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  Subjects -> HUMANITIES (Total: 955 journals)
    - ASIAN STUDIES (166 journals)
    - CLASSICAL STUDIES (138 journals)
    - ETHNIC INTERESTS (166 journals)
    - GENEALOGY AND HERALDRY (8 journals)
    - HUMANITIES (294 journals)
    - NATIVE AMERICAN STUDIES (28 journals)

HUMANITIES (294 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Adeptus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alterstice : Revue internationale de la recherche interculturelle     Open Access  
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anabases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analyse & Kritik. Zeitschrift für Sozialtheorie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Anuario Americanista Europeo     Open Access  
Arbutus Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Artefact : Techniques, histoire et sciences humaines     Open Access  
Artes Humanae     Open Access  
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Belin Lecture Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cankiri Karatekin University Journal of Faculty of Letters     Open Access  
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Claroscuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Culturas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Digital Studies / Le champ numerique     Open Access  
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Dokuz Eylül University Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Dorsal Revista de Estudios Foucaultianos     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoques     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Human Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Human Remains and Violence : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Humanities Diliman : A Philippine Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access  
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Interventions : International Journal of Postcolonial Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal Of Advances In Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Arts and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Happiness Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Intercultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Open Humanities Data     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Open Access  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free  
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2076-0787
Published by MDPI Homepage  [205 journals]
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 90: Nordic Modernism for Beginners

    • Authors: Susan C. Brantly
      First page: 90
      Abstract: This essay proposes a narrative of the Nordic countries’ relationship to modernism and other major literary trends of the late 19th and 20th centuries, that situates them in conjunction with the rest of Europe. “Masterpieces of Scandinavian Literature: the 20th Century” is a course that has been taught to American college students without expertise in literature or Scandinavia for three decades. This article describes the content and methodologies of the course and how Nordic modernisms are explained to this particular audience of beginners. Simple definitions of modernism and other related literary movements are provided. By focusing on this unified literary historical narrative and highlighting the pioneers of Scandinavian literature, the Nordic countries are presented as solid participants in European literary and cultural history. Further, the social realism of the Modern Breakthrough emerges as one of the Nordic countries distinct contributions to world literature.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040090
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 91: Recognizing the Delians Displaced after
           167/6 BCE

    • Authors: Eliza Gettel
      First page: 91
      Abstract: In 167/6 BCE, the Roman senate granted a request from Athens to control the island of Delos. Subsequently, the Delians inhabiting the island were mandated to leave and an Athenian community was installed. Polybius, who records these events, tells us that the Delians left and resettled in Achaea in the Peloponnese. Scholars have tended to focus on Rome’s motivations for siding with the Athenians rather than on what happened to the Delians. Furthermore, translations have tended to use the broad terminology of ‘migration’ to describe the Delians’ movement. Comparatively, this contribution suggests that modern categories connected to ‘displacement’ can help us recover aspects of the Delians’ experience. Particularly, a shift to the vocabulary of ‘displacement’ highlights the creative agency of the Delians in holding the Athenians accountable for their expulsion and in seeking recognition from Rome of their integration into the Achaean state. The application of these modern categories necessitates reflection on differences in the political, institutional landscapes that have shaped the experience of displacement in the ancient Hellenistic and modern contexts, as well as on variations in experience amongst the Delians. Ultimately, recognizing what these individuals experienced within the evolving third-party arbitration system of the ancient world leads us to think about the indirect violence of expanding political institutions in ‘globalising’ worlds, both ancient and modern.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040091
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 92: Images of the Crowned Buddha along the Silk
           Road: Iconography and Ideology

    • Authors: Rebecca L. Twist
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The interpretation of early Buddha images with a crown has long been a source of debate. Many scholars have concluded that the iconography of the crown is intended to denote Śākyamuni as a cakravartin or universal Buddha. A few have suggested it represents a sambhogakāya Buddha in Mahāyāna Buddhism. This art historical and Buddhological study examines the visual record of early crowned Buddhas along the Silk Road, focusing on the iconographic signifiers of the crown, silk items, and ornaments, and interprets them within a broader framework of Buddhist theoretical principals and practice. Not only is this a visual analysis of iconography, it also considers contemporary Buddhist literary evidence that shows the development of the iconography and ideology of the crowned Buddha. As a result of this examination, I propose that the recurring iconographic evidence and the textual evidence underscore the intention to depict a form of sambhogakāya Buddha as an early esoteric meditational construct. Moreover, many Buddhas perform one of the two mudrās that are particular to the esoteric form of Vairocana Buddha. Therefore, the iconography also signifies the ideology of the archetypal Ādi Buddha as an esoteric conception.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040092
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 93: World Citizens: Pathways for the Development
           of Eco-Citizenship in Higher Education

    • Authors: Hélène Domon
      First page: 93
      Abstract: It is time that universities reexamine what is meant by globalization. Contemporary scholars in the humanities, such as Peter Critchley, Noam Chomsky, Lewis Mumford, Elinor Ostrom, Charles Eisenstein, David Orr, Vandana Shiva, Naomi Klein, Lynn Margulis, Mustafa Tolba, Martha Nussbaum, Henry Giroux, Carolyn Merchant, Paulo Freire, Fritjof Capra, and Pier Luigi Luisi have aptly redefined the concept of “world” as a biological and cultural ecosystem. This paper seeks ways to integrate the theory and practice of eco-citizenship into various cross-disciplinary aspects of higher education, with a focus on curricular adjustments steered by World Languages and Cultures programs. It vests universities with a mission to engage themselves both as places of resistance against the neoliberal privatization of the commons and as the interactive, practical, analytical, and creative grounds needed for a healthy rebuilding of our global community. Through an assertive commitment in favour of eco-citizenship, universities will help clarify and resolve the strong conflict we are witnessing today between neoliberal orientations and an ecological exigency clearly delineated by scientific and humanistic scholarship.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040093
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 94: Oromo Oral Literature for Environmental
           Conservation: A Study of Selected Folksongs in East and West Hararghe

    • Authors: Geremew Chala Teresa, Hunduma Dagim Raga
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This paper presents the values, knowledge and beliefs of the environment that are inscribed in the Oromo folksongs with particular reference to Eastern and Western Hararghe zones of Oromia regional state. The paper discusses the various contributions of the Oromo folksongs in conserving the environment. The paper is based on the qualitative data produced through face-to-face interviews, non-participant observations and document analysis of both published and unpublished sources. The data used in this paper were collected from 24 individuals of the community leaders, elders and sheekaas by using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The analysis of the paper is employed in functional, contextual and ecocritical theoretical models. In order to arrive at the various ideas of folksongs connected to the environmental conservation, some selected folksongs were carefully designated. The paper attempts to address the contexts in which the folksongs reflect the viewpoints of environment. It also tries to explore the role of Oromo folksongs and their implications in the efforts of wide-reaching environmental views. The position of this paper is that indigenous knowledge (Oromo folksongs) is an effective vehicle in supplementing the existing efforts of conserving the environment through imagery, metaphoric, and symbolic description. Based on the analysis, this paper addresses the association that the Oromo people have strong reflections of environmental conservation through its folksongs. On the basis of the contextual analysis, we classified the folksongs that have environmental implication into four sub-divisions: (1) for utilitarian reason, (2) for visualization, (3) for aesthetic values and (4) for morality purpose.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040094
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 95: ‘Vision Isolated in Eternity’:
           Nostalgia Catches the Train

    • Authors: Randall Stevenson
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Nostalgia for steam trains in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries offers a further example of the varying responses to railways evident ever since their first development in the nineteenth century. Several of these responses contributed to, and illustrate, the changing roles of temporality, memory and nostalgia in the literature of the modern period. In particular, though modernist literature is often critical of the contribution railways and their timetabling made to the mechanisation of the modern age, the writers concerned also develop affirmatively the new possibilities of momentary, memorable vision which rapid travel offered to the imagination. The development of this kind of vision in modernist writing allows certain forms of intense memory to be recognized as historically specific, though also, as always, shaped by nostalgia’s idiosyncratic, personal aspects.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040095
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 96: In the Traces of Modernism: William Faulkner
           in Swedish Criticism 1932–1950

    • Authors: Mats Jansson
      First page: 96
      Abstract: This article focusses the reception of William Faulkner in Sweden from the first introduction in 1932 until the Nobel Prize announcement in 1950. Through reviews, introductory articles, book chapters, forewords, and translations, the critical evaluation of Faulkner’s particular brand of modernism is traced and analysed. The analysis takes theoretical support from Hans Robert Jauss’ notion of ‘horizon of expectations’, Gérard Genette’s concept of ‘paratext’, and E.D. Hirsh’s distinction between ‘meaning’ and ‘significance’. To pinpoint the biographical and psychologizing tendency in Swedish criticism, Roland Barthes’s notion of ‘biographeme’ is introduced. The analysis furthermore shows that the critical discussion of Faulkner’s modernism could be ordered along an axis where the basic parameters are form and content, aesthetics and ideology, narrator and author, and writer and reader. The problematics adhering to these fundamental aspects are more or less relevant for the modernist novel in general. Thus, it could be argued that the reception of Faulkner in Sweden and Swedish Faulkner criticism epitomize and highlight the fundamental features pertaining to the notion of ‘modernism’, both with regard to its formal and content-based characteristics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040096
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 97: Hard Ground-Soft Politics: The Biennial of
           Graphic Arts in Ljubljana and Biting of the Iron Curtain

    • Authors: Wiktor Komorowski
      First page: 97
      Abstract: In 1955, the Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts was founded. It was the first curatorial initiative that aimed to link graphic artists working around the world and with those divided by the Cold War. The Ljubljana Biennial became a major success and its model quickly spread worldwide, augmenting the international circulation of prints and exchanges of artistic concepts. Over the next twenty years similar exhibitions were established in Krakow, Tallinn, San Juan, Santiago de Chile, Cali, Tokyo, Cairo, Fredrikstad, Frechen, Sofia and Bradford. The Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts offered an opportunity for artists from Yugoslavia, Eastern Europe and Latin America, such as Andrzej Lachowicz, Mauricio Leib Lasansky, Adolfo Quinteros and Aleš Veselý, to exhibit their works alongside the protagonists of the western contemporary graphic art circuit such as Robert Rauschenberg, Antonio Segui, Yozo Hamaguchi, Max Bill and Victor Vasarely. The network of exhibitions that followed the example set by Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts became a window into the world not only for printmakers, but also for a number of artists who were affected by Cold War cultural exclusion. The network of dedicated international print exhibitions created favourable conditions for an emerging third space, which became a platform for communication between the cultures divided by the Iron Curtain. This article focuses on the curatorial assumptions that brought the Biennial of Graphic Arts in Ljubljana to life and questions its position as a cultural cornerstone for the Non-Aligned geopolitical order.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040097
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 98: Constructing the ‘Right Image’:
           Visibility Management and the Palestinian Village of Susiya

    • Authors: Gary Bratchford
      First page: 98
      Abstract: This article focuses on the Palestinian Bedouin village of Susiya in the West Bank of the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the multi-agency efforts to save the village after the Israeli Civil Administration issued a full demolition order to all existing structures in 2012. By analysing a range of creative visual responses to the demolition order, including social media campaigns and video appeals, the paper examines the problematic nature over who and how to produce the ‘right image’ of the village and its struggle. Based upon fieldwork and interviews undertaken between 2013–2014 with activists and community workers, I identify how in an effort to overcome the separation between audience and distant spectator, a number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Human Rights Organisations (HROs), acting on behalf of the village, ultimately weakened rather than strengthened the representation of the villagers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040098
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 99: The Montage Rhetoric of Nordahl
           Grieg’s Interwar Drama

    • Authors: Dean Krouk
      First page: 99
      Abstract: This essay explains the modernist montage rhetoric of Nordahl Grieg’s 1935 drama Vår ære og vår makt in the context of the playwright’s interest in Soviet theater and his Communist sympathies. After considering the historical background for the play’s depiction of war profiteers in Bergen, Norway, during the First World War, the article analyzes Grieg’s use of a montage rhetoric consisting of grotesque juxtapositions and abrupt scenic shifts. Attention is also given to the play’s use of incongruous musical styles and its revolutionary political message. In the second part, the article discusses Grieg’s writings on Soviet theater from the mid-1930s. Grieg embraced innovative aspects of Soviet theater at a time when the greatest period of experimentation in post-revolutionary theater was already ending, and Socialist Realism was being imposed. The article briefly discusses Grieg’s controversial pro-Stalinist, anti-fascist position, before concluding that Vår ære og vår makt represents an important instance of Norwegian appropriation of international modernist and avant-garde theater.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040099
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 100: Performing Devotion: Belief, the Body, and
           the Book of Common Prayer 1775–1840

    • Authors: Laura Davies
      First page: 100
      Abstract: This article examines three texts published between 1775 and 1840 that attempt to model an ideal reading of the Anglican liturgy and to render it on the printed page, exploring the ways in which elocutionary instruction, acting theory and accounts of public worship intersect within them through the figures of inscription and incorporation. Reflecting on the choice of the famous actor David Garrick as an exemplary reader in the two later texts, and drawing on the work of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, it discusses how and why these texts attempt to regulate competing ideas regarding the concepts of performance, embodiment, and assembly. The argument is made that although prescriptive in their demands, to varying degrees these texts acknowledge their own insufficiencies, and recognise not merely the difficulty of the task of transposing oral performance to a series of textual signs, or of accounting for the nature of devout worship, but also a more fundamental excess and irreducibility in the constitution of the self.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040100
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 101: There’s No Nostalgia Like Hollywood

    • Authors: Thomas Leitch
      First page: 101
      Abstract: This essay argues that the complexities of the nostalgic impulse in Hollywood cinema are inadequately described by Svetlana Boym’s particular description of Hollywood as “both induc[ing] nostalgia and offer[ing] a tranquilizer” and her highly influential general distinction between restorative and reflective nostalgia. Instead, it contends that Hollywood departs in important ways from the models of both the restorative nostalgia established by the heritage cinema and Great Britain and the reflective nostalgia commonly found in American literature. Using a wide range of examples from American cinema, American literature, and American culture, it considers the reasons why nostalgia occupies a different place and seeks different kinds of expressions in American culture than it does in other national cultures, examines the leading Hollywood genres in which restorative nostalgia appears and the distinctive ways those genres inflect it, and concludes by urging a closer analysis of the more complex, multi-laminated nostalgia Hollywood films offer as an alternative to Boym’s highly influential categorical dichotomy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7040101
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Rethinking China’s Frontier:
           Archaeological Finds Show the Hexi Corridor’s Rapid Emergence as a
           Regional Power

    • Authors: Heather Clydesdale
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The Chinese government’s expansion of infrastructure in Gansu province has led to the discovery of a number of important ancient tombs in the Hexi Corridor, a thousand kilometer stretch of the Silk Roads linking China to Central Asia. This study investigates recent finds in the context of older excavations to draw a more cohesive picture of the dramatic cultural and political changes on China’s western frontier in the Wei-Jin period (220–317 CE). A survey of archaeological reports and an analysis of tomb distribution along with structural and decorative complexity indicate that after the fall of the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), the nexus of regional power shifted from the eastern Hexi Corridor to Jiuquan and Dunhuang in the west. This phenomenon was related in the rise of magnate families, who emerged from Han dynasty soldier-farmer colonies and helped catalyze the region’s transformation from a military outpost to a semi-autonomous, prosperous haven that absorbed cultural influences from multiple directions. This dynamism, in turn, set the stage for the Hexi Corridor’s ascent as a center of Buddhist art in the fifth and sixth centuries.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 64: Post-War Ecosophic Intuition: About the
           (Im)Possibility of Ecological Coexistence in Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in
           the City by Italo Calvino

    • Authors: Márcio Matiassi Cantarin, Mariana Cristina Marino
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Taking in consideration, alongside Cheryll Glotfelty, that “ecocriticism seeks to evaluate text ideas in terms of their coherence and usefulness in the responses to environmental crisis” (Glotfelty and Fromm 1996, p. 5), and that crisis refers not only to the ecology of the environment but also to that of social relations and the psyche, as proposed by Félix Guattari (1990), understanding that there is a lack of equilibrium among the three registries that provoke the crisis lived by the contemporary individual, in a broad spectrum, this work intends to understand how the character Marcovaldo, from Italo Calvino’s Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City (1963), articulates modes of being, dwelling and surviving in a great metropolis, through the adoption of postures coherent with what we would call, later, ecosophy. In addition to the two aforementioned theorists, the ideas of Garrard (2006) and Serres (1991) will be used. Also, we intend to show how much the stories in the collection hold great potential for ecocritical reading and, therefore, for a response to the level of awareness about the ecological crisis.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Animal Voices: Catherine Louisa Pirkis’
           The Experiences of Loveday Brooke, Lady Detective and the Crimes of

    • Authors: Christopher Pittard
      First page: 65
      Abstract: While previous readings of Catherine Louisa Pirkis’ series The Experiences of Loveday Brooke, Lady Detective (1894) have focused on Brooke’s status as New Woman detective, this article considers the series in the context of Pirkis’ own engagement with animal rights and anti-vivisection campaigns in the late nineteenth century. The discussion focuses on one Loveday Brooke story in particular, “The Murder at Troyte’s Hill,” arguing that Pirkis dramatises contemporary anti-vivisectionist rhetoric (that animal experimentation was not only scientifically flawed, but morally damaging, leading to human experimentation). Pirkis’ fiction instead presents a number of contact zones in which human and animal identities are renegotiated, most significantly in the figure of Loveday Brooke herself. The article considers the representation of comparative philology in the story, as an emerging linguistic science which raised anxieties of cultural dissolution and which was often associated with the image of the vivisector. It concludes that the Pirkis stories demonstrate, anticipating Derrida, that to write of the animal in the nineteenth century is inevitably to write about crime, and vice versa; the animal is a perpetual presence in Victorian detective fiction.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 66: ‘Deeds of Darkness’: Thomas
           Hardy and Murder

    • Authors: Minna Vuohelainen
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Critics have often sought to place Thomas Hardy’s fiction within a realist generic framework, with a significant emphasis on Hardy’s Wessex settings, visual imagination and equation of sight with knowledge. Yet Hardy’s writings frequently disturb realist generic conventions by introducing elements from popular nineteenth-century genres, particularly sensation fiction and the Gothic. This essay considers how murder as a plot device troubles generic boundaries in the novels Desperate Remedies (1871), Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) and Tess of the d’Urbervilles (1891). Set against backgrounds with significant non-realist elements, these texts view murder and its punishment from limited, distorted or averted perspectives that articulate a significant social and cultural critique.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Folklore of the Arab World1

    • Authors: Hasan El-Shamy
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Four major stages in the development of interest in folklore in the Arab World may be designated. A neglected (or suppressed) facet of Arab life is the centrality of the khâl. An examination of the impact this familial character has on the social structure of the group regardless of ethnicity and religion is absent. (1) Is the early Islamic period and how religious dogma regarded negatively cultural expressions of polytheism' (2) The age of the spread of Islam and the Arabic language. Religious narratives (mostly “exempla”) dominated the Arab Islamic scene. (3) Is the short-llived era of the emergence of an ephemeral trend towards objectivity and of growth of interest in indigenous culture' In this regard the Basrite Al-Jâhiz (9th C. A.D.) is to be acknowledged as the first folklorist; he treated genuine folklore occurrences and sought to verify their veracity through fieldwork. (4) This stage came in the 1950s when literary scholars became aware of "folklore" as an academic discipline in the West; the attention westerners paid the Arabian Nights triggered interest in that work among some Arab scholars. Along with that European interest, ethnocentric hypotheses about lack of creativity among Semitic groups flourished. Regrettably, these wayward views still find supporters today. With political changes and the emergence of populism, folk groups and their culture varieties acquired special importance. Conflict between religious circles and nonreligious intellectuals over the use of terms turâth/ma’thûr (legacy/Tradition), labels previously reserved for religious heritage. This conflict seems to have abated. Currently, especially in the newly independent Arab Gulf states, “folklore” is proudly held to be a depository of a nation’s memory, history, ‘soul’, and character. However, it should be born in mind that while folklore cultivates positive principles, it also harbors destructive values.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 68: Aurel Stein and the Kiplings: Silk Road
           Pathways of Converging and Reciprocal Inspiration

    • Authors: Geoffrey Kain
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Biographies of the renowned linguistic scholar and archaeological explorer Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1862–1943) inevitably yet briefly refer to the role played by John Lockwood Kipling (1837–1911), as curator of the Lahore Museum—with its extensive collection of ancient Gandharan Greco-Buddhist sculpture—in exciting Stein’s interests in and theories of what likely lay buried under the sands of the Taklamakan Desert. A more insistent focus on the coalescing influences in the Stein-Kipling relationship, including a subsequent line of evident inspiration from Stein to the internationally famed author and Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling (Lockwood’s son; 1865–1936), helps to synthesize some of the highlights of Stein’s first expedition into the remote Tarim Basin of Chinese Turkestan, including and involving the forgeries manufactured by the Uyghur treasure-seeker Islam Akhun.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 69: Sisters on the Soapbox: Elizabeth Gurley
           Flynn and Her Female Free Speech Allies’ Lessons for Contemporary Women
           Labor Activists

    • Authors: Mary Anne Trasciatti
      First page: 69
      Abstract: At a moment when U.S. labor seems its most weak and vulnerable, a wave of teacher strikes and demonstrations led and carried out primarily by women shows promise of revitalizing the movement. Critics allege the strikes and demonstrations are “unseemly,” but popular support for them appears to be growing. Historically, militant strikes and demonstrations have met with significant and sometimes violent resistance from corporate and political entities hostile to labor, and contemporary women in the movement should prepare for pushback. In the past, anti-labor forces have used the law and physical aggression to squeeze labor activists out of public space. Labor has a history of fighting back, beginning with the free speech fights of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in the early twentieth century. These campaigns were the first in U.S. history to claim a First Amendment right to use public space. IWW organizer Elizabeth Gurley Flynn led several of these free speech fights. She and other women free speech fighters played an essential if often overlooked role in popularizing the idea that ordinary people have right to public space. Their tactics and experiences can inform and inspire women at the forefront of a contemporary labor militancy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 70: The Humanities as Contradiction: Against the
           New Enclosures

    • Authors: Christopher Breu
      First page: 70
      Abstract: This essay begins by surveying our current moment in the humanities, diagnosing the language of crisis that frames much of the discourse about them. It argues that the crisis is a manufactured economic one not a symbolic one. The problems with many recent proposals—such as the new aestheticism, surface reading, and postcritique—is that they attempt to solve an economic crisis on the level of symbolic capital. They try to save the humanities by redisciplining them and making them mirror various forms amateur inquiry. I describe these approaches as the new enclosures, attempts at returning the humanities to disciplinarity with the hopes that administrative and neoliberal forces will find what we do more palatable. Instead of attempting to appease such forces by being pliant and apolitical, we need a new workerist militancy (daring to be “bad workers” from the point of view of neoliberal managerial rhetorics) to combat the economic crisis produced by neoliberalism. Meanwhile, on the level of knowledge production, the humanities need to resist the demand to shrink the scope of their inquiry to the disciplinary. The humanities, at their best, have been interdisciplinary. They have foregrounded both the subject of the human and all the complex forces that shape, limit, and exist in relationship and contradiction with the human. The essay concludes by arguing that the humanities, to resist neoliberal symbolic logics, need to embrace both a critical humanism, and the crucial challenges to this humanism that go by the name of antihumanism and posthumanism. It is only by putting these three discourses in negative dialectical tension with each other that we can begin to imagine a reinvigorated humanities that can address the challenges of the twenty-first century.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 71: “Hopefully I Won’t Be Misunderstood.”
           Disability Rhetoric in Jürg Acklin’s Vertrauen ist gut

    • Authors: Alec Cattell
      First page: 71
      Abstract: This essay brings together the fields of German literature, disability studies, and rhetoric in an analysis of the rhetorical strategies and representational implications of disability in Jürg Acklin’s 2009 novel Vertrauen ist gut. Resting on the theory of complex embodiment, the analysis considers the rhetoric of anmut as a literary strategy that invites readers to share imperfect, yet profound, embodied rhetorical connections with the protagonist without rendering invisible the differences that shape embodied experience. Although the characters in Vertrauen ist gut are fictional, this novel provides important insights regarding experiences of precarious embodiment and affirms the value of interdependence while challenging ideals of autonomy and independence. Furthermore, the novel’s narrative within a narrative—and the consequences of the narrator’s interpretation of their significance—challenges readers to use caution when interpreting literary narratives, as their relationship to personal narratives may not always be straightforward.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Citizenship as Barrier and Opportunity for
           Ancient Greek and Modern Refugees

    • Authors: Benjamin Gray
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Some dominant traditions in Refugee Studies have stressed the barrier which state citizenship presents to the displaced. Some have condemned citizenship altogether as a mechanism and ideology for excluding the weak (G. Agamben). Others have seen citizenship as an acute problem for displaced people in conditions, like those of the modern world, where the habitable world is comprehensively settled by states capable of defending their territory and organised in accordance with interstate norms, which leaves very limited space for the foundation of new communities with their own meaningful citizenship (H. Arendt). This paper engages with these prominent approaches, but also with more recent arguments that, when handled and adapted in the right way, the practices and ideology of citizenship also present opportunities for the displaced to form their own meaningful communities, exercise collective agency, and secure rights. It is argued that the evidence from ancient Greece shows that ancient Greek citizenship, an early forerunner of modern models of citizenship, could be imaginatively harnessed and adapted by displaced people and groups, in order to form effective and sometimes innovative political communities in exile, even after opportunities to found new city-states from scratch became quite rare (after c. 500 BC). Some relevant displaced groups experimented with more open and cosmopolitan styles of civic interaction and ideology in their improvised quasi-civic communities. The different kinds of ancient Greek informal ‘polis-in-exile’ can bring a new perspective on the wider debates and initiatives concerning refugee political agency and organisation in the ‘provocations’ in this special issue.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 73: Soviet Central Asia and the Preservation of

    • Authors: Craig Benjamin
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Central Asia has one of the deepest and richest histories of any region on the planet. First settled some 6500 years ago by oasis-based farming communities, the deserts, steppe and mountains of Central Asia were subsequently home to many pastoral nomadic confederations, and also to large scale complex societies such as the Oxus Civilization and the Parthian and Kushan Empires. Central Asia also functioned as the major hub for trans-Eurasian trade and exchange networks during three distinct Silk Roads eras. Throughout much of the second millennium of the Common Era, then under the control of a succession of Turkic and Persian Islamic dynasties, already impressive trading cities such as Bukhara and Samarkand were further adorned with superb madrassas and mosques. Many of these suffered destruction at the hands of the Mongols in the 13th century, but Timur and his Timurid successors rebuilt the cities and added numerous impressive buildings during the late-14th and early-15th centuries. Further superb buildings were added to these cities by the Shaybanids during the 16th century, yet thereafter neglect by subsequent rulers, and the drying up of Silk Roads trade, meant that, by the mid-18th century when expansive Tsarist Russia began to incorporate these regions into its empire, many of the great pre- and post-Islamic buildings of Central Asia had fallen into ruin. This colonization of the region by the Russians, and its later incorporation into the Union of Society Socialist Republics in 1919, brought Central Asia to the attention of Russian and Soviet archaeologists and urban planners. It was these town planners and engineers who were eventually responsible for preserving many of the decaying monuments and historic urban cores of Central Asia, despite the often-challenging ideological constraints they were forced to work under. The paper focuses particularly on the effect of these preservation policy decisions in Uzbekistan, where the process has been best documented. It argues that Soviet authorities struggled constantly with ways of recognizing the need for historical preservation while at the same time creating a new society that had cast off the shackles of its ‘feudal past’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 74: Heterolingualism and the Holocaust:
           Translating the Ineffable in Hélène Berr’s Journal

    • Authors: Stephanie Faye Munyard
      First page: 74
      Abstract: By drawing attention to Hélène Berr’s use of foreign languages and literature as acts of translation, arguably one of the most prominent features of her Journal, this paper hopes to lay the foundation for a more sustained discussion of what translation means for victims of Nazi persecution, as well as of what translation does to their voices and for the continued transmission of their memories. The first section of this paper considers how Hélène Berr uses translation as a communicative aid to expression and argues that foreign languages, literary forms of expression, and also literature itself form part of a broader network of substitute vocabularies that function to help Berr to narrate, or even to translate, the ineffable. After considering the important role that heterolingualism and these substitute vocabularies play in Berr’s narrative, the paper raises some of the distinct challenges that linguistic plurality poses to translators of narratives of Nazi persecution. By drawing on, and comparing, examples from a textual analysis of the (2008) English version of Berr’s Journal, translated by David Bellos, and from the (2009) German edition, translated by Elisabeth Edl, and crucially through assessments of citations from the translators themselves, this paper highlights the significant role that translators, and the practice of translation, play in shaping memories of Nazi persecution.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Powerful Adversaries

    • Authors: Ladelle McWhorter
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 contains yet another assault on higher education in its unprecedented tax on private university endowment income. This paper argues, first, that this and other attacks should not be seen as anti-intellectual efforts to dismantle higher education but rather as intellectually elitist efforts to rid universities of certain programs and personnel and, second, that viewing these efforts as motivated primarily by racism and (hetero)sexism is an analytical and political mistake. Women’s, gender, and sexualities studies programs undermine basic assumptions that ground contemporary right-wing political and economic policy—namely, individualism and economism—by presenting empirical evidence and developing theoretical frameworks focused on historical formations of power networks that produce subjects, preferences, and systems of oppression. The main goal of the radical right is not to purge women and people of color from academia, but to prevent analysis and discussion that reveals the inadequacy of right-wing ontological commitments and neoliberal social theory.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 76: Traces of Traces: Time, Space, Objects, and
           the Forensic Turn in Photography

    • Authors: Paul Lowe
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Images of atrocity are deeply problematic, in that they potentially create a tension between form and content and are often accused of re-victimization, aesthetization of suffering, compassion fatigue and exploitation. As an alternative, therefore, there is considerable potential in examining images associated with atrocity that do not depict the actual act of violence or the victim itself, but rather depict the material presence of the spaces and objects involved in such acts. The temporality of the photograph is also fluid in this type of approach. This paper considers the work of four photographers (Edmund Clark, Ashley Gilbertson, Shannon Jensen, and Fred Ramos) who have used a “forensic aesthetic” in their practice.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 77: Allaying Terror: Domesticating Vietnamese
           Refugee Artisans as Subjects of American Diplomacy

    • Authors: Jennifer Way
      First page: 77
      Abstract: A photograph of a basketmaker and photographs of other refugee artisans published in the August 1956 issue of Interiors magazine iterated some common themes of refugee narratives during a decade of significant migration that saw the United Nations sponsor World Refugee Year in 1959. Of particular interest are the ways the publication of the basketmaker photograph helped to demonstrate how Vietnamese refugee artisans suited the needs of an American State Department-led aid project directed by the industrial designer Russel Wright in South Vietnam from 1955–61. The project aimed to export Vietnamese craft to the American middle class as a way to bring South Vietnam into the Free World during the Cold War. This essay explores how the photograph served the American State Department agenda by characterizing its subject in terms of pathos and need. To this point, it helped to allay American anxieties about supporting refugee artisans by depoliticizing the “refugee problem” and resolving it. In this case, refugee photography expressed how the interests of American diplomacy were linking to the American middle class as a demographic becoming synonymous with consumption and whiteness.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Positioning Ethos in/for the Twenty-First
           Century: An Introduction to Histories of Ethos

    • Authors: James S. Baumlin, Craig A. Meyer
      First page: 78
      Abstract: The aim of this essay is to introduce, contextualize, and provide rationale for texts published in the Humanities special issue, Histories of Ethos: World Perspectives on Rhetoric. It surveys theories of ethos and selfhood that have evolved since the mid-twentieth century, in order to identify trends in discourse of the new millennium. It outlines the dominant theories—existentialist, neo-Aristotelian, social-constructionist, and poststructuralist—while summarizing major theorists of language and culture (Archer, Bourdieu, Foucault, Geertz, Giddens, Gusdorf, Heidegger). It argues for a perspectivist/dialectical approach, given that no one theory comprehends the rich diversity of living discourse. While outlining the “current state of theory,” this essay also seeks to predict, and promote, discursive practices that will carry ethos into a hopeful future. (We seek, not simply to study ethos, but to do ethos.) With respect to twenty-first century praxis, this introduction aims at the following: to acknowledge the expressive core of discourse spoken or written, in ways that reaffirm and restore an epideictic function to ethos/rhetoric; to demonstrate the positionality of discourse, whereby speakers and writers “out themselves” ethotically (that is, responsively and responsibly); to explore ethos as a mode of cultural and embodied personal narrative; to encourage an ethotic “scholarship of the personal,” expressive of one’s identification/participation with/in the subject of research; to argue on behalf of an iatrological ethos/rhetoric based in empathy, care, healing (of the past) and liberation/empowerment (toward the future); to foster interdisciplinarity in the study/exploration/performance of ethos, establishing a conversation among scholars across the humanities; and to promote new versions and hybridizations of ethos/rhetoric. Each of the essays gathered in the abovementioned special issue achieves one or more of these aims. Most are “cultural histories” told within the culture being surveyed: while they invite criticism as scholarship, they ask readers to serve as witnesses to their stories. Most of the authors are themselves “positioned” in ways that turn their texts into “outings” or performances of gender, ethnicity, “race,” or ability. And most affirm the expressive, epideictic function of ethos/rhetoric: that is, they aim to display, affirm, and celebrate those “markers of identity/difference” that distinguish, even as they humanize, each individual and cultural storytelling. These assertions and assumptions lead us to declare that Histories of Ethos, as a collection, presents a whole greater than its essay-parts. We conceive it, finally, as a conversation among theories, histories, analyses, praxes, and performances. Some of this, we know, goes against the grain of modern (Western) scholarship, which privileges analysis over narrative and judges texts against its own logocentric commitments. By means of this introduction and collection, we invite our colleagues in, across, and beyond the academy “to see differently.” Should we fall short, we will at least have affirmed that some of us “see the world and self”—and talk about the world and self—through different lenses and within different cultural vocabularies and positions.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Dehumanized Victims: Analogies and Animal
           Avatars for Palestinian Suffering in Waltz with Bashir and “War

    • Authors: Rachel Kunert-Graf
      First page: 79
      Abstract: A common convention in comics and animation is the use of animal stand-ins to provide an access point for human experiences. Whether representing anthropomorphized characters navigating very human experiences or depicting four-legged creatures impacted by human action, this strategy has the manifest intent of fostering viewer identification and empathy. In particular, artists sometimes deploy animal avatars in representations of persecution and historical trauma to avoid depicting identity categories such as race, nationality and sexuality, which constitute the ostensible basis for persecution. In this way, the use of animals to represent human suffering universalizes experiences for which difference matters. In this essay, I explore how these animal stand-ins enable or foreclose empathy with Palestinian victims in the close reading of two primary texts, “War Rabbit” and Waltz with Bashir, which employ animal avatars in place of a direct depiction of Palestinian suffering. These illustrated narratives, one a comic and one an animated film, visually rhyme animal and human suffering and verbally lament the deaths of animals. I argue that both texts fail to unpack the analogies they construct, such that these constructions ultimately represent the actual Palestinians victims as being mute and irrational. Thus this use of animal avatars, which is meant to be foster empathy, is instead oblique, and risks further dehumanizing victims and negating their experiences.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 80: Haunt or Home' Ethos and African
           American Literature

    • Authors: Richard Schur
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The African American rhetorical tradition could be described as a shelter in an alien environment or as a way station on a long journey. A focus on ethos suggests that such a narrow approach to African American literature cannot do justice to these literary texts: how these writers employ images and symbols, craft and deploy examine identities, blend, criticize, and create traditions, explore contemporary issues, and create community. Because of cultural and racist narratives, African Americans could not simply use either the pre-Socratic or Aristotelian approaches to ethos in their fight for social justice. This essay demonstrates how a postclassical approach to ethos that draws on Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and is focused on community-building and self-healing is central to the African American literature and rhetoric.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 81: The Misogynous Politics of Shame

    • Authors: Debra Bergoffen
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Joanna Bourke’s account of the ways that changing ideas of rape reflect the gendered norms of the times, and Eric Reitan’s proposal that rape ought to remain a contested concept amenable to evolving principles of ethical sexual relationships, speak to the ways that social, cultural, and political contexts influence our understanding of sexual violence. Though the criteria that are used to define rape change, one thing remains constant: the raped person is shamed. As she is shamed, she is degraded. This paper argues that until we understand the role that shame plays in enabling sexual violence by humiliating, silencing, and stigmatizing its victims, changes in our depictions of rape will neither disable the personal devastation of being raped nor dismantle the social practices and political institutions that rely on rape to maintain misogynous inequalities. Following the Introduction (Section 1) it is divided into three parts. Section 2, The Shame of Being Human, discusses the psychological and phenomenological accounts of shame. It alerts us to the ways that shame defines us insofar as it reveals the truth of human intersubjectivity and mutual interdependency. Section 3, Debilitating Shame, describes the ways that shame has been exploited to enable and enforce sexed and gendered inequalities. Section 4, Shame: Demanding Justice, examines the ways that shame, in its role as the protector of the self, undermines the effects of debilitating shame and fosters a politics of sexual integrity by affirming the dignity of the interdependencies that tie us to each other.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 82: Victorian Murder and the Digital Humanities

    • Authors: Neil McCaw
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The rapid extension of what has become known as the Digital Humanities has resulted in an array of online resources for researchers within the subdiscipline of Victorian Studies. But the increasingly acquisitive nature of these digital projects poses the question as to what happens once all the information and material we have related to the Victorians has been archived' This paper is an attempt to anticipate this question with specific reference to future digital resources for the study of ‘Victorian murder culture’, and in particular, the essentially textual nature of the nineteenth-century experience of crime. It will argue that there is potential for new forms of digital-humanities archive that offer a more participatory user experience, one that nurtures a cognitively empathic understanding of the complex intertextuality of Victorian crime culture.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 83: Silk Road Influences on the Art of Seals: A
           Study of the Song Yuan Huaya

    • Authors: Andrea Chen
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Song Yuan Huaya (the Huaya of the Song and Yuan Dynasties) is a type of seal featuring figurative patterns and sometimes decorated with ciphered or ethnic characters. Their origins are the Song and Yuan Dynasties, although their influence extends to the Ming (1368–1644 CE) and Qing (1644–1912 CE) Dynasties. Although it is based on the Chinese Han seal tradition, Song Yuan Huaya exhibits various elements from the influence of the Silk Road. This is thought to be the first time in Han seal history that the Steppe culture can be seen so abundantly on private seals. This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to analyse, probably for the first time in the field, some cases of Song Yuan Huaya, in which a dialogue between the Han seal tradition and Silk Road culture occurs. The findings will hopefully advance the understanding of the complicated nature of the art history, society, peoples, and ethnic relationships in question, and will serve as the starting point for further studies of intercultural communication during specific historical periods.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 84: The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program:
           Intersections between Feminism and Communication

    • Authors: Carmen Heider
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This paper explores the intersections between feminism and communication in an Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program course that is cross-listed with Social Justice and Women’s and Gender Studies. The paper focuses on the alignment of the Inside-Out curriculum with feminist pedagogical principles and explores, through the structure and content of the course, the ways in which these feminist principles interconnect with communication concepts.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Crank up the Feminism: Poetic Inquiry as
           Feminist Methodology

    • Authors: Sandra L. Faulkner
      First page: 85
      Abstract: In this autoethnographic essay, the author argues for the use of poetic inquiry as a feminist methodology by showing her use of poetry as research method during the past 13 years. Through examples of her poetic inquiry work, the author details how poetry as research offers Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies scholars a means of doing, showing, and teaching embodiment and reflexivity, a way to refuse the mind-body dialectic, a form of feminist ethnography, and a catalyst for social agitation and change. The author uses examples of her ethnographic poetry that critique middle-class White motherhood, address the problems of White feminism, and reflects the nuances of identity negotiation in research and personal life to show the breadth of topics and approaches of poetic inquiry as feminist research practice and feminist pedagogy.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 86: It’s in the Water: Byzantine
           Borderlands and the Village War

    • Authors: Jason Moralee
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This essay examines Byzantine military manuals created between the sixth to the tenth centuries for what they can reveal about Byzantine imperial attitudes toward the landscapes of war and those who inhabit them. Of foremost concern in these sources is the maintenance of ‘security’ (Greek: asphaleia) by commanders with the necessary quality of ‘experience’ (Greek: peira). Experience meant knowing how to best exploit the land, including the villages under Byzantine authority, in the prosecution of war. Exploitation in the name of security involved destroying villages, using villages and their inhabitants in ambushes, poisoning and seizing crops, evacuating villages, and using villages for the billeting of, at times undisciplined, soldiers. Villages were thus central to a Byzantine military strategy that is identified here as the ‘village war,’ a strategy that is analogous to security strategies evident in more recent conflicts. Through the juxtaposition of premodern and modern modalities of war, this essay intends to be a pointed reminder that the village war has deep roots in imperialist thought, and that the consequences of the village war profoundly reshape the lives of those caught up in its midst, particularly the peasantry.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 87: Gender, Language and a Lipstick: Creating
           Cultural Change in a World of Paradoxes

    • Authors: Angeliki Alvanoudi
      First page: 87
      Abstract: This paper addresses the paradoxes and possibilities for academic feminism in the Third Millennium drawing on feminist linguistics. It targets the role of language in the construction of social gender, focusing on data from Greek, and shows that gendering discourse can effect cultural change. It is suggested that academic feminists can be agents of cultural change when they promote feminist language reform in the service of challenging the dominant gender order.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 88: Documentary Photography from the German
           Democratic Republic as a Substitute Public

    • Authors: Anne Pfautsch
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This paper discusses artistic documentary photography from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the mid-1970s until the fall of the Berlin Wall, and suggests that it functioned as a substitute public–Ersatzöffentlichkeit–in society. This concept of a substitute public sphere sometimes termed a counter-public sphere, relates to GDR literature that, in retrospect, has been allocated this role. On the whole, in critical discourse certain texts have been recognised as being distinct from GDR propaganda which sought to deliver alternative readings in their coded texts. I propose that photography, despite having had a different status to literature in the GDR, adopted similar traits and also functioned as part of a substitute public sphere. These photographers aimed to expose the existing gap between the propagandised and actual life under socialism. They embedded a moral and critical position in their photographs to comment on society and to incite debate. However, it was necessary for these debates to occur in the private sphere, so that artists and their audience would avoid state persecution. In this paper, I review Harald Hauswald’s series Everyday Life (1976–1990) to demonstrate how photographs enabled substitute discourses in visual ways. Hauswald is a representative of artistic documentary photography and although he was never published in the official GDR media, he was the first East German photographer to publish in renowned West German and European media outlets, such as GEO magazine and ZEITmagazin, before the reunification. In 1990, he founded the ‘Ostkreuz–Agency of Photographers’ with six other East German documentary photographers.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 89: Enemy Encounters in the War Poetry of
           Wilfred Owen, Keith Douglas, and Randall Jarrell

    • Authors: Michael Sarnowski
      First page: 89
      Abstract: While some war poets amplify the concept of anonymity for enemy soldiers, projecting an “us vs. them” mentality, other defining voices of war counter this militaristic impulse to dehumanize the enemy. This pivot toward describing the World Wars more like humanitarian crises than an epic of good and evil is most notable in poems that chronicle both real and imagined close-range encounters between combatants. The poem “Strange Meeting” by British First World War soldier Wilfred Owen uses the vision of two enemy soldiers meeting in hell to reinforce his famous notion that war is something to be pitied. As a result of technological advancements in the Second World War and the increasing distance of combat, the poems “Vergissmeinnicht” and “How to Kill” by British Second World War soldier Keith Douglas wrestle with dehumanizing the enemy and acknowledging their humanity. “Protocols” by American Second World War soldier Randall Jarrell is an imagined view of civilian victims, and is a reckoning with the horrors human beings are capable of committing.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7030089
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 29: An Ethical Ideal' Louise Rosenblatt and
           Democracy—A Personalist Reconsideration

    • Authors: Richard Vytniorgu
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Louise Rosenblatt’s theory of literary experience was a landmark in twentieth-century contributions to aesthetics, pedagogy, and literary theory. Her work is consistently studied, although critical re-evaluations have waned in the past ten years or so. This essay turns to Rosenblatt’s political commitment to democracy and argues that in her writing, her politics are in conflict with her more personalist sympathies concerning the value of the human being. I draw on the philosophy of personalism to show how Rosenblatt’s writing on imagination offers a more congenial framework for thinking about building harmonious human relations.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 30: African Oral Literature and the Humanities:
           Challenges and Prospects

    • Authors: Enongene Sone
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This paper examines the origin, evolution and emergence of folklore (oral literature) as an academic discipline in Africa and its place in the humanities. It draws attention to the richness of indigenous knowledge contained in oral literature and demonstrates how the ethical and moral gap in the existing educational system can be filled by the moral precepts embedded in oral literature. The paper argues that African oral literature has not received the attention it deserves among other disciplines of the humanities in institutions of higher learning in Africa. It concludes that any discussion on African literature will be incomplete, and indeed irrelevant, if it does not equally give adequate attention to the oral literature of the African people. As a result, a new curriculum and pedagogy must be designed to give pride of place to folklore and oral literature as the best repository of our cultural norms and values especially in African tertiary institutions.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 31: ‘Licking the Chops of Memory’: Plotting
           the Social Sins of Jekyll and Hyde

    • Authors: Carolyn Oulton
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is hierarchical in its very title—alphabetically Hyde precedes Jekyll, but Jekyll’s superior education and culture are associated with social status whereas Hyde’s ‘Mr.’ is a courtesy title often hedged in with demonic or animalistic terms. But despite the division insisted on in the title, Jekyll’s wilful complicity in the fate that overtakes him is suggested in a series of clues, ranging from his symbolic association with vivisection to the ostentatious exclusion of a female voice (typically the source of spiritual guidance or inspiration in Victorian fiction). As Hyde engages in an ascending scale of brutal acts, beginning with the assault of a child, the middle-class male peer group attempts to exculpate or protect Jekyll from association with this rebarbative and criminal figure. But following the murder of Sir Danvers Carew, the climactic discovery of Hyde’s body provides the final evidence against Jekyll himself—in rejecting the possibility of religious salvation, he has deliberately chosen the evil that his final statement presents as the ‘assault’ of an ungovernable temptation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 32: The Silk Route from Land to Sea

    • Authors: Jack Weatherford
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The Silk Route reached its historic and economic apogee under the Mongol Empire (1207–1368), as a direct result of the policies of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) and his successors. Because the land network proved inefficient for the amount of goods needing transport from one part of the empire to another, the Mongols expanded the Silk Route to ocean shipping and thus created the first Maritime Silk Route. The sea traffic initially expanded the land routes but soon strangled them. With the expansion of the Maritime Silk Route through the fourteenth century, the land connections reverted to local networks and lost their global importance.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    • Authors: Jo Croft
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin). Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin), the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 34: The Politics of Photobooks: From Brecht’s
           War Primer (1955) to Broomberg & Chanarin’s War Primer 2 (2011)

    • Authors: Bernadette Buckley
      First page: 34
      Abstract: This essay intervenes in debates about the depiction of conflict since 1945, by comparing two highly significant photographic ‘hacks’: Brecht’s War Primer (Kriegsfibel) 1955; and Broomberg & Chanarin’s War Primer 2, 2011. Kriegsfibel is a collection of images, snipped from wartime newspapers and magazines, which Brecht selected and situated alongside the four-line verses that he used to comment upon and re-caption his pictures. These acerbic ‘photo–epigrams’ captured Brecht’s view, firstly, that photography had become a ‘terrible weapon against truth’ and secondly, that by repositioning the individual image, its political instrumentality might be restored. When, more than half a century later, Broomberg & Chanarin decide to re-work Kriegsfibel to produce War Primer 2, they effectively crash into and redouble the Brechtian hack; updating and further complicating Brecht’s insights; re-animating his original concerns with photography as a form of collective historical elucidation and mounting, literally on top of his pictures of wartime conflict, images from the ‘war on terror’. This essay argues that the re-doubling of War Primer performs multiple critical tasks. It explores the Kriegsfibel as a dynamic confrontation with images of war and stages the enduring need to interrogate and actively re-function images of conflict from WW2 to the present day. It re-examines debates about images as weapons of war in themselves, and finally, it situates the Kriegsfibel assemblage in relation to contemporary understandings of ‘post-truth’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Folklore in China: Past, Present, and

    • Authors: Juwen Zhang
      First page: 35
      Abstract: This article first outlines the long history of folklore collection in China, and then describes the disciplinary development in the 20th century. In Section 3, it presents the current situation in terms of disciplinary infrastructure, development, contribution, and challenge, with a focus on the recent practice of safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage. These accounts are largely based on the views of the Chinese folklorists. In the final section, this article discusses the issues of cultural continuity, integration, and self-healing mechanisms in Chinese culture by putting Chinese folkloristics in a historical and world perspective. This paper suggests that, to understand Chinese folklore and culture, one must be aware of the most basic differences between Chinese fundamental beliefs and values and those of the West, and that Chinese folklore and folkloristics present new challenges to the current paradigms put forward in the post-colonial, post-modern, and imperial ideologies.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 36: Learning from Past Displacements'1 The
           History of Migrations between Historical Specificity, Presentism and
           Fractured Continuities

    • Authors: Susanne Lachenicht
      First page: 36
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Revisioning Australia’s War Art: Four
           Painters as Citizens of the ‘Global South’

    • Authors: Lyndell Brown, Charles Green, Jon Cattapan, Paul Gough
      First page: 37
      Abstract: This essay discusses the recent artistic depictions of contemporary war by four artist-academics based in Australia. The families of all four have served in some of the twentieth century’s major conflicts and, more recently, each has been commissioned in Australia or the UK to serve as war artists. Collaboratively and individually they produce artwork (placed in national collections) and then, as academics, have come to reflect deeply on the heritage of conflict and war by interrogating contemporary art’s representations of war, conflict and terror. This essay reflects on their collaborations and suggests how Australia’s war-aware, even war-like heritage, might now be re-interpreted not simply as a struggle to safeguard our shores, but as part of a complex, deeply connected global discourse where painters must re-cast themselves as citizens of the ‘global South’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Erratum: Transferential Memory Spaces in
           Gisela Heidenreich’s Das endlose Jahr. Humanities 2018, 7, 26

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 38
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Were Neanderthals Rational' A Stoic

    • Authors: Kai Whiting, Leonidas Konstantakos, Greg Sadler, Christopher Gill
      First page: 39
      Abstract: This paper adopts the philosophical approach of Stoicism as the basis for re-examining the cognitive and ethical relationship between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Stoicism sets out a clear criterion for the special moral status of human beings, namely rationality. We explore to what extent Neanderthals were sufficiently rational to be considered “human”. Recent findings in the fields of palaeoanthropology and palaeogenetics show that Neanderthals possessed high-level cognitive abilities and produced viable offspring with anatomically modern humans. Our discussion offers insights for reflecting on the relationship between humans and other forms of natural life and any moral obligations that result.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Staging Encounters with Estranged Pasts:
           Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017) and the Cinematic Face of Public
           Memory of the Holocaust in Present-Day Romania

    • Authors: Diana Popescu
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This article provides a close analysis of Radu Jude’s The Dead Nation (2017), a documentary essay that brings together authentic archival sources documenting the persecution and murder of Jews in World War II. The sources include a little-known diary of Emil Dorian, a Jewish medical doctor and writer from Bucharest, a collection of photographs depicting scenes from Romanian daily life in the 1930s and 1940s, and recordings of political speeches and propaganda songs of a Fascist nature. Through a careful framing of this film in relation to Romanian public memory of World War II, and in connection to the popular new wave cinema, I will contend that Jude’s work acts, perhaps unwittingly, to intervene in public memory and invites the Romanian public to face up to and acknowledge the nation’s perpetrator past. This filmic intervention further offers an important platform for public debate on Romania’s Holocaust memory and is of significance for European public memory, as it proposes the film happening as a distinct and innovative practice of public engagement with history.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 41: A Preliminary Discussion of Some Important
           Discoveries Regarding Seaport Sites for Porcelain Shipping in the Jin

    • Authors: Jing Wu
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The seaports of the Jin dynasty have not been given enough attention for a long time. In recent years, some important seaport sites of the Jin dynasty have been discovered or reported, for example the Haifengzhen (海丰镇) site in Hebei Province, and the Haibei (海北) and Banqiaozhen (板桥镇) sites in Shandong Province. Based on these discoveries and other related information, we can try to analyze and infer the function and system of these seaports in the Jin dynasty. Firstly, Banqiaozhen Shi Bo Si (市舶司), the Northern Song Dynasty’s only foreign trade administration in the north of China, suffered a great deal of damage during the war at the end of the Northern Song dynasty. As a consequence, the porcelains produced in Northern China during the Jin Dynasty, such as Cizhou Ware (磁州窑), Cicun Ware (磁村窑), and Ding Ware (定窑) needed new seaports for access to the Korean Peninsula and Japan. It has been reported that many of these porcelains were discovered at Korean and Japanese sites, which correspond to the years of the Jin dynasty. Furthermore, a large number of these porcelains were discovered at the Haifengzhen and Haibei sites. There is thus a very strong possibility that these two sites were departure ports to East Asia of the Maritime Silk Road during the Jin Dynasty. Secondly, many porcelains produced in Southern China, especially Jingdezhen Ware (景德镇窑), have been discovered at the Haifengzhen, Haibei, and Banqiaozhen sites. Some Ding Ware products were also discovered in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the Southern Song Dynasty, and also many Cizhou Ware and Ding Ware products were discovered in Northeastern China during the Jin Dynasty. Furthermore, in the coastal waters on the northern side of the Haifengzhen site, archaeologists have found some traces of shipwrecks dating from the same time. Based on the above information, we infer that the Haifengzhen, Haibei, and Banqiaozhen sites might also have played an important role in the seaway transshipment between Southern and Northern China during this period. In conclusion, we can determine that the recently discovered seaports of the Jin dynasty had two functions and systems, both internal and external:the Haifengzhen and Haibei sites opened China up to the Korean Peninsula and Japan, while the Haifengzhen, Haibei, and Banqiaozhen sites might also have been used for domestic coastal shipping.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 42: The Question of Space: A Review Essay

    • Authors: Les Roberts
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This article is a review essay which discusses the inter-disciplinary collection of essays edited by Marijn Nieuwenhuis and David Crouch, titled The Question of Space: Interrogating the Spatial Turn between Disciplines (London: Rowman & Littlefield 2017). The book was published as part of the Place, Memory, Affect series, edited by Neil Campbell and Christine Berberich. As well as providing a detailed critical overview of The Question of Space, the article responds to some of the broader questions that the book poses in terms of the radical inter-disciplinary of space and spatiality, relating these firstly to ideas drawn from Henri Lefebvre’s discussion of ‘blind fields’. The review essay then goes on to question what we might understand by the so-called ‘spatial turn’ and whether this itself requires some rethinking in order to better take stock of the developments in and around the inter-disciplinary scholarship on space and spatiality. Following this, the essay engages more directly with the individual chapter contributions in The Question of Space, before drawing together some concluding remarks that speak to the concept of ‘atmosphere’ as an affective and phenomenological quality of space as experiential and embodied ‘spacing’.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Spatial Bricolage: The Art of Poetically
           Making Do

    • Authors: Les Roberts
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This paper provides an introductory overview to the Humanities special issue on ‘spatial bricolage’. The individual contributions that make up the special issue are outlined and salient themes pulled out that address and respond to some the wider discussion points raised throughout this introduction. These are closely focused around the central concept of bricolage and the idea of the researcher as bricoleur. Some background context on the anthropological underpinnings to bricolage is provided, alongside methodological reflections that relate the concept to ideas of ‘gleaning’ as a creative and performative engagement with everyday spaces as they are ‘found’ and rehearsed in practice. A core focus on questions of method, and of autoethnographic approaches in particular, is presented alongside questions of research ethics and the policing thereof by institutional structures of disciplining and audit in the neoliberal academy. It is argued that bricolage is, among other things, a practical response to a field of practice that at times constrains as much as it allows space to roam, unimpeded, across disciplinary boundaries. From the overarching purview of spatial humanities and spatial anthropology, it is shown that discussions of bricolage and the researcher as bricoleur can help make explicit the poetics and affects of space, as well as the ethical and procedural frameworks that are brought to bear on how space is put into practice.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Among the PALMs1

    • Authors: Lee Haring
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Born out of the convergence of intellectual traditions and owning a borrowing capacity analogous to the one that engenders creole languages, the study of folklore, or folkloristics, claims the right to adapt and remodel political, psychological, and anthropological insights, not only for itself but for the humanities disciplines of philosophy, art, literature, and music (the “PALM” disciplines). Performance-based folkloristics looks like a new blend, or network, of elements from several of those. What looks like poaching, which is a common practice for folksong and folk narrative, can be examined in the PALM disciplines under names like intertextuality and plagiarism. Nation-oriented traditions of folklore study have convergence, borrowing, and remodeling in their history which are also discoverable in other disciplines. Linguistic and cultural creolization—what happens when people of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds are forced together to learn from one another—lies at the center of folklore; its study opens paths for research in all humanities fields. The study of folklore, while remaining marginal in universities, is undergoing a self-transformation which should lead to the acceptance of its methods and findings in the PALM disciplines.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Teaching Incest Narratives, Student
           Survivors, and Inclusive Pedagogy

    • Authors: Andrea Nicki
      First page: 45
      Abstract: I examine and challenge the view, expressed by some literary theorists, that writings about trauma should be read and taught differently from other writings because these reflect a desire to heal with the support of a community of readers. I explore some poems about incest, including my own, and the expressed intentions and intellectual processes of the authors. I argue that framing these writings as healing narratives misconceives the writers as healers. I address some challenges in teaching incest narratives and strategies that can help ensure the inclusion of student incest survivors and, generally, student survivors of chronic childhood trauma. While some scholars have emphasized the importance of instructors providing trigger warnings when assigning material about trauma, students of chronic childhood trauma can be triggered by wide-ranging material. I emphasize that these students need to be recognized as a minority group facing disadvantages and discrimination, and discuss how educational institutes and campus services could be improved to better meet their needs. Further, I elaborate how survivor-inclusive pedagogy gives a central place in diverse curricula to first-person narratives and experiences of survivors. Finally, I note some encouraging developments in the fields of psychology and law and make some recommendations.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Secrets of the Extraordinary Ordinary: The
           Revelations of Folklore and Anthropology

    • Authors: Ruth Finnegan
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The basic principle of folklore is constant—unveiling the hidden riches within the ordinary things of everyday life: a fine contribution to, and coordination with, the humanities. Examples are the study of the oral/orality; life stories of the obscure; practices of ‘hidden’ amateur musicians, studied ethnographically rather than through written scores or the ‘great’ composers; research by scholars outside the formal institutions of higher learning. An important new topic now being embarked on, in a scattered way, by folklorists and anthropologists, is the area known by such terms as ‘noetics’, ‘psychic studies’, ‘heightened/altered consciousness’, ‘the shared mind’, and the like. With a long history (too often disregarded in conventional scholarship) in antiquity, the middle ages, and eastern philosophies, this concerns such topics as dreaming; contact with and from the dead; experiencing music; and new, popularly but not academically acclaimed, perspectives on consciousness within innovative scientific thinking. Taking such studies further and, in particular, as folklorists and anthropologist have the capacity and interest to do, consolidating them into a new and fully recognized field of study together with linking this with endeavors across the disciplines, scientific as well as humanistic, will be of the greatest benefit for the humanities as a whole.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Folklore in Antiquity

    • Authors: Galit Hasan-Rokem, Haim Weiss
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Folklore exists in all human groups, small and big. Since early modernity, scholars have provided various definitions of the phenomenon, but earlier texts may also reveal awareness and reflection on the specific character folklore. In this short article, we wish to explore and look into the various definitions and characterizations of folklore given by ancient writers from various times and cultures. We will try to draw a cultural map of awareness to the phenomenon of folklore in ancient Near-Eastern texts, Greco-Roman culture, the Hebrew Bible, Early Christianity and Rabbinic literature. The main questions we wish do deal with are where and if we can find explicit mention of folklore; which folk genres are dominant in ancient writings and what was the social context of ancient folklore' That is to say, whom those text integrated in social frameworks, enabling their users to gain power or to undermine existing cultural, theological and social structures.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 48: The Loss of Autonomy in Abused Persons:
           Psychological, Moral, and Legal Dimensions

    • Authors: Michelle Ciurria
      First page: 48
      Abstract: This paper tries to resolve a tension in popular conceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). On the one hand, we correctly assume that all abused persons are not the same: they have irreducibly plural personalities. On the other hand, we correctly assume that abused persons suffer from a loss of autonomy. The puzzle is: if abused persons share deficits in autonomy, why does it not follow that they share a set of personality traits' I argue that the psychological states implicated in autonomy-impairment in abused persons are situation-sensitive responses to salient eliciting conditions, not personality traits. This view has substantive moral and legal implications, as it implies that abusers are responsible for inflicting severe moral harms on victim-survivors, and they may also be liable for unlawful abduction and rape, in case the abused person lives with or has sexual contact with the abuser. This is because the conditions of abuse undermine the victim-survivor’s ability to autonomously consent to cohabitation and sexual contact with the abuser. I argue that the best way of protecting people from autonomy-undermining abuse is public education.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 49: The Riddle: Form and Performance

    • Authors: Annikki Kaivola-Bregenhøj
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The article concentrates on the true or the ordinary riddle, which is the best-known of the old riddles. True riddles consist of two parts, one functioning as a question, the other as an answer. In riddling the answerer or riddlee tries to find an acceptable answer to the question. Sometimes riddlees are deliberately misled because the “right” answer is completely unexpected. Riddles are “texts” only in archives and publications; in the field, they are always oral lore closely tied to their performing context. Study of social and cultural contexts is a new part of riddle research. Field researchers’ studies and findings are important. The article includes riddle definitions and analysis of subjects, metaphors and formulae of riddles as well as the functions of riddling. New challenges are the driving force behind research. I attempt to find something new in my material. New for me has been discovering the humour in riddles. Reading dozens and even hundreds of riddle variants begins to give me some idea of the fun and humour inherent in riddles. There are still questions in riddle materials waiting to be asked; it is always possible to discover something new.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Folklore and the Internet: The Challenge of
           an Ephemeral Landscape1

    • Authors: Trevor J. Blank
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Through the lens of memetic folk humor, this essay examines the slippery, ephemeral nature of hybridized forms of contemporary digital folklore. In doing so, it is argued that scholars should not be distracted by the breakneck speed in which expressive materials proliferate and then dissipate but should instead focus on the overarching ways that popular culture and current news events infiltrate digital folk culture in the formation of individuals' cultural inventories. The process of transmission and variation that shapes the resulting hybridized folklore requires greater scrutiny and contextualization.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 51: The Old Wounded: Destructive Plasticity and
           Intergenerational Trauma

    • Authors: Brandon D. C. Fenton
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This article addresses a significant gap in trauma theory and philosophy; namely, it develops a partial theory of the subject of intergenerational trauma. This is accomplished through a close examination of Catherine Malabou’s theory of the subject of trauma, as well as by contact with the research in epigenetics of Rachel Yehuda, and the research on intergenerational trauma among First Nations people in Canada conducted by Amy Bombay and colleagues. It presents original work that is responsive to recent advances in a variety of fields, including philosophy, psychology, social science, and biology.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 52: Exorcising a Demon': Why History Needs
           to Engage with the Whitechapel Murders and Dispel the Myth of ‘Jack the

    • Authors: Drew Gray
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This article reflects on the current paucity of academic research into the Whitechapel Murders of 1888. Notably it suggests that there has been a tendency for historians of crime in particular to ignore the case and it argues that this has created an unwanted vacuum that has been filled (and exploited) by amateur history and the entertainment industry. This has consequences for how the public view both the murders and the killer, and the entire late Victorian period. The cultural phenomenon of ‘Jack the Ripper’ has been allowed to emerge as a result of this lack of academic engagement and this fuels an industry that continues to portray the murderer, the murdered and the area in which these killings occurred in a manner that does a terrible and ongoing disservice to the women that were so brutally killed. Moreover, the ‘celebration’ of the unknown killer has provided a role model for subsequent misogynist serial murderers and abusers. This article argues that it is time for historians of crime address this situation.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 53: Sharing Histories: Teaching and Learning
           from Displaced Youth in Greece

    • Authors: Lisa Trentin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This paper reflects upon my experiences teaching and learning from displaced youth in Greece over a period of eight months in 2017. Following a brief examination of the current challenges in accessing formal education, I examine non-formal education initiatives, summarizing my work with two NGOs in Athens and Chios where I taught lessons in English on ancient Greek art, archaeology, history, and literature. In offering these lessons, my hope was to do more than simply improve students’ language skills or deposit information: I wanted to examine the past to reflect upon the present, exploring themes of migration, forced displacement, and human belonging. Moreover, I wanted to engage students in meaningful connection, to the past and to the present, to one and to others, as a means of building community in and beyond the classroom, at a time when many were feeling alienated and isolated. This paper, therefore, outlines the transformational, liberating learning that took place, citing ancient evidence of displacement and unpacking modern responses by those currently displaced.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 54: On Waxworks Considered as One of the
           Hyperreal Arts: Exhibiting Jack the Ripper and His Victims

    • Authors: Lucyna Krawczyk-Żywko
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The article discusses one of the tropes present in the representations of the Whitechapel killer: the waxworks of either the killer or his victims. These images were shaped by contemporary attitudes: from sensationalism in 1888, through the developing myth and business of ‘Jack the Ripper,’ to the beginnings of attention being paid to his victims. Examined are tableaus created from 1888 to current times, both physical and fictional twenty- and twenty-first-century texts encompassing various media, all of which may be located within the Baudrillardian realm of simulation. What they demonstrate is that the mythical killer keeps overshadowing his victims, who in this part of the Ripper mythos remain to a certain extent as dehumanised and voiceless as when they were actually killed.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 55: Approaching Impersonal Life with Clarice

    • Authors: Fernanda Negrete
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Clarice Lispector’s concern with writing life beyond the limits of identity and representation leads her to posit the univocity of being in a series of surprising corporeal and linguistic gestures to reveal a fundamental shift in time. I explore the convergence between this project in Lispector and both major and minor terms in the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze (from “encounter” and “immanence” to “savage” and “birth”), shedding light on some fundamental aspects of the latter’s transcendental empiricism. Furthermore, focusing especially on the 1973 fiction Água Viva, I show that Lispector’s work insists on impersonal life’s relational condition, which extends to the creation of an original reader-writer relationship, through a mode of receptivity beyond meaning in which feminine and natal approaches are crucial.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 56: On the Philosophical Determination of

    • Authors: Jason Kemp Winfree
      First page: 56
      Abstract: This paper traces the influence of German Idealism on the conceptions of literature proffered by Bataille and Blanchot, and it aims to show how that influence registers as a proto-ethics. In the demand that freedom be actualized in the world, German Idealism frames the determination of literature as one-sided, subjective, and abstract. Literary expression is never adequate to what it represents. Precisely because it has no direct bearing on the world of action, however, literature is free to pursue that which the world of action excludes: the density and obscurity of existence itself. In this pursuit, literature recasts the philosophical aspiration of self-knowledge in terms of a fidelity to existence and life in excess of individuality.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 57: Rethinking the Essence of Human and
           Other-Than-Human Communication in the Anthropocene Epoch: A Biosemiotic
           Interpretation of Edgar Morin’s “Complex Thought”

    • Authors: Keith Moser
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to explore the philosophical and linguistic implications of the French philosopher Edgar Morin’s “complex thought.” In stark contrast to standard communicative models which profess that Homo sapiens are the only organisms that are capable of engaging in semiosis, Morin unequivocally proves that other-than-human communication is laden with significance and purpose. Living on an imperiled planet that is increasingly defined by an anthropogenic, ecological calamity that is spiraling further out of control with each passing day, Morin persuasively argues that we must transcend our myopic, anthropocentric frame of reference and adopt a more ecocentric view of communication.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Revisiting Japan’s Fictional Gardens: An
           Ecocritical Reading of Nature Imagery in Contemporary Architectural Essays

    • Authors: Catarina Vitorino
      First page: 58
      Abstract: This paper inspects editorial production in the field of Japanese contemporary architecture, screening the contents of essays written during the last decade (2007–2010) by four selected authors in which a recurring interplay with nature-related subjects is noticeable. This analysis highlights the diversity and intrinsic individual originality of these books by relating their specific approach with the overall work themes of each architect and discussing the existence of a common ground among them. While investigating their philosophical and conceptual standpoints, the paper also attempts to contextualize these discourses both within the larger context of architectural theory—particularly of early postmodern ecological approaches—sustainable construction, and in the milieu of Japan, where an imprinted notion of harmonious coexistence between nature and culture has long been mystified from abroad and from within. By assessing its motives and influence and finally questioning the existence of a paradox amidst the multiple existing forms of paraenvironmental architecture, it is discussed whether these narratives and practices manage to communicate ecoliteracy with their audience. Architecture’s inherent traits as a visual, perceptive, and cognitive discipline to reflect contemporary environmental conflicts and encourage paradigm change are also highlighted.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 59: An Eco-Critical Analysis of Climate Change
           and the Unthinkable in Amitav Ghosh’s Fiction and Non-Fiction

    • Authors: Suhasini Vincent
      First page: 59
      Abstract: In his work of non-fiction The Great Derangement (2016), Amitav Ghosh examines the inability of the present generation to grasp the scale of climate change in the spheres of Literature, History and Politics. The central premise in this work of non-fiction is based on the statement that literature will one day be accused of its complicity with the great derangement and of blind acceptance of the climate crisis. This paper will study how Ghosh’s fictional and non-fictional enterprise voices a call for more imaginative and cultural forms of fiction that articulate resistance against materialism that can destroy our planet. We shall see how Ghosh’s fictional enterprise falls within the sphere of postcolonial eco-criticism that considers the phenomenon of “material eco-criticism”. I shall also reveal Ghosh’s environmental advocacy in his works of fiction, The Ibis Trilogy and The Hungry Tide. This paper will analyze how the Ibis Trilogy is not just an exploration of the particularly heinous operation of imperial power leading up to the Opium Wars but is also an eco-critical narrative that articulates resistance against the violence of climate change. A study of The Hungry Tide will also reveal how this hybrid literary text is both a historical account of the Marichjhapi massacre and a plea to preserve the eco-system of our time. I shall thus consider the challenges that climate change poses for the postcolonial writer and the evolving grid of literary forms that shape the narrative imagination.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Neither Sensible, Nor Moderate: Revisiting
           the Antigone

    • Authors: Theodore Koulouris
      First page: 60
      Abstract: In this essay, I try to conceptualise meaningful forms of resistance in the present by revisiting Sophocles’ Antigone, one of the most important texts of western literary tradition. I focus on Antigone’s compulsion to act against Creon’s decree, which turns Sophocles’ heroine into a metonymical expression of (civil) disobedience, sacrifice, and mourning—to my mind, the constitutive elements of effective resistant subjectivity. In my analysis, Antigone’s resistance is transformed from a deeply private, filial duty, essentially seen as heroic, into a rich, public expression of collectivity and solidarity. To illustrate this, I capilatise on Judith Butler’s designation of Antigone firmly in the political, and then proceed to make use of Bonnie Honig’s recalibration of her disobedience as one which transcends solitary action to express the collective, democratic feeling of a whole polis. I then mobilise a three-pronged theoretical framework. Firstly, I analyse the clash of Antigone with Creon through the prism of Jacques Derrida’s work on law and violence. Secondly, I explore the possibility of a biopolitical framing as developed by Giorgio Agamben since, at its core, the clash in the play is enacted within the parameters of a vitiated habeas corpus: from the moment Antigone confesses her misdeed she is treated by Creon, the sovereign, as a non-human—as an animal or, indeed, a miasma. In the last section of this essay, I mobilise the work of Howard Caygill with a view to analysing what I perceive as three discernible yet concatenated stages (or aspects) in the formation of Antigone’s resistant subjectivity: her full awareness of what it means to disobey (hence to resist), her acceptance of sacrifice, and, finally, her commitment to the political potentialities of mourning.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Carpe Diem: Love, Resistance to Authority,
           and the Necessity of Choice in Andrew Marvell and Elizabeth Cary

    • Authors: Michael Bryson
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The theme of love as resistance to authority is the centerpiece of a two-millennia-long tradition in Western poetry known as carpe diem (a phrase credited to the Latin poet Horace). This essay begins by analyzing one of the most famous later examples of carpe diem in English poetry (Andrew Marvell’s 1681 “To His Coy Mistress”), emphasizing the carpe diem ethos’ potential to illustrate both the consequences and the necessity of individual erotic choice—especially female choice—in defiance of authority. It then uses carpe diem’s anti-authoritarian perspective to understand the contrast between the ambivalence of Mariam—torn between a tepid disobedience and regretful loyalty to her husband Herod—and the wholly defiant choices of Salome in Elizabeth Cary’s earlier drama, The Tragedy of Mariam from 1613.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Nomadic Life on the Steppes: An Ecocinematic
           Exploration of Tulpan and Cave of the Yellow Dog

    • Authors: Deborah Adelman
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Ecocinema: (1) analyzes the role of visual media in responding to the environmental crisis; (2) has explicit interest in environmental justice; (3) includes a variety of genres and modes of production; (4) informs viewers of issues of ecological importance; (5) promotes ecocentric ways of framing the world; and (6) has an activist agenda. Ecocinema examines films produced by/with historically marginalized communities underrepresented in film. Using Ecocinema and Fourth Cinema (Barclay), I examined two fictional films featuring nomadic peoples of the Central Asian Steppes whose culture and ecologically low impact lifestyle are threatened and fragile in the global order. Tulpan, a 2008 Kazakh/Russian production by Kazakh-born Sergei Dvortsevoy, tells the story of Asa, a young Kazakh man, returning to his home in the Steppes to establish himself as a shepherd with his own flock. Tulpan features the long takes and slow pacing needed to “retrain the perception” of viewers. Tulpan’s biocentric focus on landscape and animals is equivalent to the focus on the human, reconsidering the human/non-human relationship. Tulpan shows one young man dreaming of a meaningful life rooted in his cultural traditions, struggling to locate himself within contemporary economic, political and cultural realities in a region underrepresented in world film. The Cave of the Yellow Dog, 2005, by Mongolian filmmaker Byambasuren Davaa, tells the story of a Mongolian nomadic family. Davaa, similar to Dvortsevoy, works in documentary and fictional films, uses professional and non-professional actors, and relies on Western funding to make her films. These two films suggest that non-commercial fictional films are an important vehicle for addressing global environmental concerns as they present stories of marginalized people and help us imagine solutions to global problems.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7020062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 2: Folk Drama

    • Authors: Lisa Gabbert
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This article provides an overview of how scholars in the discipline of folklore have approached the topic of folk drama over the past one hundred fifty years, arguing that, despite relative neglect in the field, folk drama is a valuable window into culture and should be taken more seriously. I begin with nineteenth century ideas about ritual drama that stem from Sir James Frazer. I then discuss the growing emphasis on context that emerged in the twentieth century, including overlaps between ideas about folk drama, performance, and theories of play more generally. I conclude by providing a brief overview of the relationship between play, drama, and politics, and suggest that contemporary digital realms, such as YouTube, offer a new ecology of folk drama that brings traditional questions about actors, context, play-frames, audience and transformation to the fore in new and interesting ways.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 3: Humanities for the Environment 2018
           Report—Ways to Here, Ways Forward

    • Authors: Poul Holm, Ruth Brennan
      First page: 3
      Abstract: We introduce the Humanities for the Environment (HfE) 2018 Report. The HfE 2018 Report consists of two publications; of which this Special Issue is one. The other is a special section of the journal Global and Planetary Change 156 (2017); 112–175. While the Humanities special issue may primarily reach our colleagues in the humanities disciplines; the Global and Planetary Change section reaches out to that journal’s primary readership of earth scientists. The HfE 2018 Report provides examples of how humanities research reveals and influences human capacity to perceive and cope with environmental change. We hope that the HFE 2018 Report will help change perceptions of what it is we do as humanities scholars.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010003
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 4: “Time is Production”: Process-Art, and
           Aesthetic Time in Paul Valéry’s Cahiers

    • Authors: Berkay Ustun
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This paper offers a contextually inflected discussion of the extensive investment Paul Valéry makes in going beyond formal understandings of time. To this end it takes the processual work Cahiers as both a repository of insights, and a practical motor of conceptual creation for new time concepts through its very writing and production. In a speculative engagement with Valérian concepts such as phase, prolongation as well as reconfigured relations between central categorical pairings such as quality-quantity and succession-simultaneity, the paper situates Valéry’s writings on time with regard to their ambiguously critical attitude to a given image of philosophy as a form of verbal exercise ungrounded in empirical observation of local systems.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 5: Nuclear Avenue: “Cyclonic Development”,
           Abandonment, and Relations in Uranium City, Canada

    • Authors: Robert Boschman, Bill Bunn
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The rise and abandonment of Uranium City constitutes an environmental history yet to be fully evaluated by humanities scholars. 1982 marks the withdrawal of the Eldorado Corporation from the town and the shuttering of its uranium mines. The population declined to approximately 50 from its pre-1982 population of about 4000. This article is inspired by findings from the authors’ initial field visit. As Uranium City is accessible only by air or by winter roads across Lake Athabasca, the goal of the visit in May 2017 was to gather information and questions through photographic assessment and through communication and interviews with residents. This paper in part argues that the cyclonic development metaphor used to describe single-commodity communities naturalizes environmental damage and obscures a more complicated history involving human agency. Apart from the former mines that garner remedial funding and action, the town site of Uranium City is also of environmental concern. Its derelict suburbs and landfill, we also argue, could benefit from assessment, funding, and remediation. Canada’s 2015 Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report provides a way forward in healing this region, in part by listening to the voices of those most affected by environmental impacts caused not by a metaphorical cyclone but by other humans’ decisions. As descendants of European immigrants to Turtle Island (the Indigenous term referring to North America), the authors are also subjects of the very terms—cyclonic development, abandonment, remediation—used to describe the history of the land itself: in this case, a mining town in the far northern boreal forests and Precambrian Shield.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 6: Folklore and the Hebrew Bible:
           Interdisciplinary Engagement and New Directions

    • Authors: Susan Niditch
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This essay explores the rich interactions between the fields of folklore and biblical studies over the course of the 20th century until the present. The essay argues for the continued relevance of folklore and related fields to an appreciation of ancient Israelite cultures and their artistic inventions. It concludes with several case studies that underscore the fruitful realizations that emerge from this sort of interdisciplinary humanistic work.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 7: The Irony of ‘African Solidarity’ in
           Ousmane Sembene’s Mandabi

    • Authors: Samuel Zadi
      First page: 7
      Abstract: This paper deals with the misuse of the African traditional communal mode of living in modernizing post-colonial African societies that have been transformed by Western capitalism and individualism. In the impoverished community portrayed in Ousmane Sembene’s film Mandabi, this traditional communal mode of living, to which people refer in colloquial term as “African solidarity”, is ironically used as a means to meet one’s individualistic and selfish needs at the expense of others; thus, turning it into a factor of social and economic regression. Mandabi also unveils and suggests a new form of hybrid and productive solidarity that fits better African post-colonial nations that have been affected by Western capitalism and individualism.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 8: Post-Dictatorship Documentary in Chile:
           Conversations with Three Second-Generation Film Directors

    • Authors: Antonio Traverso
      First page: 8
      Abstract: No other medium has rejected the restorative narrative of Chile’s democratic state’s memory discourse as vigorously as documentary cinema. After the several democratic governments that succeeded the civic-military dictatorial alliance that ruled this nation uninterruptedly between 1973 and 1990, documentary films have resisted monumental versions of historical memory by confronting the ambivalent nuances of the traumatic legacy of the dictatorship. Chilean documentarians have investigated, uncovered, and depicted the dictatorial state’s crimes, while offering testimonial space to survivors, and have also interrogated the perspectives of the dictatorship’s supporters, collaborators, and perpetrators while wrestling with an open dialectic of confrontational and reconciliatory gestures. More recently, this interest has intensified and combined with what is often described as a “boom” in second-generation personal-narration memory films. The present article includes the author’s conversations with the directors of three recent Chilean second-generation documentaries that explore the perspectives of former secret service collaborators: Adrian Goycoolea’s ¡Viva Chile Mierda! [Long Live Chile, Damn It!] (2014), Andrés Lübbert’s El color del camaleón [The Color of the Chameleon] (2017), and Lissette Orozco’s El pacto de Adriana [Adriana’s Pact] (2017).
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Folklore and Sociolinguistics

    • Authors: John Holmes McDowell
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Folklore and sociolinguistics exist in a symbiotic relationship; more than that, at points—in the ethnography of communication and in ethnopoetics, for example—they overlap and become indistinguishable. As part of a reaction to the formal rigor and social detachment of Chomsky’s theoretical linguistics, sociolinguistics emerges in the mid-twentieth century to assess the role of language in social life. Folklorists join the cause and bring to it a commitment to in-depth ethnography and a longstanding engagement with artistic communication. In this essay, I trace key phases in the development of this interdisciplinary movement, revolutionary in its reorientation of language study to the messy but fascinating realm of speech usage. I offer the concept of performative efficacy, the notion that expressive culture performances have the capacity to shape attitude and action and thereby transform perceived realities, as a means of capturing the continuing promise of a sociolinguistically informed folkloristics.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 10: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Humanities
           in 2017

    • Authors: Humanities Editorial Office
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Humanities maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Seeing What’s Right in Front of Us: The
           Bone Clocks, Climate Change, and Human Attention

    • Authors: Elizabeth Callaway
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The scales on which climate change acts make it notoriously difficult to represent in artistic and cultural works. By modeling the encounter with climate as one characterized by distraction, David Mitchell’s novel The Bone Clocks proposes that the difficulty in portraying climate change arises not from displaced effects and protracted timescales but a failure of attention. The book both describes and enacts the way more traditionally dramatic stories distract from climate connections right in front of our eyes, revealing, in the end, that the real story was climate all along.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 12: Iconography for the Age of Social Media

    • Authors: Raymond Drainville
      First page: 12
      Abstract: An iconic photograph of Ieshia Evans’ arrest at a Black Lives Matter protest went viral on Twitter. Twitter users’ textual and visual responses to it appear to show recurring patterns in the ways users interpret photographs. Aby Warburg recognized a similar process in the history of art, referring to the afterlife of images. Evaluating these responses with an updated form of iconography sheds light upon this tangled afterlife across multiple media. Users’ response patterns suggest new ways to develop iconological interpretations, offering clues to a systematic use of iconography as a methodology for social media research.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 13: The Encounter with the Identical Other: The
           Literary Double as a Manifestation of Failure in Self-Constitution

    • Authors: Michal Tal
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Literary pieces featuring the double depict an encounter between the protagonist and another person, who is her identical other. Therefore they face various difficulties related to a threat cast on their unique identity, and this encounter challenges their process of self-definition. Martin Buber sees the existence of the other as essential for the occurrence of self-constitution within an individual. He maintains that any person needs another person to obtain confirmation of what she is and is born equipped with the ability to confirm her fellow-person in the same way (1959). However, as the other encountered by a doppelgänger protagonist is not truly “other”, the latter might confront a difficulty in the different stages of Buber’s self-constitution process. This paper seeks to shed light on the inter- and intra-personal relationships depicted in literary pieces focusing on the theme of the double, such as The Double (Dostoyevsky [1846] 1997; Saramago 2002), Despair (1965), and Too Much Nina (Orbach 2011), emphasizing the limitations cast by the encounter with the identical other on the protagonist’s self-constitution, as put forward by Buber.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Myth

    • Authors: Frog
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Myth has become a fundamental frame of reference for Western thinking. This paper explores the term and category “myth” from the perspective of folklore studies, with concern for the use of myth as a tool in research. The ways in which myth has been used in both academic and popular discourses are discussed. These are viewed in a historical perspective against the backdrop of the origins of the modern term. Attention is given to how historical patterns of use have encoded “myth” with evaluative stance-taking, building an opposition of “us” versus “them” into myth as something “other people” have, in contrast to us, who know better. Discussion then turns to approaching myth as a type of story. The consequences of such a definition are explored in terms of what it does or does not include; the question of whether, as has often been supposed, myth is a text-type genre, is also considered. Discussion advances to aesthetic evaluation at the root of modern discussions of myth and how this background informs the inclination to identify myth as a type of story on the one hand while inhibiting the extension of the concept to, for example, historical events or theories about the world or its origins, on the other. Approaching myth as a type of modeling system is briefly reviewed—an approach that can be coupled to viewing myth as a type of story. Finally, discussion turns to the more recent trend of approaching mythology through mythic discourse, and the consequences as well as the benefits of such an approach for understanding myth in society or religion. There are many different ways to define myth. The present article explores how different approaches are linked to one another and have been shaped over time, how our definition of myth and the way we frame the concept shape our thinking, and can, in remarkably subtle ways, inhibit the reflexive application of the concept as a tool to better understand ourselves.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 15: The Challenge of Folklore to Medieval

    • Authors: John Lindow
      First page: 15
      Abstract: When folklore began to emerge as a valid expression of a people during the early stages of national romanticism, it did so alongside texts and artifacts from the Middle Ages. The fields of folklore and medieval studies were hardly to be distinguished at that time, and it was only as folklore began to develop its own methodology (actually analogous to medieval textual studies) during the nineteenth century that the fields were distinguished. During the 1970s, however, folklore adopted a wholly new paradigm (the “performance turn”), regarding folklore as process rather than static artifact. It is here that folklore offers a challenge for medieval studies, namely to understand better the oral background to all medieval materials and the cultural competence that underlay their uses.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Out of Time, Out of Space, Out of Species:
           Deictic Displacement of the Exiled Self in Hans Sahl’s “Der
           Maulwurf” (The Mole)

    • Authors: Carla Swiderski
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In Hans Sahl’s poem “Der Maulwurf” (The Mole), only the title gives an indication about the speaker’s species affiliation. The speaker of the poem suggests that he was transformed from a human into an animal. This metamorphosis is not only physical, but also seems to have had an impact on the position of the speaker regarding his position in time and space. In this article, I analyze temporal, spatial, and physiological changes in the poem, and I argue that they are indicative of a theme of displacement that is embodied in animal existence in the text. Specifically, these shifts construct an exiled lyric identity whose transformation from human to animal creates an experience of displacement on every pane of existence.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 17: The Challenge of American Folklore to the

    • Authors: Simon J. Bronner
      First page: 17
      Abstract: American Folklore consists of traditional knowledge and cultural practices engaged by inhabitants of the United States below Canada and above Mexico. American folklorists were influenced by nineteenth-century European humanistic scholarship that identified in traditional stories, songs, and speech among lower class peasants an artistic quality and claim to cultural nationalism. The United States, however, appeared to lack a peasant class and shared racial and ethnic stock associated in European perceptions with the production of folklore. The United States was a relatively young nation, compared to the ancient legacies of European kingdoms, and geographically the country’s boundaries had moved since its inception to include an assortment of landscapes and peoples. Popularly, folklore in the United States is rhetorically used to refer to the veracity, and significance, of cultural knowledge in an uncertain, rapidly changing, individualistic society. It frequently refers to the expressions of this knowledge in story, song, speech, custom, and craft as meaningful for what it conveys and enacts about tradition in a future-oriented country. The essay provides the argument that folklore studies in the United States challenge Euro-centered humanistic legacies by emphasizing patterns associated with the American experience that are (1) democratic, (2) vernacular, and (3) incipient.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 18: A Year in the Life of a Public Park:
           Route-Making, Vigilance and Sampling Time Whilst Walking

    • Authors: Wayne Medford
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper offers a systematic, experimental, walking methodology to facilitate an ethnography of a major urban public park undertaken in the north-east of England in 2009–10. Ethnography puts the body in-place, placing the senses within the streams of life to be observed through experience; walking is one means of so doing. Walking traditions have frequently been used to observe, record and analyse the minutiae of urban life, with recent qualitative methodologies seeking to use walking to underpin ethnographies. Walking must negotiate the specificity of place and time, with all walks taking place in a real-world of materially, spatially, complex, vital and rhythmic landscapes. My aim was to systematically capture some of these patterns. Ethnographies typically use sustained field-based immersion; yet, some research utilises sampling strategies to guide observational procedures. Combining these methodologies allowed me to develop a methodology with three objectives: to create a series of routes to be followed; routes which allowed me to both scan and closely observe distant, and proximate, surroundings; and to construct a diurnal, weekly “sampling” frame, which allowed me to “immerse” myself within the park’s life through repeatedly walking these routes, building up a picture of everyday life, whilst (hopefully) capturing unscheduled events.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Children and Trauma: Unexpected Resistance
           and Justice in Film and Drawings

    • Authors: Cheri Robinson
      First page: 19
      Abstract: This transnational study examines representations of and by children—whether literal wounds, psychological ones, or wounds transmitted through drawings—that manifest their capacity for unexpected resistance and justice. It considers the Mexican-American director Guillermo del Toro’s use of hauntings and wounds to explore violence during the 1936–1939 Spanish Civil War in the film El espinazo del diablo [The Devil’s Backbone] (2001) and its intersections on strategic and theoretical levels with the traumatic in archival children’s drawings produced during the 1976–1983 Argentine military dictatorship. The drawings illustrate the violence perpetrated against the child artists’ families and were produced in exile for the human rights organization COSOFAM. Utilizing diverse theories from film and trauma studies, among others, this article analyzes key scenes in El espinazo exhibiting commonalities with representations of traumatic violence in the children’s drawings, revealing that, in fiction and in fact, a strategic “showing” of the traumatic wound is designed to remind others of the imperative to intervene in situations of extreme violence, to appeal to/for justice, and to effectively testify from the inside.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 20: ‘You think your writing belongs to
           you'’: Intertextuality in Contemporary Jewish Post-Holocaust

    • Authors: Kirstin Gwyer
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This article examines a sub-category of recent Jewish post-Holocaust fiction that engages with the absent memory of the persecution its authors did not personally witness through the medium of intertextuality, but with intertextual recourse not to testimonial writing but to literature only unwittingly or retrospectively shadowed by the Holocaust. It will be proposed that this practice of intertextuality constitutes a response to the post-Holocaust Jewish author’s ‘anxiety of influence’ that, in the wake of the first generation’s experience of atrocity, their own life story and literature will always appear derivative. With reference to works by four such post-Holocaust authors, Jonathan Safran Foer’s Tree of Codes (2010), Maxim Biller’s Im Kopf von Bruno Schulz (2013), Helen Maryles Shankman’s In the Land of Armadillos (2016), and Nicole Krauss’s The History of Love (2005) and Forest Dark (2017), all of which engage intertextually with Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz, it will be suggested that these authors are looking to return to a Kristevan practice of intertextuality after the predominantly citational recourse to antecedent material that has often characterized post-Holocaust literature. In the process, they also succeed in troubling recently popular conceptualizations of ‘postmemory’ literature as the ‘belated’ and ‘evacuated’ recipient of encrypted traumatic content inherited from the first generation that it must now seek either to preserve or to work through vicariously.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 21: Reading Derrida in Tehran: Between an Open
           Door and an Empty Sofreh

    • Authors: Elisabeth Yarbakhsh
      First page: 21
      Abstract: We can only begin to grasp hospitality as we enact it and yet, in the moment of enactment, hospitality eludes us. In this paper I look at the enactment of hospitality in the relationship between Iranian citizen-hosts and Afghan refugee-guests in the Islamic Republic of Iran, in order to reflect more broadly on questions of Derridean hospitality. Moving between the theoretical and the ethnographic, I forcefully bring to bear on a situation of protracted refugee displacement, a notion of hospitality that has, to a large extent, remained abstract and unanchored. The scalar shifts between the domestic and the national (so integral to Derrida’s theorising of the hospitable), are here reproduced in an examination of Iranian hospitality that simultaneously considers the juridical framework of asylum in the Islamic Republic and the domestic or homely expression of welcome, that occurs in the ushering of the guest over the threshold and the sharing of food around the sofreh.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 22: What Lies in the Gutter of a Traumatic Past:
           Infancia clandestina [Clandestine Childhood], Animated Comics, and the
           Representation of Violence

    • Authors: María Ghiggia
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This essay focuses on the animated comics in the representation of violence in Benjamín Ávila’s Infancia clandestina [Clandestine Childhood] (2011), a cinematic narrative of the seventies in Argentina. Drawing from animation and comic studies and adopting a formalist approach, the following analysis proposes ways in which the remediation of comics in the film underscores traumatic aspects of state terror and revolutionary violence and the problematic intergenerational transmission of memory of the 1970s–1980s militancy. Specifically, I comment on how the switch from photographic film to the animated frames draws attention to the blank space between the frames and thereby hints at the traumatic in what is left out, repressed, or silenced. While the gaps resist the forward motion of closure, paradoxically they allow for the suture of the frames/fragments in a postmemorial narrative, although not without a trace of the traumatic. Finally, extending the concept of the gutter as a liminal space, I analyze the connection between the animated scenes representing violence and the testimonial and documentary elements placed in the closing titles, a connection that asserts the autobiographical component of the film and enacts the conflictive character of intergenerational memory.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 23: Further Reading

    • Authors: Nick Montfort
      First page: 23
      Abstract: It is clear that the contributions in this volume are not only insightful, but also wide-ranging, reaching into popular culture and across different media forms and practices.[...]
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Can the Fetus Speak': Revolutionary
           Wombs, Body Politics, and Feminist Philosophy

    • Authors: Nicole Barco
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Ariel Dorfman’s La última canción de Manuel Sendero (The Last Song of Manuel Sendero) and Carlos Fuentes’s Cristóbal Nonato (Christopher Unborn) explore conception, gestation, and birth as points of origin for humanity and citizenship alike by giving voice to life/lives that cannot speak for itself/themselves. Dorfman and Fuentes employ metafictional techniques and postmodern aesthetics, interrogate history in order to express their political commitments to rights, resistance, and revolution, and link textual production and human reproduction in order to posit national futures. Reading these works through a feminist lens, I weigh the poetic and philosophical implications of telling a story from the point of view of gametic, embryonic, or fetal, but decidedly male, narrators against the symbolic exclusion and silencing of mothers that bear them. When rendered a biopolitical frontier in symbolic or actual terms, the pregnant body poses particular philosophical quandaries that require further investigation. As such, this essay weaves together discourses on poetics, philosophy, and politics in order to uncover the perplexity that the pregnant mother, as figure for the nation, induces.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 25: The Self without Character: Melville’s The
           Confidence-Man and Murakami’s Kafka on the Shore

    • Authors: Jason Wirth
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This essay explores the gap between character, that is, the habitual persona or mask that can be consistently recognized and represented, and the underlying self. If the self is conflated with the persona, the latter rings hollow. If the self emerges in the gap between itself and its persona, it is no longer hollow but rather empty in the positive Mahāyāna Buddha Dharma sense of śūnyatā (lack of a self-same self or identity). This essay disambiguates the hollowness of character from the emptiness of the self through a study of Melville’s The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade (1857) and Murakami’s contemporary classic, Kafka on the Shore (2002). Bringing Murakami into proximity with Melville not only highlights the originality of both but also affords a co-illuminating confrontation that brings Buddhist and Shinto insights to bear upon the problem of the self.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Transferential Memory Spaces in Gisela
           Heidenreich’s Das endlose Jahr

    • Authors: Amila Becirbegovic
      First page: 26
      Abstract: What does it mean to be German after Hitler and National Socialism' Gisela Heidenreich’s memoir Das endlose Jahr: Die langsame Entdeckung der eigenen Biographie—ein Lebensborn Schicksal (The Endless Year: The Slow Discovery of My Own Biography—A Lebensborn Destiny, 2002), highlights the dependence on physical markers and monuments in understanding one’s place in history. Heidenreich discovers her origin as a Lebensborn child through family secrets, but it is not until she traverses the landscape of her past that she truly begins to understand her place within history. I argue that, along with family photographs and narratives, places play an integral role in the identity process through the metaphor of the palimpsest. In Heidenreich’s memoir, the German notion of Heimat reveals itself as a process, rather than a static and immovable space. Das endlose Jahr addresses the interplay between memory, places, and space through Heidenreich’s complex relationship with her mother, and her ambivalent sense of belonging through the palimpsest markers that remain. At its core, Das endlose Jahr is a memoir about the search for Heimat in all the wrong places.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Reconsidering the Image of the Blue Bra:
           Photography, Conflict, and Cultural Memory in the 2011–2013 Egyptian

    • Authors: Dalia Linssen
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The role of photography and social media have been seen as pivotal to the Egyptian political uprisings of 2011 where icons of the revolution circulated widely, helped galvanize protesters, and documented key events against the backdrop of a rapidly shifting discourse of photojournalism. By examining the citizen-produced image of the ‘girl with the blue’ in its capacity to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of the revolution, to mediate complex social issues of gender and political visibility, and to contribute to the development of cultural memory role through contemporary street art, this essay uncovers the significance of an icon in the digital age.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
  • Humanities, Vol. 7, Pages 28: The Humanistic Value of Proverbs in
           Sociopolitical Discourse

    • Authors: Wolfgang Mieder
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Proverbs as strategic signs for recurrent situations have long played a significant communicative role in political rhetoric. Folk proverbs as well as Bible proverbs appear as expressions of wisdom and common sense, adding authority and didacticism to the multifaceted aspects of sociopolitical discourse. Some proverbs like the golden rule “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” (Matthew 7:12) or “It takes a village to raise a child” can function as traditional leitmotifs while other well-known proverbs might be changed into anti-proverbs to express innovative insights. The moralistic, evaluative, and argumentative employment of proverbs can be seen in the letters, speeches and writings by Lord Chesterfield, Abigail Adams, and Benjamin Franklin in the eighteenth century. Fredrick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, Elisabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony stand out in their use of proverbs for civil and women’s rights during the nineteenth century. This effective preoccupation with proverbs for sociopolitical improvements can also be observed in the impressive oratory of Martin Luther King, Barack Obama, Hillary Rodham Clinton, and Bernie Sanders in the modern age. The ubiquitous proverbs underscore various political messages and add metaphorical as well as folkloric expressiveness to the worldview that social reformers and politicians wish to communicate. As commonly held beliefs the proverbs clearly bring humanistic values to political communications as they argue for an improved world order.
      Citation: Humanities
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/h7010028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2018)
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