Égypte - Monde arabe
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-7273 - ISSN (Online) 1110-5097
Published by Revues.org [396 journals]
- Damiette, une ville prospère d’Égypte au péril de la
Authors: Marc Lavergne
Abstract: Cet article se donne pour objectif d’éclairer l’évolution économique et sociale d’une ville moyenne d’Égypte, à travers les mutations récentes de son système de production. Il est possible que ce nouvel angle d’approche de la sphère du politique égyptien, à travers ses applications concrètes, ouvre des pistes pour comprendre le fonctionnement ou le dysfonctionnement de l’État, et les frustrations sociales qui en découlent et mettent en cause la légitimité du pouvoir, au point de se cristalliser, parfois, dans le recours à l’action subversive. Le choix de Damiette n’est pas indifférent : la ville est certes, par sa localisation et son histoire, une exception. Damiette est en effet, depuis l’Antiquité une ville ouverte sur le monde ; elle a en outre bénéficié de ressources locales variées, tirées de l’agriculture et de la pêche. La combinaison de ces facteurs a engendré une citadinité affirmée, autour de producteurs et de commerçants qui ont pu jouir d’une autonomie relative, mais exce...
- Hakamat and Peacebuilding 2004-2012
Authors: Nadine Rea Intisar Adam
Abstract: Five years after the secession of South Sudan from Sudan, peace building activities in Sudan have not yet come to an end and violent conflicts in Sudan have not stopped – rather, they intensified – while international attention has shifted to other regions of the world. Darfur remains a crisis region, and the southern, eastern, and western edges of the Sudan are still conflict-ridden, even increasingly so. This article looks into how peacebuilding projects engaged Hakamat – female singers and poets – to spread the message of peace between 2004 and 2012. This international involvement was influenced by two things: the image of Hakamat among the riverine North Sudanese and the international peacebuilding community as `troublemakers´; and the fact that they contradict the image of women as passive victims of violent conflicts. It was for these reasons that the Hakamat became a `hot topic´ with organizations working in Darfur. Although the issue was not prominently reported in the newsp...
- Le Grand Khartoum sans Sudistes ?
Authors: Alice Franck
Abstract: Cet article offre une lecture urbaine et foncière des retours au Sud de résidents « sudistes » de l’agglomération de Khartoum qui font suite à l’Indépendance du Sud. A partir d’un travail de terrain consacré aux transactions immobilières qui affectent le quartier populaire de Mussalass, dans la proche périphérie d’Omdurman, il s’agit d’analyser les stratégies familiales foncières et locatives des populations directement concernées par la séparation du Soudan du Sud de manière à saisir les recompositions à l’œuvre dans les quartiers populaires de la capitale soudanaise, ainsi qu’au sein de la population Sudiste du Grand Khartoum.
Authors: Alice Franck, Elena Vezzadini
Abstract: Le Soudan du Sud a accédé officiellement à l’indépendance le 9 juillet 2011, à l’issue d’un processus de paix acté en janvier 2005 et conformément au résultat du référendum national de janvier 2011. Cet événement historique, qui devait clore une page de l’histoire conflictuelle entre les régions et communautés soudanaises du Nord et du Sud, a constitué un réel défi en termes d’adaptation, de résilience et d’innovation pour l’ensemble de la société. Dans ce contexte inédit de naissance d’un nouveau territoire national, et de remodelage des configurations spatiales et politiques existantes, le Soudan du Sud a été très logiquement au centre des attentions des acteurs politiques, des chercheurs ou encore des bailleurs humanitaires… Pourtant, le Nord a été aussi profondément affecté par cette séparation. Le propos de ce numéro est d’éclairer certaines de ces transformations : la refonte des anciennes structures bureaucratiques et la création de nouvelles, ou encore la diminution drastique...
- Love at the Time of Independence
Authors: Elena Vezzadini
Abstract: This article explores the way in which romantic love and companionate marriage were debated in Sudan at the time of independence by analysing a small corpus of love stories published in a special column of the left-wing newspaper al-Saraha. I start by contextualizing the left-wing press at a time of tremendous political, economic, and social change in Sudan as a key to understanding the pedagogical mission of al-Saraha. I then describe the various opinions on companionate marriage discussed in these texts and analyse them structurally, highlighting both common patterns and systematic omissions. Finally, I seek to interpret the spread of the ideal of romantic love in Sudan in relation to the theory of the rise of individualism as a sign of a modern State, and to show that the solution these texts proposed was not to disconnect individuals from society, but to reform society as a whole so as to harmonize collective and individual wills.
- David E. Mills, Dividing the Nile. Egypt’s Economic Nationalists in
the Sudan, 1918-56
Authors: Elena Vezzadini
Abstract: The “Unity of the Nile Valley” (wahda wadi al-nil), which was the term that evoked a popular political ideology that was widespread in Sudan and Egypt until the 1950s, described a peculiar form of nationalism. Its ideologues did not postulate that Sudan and Egypt were one nation, but that they were two halves that had been unjustly separated but were destined to be reunited. For the Egyptians, sharing the river Nile made Sudan a natural appendix of Egypt, while for many Sudanese, Egypt was a “blood brother” with which they shared a set of fundamental national traits. This book makes an important contribution to the abundant literature on Sudanese and Egyptian relations in the twentieth century in two ways: first, because it covers a facet– its economic aspects – that has been systematically neglected in studies on nationalism, and second, because it goes much further than any previous research – at least any that is known to this reviewer – on how Egyptian-Sudanese economic relations...
- Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul Assal and François Ireton, Multidimensional
Change in Sudan (1989-2011): Reshaping livelihoods, conflicts and
Authors: Idriss El Hassan
Abstract: This is an essential book to read as a background and springboard for delving into an extremely critical and complex period of modern Sudan (1989-2011), a period that is characterized by major, rapid, and seemingly lasting impact events and changes in the social, political, economic, and cultural fields in the country. The reviewed book poses critical queries at the levels of theory, methodology, ethnography, and empirical reality in an attempt to fathom the present socio-economic dynamics of change in Sudan. Though the book is specifically about the Sudanese case, it is quite clear that it positions itself as a part of a very broad and ambitious project on how we can document, analyse, interpret, and finally understand the processes of social change in general. The book’s excellent introduction captures all these issues eloquently, and informs the readers about how the articles fit into the designated framework of the book. The introduction points out that the important changes in ...
- Thriving on chaos: the war in Darfur and the transformation of the
Authors: Anne-Laure Mahé
Abstract: Authoritarian regimes are often considered to be prone to civil wars because they are fundamentally based on principles of marginalization and coercion. Recent literature on authoritarian resiliency tends nonetheless to consider that regimes that are plagued with violence cannot endure over the long term. Building on an analysis of Omar al-Bashir’s regime in Sudan, this paper explores the relationship between civil wars and the winning coalition, the group of people whose loyalty is necessary for the survival of the regime. It studies the way in which the war in Darfur has been fought, and demonstrates how this has led to changes within the coalition that may contribute to the entrenchment of authoritarianism in Sudan.
- Mover and Shaker: Grace Mary Crowfoot, Intimate Conversations, and
Authors: Heather J. Sharkey
Abstract: The Rationale for This Study
At the fourth annual conference of African studies in France (4èmes Rencontres des Études Africaines en France [REAF]), which revolved around the broad theme of “Cosmopolitical Africas” (Afriques cosmopolitiques), several panellists considered “traces of intimacy” in African history regarding individuals and their modes of oral, literary, and artistic expression. Drawing inspiration from many scholars, including Stoler (2002), who wrote about “cross-racial” relationships in Southeast Asian colonial systems,Goffman (1959), whose sociological analysis of face-to-face “interaction rituals” is now a classic, and more, their aim was to consider close, and often idiosyncratic, exchanges –intimate encounters–in making history. I presented this study on Sudan at this conference and in this context, focusing on Grace Mary Crowfoot, a British polymath and superwoman of her era, and assessing the impact of her informal interactions with Sudanese men and women during...
- The citizenship dilemma of Southern Sudanese communities in the
post-secession era in Khartoum
Authors: Mohamed A. G. Bakhit
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the processes of citizenship changes for South Sudanese citizens who were previously formally considered to be Sudanese citizens and have remained residents of Khartoum’s shantytowns since South Sudan gained independence in 2011.
The paper argues that there are currently two types of citizenship for the Southern Sudanese communities in Khartoum – legal citizenship and ‘community’ citizenship – and that this has allowed considerable numbers of people who do not enjoy legal citizenship to survive and support their social lives through community citizenship. ‘Community citizenship’ status differs from legal citizenship in terms of its dynamics and evolution, by which it is negotiated, constructed, and communicated through the interactions of Southern Sudanese people on a daily basis.
To what extent does this community citizenship give these people what they need, and to what degree can it protect them? These are the questions this paper will attemp...