarrative to the distorted ideology perpetuated by extremists such as The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), as well as to the Islamophobic and anti-Muslim racist discourse circulating in the West. The counternarrative presented here serves scholars of ethos whose expertise lies elsewhere than in religious studies. While providing this historical narrative, I highlight how Islamic ethos is derived from multiple sources of religious and cultural/communal authority, mainly from The Qur’an (the holy book of Muslims); the Sunnah (the Prophet Muḥammad’s example, deeds, and customs); and ijtihad (the interpretations and deductions of Muslim religious leaders). Tracing the construction of Islamic ethos through the creation of the Muslim community (Ummah) in 622 CE and the establishment of the Caliphate in 632 CE reveals guiding principles of conduct that are, in contrast to the discourses mentioned above, realistic, practical, and adaptable to current global needs and exigencies.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040170
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 171: Response to Jewell, Evan. (Re)moving the
           Masses: Colonisation as Domestic Displacement in the Roman Republic.
           Humanities 2019, 8, 66.

    • Authors: Gatrell
      First page: 171
      Abstract: This response engages with Evan Jewell’s article on ‘Colonisation as Domestic Displacement in the Roman Republic’. It supports his argument about the relationship between the conduct of politics in the ancient world and the use of aquatic metaphors to target specific groups for displacement, adding that similar relationships unfolded in more recent times. His emphasis on ‘domestic displacement’ also resonates with twentieth-century projects that displaced people in large numbers in pursuit of what has come to be called ‘development’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040171
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 172: How Can You Not Shout, Now That the
           Whispering Is Done' Accounts of the Enemy in US, Hmong, and Vietnamese
           Soldiers’ Literary Reflections on the War

    • Authors: David Beard
      First page: 172
      Abstract: As typified in the Christmas Truce, soldiers commiserate as they see themselves in the enemy and experience empathy. Commiseration is the first step in breaking down the rhetorical construction of enemyship that acts upon soldiers and which prevents reconciliation and healing. This essay proceeds in three steps. We will identify first the diverse forms of enemyship held by the American, by the North Vietnamese, and by the Hmong soldiers, reading political discourse, poetry, and fiction to uncover the rhetorical constructions of the enemy. We will talk about both an American account and a North Vietnamese account of commiseration, when a soldier looks at the enemy with compassion rooted in identification. Commiseration is fleeting; reconciliation and healing must follow, and so finally, we will look at some of the moments of reconciliation, after the war, in which Vietnamese, Hmong and American soldiers (and their children and grandchildren) find healing.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040172
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 173: ‘Once Upon a Time in Marseille’:
           Displacement and the Fairy Tale in Anna Seghers’ Transit

    • Authors: Rebekah Slodounik
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Written in 1941, while she was living in exile in Mexico, and published in 1944 in Mexico and the United States, Anna Seghers’ novel Transit replicates on a formal level an experience of displacement, statelessness, and exile. In the following analysis, I examine Transit as a text of forced migration. Several features of the novel attempt to produce an experience of displacement: the narrative situation, the incorporation of descriptions that place the events of World War II into a longer history of forced migration, and the use of references to the genre of the fairy tale. The descriptions that engage with past forced migration and displacement attempt to universalize the historical specificities of the time period, whereas the references to fairy tales generate a sense of timelessness associated with this genre. Through these strategies, Seghers’ novel itself attempts to displace time. Seghers situates Transit within a long history of forced migration and exile, in which the categories that are often used to define and divide populations—such as nationality, ethnicity, and religion—are in flux. By emphasizing the role of mistaken identity, Seghers destabilizes the concept of immutable identities in a period of upheaval and transition.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040173
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 174: Intertextuality, Christianity and Death:
           Major Themes in the Poetry of Stevie Smith

    • Authors: Judith Woolf
      First page: 174
      Abstract: Stevie Smith, one of the most productive of twentieth-century poets, is too often remembered simply as the coiner of the four-word punch line of a single short poem. This paper argues that her claim to be seen as a great writer depends on the major themes which—in addition to “death by water”—she shares with T.S. Eliot: Anglicanism and the modern reworking of classical literature, with a strong, and in her case sometimes autobiographical, emphasis on female protagonists. Where the female figures in Eliot’s The Waste Land are seen as parodic and diminished contemporary versions of their classical originals, Smith enters and reimagines her classical sources, testing the strength of the narrative material which binds Phèdre, Antigone, Persephone and Helen of Troy to their fates. In contrast to Eliot’s adult conversion to Anglo-Catholicism, Smith became a convert to agnosticism, engaging in a passionate poetic argument with the faith of her childhood, which led her to challenge Eliot himself. She brings both of these themes together in the most personal of her poems, which celebrate, and ultimately invoke, Thanatos, “the only god/Who comes as a servant”, and who puts a merciful end to all stories by “scattering... the human pattern altogether”.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040174
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 175: “Bury Your Heart”: Charlotte Mew and
           the Limits of Empathy

    • Authors: Black
      First page: 175
      Abstract: Charlotte Mew’s strikingly original and passionate poetry remains under-examined by modernist critics, yet it holds great importance in presenting an alternative version of modernism that foregrounds issues surrounding gender, sexuality and otherness. Mew’s work explores key modernist themes such as alienation, fragmentation and psychological disruption from the perspectives of those on the margins of society, and in doing so challenges narrow definitions of the movement by highlighting the multiplicity and plurality of voices and concerns within it. Whilst Mew’s decentred position often informs painful reflections on shame, exclusion and powerlessness, the culmination of so many marginalised voices in the poems and Mew’s overriding compassion for the vulnerable creates a powerful challenge to the centre that contests traditional accounts of modernism as defined by white, European men. This article will explore how female experience informs Mew’s exploration of empathy between the marginalised and how personal experience of gender-based oppression inspires compassion for other vulnerable groups who suffer under similar power dynamics or social prejudices. It will consider how female experience shapes both the content of the poems and her choice of poetic forms that allow for concealment of self against the fear of exposure. It will also draw upon contemporary feminist readings of modernist literature and emotion to examine the ways in which gender informs Charlotte Mew’s treatment of key modernist themes and how this challenges conventional understanding of the movement.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040175
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 176: Neorealism, Contingency and the Linguistic
           Turn

    • Authors: Claviez
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Since the publication of Roman Jakobson’s famous 1956 essay “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances”, we have tended to read the relationship between metaphor and metonymy as a dialectical one. The essay argues that this approach stands in need of revision, since metonymy, as a trope—and as a trope, moreover, of contingency—undermines the dialectical relationship between the syntagmatic and the paradigmatic axes. This has far-reaching implications, specifically for the assessment of literature and its ethics. Since metaphor functions structurally analogous to dialectics itself, metonymy and its role in realism and neorealism might offer us a way to think an “ethics of contingency” that acknowledges the role of contingency, rather that suppressing it and its role in preventing closure through sublation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040176
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 177: “It’s Just a Matter of Form”: Edna
           St. Vincent Millay’s Experiments with Masculinity

    • Authors: Parker
      First page: 177
      Abstract: Edna St. Vincent Millay occupies an uncomfortable position in relation to modernism. In the majority of criticism, her work is considered the antithesis to modernist experimentation: as representative of the ‘rearguard’ that rejected vers libre in favour of fixed poetic forms. Indeed, most critics concur that whilst Millay’s subject matter may have been modern and daring—voicing women’s sexual independence, for instance—her form was decidedly traditional. Millay also troubles notions of modernist impersonality by writing seemingly autobiographical lyrics that showcase feminine emotions. In this paper, I aim to challenge this view of Millay by focussing on the two avant-garde works that mark the outset and the zenith of her career: Aria da Capo (1921) and Conversation at Midnight (1937). These works are both formally innovative, blurring the boundaries between poetry and drama, causing Edmund Wilson to complain that Millay had “gone to pieces”. Moreover, both works engage in performances of masculinity, with women all but absent. Aria da Capo, first performed by the Provincetown Players in 1919, dramatizes the conflict between two shepherds as an allegory for the First World War. Conversation ventriloquises an all-male dinner party, ranging through the political issues of the Depression era and foreshadowing the war to come. I use both works to argue that Millay has a more interesting relationship to masculinity and modernism than has been hitherto captured by critics. Millay voices men in innovative ways, radically challenging constructions of both gender and poetic form in the process.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040177
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 178: “It Isn’t Race or Nation Governs
           Movement”: New Writers’ Press and the Transnational Scope of Irish
           Experimental Poetry in the 1960s and 1970s

    • Authors: Will Fleming
      First page: 178
      Abstract: In this paper, I seek to contribute to the resurrection from critical obscurity of an overlooked tradition in contemporary Irish poetry: namely, that of small-press poetic experimentalism. Taking as a case study the Dublin-based New Writers’ Press (NWP, established 1967), I will interrogate the absence of virtually any mention of small Irish experimental presses in critical narratives of late modernist poetry of the British Isles in the 1960s and 1970s. By using an array of insights gleaned from the many letters, typescripts and other ephemera in the NWP archive housed at the National Library of Ireland, such absences in scholarship are explored in the context of what the press’ founding editors faced in navigating the small Irish poetry market of the mid-twentieth century. Through this archival lens, the reasons why a cohesive avant-garde network of British and Irish poetic experimentalists never materialised are analysed, and an argument for how Irish poetic experiments of the last half century have not received anywhere near the same degree of critical attention as those of their British counterparts will emerge. In the first half of this paper, I focus on the Irish commercial poetry scene in the 1950s and 1960s, ultimately illustrating how narrow and competitive it was in comparison to the British market, as well as the peculiar individual context of an Irish campus magazine, Trinity College’s Icarus (1950-). This will in turn suggest that the absence of presses such as NWP from critical accounts of late modernist poetic experimentalism may well be due to editorial decisions made by those Irish presses themselves. In the second half of this paper, I foreground some important archival evidence to review a number of instances in NWP’s history in which it comes close to forging alliances with presses within the more cohesive British experimental scene, though it never manages to do so. Drawing on this evidence, I present an archival basis for counterarguments to the possible conclusion that the responsibility for the general absence of Irish presses from narratives of small-press experimentalism lies with those Irish presses themselves.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040178
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 179: Peace with Pirates' Maghrebi Maritime
           Combat, Diplomacy, and Trade in English Periodical News, 1622–1714

    • Authors: Nat Cutter
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Commonly represented in contemporary texts and modern historiographical accounts as a dangerous and alien region, characterised by piracy and barbarism, the history of the early modern Maghreb and the cultural impact it had on British society is one highly limited by indirect sources, cultural, political, and religious biases, and the distorting influence of Orientalist and colonial historiography. Historians have drawn on a wide range of popular media and government-held archival material, each with its own limitations, but one important corpus has been neglected. Drawn from up-to-date and trusted sources and distributed to vast audiences from a wide range of social groups, periodical news publications provide a vast and fruitful body of sources for evaluating popular and elite English viewpoints on Maghrebi piracy. This paper draws upon a corpus of 3385 news items comprising over 360,000 words relating to the Maghreb and its people, drawn from Stuart and Republican English news publications, with a view towards examining the discourse and reality around Maghrebi maritime combat, diplomact and trade in seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century England. To what extent did maritime combat dominate coverage of the Maghreb, over other social, political and military events' Why did news writers use the word ‘pirate’ so infrequently to describe Maghrebi ships' Was Maghrebi piracy chaotic and unfettered, or did peace treaties and consular presence lead to stable trade relations' Were Maghrebi economies seen to be fundamentally built on naval predation, or was real benefit available from peaceful engagement with the Maghrebi states' Examining these and other questions from English news coverage, this paper argues that the material in English periodical news is generally consistent with what we know of the military, diplomatic and economic conditions of the time, surprisingly neutral in tone with a possible emphasis on positive stories when dealing with British–Maghrebi relations, and increasingly after the Restoration played a significant role in influencing British popular discourse.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040179
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 180: Tourism and Taxonomy: Marianne Moore and
           Natasha Trethewey in Jefferson’s Virginia

    • Authors: Linda Kinnahan
      First page: 180
      Abstract: In the poetry of modernist Marianne Moore and contemporary American poet Natasha Trethewey, we find tours of historic places that are associated with the country’s founding history. How does the activity of the tour contemplate the ways in which historical knowledge takes shape and around what priorities and ideals' Exploring this question, these poems stage touristic encounters that serve not only to document the places visited but to question the frames by which a site is “seen” in relation to—often in support of—selected versions of American history. The impact of systems of classification and categorization that are common to the development of taxonomic thought, embraced by Thomas Jefferson and other early Americans, comes under inspection in these touristic poems.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040180
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 181: Representation of the Self and Disease:
           Writing, Photography and Video in Hervé Guibert

    • Authors: Marta Sábado Novau
      First page: 181
      Abstract: Hervé Guibert (1955–1991), a French writer and photographer, began developing a double artistic practice in 1977. In 1988, he discovers he has HIV and his literary and photographic works begin to reflect each other in an attempt to tell the story of a disease whose progression proves uncontrollable and ultimately fatal. Hervé Guibert then undertakes an intensive self-examination of his body and of the changes imposed on it by the disease, using both writing and images (photography and video). At the same time, he carries out a theoretical reflection on the limits of the image and on the limits of writing, both complementing each other in an attempt to convey the experience of disease. His work thus offers a valuable ground for exploring the relationship between literature, photography and the story of disease and, most of all, the need to resort to these two modes of expression in order to communicate the intimate experience of illness. In Hervé Guibert, this experience can be understood through the tension between unveiling and exposing oneself. While the former is creative, the latter seems to be the result of the illness loss of control. This article aims to analyze this dialectical tension in light of three artistic mediums used by Guibert.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040181
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 182: Persuasion without Words: Confucian
           Persuasion and the Supernatural

    • Authors: Se-Hyoung Yi
      First page: 182
      Abstract: This article revisits the nonverbal rhetorical tradition in Confucianism and examines how Confucianism actualized the tradition through its careful consideration of supernatural forces. In Confucianism, genuine persuasion produces actual change and transformation of one’s course of action, not merely verbal conviction. Speech only is not enough to genuinely persuade others. A speaker must transform others by his exemplary acts in the rites and holy ceremonies where supernatural forces and the notion of the afterlife hold a significant place. While Confucius was not interested in discussing the existence of demons and ghosts or their actual function in society, he recognized that their supposed and assumed existence in holy rites would provide society with an opportunity for genuine persuasion, which leads people to actual changes and reforms in their political and moral life. Discussing the nonverbal mode of persuasion in Confucianism may enhance contemporary democracy in two aspects. First, nonverbal persuasion recognizes those who may have difficulty in actively participating in verbal communication, such as the disabled, immigrants, foreigners, and politically and socially marginalized people, in political discourses. Second, the positive role of civic religion in contemporary societies may be discovered.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040182
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 183: Sexuality and Healing in the African
           Diaspora: A Transnational Approach to Toni Morrison and Gyasi

    • Authors: Mar Gallego
      First page: 183
      Abstract: This article examines the literary production of two writers from the African diaspora, specifically African American Toni Morrison’s A Mercy (2008), and Ghanaian-American Yaa Gyasi’s Homegoing (2016), to explore their significance as counter-narratives that defy the “official” historiography of enslavement times in order to set the records straight, as it were. By highlighting these women writers’ project of resistance against normative definitions of black bodies, it is my contention that these works effectively mobilize notions of race, gender, and sexuality. Revisiting the harmful and denigrating legacy of stereotypical designation of enslaved women, these writers make significant political and literary interventions to facilitate the recovery, wholeness, and sanctity of the violated and abjected black body. In their attempt to counter ongoing processes of commodification, exploitation, fetishization, and sexualization, I argue that these writers chronicle new forms of identity and agency that promote individual and generational healing and care as forms of protest and resistance against toxic definitions of hegemonic gender and sexuality.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040183
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 184: “From Scotland to the World”: The
           Poetry of Hope Mirrlees, Helen Adam, Muriel Spark, and Veronica
           Forrest-Thomson

    • Authors: Dorothy McMillan
      First page: 184
      Abstract: The four poets that provide the material for this chapter did not know each other and they probably did not know each other’s work. However, they had important formative experiences in common: They were all educated in Scotland and they all left Scotland after that early education. Yet, they all retained special, although different, ties to that country, to its history, and its writing. They were all “modern” in their poetry, sometimes bizarrely so: Of each of them it could be said, “There was no one like her.” This strangeness they also share, as they share a willingness, even desire, to shock, a muddling of contemporary and archaic, of real and legendary. Veronica Forrest-Thomson’s “Hold on to your seat-belt Persephone” is an indicative phrase. I aim to show that these serially inimitable modern writers have complicated and intertwined Scottish and international connections.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040184
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 185: Ethics and Time: After the Anthropocene

    • Authors: Steven B. Katz
      First page: 185
      Abstract: This “treatise” on ethics and literary practice is a self-reflective piece that argues and enacts ethical criticism through poetic form as well as content. That is, I deliberately employ poetry not only as a literary genre but also as rhetorical arguments—investigative, demonstrative, and evidentiary—and as forms of ethical action. The two previously unpublished poems here are drawn from a larger, lyrical discourse sequence tentatively entitled “Heidegger, Ethics, and Time: After the Anthropocene.” The “poetic arguments,” then, concern the possible interrelations and effects of time and ethics within the philosophical context of post-human “being” collectively, and also of personal death as a shared event. There are a couple of famous theories of time and ethics that ebb and flow within the different formal abridgements of time in these two poems. One set of theories is expounded in Martin Heidegger’s major work, Being and Time, as well as many of his other treatises on language, poetry, and ethics. Another set of theories is founded in Emmanuel Levinas’ work on time and alterity. But unlike these philosophies, the two poems here deal in detail with (1) the potential particularities of lived sensation and feeling (2) as they might be experienced by sentient and non-sentient ‘being’ (3) that survive death—of our species (poem II) and/or individual death (poem III). However, rather than simply rehearsing philosophy or recasting it into poetic form, these two poems argue for and against the notion that time is a physical and thus materially moral absolute, necessary for any (conscious) life to exist at all; and these two poems also argue physically, through their structure and style. They argue that physical dimension of time is not only a material force that is “unkind to material things” (aging, decay), as articulated in the content of one poem for example, but also a moral force that is revealed and played against in the constricted temporal motion and music of the poems (i.e., their forms, and variations within). In addition to philosophical arguments that poetry by its nature deliberately leaves ambiguous (indeterminate, but also will-free), the aural, temporal forms of the poems themselves flow in or move through but also reshape time. A simple instance of this is the way meter and rhyme are activated by time, yet also transform time, pushing back against its otherwise unmarked inexorable ineffable… The temporal properties of poetic forms in conjunction with content therefore constitute “lyrical ethics” in literary practice. Thinking (and putting aside as well) Heidegger and Levinas, these poems as temporal forms may physically shift, even if only momentarily, the relation of the listener or reader to Being/Death, or Alterity/Other. For example, the enhanced villanelle and modified Spenserian stanza offered here each shapes time differently, and thus differently shapes the intuitive, affective, cognitive responses of readers. With its cyclical repetition of lines, usually over five tercets and a quatrain, the villanelle with every advancing stanza physically ‘throws’ time (the concept and the line) back on itself (or perhaps is “thrown forward” [Geworfen]). In contrast, the pattern of the Spenserian nine-line stanza allows time to hover around a still but outward-expanding point (like a partial mini-[uni]verse) before drifting to the next stanza (especially here, where the final rhyme at the end of each stanza is much delayed.). Within and without the context of Heidegger and Levinas, I assert that these structural features are ethical statements in literary practice. The choice of these traditional forms of poetry in itself is an ethical statement. Stylistically as well as thematically, these two poems argue “all sides” of ethical positions in relation to the end of being human. Perhaps more importantly, these two poems explore the inevitably human experience of philosophically different ethical positions on death “post anthropocentrically”—what might come in the rhetorical after we can never know except poetically.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040185
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 186: Anthropocenic Limitations to Climate
           Engineering

    • Authors: Jeroen Oomen
      First page: 186
      Abstract: The development of climate engineering research has historically depended on mostly western, holistic perceptions of climate and climate change. Determinations of climate and climate change as a global system have played a defining role in the development of climate engineering. As a result, climate engineering research in general, and solar radiation management (SRM) in particular, is primarily engaged in research of quantified, whole-Earth solutions. I argue that in the potential act of solar radiation management, a view of climate change that relies on the holistic western science of the climatic system is enshrined. This view, dependent on a deliberative intentionality that seems connected to anthropocenic notions of responsibility and control, profoundly influences the assumptions and research methods connected to climate engineering. While this may not necessarily be to the detriment of climate engineering proposals—in fact, it may be the only workable conception of SRM—it is a conceptual limit to the enterprise that has to be acknowledged. Additionally, in terms of governance, reliability, and cultural acceptance, this limit could be a fundamental objection to future experimentation (or implementation).
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h8040186
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 119: The Fallacy of Analogy and the Risk of
           Moral Imperialism: Israeli Literature and the Palestinian Other

    • Authors: Adia Mendelson-Maoz
      First page: 119
      Abstract: This article discusses the role of analogy within the ethics of reading. It examines how Israeli literature uses analogies when reflecting on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Many literary texts that depict the Israeli–Palestinian conflict draw analogies between the Israeli Jewish people and the Palestinians, between specific individuals on both sides, or between historical traumas. These analogies are designed to bridge gaps and encourage empathetic reading. This article challenges this role of analogy by arguing that analogies may in fact paint an erroneous picture of symmetrical relations, strengthen victimhood that denies responsibility, and can often lead to “empty empathy.” Analogies may also create a willfully deceptive understanding of the other, while actually maintaining a narcissistic superior stance. Based on philosophical notions put forward by Emmanuel Levinas, this article suggests a different path to ethical understanding in which the literary text, while still enabling analogy, uses other rhetorical devices to create relationships that suspend it and reveal its imposture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030119
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 120: Towards a Decolonial Narrative Ethics

    • Authors: Hille Haker
      First page: 120
      Abstract: This essay explores the contribution of two works of German literature to a decolonial narrative ethics. It analyzes the structures of colonialism, taking narratives as a medium of and for ethical reflection, and reinterprets the ethical concepts of recognition and responsibility. This essay examines two stories. Franz Kafka’s Report to an Academy (1917) addresses the biological racism of the German scientists around 1900, unmasking the racism that renders apes (or particular people) the pre-life of human beings (or particular human beings). It also demonstrates that the politics of recognition, based on conditional (mis-)recognition, must be replaced by an ethics of mutual recognition. Uwe Timm’s Morenga (1978) uses the cross-reference of history and fiction as an aesthetic principle, narrating the history of the German genocide of the Nama and Herero people at the beginning of the 20th century. Intercultural understanding, the novel shows, is impossible when it is based on the conditional, colonial (mis-)recognition that echoes Kafka’s unmasking; furthermore, the novel illuminates the interrelation of recognition and responsibility that requires not only an aesthetic ethics of reading based on attentiveness and response but also a political ethics that confronts the (German) readers as historically situated agents who must take responsibility for their past.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030120
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 121: Erratum: Moralee, Jason. It’s in the
           Water: Byzantine Borderlands and the Village War. Humanities 2018, 7, 86

    • Authors: Jason Moralee
      First page: 121
      Abstract: The author would like to make the following changes to the published paper (Moralee 2018): [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030121
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 122: The Poetics of Coming Out and Being Out:
           Feminist Activism in Cis Lesbian and Trans Women’s Poetic Narratives

    • Authors: Jennifer Earles
      First page: 122
      Abstract: While coming out or the telling of sexual selves for LGBTQ+ people is often seen as the final step toward living a free and healthy life, lesbians who also identify as feminists embark on a life-long journey in which the plot ebbs and flows around activism and mobilization. Their goal is not only to come out, but to be out. Both cisgender radical-lesbian feminists and trans feminists consider coming out as not only crucial for the realization of self, but also an important tactic for taking up space and intervening in a heteronormative world. But, while the original theories of radical feminism advocated a fierce anti-essentialism, some contemporary radical feminists continue to focus on biology and questions like “what is a woman'” I hope to refocus the question to ask: how are narrative audiences, discursive forms of text, and spaces important for feminists as they realize lesbian or trans identities and communities' Data come from a historical printed newsletter by self-described radical feminists practicing lesbian separatism and two current micro-blogs, one surrounding radical-feminist narratives and the other around trans feminism. Through a textual analysis, I show how self-proclaimed radical feminists and trans feminists use poetic and emotive writing to produce different kinds of narratives about coming out and being out in different spaces and for unique audiences. Ultimately, these discursive forms are important for communities as members’ stories challenge and are impacted by public narratives of gender, essentialism, and cis- and hetero-normativity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030122
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 123: From Apprentice to Master: Casting Men to
           Play Shakespeare’s Women in Prison

    • Authors: Jenna Dreier
      First page: 123
      Abstract: My research investigates the growing phenomenon of Prison Shakespeare—a rapidly expanding community of prison arts programs in which ensembles of men or women who are incarcerated work with outside facilitators to stage performances of Shakespeare. This article is drawn from my first-hand research on Jonathan Shailor’s Shakespeare Prison Project, a program for men who are currently incarcerated at Racine Correctional Institution in Wisconsin. This article is based on my observations of two Shakespeare Prison Project (SPP) rehearsals, their 2017 performance of The Merchant of Venice, and focus groups that I conducted with fifteen members of the ensemble. This article focuses on casting practices and explores the ethical paradox that arises within the hypermasculine environment of men’s prisons, where men cast to play women’s roles face a heightened risk of violence, and yet, where creating positive representations of women is of paramount importance for disrupting the violent misogyny demanded by that hypermasculine environment. Setting SPP in relation to other programs for men, I demonstrate how certain casting practices risk perpetuating toxic masculinities, while others demonstrate the potential to foster alternative masculinities. Based on the insights offered by participants, I argue further that this process is contingent upon the ensemble’s authorization of those alternative masculinities.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030123
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 124: A Poem Is a Material Object: Claire Van
           Vliet’s Artists Books and Denise Levertov’s “Batterers”

    • Authors: James D. Sullivan
      First page: 124
      Abstract: A literary text is, for a book artist, like a score for a musician or a script for an actor: a basis on which to construct an artistic performance. Book artist Claire Van Vliet has, at her Janus Press, constructed dazzling broadsides and artist books based on poetry by, among others, Hayden Carruth, Galway Kinnell, and Margaret Kaufman. These works test or ignore boundaries between conventional categories such as book and broadside, two-dimensional display, and three-dimensional construction. The object she built based on Denise Levertov’s poem “Batterers” unfolds especially powerfully in time and three-dimensional space.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030124
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 125: From Exclusion to Inhabitation: Response to
           Gray, Benjamin. Citizenship as Barrier and Opportunity for Ancient Greek
           and Modern Refugees. Humanities, 2018, 7, 72

    • Authors: Camillo Boano
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Spaces of refuge represent the paradoxical encounters between a series of governmental forces, disciplinary knowledge, aesthetic regimes and spatial conditions that tend to arrest, fix in time and space forms of lives. Considering the fact that camps are meant to be the materialisation of a temporal status, spatial and political, the proposition posed by Benjamin Gray’s Citizenship as Barrier and Opportunity for Ancient Greek and Modern Refugees, to look at “citizenship-in-exile” practices in ancient Greece and their forms of “improvised quasi-civic communities”, is welcome as it is refreshing. This short response engages with Gray’s text, addressing two different but interconnected points: in one respect, I hope to rescue Agamben’s work from its linear reading by commenting on the depoliticization of the camp and the critique of its exceptionalism; and, in another, I wish to provoke reflection around the universalising claim of hospitality and full assimilation, by introducing the disruptive terminology of inhabitation. This critical insertion aims to redefine an ethical relationship with the space, as a space of and for life, that Agamben sees as the basis for a new ethics, reversing its status as a productive and active force where the camp, in its paradigmatic reading, and the form of life it generates, helps to think beside the exceptional and move to inhabit such indistinctions.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030125
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 126: The Answer is Paracritical: Caribbean
           Literature and The Limits of Critique

    • Authors: Jay Rajiva
      First page: 126
      Abstract: I argue that both Rita Felski’s postcritical model (as articulated in The Limits of Critique) and its academic reception are made possible only by ignoring or erasing African-American and Afro-Caribbean modes of engagement with art that predate and complicate the critical-postcritical binary. To counteract the vanguardism of this trend in literary studies, I pair Caribbean philosopher-poet Edouard Glissant’s meditation on the origins of Creole speech as an indirect language of “detour” with Nathaniel Mackey’s theorizing of black art as “paracritical”—a mode that assimilates performance and critique, language and metalanguage, and that sits adjacent to (and not against or behind) traditionally academic discourses of engaging with literature. If Glissant provides the cultural and philosophical frame for an Afro-Caribbean way of reading literature, Mackey supplies the artistic metaphor par excellence of the paracritical hinge, voiced in the idioms of jazz and blues. Finally, I examine how Glissant and Mackey’s ideas find formal and aesthetic expression in Trinidadian-Canadian author Dionne Brand’s 2005 novel What We All Long For, paying attention to the reader response engendered by the adjacencies of violence, empowerment, possibility, and desire in the novel. In order to analyze What We All Long For, we must promote the liveliness and vivacity of the reading experience and put the text under ethical scrutiny, evincing the paracritical faculty that Afro-Caribbean art demands: commingling the twin pleasures of reading and interpretation, establishing a counter-hegemonic model of literary engagement that implicates the reader without stripping away reading’s pleasure.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030126
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 127: Introduction to “Re-Mapping
           Cosmopolitanism”

    • Authors: Jennifer Barker, Christa Zorn
      First page: 127
      Abstract: Debates about the concept of cosmopolitanism have flared up repeatedly in the twentieth and twenty-fist centuries, not so much as a set or coherent theory, but rather as an alternative model of thinking in opposition to excessive nationalist ideologies; or, more recently, as an intervention into hegemonic global strategies [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030127
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 128: Impressions on the Evolution of Naturalism:
           Interiority, Exteriority, and the International/Interdisciplinary Nature
           of Naturalism

    • Authors: Cameron Dodworth
      First page: 128
      Abstract: Naturalism, as a movement and genre, was heavily influenced by the work of Émile Zola, particularly by his essay, Le roman expérimental (1880). However, despite Zola’s strong influence, Naturalism was also significantly influenced by the ideas of others that go beyond and even predate those of Zola. As a result, Naturalism is generally accepted as having originated in France in the late 19th century, and having extended into the early 20th century, however it soon became an international as well as an interdisciplinary movement and genre. More specific examples of this international and interdisciplinary network of Naturalism can be seen in the writing of Zola, Joris-Karl Husymans, and Oscar Wilde, as well as the painting of Cécile Douard, Vincent van Gogh, Gustave Caillebotte, and Claude Monet. Furthermore, these examples reveal that Naturalism evolved into a more interior branch, as well as a more exterior branch, and they also reveal some strong evolutionary links between not only Naturalism and Impressionism, but also between Naturalism and Decadence/Aestheticism. These latter links have seen little discussion in relation to Naturalism, particularly on the basis of the roles that interiority and exteriority play in the international and interdisciplinary expressions of Naturalism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030128
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 129: Several Lower Palaeolithic Sites along the
           Rhine Rift Valley, Dated from 1.3 to 0.6 Million Years

    • Authors: Lutz Fiedler, Christian Humburg, Horst Klingelhöfer, Sebastian Stoll, Manfred Stoll
      First page: 129
      Abstract: The important discoveries of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts in stratigraphical context within Lower and early Middle Pleistocene deposits in the western continental part of Europe along the rift systeme of the Rhine Valley are pointing at the possible continuous presence of hominins since the Lower Pleistocene. This paper reports on lithic industry from its early appearance at around 1.3 million years (Ma) at the site of Münster-Sarmsheim to the latest pre-Elsterian period at around 0.6 Ma at Mauer, Mosbach, and Miesenheim.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030129
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 130: The Composite Nature of Andreas

    • Authors: David Maddock
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Scholars of the Old English poem Andreas have long debated its dating and authorship, as the poem shares affinities both with Beowulf and the signed poems of Cynewulf. Although this debate hinges on poetic style and other internal evidence, the stylistic uniformity of Andreas has not been suitably demonstrated. This paper investigates this question by examining the distribution of oral-formulaic data within the poem, which is then correlated to word frequency and orthographic profiles generated with lexomic techniques. The analysis identifies an earlier version of the poem, which has been expanded by a later poet.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030130
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 131: Climate Delusion: Hurricane Sandy, Sea
           Level Rise, and 1840s Catastrophism

    • Authors: Gillen D’Arcy Wood
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The existential global threat of inundation of the world’s low-lying port cities necessitates a radical shift in the dominant climate framework of sustainability and resilience to include catastrophism. Scientists and social scientists of the industrial crisis decade of the 1840s, arguably the Anthropocene’s historical origin, offer a model for theorizing twenty-first century catastrophe in both geophysical and social terms, as in the case study of Hurricane Sandy presented here.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030131
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 132: The Meaning of the Common World in
           Perioperative Nursing Care; A Hermeneutic Study

    • Authors: Susan Lindberg, Gudrun Rudolfsson
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to bring forth the meaning of the common world as it appears in perioperative nursing care. We employed the epistemological standpoints of preunderstanding, the hermeneutic spiral and fusion of horizons grounded in Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy as well as Eriksson’s Theory of Caritative Caring based on the ontology of caring science, where caritas is the basic motive and ethos of caring. Four hermeneutic spiral activities were performed, consisting of a mimetic presentation bearing the ontological depth of the common world, its distinctive features, the universal and lasting and finally, the truth inherent in the common world. The inherent truth of the common world is the prevalence of harmony, wholeness and the idea of love, mercy and reverence for human dignity. The common world brings ethics to existence, achieved by the word of honour, which in its true being makes visible the universal and ontological horizons of a common reality. The common world is the creation of a hermeneutic movement inside each suffering human being, where the boundless life-giving time represents the inhabited movement of time, like coming home.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030132
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 133: Imaginary Landscapes: Sublime and Saturated
           Phenomena in “Kubla Khan” and the Arab Dream

    • Authors: Cassandra Falke
      First page: 133
      Abstract: This article considers “Kubla Khan” and the the Arab dream section from the fifth book The Prelude as precursors to the recently theorized concept of saturated phenomenality. Both Coleridge and Wordsworth insist on the limitedness of their dream subjects even as they magnify their dreamt of landscapes to heights of sublimity. Falke describes the implications that this insistence on smallness has for relating experiences of sublime landscapes to experiences of reading or writing poetry.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030133
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 134: Citizenship’s Insular Cases, from Ancient
           Greece and Rome to Puerto Rico

    • Authors: Dan-el Padilla Peralta
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Engaging equally with ancient Greco-Roman and contemporary Euro-American paradigms of citizenship, this essay argues that experiences of civic integration are structured around figurations of island and archipelago. In elaboration of this claim, I offer a transhistorical account of how institutions and imaginaries of citizenship take shape around an “insular scheme” whose defining characteristic is displacement. Shuttling from Homer and Livy to Imbolo Mbue and Danez Smith, I rely on the work of postcolonial literary critics and political theorists to map those repetitive deferrals of civic status to which immigrants and refugees in particular are uniquely subject.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030134
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 135: “Have You Ever Seen the Crowd Goin’
           Apeshit'”: Disrupting Representations of Animalistic Black
           Femininity in the French Imaginary

    • Authors: Elodie Silberstein
      First page: 135
      Abstract: 16 June 2018. London Stadium. Beyoncé and Jay–Z revealed the premiere of the music video Apeshit. Filmed inside the Louvre Museum in Paris, Beyoncé’s sexual desirability powerfully dialogues with Western canons of high art that have dehumanized or erased the black female body. Dominant tropes have historically associated the black female body with the realm of nature saddled with an animalistic hypersexuality. With this timely release, Apeshit engages with the growing current debate about the ethic of representation of the black subject in European museums. Here, I argue that Beyoncé transcends the tension between nature and culture into a syncretic language to subvert a dominant imperialistic gaze. Drawing on black feminist theories and art history, a formal analysis traces the genealogy and stylistic expression of this vocabulary to understand its political implications. Findings pinpoint how Beyoncé laces past and present, the regal nakedness of her African heritage and Western conventions of the nude to convey the complexity, sensuality, and humanity of black women—thus drawing a critical reimagining of museal practices and enriching the collective imaginary at large.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030135
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 136: The Averted Gaze: Audre Lorde’s Zami and
           the Death of Emmett Till

    • Authors: Rachel Watson
      First page: 136
      Abstract: This essay considers Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982) as an example of the neoliberal turn to memoir that both complicates and exemplifies important aspects of the relationship between literary form and ideological expressions of racial and sexual identity. By examining a hitherto un-noted omission from Lorde’s memoir, the death of Emmett Till, this essay illuminates the political significance behind Lorde’s choice to narrate Till’s death in the form of a poem while conspicuously omitting it from her prose memoir. Incorporating a broader selection of Lorde’s work, and comparative analysis with other poetic responses to Till’s death, this essay shows through this example how the intense personalization of an historical event can formalize the embodiment of an essentialized, and thus timeless, racial identity. As such, Lorde’s work demonstrates how literary form can both communicate and obscure paradoxical aspects of contemporary racial ideology by rationalizing the embodiment of racial difference in the post-Civil Rights world.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030136
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 137: Shirley Jackson’s ‘The Lottery,’ and
           William Empson’s Seven Types of Ambiguity

    • Authors: Teresa Hakaraia
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Shirley Jackson’s, ‘The Lottery,’ is without doubt her most famous work. It is one of the most anthologized short stories in America. However, despite the popularity of the short story, very few critics have attempted to delve deeper into the story’s meaning. Those few critics who have attempted to prove the story’s message have done well in the sense that they have picked up on ‘a’ pattern, but have failed to see that there are also contrasting patterns which cross over and cut through each other. Shirley Jackson deserves far more praise than what she has received for the intricacies, the small details and the well thought out design of the story. When one discovers that Jackson admired William Empson’s, Seven Types of Ambiguities, in which he argues the best authors (such as William Shakespeare) purposely create ambiguities in their writing so that the reader questions and wonders what the author might have meant, one can begin to understand that there is more to Jackson than what critics have argued, and even she herself has said about the story. It is clear that she had an admiration for Empson, as two years before ‘The Lottery,’ she wrote, ‘Seven Types of Ambiguity,’ in which Empson’s book is the coveted object of desire. This 1946 story can be read in two opposing ways. I would argue that ‘The Lottery,’ can be read in five opposing ways. The three-legged stool of the story represents the three pillars or legs of society: economics, politics, and religion. Her story can be read as being anti-capitalist, anti-communist and anti-religious, most specifically making references to Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Jackson has done this to critique the idea that these economic, political and religious traditions were created to benefit humanity. However, over time, these systems have become corrupted by their leaders, so that rather than protecting their people, these structures of society are used to both punish their people and to invoke violence upon each other in the name of that tradition.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030137
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 138: ‘A Pause for Po-Ethics’: Seamus Heaney
           and the Ethics of Aesthetics

    • Authors: Eugene O’Brien
      First page: 138
      Abstract: In this paper, I examine the connections between ethics and aesthetics in the writing of Seamus Heaney. Looking at Heaney’s neologism of ‘po-ethics’, I move through his poetry and especially his translation of Sophocles’ Philoctetes, entitled The Cure at Troy, and focus on his Fourth Irish Human Rights Commission Annual Human Rights Lecture: Writer & Righter, wherein he traces a number of strong connections between human rights workers and creative writers. The essay is written through a theoretical matrix of the ethical theories of Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas and Simon Critchley. It looks at poems from Heaney himself, as well as work from Shakespeare, Dante Alighieri, Czeslaw Miłosz, and Primo Levi. It focuses on poetic language as a discourse that can act as a counterweight and as a form of redress on behalf of the dignity of the individual human being against the pressures of mass culture and society.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030138
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 139: Nation, Ethnicity, Milieus, and Multiple
           “We’s”. The Case of Kenya

    • Authors: Dieter Neubert
      First page: 139
      Abstract: The title of the volume “Future Africa—beyond the nation'” has several implications. Nation is presented as an entity relevant to identification and identity; and in the combination with “future”, nation implies a political vision. It is not hard to find good examples in respect of these implications. However, there are other entities important for to political identification. Often, they do not go beyond the nation but refer to smaller collective identities, such as ethnicity. The revived debate on “the middle class” implies that particular social groupings, such as class, may play a role, too. The question is how relevant are the nation and other collective political identities in Africa, and are they exclusive' Looking at the case of Kenya, we see on the one hand that collective (political) identities, such as ethnicity, are mobilized especially during elections. On the other hand, these collective identities are less dominant in everyday life and give way to different conducts of life (conceptualized as “milieus”) that are less politicized. We see people maneuvering between multiple “we’s”. Strong political identities are mobilized only in particular conflict-loaded situations that restructure identities in simple binary oppositions of “we” and “they”.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030139
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 140: Response to Yarbakhsh Elisabeth. Reading
           Derrida in Tehran: Between an Open Door and an Empty Sofreh. Humanities,
           2018, 7, 21

    • Authors: Demetra Kasimis
      First page: 140
      Abstract: This critical engagement with Elisabeth Yarbaksh’s essay asks what Iran might be gaining from sustaining its particular form of (un-)hospitality. It considers whether Iranian dynamics of hospitality might be working to meet the specific political interests of the post-revolutionary “republic” and concludes with a comparison to classical Athenian migration (metoikia) politics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030140
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 141: Women as Victims of War in Homer’s
           Oral Poetics

    • Authors: Karol Zieliński
      First page: 141
      Abstract: The article presents the problem of the empathy felt by the author or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey towards women depicted as victims of war. Understanding of the world in the Homeric poems may be misinterpreted today. Since Homer’s works are a product of oral culture, in order to determine his intentions, it is necessary to look at them from the perspective of the tradition from which they derive. Furthermore, the author of an oral work can be deemed as creative because s/he shapes his/her story through interaction with the listening audience. The different aspects of the relationship of women as victims of war with their oppressors are, therefore, interpreted according to the use of traditional techniques adopted to evoke specific emotions in the audience.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030141
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 142: Rousseau in a Post-Apocalyptic Context:
           Angela Carter’s Heroes and Villains and Science Fiction

    • Authors: Yutaka Okuhata
      First page: 142
      Abstract: The present paper discusses Angela Carter’s Heroes and Villains (1969), which parodies both “post-apocalyptic” novels in the Cold War era and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory on civilisation. By analysing this novel in comparison, not only to Rousseau’s On the Origin of Inequality (1755), but also to the works of various science fiction writers in the 1950s and 1960s, the paper aims to examine Carter’s reinterpretation of Rousseau in a post-apocalyptic context. As I will argue, Heroes and Villains criticises Rousseau from a feminist point of view to not only represent the dystopian society as full of inequality and violence, but also to show that human beings, having forgotten the nuclear war as their great “sin” in the past, can no longer create a bright future. Observing the underlying motifs in the novel, the paper will reveal how Carter attempts to portray a world where human history has totally ended, or where people cannot make “history” in spite of the fact that they biologically survived the holocaust. From this perspective, I will clarify the way in which Carter reinterprets Rousseau’s notion of “fallen” civilisation in the new context as a critique of the nuclear issues in the late twentieth century.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030142
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 143: Foreign Stories and National Narratives:
           Yiddish and Fictionality in Jurek Becker’s Jakob the Liar and Edgar
           Hilsenrath’s The Nazi and the Barber

    • Authors: Emma Woelk
      First page: 143
      Abstract: This article uses two examples of postwar German Jewish literature to explore the way in which these literary reflections on fictionality can also serve to subvert and complicate the national narratives that were developed in East and West Germany. The novels explored here, Jurek Becker’s Jakob the Liar (1969) and Edgar Hilsenrath’s The Nazi and the Barber (1977), directly thematize storytelling and specifically, storytelling in the context of the Holocaust and its aftermath. Both also share an interest in the intersections between German and Yiddish narrative traditions and reflect on the ways in which the latter was coopted by the former in the decades following the Second World War. Ultimately, this article argues that these two novels of lying create spaces in which the foundational myths of both German states are called into question.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030143
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 144: Nostalgia Makes Us All Tick: A Special
           Issue on Contemporary Nostalgia

    • Authors: Niklas Salmose
      First page: 144
      Abstract: Nostalgia makes us all tick: It engages [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030144
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 145: Classifications of Macca Oromoo Girls’
           Nuptial Songs (Sirba Cidhaa)

    • Authors: Dereje Fufa Bidu
      First page: 145
      Abstract: Girls’ nuptial songs of the Oromoo of Horn of Africa are powerful folksong genres, but are rarely practiced today. Ethnographic data were collected and analyzed contextually, structurally, functionally, and semantically from multidisciplinary approaches: folklore, ethnomusicology, anthropology, sociology, literature, linguistic, gender, and others’ theories. They are classified into arrabsoo (insult), faaruu (praise), mararoo (elegiac/dirge), ansoosillee (bridal praise), fala (resolution), and raaga (prediction) with their distinct natures. Macca Oromoo girls compose these competitively to making weddings memorable, express themselves, inspire and encourage men for brave and appropriate actions. These genres form binary oppositions in their respective orders and enrich the culture. They also depict identities and roles of girls in creations and maintaining of culture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030145
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 146: The Reception of the Swedish Retranslation
           of James Joyce’s Ulysses (2012)

    • Authors: Elisabeth Bladh
      First page: 146
      Abstract: This article focuses on how the second Swedish translation of James Joyce’s novel Ulysses (2012) was received by Swedish critics. The discussion of the translation is limited to a number of paratextual features that are present in the translation, including a lengthy postscript, and to the translation’s reviews in the daily press. The release of the second Swedish translation was a major literary event and was widely covered in national and local press. Literary critics unanimously welcomed the retranslation; praising the translator’s raw, vulgar and physical language, his humour, and the musicality of his expression. Regarding its layout, title, and style, the new translation is closer to the original than the first translation from 1946 (revised in 1993). The postscript above all emphasizes the humanistic value of Joyce’s novel and its praise of the ordinary. It also addresses postcolonial perspectives and stresses the novel’s treatment of love and pacifism. These aspects were also positively received by the reviewers. For many reviewers, the main merit of the novel is found in its tribute to sensuality and the author’s joyful play with words. Negative comments tended to relate to the novel’s well-known reputation of being difficult to read. One reviewer, however, strongly questioned the current value of the experimental nature of the novel. Opinions also diverged on whether the retranslation replaces or merely supplements the first Swedish translation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030146
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 147: Nuclear Deficit: Why Nuclear Weapons Are
           Natural, but Scotland Doesn’t Need Nature

    • Authors: Michael Gardiner
      First page: 147
      Abstract: This article argues that millennial Scottish culture has been animated in large part by a push to overcome a historiographical compulsion built into the modern British state’s understanding of nature. This understanding of nature became the foundational principle of government during the Financial Revolution and British unification in the 1690s–1710, then was made the subject of a universal history by the Scottish Enlightenment of the later eighteenth century, and has remained in place to be extended by neoliberalism. The article argues more specifically that the British association of progress with dominion over the world as nature demands a temporal abstraction, or automation, reducing the determinability of the present, and that correspondingly this idea of nature ‘softens’ conflict in a way that points to weapons carrying perfectly abstracted violence. Nuclear weapons become an inevitable corollary of the nature of British authority. Against this, twenty-first century Scottish cultures, particularly a growing mainstream surrounding independence or stressing national specificity, have noticeably turned against both nuclear weapons and the understanding of nature these weapons protect. These cultures draw from a 1980s moment in which anti-nuclear action came both to be understood as ‘national’, and to stand in relief to the British liberal firmament. These cultures are ‘activist’ in the literal sense that they tend to interrupt an assumption of the eternal that stands behind both nuclear terror and its capture of nature as dominion over the world. A dual interruption, nuclear and counter-natural, can be read in pro-independence cultural projects including online projects like Bella Caledonia and National Collective, which might be described as undertaking a thorough ‘denaturing’. But if the question of nature as resources for dominion has been a topic for debate in the environmental humanities, little attention has been paid to this specifically British ‘worlding’ of nature, or to how later constitutional pressures on the UK also mean pressures on this worlding. Andreas Malm’s Fossil Capital (2016), for example, a powerful account of the automation of production in the British industrial revolution, might be related to the automation of ideas of progress pressed during the Scottish Enlightenment, and entrenching a dualism of owning subject and nature as object-world that would drive extraction in empire. Finally, this article suggests that this dualism, and the nature holding it in place, have also been a major target of the ‘wilderness encounters’ that form a large sub-genre in twenty-first century Scottish writing. Such ‘denaturing’ encounters can be read in writers like Alec Finlay, Linda Cracknell, Thomas A. Clark, and Gerry Loose, often disrupting the subject standing over nature, and sometimes explicitly linking this to a disruption of nuclear realism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030147
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 148: Writing the Displaced Person: H. G.
           Adler’s Poetics of Exile

    • Authors: Helen Finch
      First page: 148
      Abstract: This article discusses the work of the Prague Jewish writer H. G. (Hans Günther) Adler (1910–1988) as an important contribution to the poetics of German-Jewish displacement in the wake of World War II. It demonstrates the significance of Adler’s early response to questions of refugee status, displacement and human rights in literature. The article argues that Adler’s work can be seen as providing in part a response to the question raised by Hannah Arendt, Joseph Slaughter and other recent theorists of literature and human rights: what poetic form is adequate to give literary expression to the mass displacements of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century' Adler’s short story ‘Note of a Displaced Person’ and his lengthy novel The Wall demonstrate the role that modernist poetics of fragmentation, in particular the legacy of Kafka, can have in bearing witness to this experience. They also demonstrate that the space of exile and displacement provides Adler with a vantage point from which to comment on the rights catastrophe of the twentieth century. Adler’s work develops a theological understanding of the crisis of displacement, a crisis that can only be resolved by restoring a relation between the divine and the human.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030148
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 149: On Well-Being, Activism and Ethical
           Practice: Response to Trentin, Lisa. Sharing Histories: Teaching and
           Learning from Displaced Youth in Greece. Humanities 2018, 7, 53

    • Authors: Zena Kamash
      First page: 149
      Abstract: In this response to Lisa Trentin’s article, I explore themes that bring together research and activism, through engagement with the past, and the ethics that concerns such endeavours. I demonstrate the overlaps with my own work into well-being and heritage and suggest that broadening out work to include mixed groups may increase the effects of reciprocity noted by Lisa Trentin. I argue that research, as well as teaching, which takes on the decolonizing principles that Lisa Trentin espouses, especially that which includes disenfranchised communities, needs to be done equitably and in ways that are ethical, compassionate and respectful.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030149
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 150: Man up! Masculinity and (Homo)sexuality in
           René Depestre’s Transatlantic World

    • Authors: Jacqueline Couti, Jason C. Grant
      First page: 150
      Abstract: The question of homosexuality in Francophone Caribbean literature is often overlooked. However, the ways in which the Haitian René Depestre’s Le mât de cocagne (The Festival of the Greasy Pole, 1979) and “Blues pour une tasse de thé vert” (“Blues for a Cup of Green Tea”), a short story from the collection Eros dans un train chinois (Eros on a Chinese Train, 1990) portray homoeroticism and homosexuality begs further study. In these texts, the study of the violence that surrounds the representation of sexuality reveals the sociopolitical implications of erotic and racial images in a French transatlantic world. Hence, the proposed essay “Man up!” interrogates a (Black) hegemonic masculinity inherited from colonialism and the homophobia it generates. This masculinity prescribes normative traits that frequently appear toxic as it thrives on hypersexuality and brute force. When these two traits become associated with violence and homoeroticism, however, they threaten this very masculinity. Initially, Depestre valorizes “solar eroticism,” a French Caribbean expression of a Black sexuality, free and joyful, and “geolibertinage,” its transnational and global expression. Namely, his novel and short story sing a hegemonic and polyamorous heterosexuality, respectively, in a postcolonial milieu (Haiti) and a diasporic space (Paris). The misadventures of his male characters suggest that eroticism in transatlantic spaces has more to do with Thanatos (death) than Eros (sex). Though Depestre formally explores the construction of the other and the mechanisms of racism and oppression in essays, he also tackles these themes in his fictional work. Applying Caribbean feminist and gendered lenses to his fiction bring to light the intricate bonds between racism, sexism and homophobia. Such a framework reveals the many facets of patriarchy and its mechanism of control.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030150
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 151: Exile, Pistols, and Promised Lands: Ibsen
           and Israeli Modernist Writers

    • Authors: Irina Ruppo
      First page: 151
      Abstract: Allusions to Henrik Ibsen’s plays in the works of two prominent Israeli modernist writers, Amos Oz’s autobiographical A Tale of Love and Darkness (2004) and David Grossman’s The Zigzag Kid (1994) examined in the context of the Israeli reception of Ibsen in the 1950s and 1960s. To establish the variety of meanings Ibsen’s plays had for the audiences of the Habimah production of Peer Gynt in 1952 and The Kameri production of Hedda Gabler in 1966, this article draws on newspaper reviews and actors’ memoirs, as well as providing an analysis of Leah Goldberg’s translation of Peer Gynt. It emerges that both authors enlisted Ibsen in their exploration of the myths surrounding the formation of Israeli nationhood and identity.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030151
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 152: Socialist Federalism as an Alternative to
           Nationalism: The Leninist Solution to the National Question in Africa and
           Its Diaspora

    • Authors: Constantin Katsakioris
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Scholarship on the impact of Lenin’s thinking and on the Soviet Union’s relationships with Africa has emphasized two dimensions: on the one hand, the ideological imprint on and support provided to nationalist and anti-imperialist movements and, on the other, the emulation of communist techniques of authoritarian rule by many postcolonial governments. This paper highlights the neglected receptions of another major communist idea, namely, the ‘Leninist solution to the national question’, as embodied by the federal political model of the Soviet Union. The paper argues that many actors in different contexts, where the nationalities question had to be tackled with, showed a keen interest in the Leninist solution and in the sui generis federal model of the USSR. These contexts included the post-1945 French Union, as well as postcolonial countries such as Sudan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. The Leninist alternative to the nation-state and to assimilation assumed a great deal of significance to minority groups. Nevertheless, it was rejected even by Marxist-inspired movements and elites which sought to create a nation-state. The paper uses the approach of cultural transfers to investigate and assess both the appeal and the limits in the reception of the Leninist federalist alternative.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030152
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 153: Bees, Extinction and Ambient Soundscapes:
           An Exploratory Environmental Communication Workshop

    • Authors: Rosamund Portus, Claire McGinn
      First page: 153
      Abstract: As a response to the challenges that visual communication, popularly used in environmental communications, poses for more embodied engagements with climate change, this article focuses upon the neglected role of sound within environmental and climate communication scholarship. Focusing upon the decline of bees as a meaningful topic for the exploration of climate change, this article draws on research conducted with participants of a soundscape workshop to investigate the potential benefits and limitations of using sound-based activities to communicate about a specific climate change topic. This article demonstrates that modes of communicating climate change that encourage people to participate in imaginative, creative and future-based thinking can provide an effective way to engage audiences with the topic of climate change, thus encouraging greater individual and collective action.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8030153
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 115: Like Melville on the Leaf of
           Shakespeare' Olson’s Annotations to Ace of Pentacles, by John
           Wieners

    • Authors: Luke Franklin
      First page: 115
      Abstract: This article is on the textuality of handwritten marginal inscriptions, and the often acute difficulty of interpreting them. No poet was more profoundly influenced by the agonistics of this interpretative work than Charles Olson (1910–1970). One way to tell the story of his authorship would be to draw a categorical distinction between his life as a scholar of Herman Melville, and his life as a poet associated with the legacy of modernism and with Black Mountain College. However, the marginalia that Olson wrote in his copy of Ace of Pentacles (one of two he owned), by his former student and protégé, John Wieners, tell another story. At one point Olson seems to compare his marginalia in “John’s book” (as he calls it) to those Melville wrote “on the leaf of Shakespeare”. The annotated “leaf” he has in mind figures in Call Me Ishmael as decisively formative in the making of Moby-Dick. Evidence indicates that Olson used his copy of Ace of Pentacles to devise strategies of writing his way through a major tragedy—the loss of his wife in a car accident in March, 1964. It is amid his annotations that we find the probable starting place of several poems that he wrote to her memory, all controversially excluded from the posthumously published third volume of The Maximus Poems. Yet the marginalia are every bit as resistant to interpretation as those he had himself confronted in the marked pages of Melville’s books, and we will need to think carefully about this analogy and its implications. I argue that his marked-up copy of Ace of Pentacles is part of a textual continuum of uncertain extent, raising questions about how we should read the last volume of The Maximus Poems.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020115
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 116: The Glorious Plagiarism, Trash Aesthetics,
           and Ecological Entropy of Cryptic Cut-Ups from Minutes to Go

    • Authors: Chad Weidner
      First page: 116
      Abstract: This paper examines some of the many ways in which example early cut-ups from Minutes to Go recall canonical literary forms, revive the revolutionary destructive urgency of Dada aesthetics, as well as contribute to wider environmental concerns. How do unusual examples of radically experimental literature contribute to how people think about the environment' What can additional consideration of the cut-up manifesto Minutes to Go tell us about the relationship between culture and nature' This paper suggests that unstudied examples of cryptic cut-ups from Minutes to Go participate in cultural recycling through the Glorious Plagiarism of canonical texts, and what emerges from the Dada Compost Grinder is a trash aesthetic that highlights the voids of both consumer and material culture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020116
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 117: Inhabiting Liminality: Cosmopolitan
           World-Making in Naeem Mohaiemen’s Tripoli Cancelled

    • Authors: Kelley Tialiou
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Motivated by “the need to embody … the palpable tension between the North and the South as it is reflected, articulated, and interpreted in contemporary cultural production”, documenta 14’s selection of Athens as a “vantage point … where Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia face each other” is in line with the ancient Greek concept of the ‘cosmopolite’, a term that Diogenes first coined “as a means of overcoming the usual dualism Hellene/Barbarian”. In this article, I suggest that Naeem Mohaiemen’s feature film, Tripoli Cancelled (2017), commissioned by documenta 14 and premiered at the National Contemporary Art Museum in Athens, proposes a rich and compelling model of cosmopolitan world-making. Shot at the abandoned Elliniko Airport, the film is poetically suspended between fact and fiction, past and present, the historical and the incidental, the local and the global. Creatively positioning the concepts of cosmopolitanism, nostalgia, and hospitality in dialogue, I develop a theoretical model through which I seek to explore how the literally and metaphorically liminal space inhabited by the film’s anonymous protagonist resonates with the contemporary conditions of desperate migration.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020117
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • Humanities, Vol. 8, Pages 118: A Mind Trying to Right/Write Itself:
           Metaphors in Madness Narratives

    • Authors: Renana Stanger Elran
      First page: 118
      Abstract: This article explores autobiographical madness narratives written by people with lived experience of psychosis, dated from the mid-19th century until the 1970s. The focus of the exploration is on the metaphors used in these narratives in order to communicate how the writers experienced and understood madness from within. Different metaphors of madness, such as going out of one’s mind, madness as an inner beast, another world, or a transformative journey are presented based on several autobiographical books. It is argued that these metaphors often represent madness as the negative picture of what it is to be human, while the narrative writing itself helps to restore a sense of belonging and personhood. The value and function of metaphors in illness and madness narratives is further discussed.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2019-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h8020118
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2019)
       
 
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