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HUMANITIES (262 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 71 of 71 Journals sorted alphabetically
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Academica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adeptus     Open Access  
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Historical Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AFRREV IJAH : An International Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access  
Aldébaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Amaltea. Revista de mitocrítica     Open Access  
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Review of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anabases     Open Access  
Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Antik Tanulmányok     Full-text available via subscription  
Antipode     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Arbutus Review     Open Access  
Argumentation et analyse du discours     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ars & Humanitas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Asia Europe Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Behaviour & Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behemoth     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bereavement Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cahiers de praxématique     Open Access  
Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Child Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Choreographic Practices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chronicle of Philanthropy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Claroscuro     Open Access  
Co-herencia     Open Access  
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cogent Arts & Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloquia Humanistica     Open Access  
Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Congenital Anomalies     Hybrid Journal  
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access  
Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cornish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Critical Arts : South-North Cultural and Media Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Culturas     Open Access  
Culture, Theory and Critique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Daedalus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Dandelion : Postgraduate Arts Journal & Research Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Death Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Digital Humanities Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Diogenes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Doct-Us Journal     Open Access  
e-Hum : Revista das Áreas de Humanidade do Centro Universitário de Belo Horizonte     Open Access  
Early Modern Culture Online     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Égypte - Monde arabe     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eighteenth-Century Fiction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Éire-Ireland     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Études arméniennes contemporaines     Open Access  
Études canadiennes / Canadian Studies     Open Access  
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Social Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Expositions     Full-text available via subscription  
Fronteras : Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
German Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
German Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Germanic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globalizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gothic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Habitat International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Heritage & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Hopscotch: A Cultural Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Human Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Human Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
humanidades     Open Access  
Humanitaire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Hungarian Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hungarian Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Inkanyiso : Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inter Faculty     Open Access  
Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Heritage Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Humanities of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Listening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of the Classical Tradition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access  
Jangwa Pana     Open Access  
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal de la Société des Américanistes     Open Access  
Journal des africanistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Cultural Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal for General Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal for Learning Through the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal for New Generation Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Semitics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of African American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of African Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Elections     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arts & Communities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Cultural Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Data Mining and Digital Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Developing Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Family Theory & Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Interactive Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intercultural Communication Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Interdisciplinary History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Labor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Modern Greek Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Modern Jewish Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Semantics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Visual Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
La lettre du Collège de France     Open Access  
La Revue pour l’histoire du CNRS     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lagos Notes and Records     Full-text available via subscription  
Language and Intercultural Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Language Resources and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Law and Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Law, Culture and the Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Legal Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Legon Journal of the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access  
Literary and Linguistic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe     Full-text available via subscription  
Lwati : A Journal of Contemporary Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Medieval Encounters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Médiévales     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Memory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Mens : revue d'histoire intellectuelle et culturelle     Full-text available via subscription  
Messages, Sages and Ages     Open Access  
Mind and Matter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Modern Italy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mouseion     Open Access  
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Museum International Edition Francaise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
National Academy Science Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nationalities Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natures Sciences Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription  
Neophilologus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
New German Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
New West Indian Guide     Open Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Northeast African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie     Hybrid Journal  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Palgrave Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Patrimônio e Memória     Open Access  
Personal Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Personnel Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Platform Papers     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Journal for Semitics
  [5 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1013-8471
   Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [223 journals]
  • Journal for Semitics: Exploring the limits of ambiguity in biblical poetry
           : interpreting elliptical structures : Adrianus van Selms Memorial Lecture
    • Authors: Miller-Naude; Cynthia L.
      Abstract: The terse and compact language of biblical poetry often lends itself to structural ambiguity, instances in which more than one underlying structure can be assigned to a string of words. In this paper, I explore ambiguous structures in biblical poetry that involve ellipsis. By ellipsis I refer to cases in which words or phrases are missing from the surface structure but are understood in the deep structure. For example, in Job 30:20 the surface structure of the Hebrew can be translated as the NRSV does: "I cry to you and you do not answer me; I stand, and you merely look at me". However, some exegetes understand that the negative particle has been elided before the last verb and translate as the NJPS does: "I cry out to You, but You do not answer me; I wait, but You do not consider me". There are three possible ways to understand the Hebrew of this verse: (1) the negative cannot be elided and the last clause is unambiguously positive; (2) the negative particle must be understood as elided and the last clause is unambiguously negative; or (3) the structure is genuinely ambiguous and may be understood as either positive or negative. In this paper I provide an overview of what is known about ellipsis in Biblical Hebrew, drawing upon previous research (especially Miller 2003, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c, 2008). I will seek first to provide the principles of ellipsis, in general, and ellipsis of the negative particles לא and אל, in particular, so that it is possible to identify those cases of ellipsis that are truly ambiguous as opposed to those cases of ellipsis which must be interpreted as having only one structural interpretation.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:21Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The significance of form and sound in teaching and
           reading Hebrew narratives
    • Authors: Lubbe; J.C.
      Abstract: Language may be described as a system of communication of which form, sound and meaning are three fundamental features. However, Biblical Hebrew is apparently still taught in many centres (at least in South Africa) with a minimum use of sound and the sort of attention paid to morphological minutiae that does not do justice to Hebrew as a system of communication. In the practical arena of scholarship, objections have been levelled at the lack of attention to form and sound in Bible translation (Everett Fox) and to the lack of attention to form at sentence level (i.e., syntax) in understanding Hebrew narrative (Robert Longacre). In the light of this unsatisfactory situation, it seems necessary to change the approach to teaching Biblical Hebrew and to ensure the development of a linguistic sensitivity to these fundamentals. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach, Phyllis Trible's treatment of the story of Jephthah and his daughter is examined.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:20Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Gezer Calendar revisited : what does yrhw mean?
    • Authors: Van Rensburg; J.F.J.
      Abstract: The Gezer calendar, dated to the tenth century B.C.E., is one of the oldest known Canaanite inscriptions. Since its discovery in 1908 numerous articles have been published. Many questions regarding this renowned agricultural calendar, however, remain problematic. These include aspects such as its genre and function, as well as the translation of certain terms. Amongst these terms are the words yrh ("month ...") and yrhw which introduce the indication of each new agricultural period. The present article particularly focuses on the function and rendering of yrhw. Using the interpretations suggested by Josef Tropper in his article "Nominativ Dual *yarihau im Gezer-Kalender" (1993:228-231) as point of departure, each option is linguistically reconsidered, correlations between them indentified, and their possible translations in English, within context of the calendar, investigated. Finally, attention is given to the processes of reasoning by different scholars, as well as the factors that play a role in their deliberations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:19Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The interpretation and translation of the Biblical
           Hebrew quantifier kol
    • Authors: Naude; Jacobus A.
      Abstract: Traditional accounts of the quantifier kol in Biblical Hebrew do not describe or explain its status, syntactic distribution or scope adequately. Current research within both formal and functional approaches to universal quantifiers is of interest to Biblical Hebrew grammar. Both approaches use formal representations to describe quantifiers. These representations exhibit some of the properties commonly associated with the representations of standard logical systems, namely, the fact that an operator is associated with (or operates across) a scope / domain / range. In this paper it is argued that kol similarly exhibits the properties of an operator. Definiteness and number mark the scope of kol. Depending on the scope of kol, it can be interpreted or translated as an all or each type quantifier in English. The aim of the paper is to describe where a certain interpretation of kol should be expected and how the various uses of kol should be translated into English and Afrikaans.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:18Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Significant versus symbolic universes : sorting out
           the terminology
    • Authors: Van Dyk; Peet J.
      Abstract: It is argued that scholars of religion and anthropology should prevent falling victim to what is termed "the fallacy of assumed cosmology" by rather using different terms to describe phenomena within a magico-mythical cosmology (significant universe) as opposed to terms in a modern scientific cosmology (symbolic universe). The author therefore suggests that the terms signs, idols, images, icons, rituals, spells / enchantments, curses, blessings, customs, taboos and the concept of sacredness are restricted to a magico-mythical cosmology. In contrast terms such as symbol, statue, picture, ceremony, formula, habit, convention and respect should be reserved for the modern scientific cosmology and be avoided when describing phenomena from magico-mythical contexts such as the Old Testament, ancient texts and pre-scientific cultures.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:17Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Hebrew Bible in Nietzsche's philosophy of
    • Authors: Gericke; J.
      Abstract: While many texts discuss Nietzsche's philosophy of religion and his relationship to Judaism there is little research exclusively devoted to his views, use of, and allusions to the Hebrew Bible. In this article concerned with reception history, the author seeks to provide an introduction to the topic by looking at Nietzsche's general assessment of the Hebrew Bible, his understanding of the history of Israelite religion and his allusions to a number of biblical texts. Based on these observations it is argued that though of relatively marginal concern overall, the Hebrew Bible played a definite albeit varied and complex role in Nietzsche's philosophy of religion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:16Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Patriarchs and their Pentateuchal references :
           outlines of a new understanding
    • Authors: Lombaard; C.
      Abstract: The patriarchs of ancient Israel are often regarded as among the founding figures from whom the Yahwistic faith sprang. The Pentateuchal texts on Abram/Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel are not only extensive, but are also widely regarded as foundational to understanding the historical beginnings and the early faith impulses of later Israel-Judah. However, in this paper some outlines, based on the author's recently published research, are drawn which recast historically the patriarchs and the texts that refer to them. Maneuvering between the two by now conventional understandings of the patriarchal texts as either relatively ancient and hence reasonably reliable regarding the patriarchs or relatively young and hence unreliable with respect to the patriarchs, the present proposal takes a different view. It takes seriously the fact that the first extra-Pentateuchal occurrences of patriarchal references are comparatively late (Jacob: Hosea 12, slightly pre-725; Isaac: Amos 7, post-722; Abraham: Deutero-Isaiah, post-586). The Pentateuchal narratives on these three figures are not to be placed far apart from these occurrences in the corpus propheticum. The patriarchs and their Pentateuchal texts are thus not separated by centuries. Yet, the relationship between patriarch and text cannot for this reason be assumed to be simple. Quite the contrary: the historical-critical problems usually identified and then ascribed to the vagaries of the centuries have now to be sought at least as much in the figures these texts refer to. The textualised patriarchs are namely composite figures, reflecting historically separate, yet in some ways related antecedent personae.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:16Z
  • Journal for Semitics: An Interpretation of
           כםות צינים
           כםות צינים
           in Genesis 20:16
    • Authors: Kotze; Z.
      Abstract: Near the end of the story of Sarah's adventure in the house of Abimelech in Genesis 20, Abimelech is said to give Abraham a thousand pieces of silver. Addressing Sarah, Abimelech claims that the silver will be a "covering of eyes" (כםות צינים) for her and all that is with her. The majority of interpreters have chosen a theological paradigm for the interpretation of Abimelech's actions and words. The gift is seen as an expiatory offering, absolving Sarah from the guilt of having been taken in as a concubine while she was in fact married to Abraham. This article attempts an alternative interpretation of the metaphor against the background of the ancient Near Eastern belief in the evil eye and the prophylactic qualities of silver. It is suggested that Abimelech may have believed the silver to have protective value against the baleful look of others.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:15Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Maneuvering multi-dimensional language data : a code
           shuttle with XML and database-operation functions
    • Authors: Kroeze; J.H., Bothma, T.J.D., Matthee, M.C.
      Abstract: The article focuses on the conversion of linguistic data between an XML data cube and a three-dimensional array structure in Visual Basic 6 in order to eventually facilitate data access and manipulation. After a short consideration of the structures of the VB6 and XML databanks, conversion between the two is discussed ("round-tripping"), as well as essential database functions (create, read, update and delete) that may be performed on the linguistic data cube. The suggested software tool, therefore, acts as a "code shuttle" (a programme that moves data to and from two different storage structures) with added elementary database functionalities. Linguistic data from the Hebrew text of Genesis 1:1-2:3 is used to demonstrate the data operations.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:14Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Mesopotamian gardens and the cuneiform sign
           bára/bara2 (barag)
    • Authors: Vermaak; P.S.
      Abstract: There seems to be a nexus between "gardens" and "bodies of water" in ancient Mesopotamia. The latest authoritative Sumerian dictionary (Sjöberg 1984:134-148) does not consider the possibility of bára/bara2 (barag) as having the meaning of a "body of water" or a demarcated "water pool" in the cuneiform literature. However, when the cuneiform sign"s contextual meaning in relevant Sumerian literary material and the probable original meaning of the cuneiform sign is reconsidered, this additional meaning of the cuneiform sign bára/bara2 (barag) becomes highly probable.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:13Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The rising of dawn - an investigation of the spatial
           and religious background of "dawn" in Psalm 139:7-12
    • Authors: Sutton; L.
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the meaning of shahar ( ) in Psalm 139:7-12. A comparison will be made between Psalm 139:7-12 in the Old Testament and mythological imagery in the ancient Near East to get a better understanding of the religious background of shahar in this text. The investigation of the religious background of "dawn" helps to understand how the negative feeling of the one praying in Psalm 139 is transformed into positive imagery. Like the flying deity Shahar, YHWH is not bound to one realm, emphasizing that one cannot hide from YHWH. The same image can be used for the one praying in Psalm 139. Using spatial orientation in Psalm 139:7-12, the idea is further illustrated by concluding that God is present in all the realms. Ancient Near Eastern vertical and horizontal orientation will be utilised to illustrate how the focus in the psalm falls upon YHWH's omnipresence.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:45:13Z
  • Journal for Semitics: "At my mother's knee" : the Psalms, the
           production of cultural memory and the cross generational transfer of the
    • Authors: Du Toit; J.S.
      Abstract: In his 1998 SBL presidential address Patrick Miller reiterated the centrality of the emergence and maintenance of cultural memory achieved in Deuteronomy by means of the "regular rehearsal of the law in communal ritual and family life" and the "constant recollection of the story in its own preservation and rereading" as means of establishing identity for the religious collective in exile. Psalms, Miller argues, achieves the same by means of the anticipated regularity of the "spontaneous" recitation of songs. This article considers the integral status of Psalms as agency in the transfer of religious identity for modern religious collectives. It furthermore considers the central meaning of Psalms for the instruction of the religious collective in a family context, given its apparent absence in children's Bibles (the most common modern vehicles of instruction and representative of modern Bible interpretation in child acceptable format). In this context the configuration of story titles and the characterisation of the figure of David are foregrounded and contextualised by means of Miller's intimation of exilic ties between the function of Deuteronomy and Psalms within thetextual tradition.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:56Z
  • Journal for Semitics: A practical approach to methodological
           considerations in interpreting the Bible for children
    • Authors: Evans; A.
      Abstract: This article describes a practical approach to exploring a well-recognized pitfall in interpreting the Bible for young children in a post-modern context: the cognitive gap between interpreter and child. A real-life situation concerning a child with a congenital defect (which poses the question of theodicy) was used as an introduction to the pericope in John 9 in which Jesus heals a man born blind. In this pilot study, two multilingual booklets were designed, in English, Afrikaans and isiXhosa. These were individually read in isiXhosa by mothers who were literate in English or Afrikaans, to their own five-year old children selected from an isiXhosa-speaking crèche. After the reading, the children were asked three set questions designed to assess their understanding of the story. The mothers were specifically asked to allow the child to comment, but not to explain anything to the child during the reading or questioning. Afterwards, each mother explained to the researcher what she understood her child's response to be. The sessions, which lasted about ten minutes, were recorded by means of a digital audio recorder and a video camera. The trial was repeated in an Afrikaans-speaking context. Preliminary results and considerations of adjustment to the methodological approach, to the booklets, and to the Bible story, are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:55Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Possible analogies for imagining folk-philosophies
           in ancient Israelite religion
    • Authors: Gericke; J.W.
      Abstract: In this paper, the author seeks to facilitate the process of imagining the presence of philosophical assumptions in the religious language of the Hebrew Bible. After a meta-philosophical deconstruction of the concept of "philosophy" to blur the lines with folk-philosophies, the article seeks to dispute the scholarly consensus alleging the complete absence of philosophical data in ancient Israelite religion. This is done by way of several possible analogies for conceiving of philosophy in Yahwism(s), e.g., historical approaches in Jewish Philosophy, Area Studies in ancient Near Eastern philosophy, the methodological debates in African Philosophy, recent research on philosophy in literature and a century of philosophical approaches to the study of myth.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:54Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The African queen : Queen of Sheba
    • Authors: Adam; D.T., Eghubare, E.F.
      Abstract: This article investigates the Queen of Sheba in the biblical, Islamic, Arabian and Yoruba traditions in order to ascertain who she was and what contribution she has made, particularly in the biblical record and what a difference she has made among women in the sphere of life. Unlike some Euro-American scholars who are trying to de-Africanize the biblical text, this paper tries to establish the African presence in the Old Testament. It maintains that the Africanness of the Queen of Sheba according to biblical, Ethiopian, Arabian and Yoruba (Nigerian) traditions should not be doubted.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:53Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Akhenaten : a woman, a eunuch, a victim of pathology
           or a religious representation?
    • Authors: Marston; J.E.
      Abstract: The images of Akhenaten continue to incite debate largely because those from the Amarna period represent an extraordinary break from traditional royal portrayals. Contrary to established conventions, Akhenaten is depicted with an elongated skull, a prominent jaw, heavy lips and eyelids, a thin neck, slender waist, a distended stomach, large thighs and thin lower legs. Numerous theories have been advanced to explain this apparent schism, many of which are premised upon the images as portraits of the king. Early theories suggested Akhenaten was a woman, a eunuch or the result of generations of incestuous royal marriages. Later theorists proffered medical pathologies such as lipodystrophy, hydrocephaly, hyperpituitarism, eunuchoidism, Klinefelter's Syndrome, Froehlich's Syndrome, and most recently Marfan's Syndrome. The preferred view is that these images were not intended to be interpreted as portraits, but rather as artistic devices to reflect the new religious status of the king and queen, who were objects of worship in their own right.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:52Z
  • Journal for Semitics: On שבית
           ,שרב and
           שבות in Psalm 85
    • Authors: Loader; James Alfred
      Abstract: This article considers a case of the appeal to etymology and the allied logic in Erich Zenger's commentary on the Psalms, often regarded as a flagship of present-day Psalms exegesis. The derivation of the words שבית ,שרב and שבות in Psalm 85:2 and the use to which this is put to achieve semantic results is examined with a view to the claim that the genre and meaning of the whole psalm are determined by this question. Issues of Ketiv and Qere and the semantics of the association of the two words are discussed in the light of other instances where the expression occurs. In the context of the author's rhetoric and inconsistencies between two almost simultaneous commentaries on the Psalms the question is posed as to the reason for pressing an argument in this way. After briefly comparing a small-scale but innovative reading of the psalm, it is respectfully submitted that even commentaries in the process of being canonised show fluctuations in methodological soundness.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:51Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The influence of the spirit world on African
           leadership : a contextual reading of 1 Samuel 28:1-25
    • Authors: Mavinga; J.N.
      Abstract: In the modern period, the spirit world has become a way for some Africans to be protected or successful in life. Utilising a contextual reading of 1 Samuel 28:1-25, the primary aim of this essay will be to point out how the spirits influence African leadership. This will be achieved in three related stages. First, a brief account of how African leadership relates to the spirit world will be presented. Second, a narrative description of 1 Samuel 28:1-25 will be discussed. Third, an appropriative reading of 1 Samuel 28:1-25 will be provided which will attempt to show how an African leadership can assume its civic responsibilities.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:50Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The so-called "Mesopotamian law codes".
           What's in a name?
    • Authors: Claassens; S.J.
      Abstract: It is a collective human endeavor, when studying something, to give the subject or object a name and therefore consciously and / or unconsciously attach a specific meaning to it. The generic classification of the so-called cuneiform collections of Mesopotamia as "law codes" encompasses a certain meaning, which may obscure and confuse the recent debate concerning whether these collections are an authentic source of Mesopotamian law traditions regarding which different theories had already developed. The cuneiform collections of ancient Mesopotamia are not a singular body of authoritative law but consist of different meanings extended over long periods with social, political, economic and ethnic differences. The majority of scholars persist in the idea, established by Scheil, of naming the cuneiform collections a codex or law code, and of interpreting these cuneiform collections as a codex or law code in today's context and meaning. Until new interpretations of cuneiform texts and artefacts regarding daily and legal activities have been completed, which can prove that these cuneiform collections are an authentic legal source and a codex in terms of today's meaning, the interpretation of the collections on the legal issues of ancient Mesopotamians must be applied with caution and studied together with the greater corpus of cuneiform texts and artefacts, and the branding of the cuneiform collections as a codex reconsidered.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:50Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Susanna : a story of dangerous spaces
    • Authors: Nolte; S.P., Jordaan, P.J.
      Abstract: Commentators on the Septuagint normally use what can be called ''mainline'' or ''traditional'' methods to interpret texts. This article follows a novel methodological approach that is based on recent developments in cognitive linguistics. More specifically, it utilises the theory and method underlying the concept ''embodied cognition'' or ''embodiment''. It is argued that people interpret their environment, their lives, and life's vicissitudes unconsciously by using their bodies as point of reference. The underlying worldview and power structures inherent in the Susanna narrative are explored from this theoretical viewpoint. This theoretical approach is combined with insights from other disciplines such as cultural anthropology and social scientific readings of texts to further enhance the exposition of the worldview underlying the narrative. It is shown that cognitive linguistics adds value to existing interpretations of the narrative.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:49Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The demarcation of the first periscope of Joel in
           Hebrew and Greek manuscripts : a comparison of ancient and modern scholars
    • Authors: Scharneck; R.
      Abstract: The first pericope division of the book of Joel is problematic. There is a great deal of disagreement among scholars and Bible translators about where the text should be demarcated. Consequently, this article attempts to answer questions such as: What is the most acceptable division for the book of Joel? What are the implications of the different divisions on the understanding of the text? This article refers to the divisions of Joel made in various ancient manuscripts. This is done in an attempt to establish how the ancients interpreted the text. When that understanding is established, it is compared to the understanding of modern scholars. It is believed that this might lead to new insights regarding the interpretation of, especially, the first chapter of the book of Joel.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:48Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The manifestation of justice in ancient Egyptian
           law, with specific reference to The tale of the eloquent peasant
    • Authors: Van Blerk; N.J.
      Abstract: Justice (mα'αt) governed the lives of ancient Egyptians because they saw no difference between divine and human justice. In this article I focus on whether law and a functional legal system (hpw) existed in ancient Egypt. I explore the importance of law for the ancient Egyptian society, which had a high reputation for justice, and discuss what the ancient Egyptians understood by the terms hp/hpw. Law was essential for them and was not merely earthly hpw, but also the divine law, M3't. I indicate that there is abundant evidence of written law in Egypt and they must have had a functional legal system. I discuss terms used in the Tale of the eloquent peasant relating to justice and law and evaluate it as a source of information about ancient Egyptian law and the principles of law and justice in that era. This important work has a strong legal background and shows the interaction between law and justice.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:47Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The ethnic tensions between the Edomites and the
           Israelites in Obadiah
    • Authors: Farisani; E.B.
      Abstract: This paper examines the ethnic tensions between the Edomites and the Israelites in the book of Obadiah. The paper has three related parts. The first discusses the authorship and date of the book of Obadiah. Secondly, the paper analyses the ethnic animosity between the Israelites and the Edomites. Lastly, the paper examines how theology in general, and the Obadiah text in particular, could assist or hinder us in addressing the ethnic problem in Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:47Z
  • Journal for Semitics: From Murex shells to purple cloth
    • Authors: Smith; A.M.
      Abstract: The Phoenicians produced, procured, transported and sold many different articles, but their most famous and most expensive product no doubt was purple dyed cloth, also called Tyrian or royal purple. In this article an overview will be given of the production methods of this precious commodity, various types of purple cloth, purple thread for embroidery and blue-purple cords in tassels on clothing as well as other uses for Murex shells. Also, attention will be given to the ecological impact of the use of Murex molluscs on the water quality of the Mediterranean Sea.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:46Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Al-Tawbah 9:24, Lexical comments by ten consecutive
           classical interpreters (tenth to sixteenth century)
    • Authors: Suna; M., Dockrat, M.A.E., van Rensburg, J.F.J.
      Abstract: An elucidation is given of selected lexical comments with regard to the Qur'anic verse al-Tawbah 9:24 in the exegetical contribution of al-Ṭabarī, al-Tha'labī, al-Wāḥidī, al-Baghawī, al-Zamakhsharī, Fakhr al-Dīn al- Razī, al-Qurṭubī, al-Baiḍawī, Ibn Kathīr and Abūu al-Su 'ūd. Attention is paid to the kind of information supplied, and possible motivations underlying lexical explanations. General tendencies are pointed out. Words or phrases that are focused upon are 'ashīratu-kum, iqtaraftumū-hā, tijārah, kasāda-hā, masākin and tardawna-hā.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:45Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The "guessing" qatal. The Biblical Hebrew
           suffix conjugation as a manifestation of the evidentiary trajectory
    • Authors: Andrason; A.
      Abstract: This paper aims at demonstrating that the Biblical Hebrew (BH) qatal may provide inferential nuances compatible with the evidential semantic domain. First, the reader is familiarized with the general notions concerning resultative and evidential expressions viewed from the panchronic perspective: in particular, their grammatical and functional development (three prototypical evolutionary scenarios labeled ''anterior, simultaneous and evidential paths'') is discussed. Next, employing the panchronic methodology, the author hypothesizes that being recently defined as a prototypical resultative diachrony, the BH suffix conjugation should provide uses which - besides corresponding to the anterior and simultaneous paths - would also reflect the third evolutionary track commonly followed by resultative constructions, i.e., the evidential trajectory, and in particular, that it would offer inferential readings. Afterward, he verifies the hypothesis, analyzing various examples where the qatal seems to display evidential force. This analysis indicates that the formation may provide inferential value corresponding to the category of a guessing perfect: a previously performed action is not witnessed by the enunciator himself but is assumed to have happened because of the available physical or generally assumed evidence and because of the application of human deduction mechanisms. Finally, the author demonstrates that languages which possess more regular overt evidential categories (Turkish and Icelandic) frequently employ them in order to translate specific examples where the qatal has inferential force. All of this demonstrates that the semantic potential of the BH suffix conjugation is compatible with the evidential - in particular inferential - domain which in turn positively verifies the panchronically posited hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:45Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The pronunciation of the hidden ﻦ - an
           evaluation of the Ilāhābādī and
           classical views
    • Authors: Patel; B.A.S., Dockrat, M.A.E.
      Abstract: This paper discusses the debates around the pronunciation of ikhfa - إﺨﻐاﻋ. To this end, the common assertion that the correct way of pronouncing the ikhfa is "in-between إﻈﻬار and إﺪﻏاﻣ" will be interrogated. How is the ﻣﺨﻔاﻩ ﻦ to be pronounced? Is the pronounced from its makhraj (placeof articulation) or not? Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833/1429) speaks of ݍ ﻋﻣﻞ ﻠﻠﺴان (no function of the tongue). What is meant by "no function of the tongue"? These are some of the questions that will be addressed here. The interpretation of ݍ ﻋﻣﻞ ﻠﻠﺴان has been a subject of debate in the Indo-Pak sub-continent and this study contributes to that debate.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:44Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Plumbing the depths : sidelights and strategies of
           the medieval Christian Arab translators
    • Authors: Monferrer-Sala; J.P.
      Abstract: The inquiry of the present paper has a twofold purpose: firstly, our aim is to explore some aspects of the textual, exegetical and lexical interest of some Arabic translations done by Christian Arab authors. Secondly, the aim is to examine those translation techniques and strategies exhibited in the texts used in this study through an analysis based on the narrative fragment provided by Ex 2:11-22, and the various ways in which this material can be used by Old Testament textual criticism.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06T11:41:43Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Benefits of a principled analysis of Biblical Hebrew
    • Authors: Lyle; Kristopher
      Abstract: As Biblical Hebrew studies have become more attuned to the explanatory power accompanying modern linguistic theory, some theoretical pitfalls of standard lexicons have become more apparent. Specifically within the realm of lexicology, it has been demonstrated that current frameworks, such as cognitive semantics, can bring a great deal of theoretical muscle into semantic endeavours. This article applies a methodology based on such advances and shows the benefits of a principled analysis of BH prepositions, with עִם and אֵח as examples. In the end, a replicable investigation is rendered that carefully explores the semantic potential and network of each lexeme.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:23Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Rethinking Yoruba culture in the light of Yoruba
    • Authors: Agai; Jock Matthew
      Abstract: There are existing traditions which teach that the Yorubas and their culture originate independently or from Egypt or from Israel or from Mecca or even from Etruscan sources. Many scholars and contemporary Yorubas have accepted the Egyptian thesis for Yoruba origins as true because there are many aspects of the culture of the ancient Egyptians that are similar to Yoruba culture. The question arises: what are the cultural aspects that are similar or different between the Yorubas and the Egyptians, or the Israelites, or the Arabians, or the Etruscans? How can the study of these foreign cultures influence the study for the search for Yoruba origins? This research is a study of how certain foreign and ancient cultures are different or similar to Yoruba culture. The main purpose of this research is to explain how the search for the origins of Yoruba culture can contribute to challenging contemporary researchers to begin to look into West Africa and not Egypt or the ancient Near East in the search for Yoruba origin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:22Z
  • Journal for Semitics: An appraisal of source material for the study of
           Targum minor prophets
    • Authors: Lier; Gudrun, Van Zyl, Anna Fransina
      Abstract: The study of Aramaic Bible translations (Targumim) continues to be a valuable source of information, not only for uncovering the history of biblical interpretation but also for providing insights for the study of linguistics and translation techniques. In comparison with work done on the Pentateuchal Targumim and Targum Former Prophets, research on the individual books of Targum Minor Prophets has been scant. By providing an overview of selected source material this review seeks (i) to provide incentives for more focussed studies in the field of Targum Minor Prophets and (ii) to motivate new integrated research approaches which are now made possible with the assistance of highly developed software programmes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:20Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Translation shifts and the improvement of Bible
           translations : the case of Ruth 4:13 in the Setswana versions
    • Authors: Berman; Sidney
      Abstract: This article proposes that the starting point for the improvement of Bible translations in sub-Saharan Africa is the identification and analysis of translation shifts. Shifts are differences between the corresponding portions of a translation and the source text. The concept of shifts is motivated by the observation that differences between a Bible translation and its source text are inevitable. This article demonstrates that the demarcation and examination of a shift can greatly enlighten the hypothesis of circumstances that caused the shift. Consequently, the translator or reviewer can be alert to the influence of similar circumstances contemporarily and find possible ways to eliminate or modify the shift. The article uses the text of Ruth 4:13 from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. The three Setswana Bibles that are compared with Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia are the translations by Robert Moffat (1857), Alfred Wookey (1908) and Bible Society of South Africa (1970). After examination and comparison, the article hypothesizes on the circumstances that may have caused the shifts of Ruth 4:13. It ends with suggestions for translating the verse without causing shifts.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:20Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Joshua 24 : some literary and theological remarks
    • Authors: Wildenboer; Johan
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to discuss the role and function of Joshua 24 in the current Pentateuch/Hexateuch/Enneateuch debate. Although Joshua 24 presents several textual issues, the emphasis of the article is to augment the role of Joshua 24 as an inclusive text, with the aim of uniting Judeans and Samaritans in the Persian era by emphasising loyalty to the Torah. The article highlights several shared traditions between Judeans and Samaritans in Joshua 24. This approach leads to the conclusion that Joshua 24 was probably written to replace Joshua 23, a Deuteronomistic text with an exclusive stance towards the other nations.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:19Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Agsa, vrou van Otniël
    • Authors: Le Roux; Magdel
      Abstract: Die literêre uitbeelding van die verhale in die boek Rigters weerspieël 'n korporatiewe eenheid van stamme of sibbes waarin individue ook 'n prominente rol speel. Binne die stammeorganisasie kan verwag word dat dié individue tipiese "ideale liggame" - heel manlike Israeliete - sal wees. In teenstelling daarmee speel "nie-ideale liggame" soos vroue, "gestremdes" en "heidene" 'n toonaangewende rol in die boek. Die naasmekaarstelling van "ideale" en "nie-ideale liggame" in die boek skep beide spanning en ironie, veral wanneer die "nie-ideale vroulike liggaam" inisiatief neem terwyl die ideale manlike Israeliet dikwels 'n bedreiging skep wat op skade of skande uitloop (bv Rgt 14-16). Die rol wat Agsa in Rigters 1:11-15 speel is 'n illustrasie van 'n "teenkultuur-retoriek" as verskuilde polemiek (vgl ook 4-5; 9:50; 11:37-40; 13).
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:17Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Hidden messages from teeth of the past revealed;
           palaeodontology in the Holy Land
    • Authors: Greeff; Casper
      Abstract: To scholars who are concerned with biblical archaeology, the Late Bronze Age (LBA)-Early Iron Age (EIA) transition in the Southern Levant indicates the emergence of a new ethnicity. This would suggest an invasion of foreigners (i.e., Israelites) into the land of Canaan, in particular their settlement in the highlands surrounding Jerusalem. The settlement of the foreigners has long since raised the question whether it can be proven that the settlers were indeed Israelites. Variation in population would be explained by the existence of population differences in phenetic relationships, gene flow and genetic drift between different sites that are known to belong to this period (Ullinger et al. 2005:466). Various research models have been employed to validate the differences, if any. The utilisation of dental non-metrical traits is suggested to secure a scientific answer to prove or controvert this theory. This paper will highlight the morphological traits and precursors that teeth possess. It will also evaluate certain unswerving and/or anomalous morphological characteristics (traits) and the odontometrics of permanent teeth. This will suggest methods that can measure phenetic relationships between different communities, ethnic groups, nationalities and even racial physiognomies, as well as migratory trends. And lastly, the age at death of an individual can be determined from the development and/or extent of wear of their teeth.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:16Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Schadenfreude in the Tanak
    • Authors: Pinker; Aron
      Abstract: There is no commandment in the Torah forbidding schadenfreude per se. The general impression seems to be that the Tanak views schadenfreude negatively. Actually, the attitude of the Tanak to schadenfreude is rather ambiguous. In personal interactions schadenfreude is censured, but in some significant many-to-many situations and salvific cases schadenfreude is tolerated and perhaps encouraged. This study attempts to delineate the parameters that characterise the position of the Tanak on schadenfreude.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:15Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Another look at the function of
           in prophetic literature
    • Authors: Lier; Gudrun, Muller, Lucas Cornelis
      Abstract: In this article some of the previous considerations on the meaning and function of מַשָֺּׂא in the prophetic literature of the Hebrew Bible are critically considered. The function of מַשָֺּׂא is then reviewed by systematically analysing its use in various textual contexts throughout the Hebrew Bible to identify how this term was applied in popular speech, literature, and translation. An attempt is made to categorise מַשָֺּׂא into specific semantic domains in order to determine how the various ways in which מַשָֺּׂא is used in prophetic literature compare with each other. It is suggested that the מַשָֺּׂא-label not only came to be used as an emphatic marker but also functioned as a literary device, more specifically a mnemonic bridge, to bind maśśā'-prophecies together intertextually to form a virtual corpus.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:13Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Susanna - framing the minds and views of people
    • Authors: De Bruyn; Joseph Jacobus
      Abstract: This article analyses the story of Susanna by combining features of editorial and narrative critique as well as new insights on body and space in the field of linguistics. Furthermore, it is postulated that the Susanna narrative must be read in a reciprocal relationship to the entire Greek Daniel. Accordingly, it is put forward that the narrative of Susanna is utilised as part of a larger narrative structure. With this larger Greek Daniel narrative, a new worldview is created that opposes the worldviews of the ancient Near Eastern people. According to the new worldview the God of Israel is not bound to religious or cultural perceptions. Different bodily and spatial features are exploited to construct this new worldview. The story of Susanna is utilised as technique to influence the reader in rethinking their worldviews.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:11Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The semantic relationship between
           in Jeremiah 32 and Ruth 4
    • Authors: Van Aarde; Tim
      Abstract: In almost every case except late usage the word group יְרֻשָֺּׁה and its derivatives refer to taking possession of the object named. The word group נַחֲלָה and its derivatives refer to the inheritance of household property. In late usage יְרֻשָֺּׁה and נַחֲלָה share the semantic field of inheritance and have been considered to be synonymous. This interpretation is critically re-evaluated. The word group נַחֲלָה has the meaning of permanent possession of the inheritance of the family's wealth and יְרֻשָֺּׁה the possession of property involving acquisition without stipulating the mode of acquisition. The continued possession of the land, יְרֻשָֺּׁה, was dependent upon the covenant relationship with Yahweh and although the possession of the land could be lost the land was allotted as a permanent possession, נַחֲלָה, to the household clans and tribes of Israel and restoration made on the grounds of the rights of inheritance. Land was the centre of the social system of Israel and it was the abuse of the rights associated with land that reflected a breakdown in the covenant relationship with Yahweh. A comparison is made of Jeremiah 32 and Ruth 4 in terms of the relation of יְרֻשָֺּׁה and נַחֲלָה to kinsman-redemption which was central to Israel's social system.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:10Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Canonical narrative schema : a key to understanding
           the victory discourse in Judith : a Greimassian contribution
    • Authors: Hobyane; Risimati
      Abstract: A historical critical approach to narratives has contributed significantly to the analysis of ancient narratives. However, this approach has somehow unfairly ignored some other critical aspects of many ancient narratives. Judith is no exception to this claim. While appreciating the contribution of historical critical approaches to Judith (i.e., the questions on authorship, historical and geographical inconsistencies etc.), the aim of this article is to go beyond the historicity of Judith, and reveal some narrative techniques employed by the author in creating a woman protagonist who is destined to achieve the unthinkable in the minds of the men of her contemporary world. This article explores these narrative techniques by employing the narrative analysis, narrative syntax in particular, of the Greimassian approach to narrative texts. Subsequently, this article contributes to research of Judith by revealing the path that Judith followed on her quest to save the Jewish religion from extinction during the Second Temple period.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:08Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Leaders and times of crisis : Jeremiah 5:1-6 a case
           in point
    • Authors: Wessels; Wilhelm J.
      Abstract: The book of Jeremiah reflects a particular period in the history of Judah, certain theological perspectives and a particular portrayal of the prophet Jeremiah. Covenant theology played a major role in Jeremiah's view of life and determined his expectations of leaders and ordinary people. He placed high value on justice and trustworthiness, and people who did not adhere to this would in his view bear the consequences of disobedience to Yahweh's moral demands and unfaithfulness. The prophet expected those in positions of leadership to adhere to certain ethical obligations as is clear from most of the nouns which appear in Jeremiah 5:1-6. This article argues that crisis situations in history affect leaders' communication, attitudes and responses. Leaders' worldviews and ideologies play a definitive role in their responses to crises. Jeremiah's religious views are reflected in his criticism and demands of people in his society. This is also true as seen from the way the people and leaders in Judah responded to the prophet's proclamation. Jeremiah 5:1-6 emphasises that knowledge and accountability are expected of leaders at all times, but in particular during unstable political times.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:05Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Himyarite kingdom on the eve of and after the
           Ethiopian dominance in the sixth century A.D. in the Martyrdom of St.
           Arethas and his companions and in the Acts of St. Gregentius
    • Authors: Christides; V.
      Abstract: Based on two important hagiographical works written in Greek, the Martyrdom of St. Arethas and his companions and the Acts of St. Gregentius, the aim of this paper is to continue my preliminary study of the countries around the Red Sea in pre-Islamic times, especially in the sixth century A.D. The most valuable information in the Martyrdom concerns the hazardous voyage of the Ethiopian army from the main port of Adulis across the Red Sea to South Arabia (ca 525 A.D.). This work illuminates aspects of that expedition which do not appear in such detail in any other source. In addition, it describes the ports of the Red Sea in the sixth century, i.e., Klysma, Bereniki, Adulis, etc., corroborating the finds of archaeology and epigraphy. Concerning the controversial Acts of St. Gregentius, the present author has tried to discuss only some vital information reflecting the social structure of South Arabia during its Ethiopian occupation until the Persian conquest of it (ca 525 A.D. - ca 570 A.D.), and attempted to trace the origin of just one law (the treatment of animals) among those supposedly imposed on the Himyarites by the so-called archbishop Gregentius.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:02Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Bernard of Clairvaux's reading of the Song of Songs
           2:4-5 : wounded by love - putting order in love
    • Authors: Decock; Paul
      Abstract: Before focusing on the two important verses, this article first considers Bernard's monastic approach to the reading of the Song of Songs and the sources of this approach in Origen's commentary and sermons. Bernard like Origen presupposes that the main theme of the book is the transformation of the readers into deeper love. The image of "being wounded by love" and the theme of the "ordering of love" are taken from tradition and Bernard presents these in his own way in view of his primary audience, which are the monks of his monastery. This growth in love presupposes the self-knowledge of having been created in the image and likeness of God by which human perfection was seen as a sharing in God's way of seeing and relating: to oneself, to one's neighbours, and to the whole of created reality.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:45:00Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Sennacherib's campaign in Judah : the conquest of
    • Authors: Ussishkin; David
      Abstract: The conquest of Lachish in 701 B.C.E. by the army of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, forms a significant event in the history of the Near East, the history of the kingdom of Judah, and the history of the biblical world. Five different sources, which complement one another, combine to present us with a clear and vivid picture of the events at Lachish: (1) the detailed descriptions in the Old Testament of the Assyrian campaign in Judah; (2) the annals and other inscriptions of Sennacherib; (3) the city level attacked by the Assyrians which was studied in the excavations; (4) the remains of the battle uncovered in the excavations; and (5) the series of reliefs describing the siege of Lachish erected by Sennacherib in his royal palace at Nineveh. This is in fact a unique case in which a major battle of the biblical period can be studied and reconstructed to a significant degree. Much information was obtained in the intensive archaeological excavations which have taken place at Lachish since 1932. Groups of scholars and students from UNISA took part in the excavations of Tel Aviv University each season between 1976 and 1989. They were organised and led by Prof. Ian Eybers until his untimely death in 1981 (Fig. 1). Many of the South African participants were directly involved in uncovering significant remains associated with Sennacheib's attack on Lachish.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:44:59Z
  • Journal for Semitics: List of referees / Lys van keurders
    • Abstract: List of referees / Lys van keurders
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:44:58Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Israel and the Assyrians. Deuteronomy, the
           Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon, and the nature of subversion, Carly L.
           Crouch : book review
    • Authors: Kilchor; Benjamin
      Abstract: In this book (which is also available as a free download at Carly L. Crouch, lecturer in Hebrew Bible at the University of Nottingham, challenges the widespread view that Deuteronomy is written to subvert Assyrian imperial power and ideology, and, especially, that the Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon (VTE) is subverted by Deut 28 and 13. The line of argument is very clear and straightforward.
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T08:44:58Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Philosophical perspectives on theological
           why-questions in the Hebrew Bible
    • Authors: Gericke; Jaco
      Abstract: This article provides an introductory overview of a selection of philosophical perspectives on theological why-questions in the Hebrew Bible. Why-questions put to Yhwh in all the various sections of the canon are clarified philosophically via ancient views on causation, the Principle of Sufficient Reason, and the philosophy of language. Comparative philosophy of religion is also utilized to argue that while most theological why-questions in the Hebrew Bible are asked in the context of suffering, assumptions related to the deity differ from those of modern philosophical theologies.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:14:03Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Two iconographical examples of sun-disc connections
           to the development of Jewish beliefs in angels
    • Authors: Evans; Annette
      Abstract: In Palestine ancient Egyptian motifs with solar connections such as uraei and falcons were virtually omnipresent by c. 925 B.C.E. Many seals testify to the fact that during the eighth century the state religion of northern Israel, i.e., "official" Yahwism, was affected by the prevalence of solar symbolism. The celestial-solar character of deities was often emphasized by the addition of solar discs. This article presents two examples of enduring polytheistic iconography relating to the theme of transcendent messenger activity in the Bible. The first example dating to about 900 B.C.E. is of an ostrich with a sun disk at the neck. The second example, a Gnostic gem dated to ca. 200-100 B.C.E., provides evidence of solar motifs from Egyptian religion which facilitated concepts concerning divine mediation from God to mankind. It is proposed that these motifs provided the foundation for the conceptual changes in Jewish angelology that transpired as Christianity.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:14:02Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Ruth, a proselyte par excellence - exegetical and
           structural observations
    • Authors: Wunch; Hans-Georg
      Abstract: The little book of Ruth is not only a literary jewel in the Old Testament, but can also, as the article argues, be understood as a model for proselytism. Ruth can be seen as "a proselyte par excellence". Jewish exegesis (Targum, Midrash and Talmud) interprets the book of Ruth in this way. But it can also be shown by exegetical insights as well as structural elements.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:14:01Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Constructing a living deity - framing the god of
           Israel in the stories of Daniel and Bel and the dragon
    • Authors: De Bruyn; Joseph Jacobus
      Abstract: This article is the concluding part in a series of articles on "Bel and the dragon". These articles are an investigation into the Greek editor's/author's use of body, space, narrative and genre in creating a new reality regarding the Jewish deity. A spatial analysis is used. It suggests that the episodes of "Bel and the dragon", as well as each of the chapters of Greek Daniel, should be read in a reciprocal relationship with each other. First, such an analysis indicates that the smaller episodes and chapters are part of a larger clash of deities. Second, it shows that the editor/author utilises the different events in the chapters of Greek Daniel to create a new worldview. In this new worldview the God of Israel is an almighty deity while other deities that are revered are false, and not real, living gods. In his own way the editor/author contributes to the way in which Jews regarded their God within the reality of the diaspora.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:14:00Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Ashkelon dog cemetery conundrum
    • Authors: Smith; Anne Marie
      Abstract: Between 1989 and 1992 about 1 200 dog remains were excavated at Ashkelon as part of the Leon Levy expedition. This find generated much interest and debate at the time. The leader of the excavations, Prof. Lawrence E. Stager of Harvard University, attributed the dog cemetery to the presence of a cultic healing centre to which the dogs were supposed to have belonged. As no such centre has been found up to the present, this article reassesses the available facts from the excavations, the subsequent research and analysis of the remains by Dr Paula Wapnish and Prof. Brian Hesse, as well as other opinions. A completely novel explanation will be formulated for the presence of so many dogs in Ashkelon during the Persian era and why they were buried in that particular place.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:59Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The concealed crime of the nadītu priestess
           in §110 of the laws of Hammurabi
    • Authors: Van Wyk; Susandra J.
      Abstract: LH 110 is part of the ancient Near Eastern scholarly debate regarding the function and role of the nadiātu-priestess groups in Old Babylonian society. Seemingly, LH 110 forbids the uncloistered nadītu from opening up or entering a business place associated with the sābītu; the penalty for such a crime is public execution by burning. Mainstream scholars view the nadiātu through the lens of either (a) indulging in illicit behaviour or (b) that LH 110 reflects a prohibition for the nadītu to compromise her chastity. In contrast, Martha Roth (1999) opines that LH 110 is an economic regulation of the nadītu, prohibiting her from overshadowing the money-lending business of the sābītu. However, what poses a problem is the horrific penalty, which seems to suggest and be justification for a seemingly terrible crime committed in concealment. I propose that when this prohibition is transgressed, a horrific crime is committed - tax evasion - which is a furtive crime that endangers the continuous welfare of the king/state. LH 110 is a fiscal regulation protecting the state/king's revenues. The intention is to prevent a specific group of the nadiātu – an uncloistered priestess - to enter or open an enterprise, which the OB state administration is unable to regulate. Consequently, the nadītu could effortlessly conceal her yielded profits and thus evade paying tax to the king/state.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:58Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The significance of palaeodontology in revealing the
           palaeodemography of ancient Egypt
    • Authors: Greeff; Casper
      Abstract: Palaeodemography, the means of amassing information from the teeth of the general population, is addressed in this study. Palaeodemography deals with the social characteristics of an ancient population and their development through time, in essence, the lifestyle of a population. The analysis and interpretation of dental data provided by the archaeologist's discovery of human remains, specifically dental remains, will throw light on settlement history, palaeodemography and kinship. The internal shifts and strains caused by population migration are vital for understanding the social lifestyle of ancient Egypt. To determine the age at death of individuals, dental wear is but one of the changes that occurs in the process of natural aging and provides one of the most accurate means to determine the age of an individual. The population's health and disease issues are measured by hypoplastic markings in teeth and even sex physiognomics are locked in teeth. Modern technology, in the form of x-rays, has invaluable prominence in the research of mummified and skeletal human dental remains. Non-invasive procedures in examination of bioarchaeological remains have become all important to preserve data for future research.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:57Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Bedeutungen und Bilder der Gebärmutter in
           der Hebräischen Bibel
    • Authors: Van der Zwan; Pieter
      Abstract: Die Gebärmutter kann in der Hebräischen Bibel durch vier verschiedene Wörter ausgedrückt werden: —;’;•;’;–;, ב’;ט’;ן, [העמ] und ק’;–;’;ב. Dass diese Wörter auch manchmal metaphorisch oder mit anderen Bedeutungen gebraucht werden, zeigt, dass sie auch diverse emotionelle Verbindungen haben. Darüber hinaus wird der Mutterschoß in mehreren Kontexten aus verschiedenen Perspektiven betrachtet, wobei er nirgendwo als Erfahrung (einer Frau) beschrieben wird. Stattdessen wird als Erinnerung der daraus Geborenen über den Mutterschoß reflektiert. So wird ein Netzwerk von - manchmal eher unbewussten - Assoziationen geschaffen, das die Spannbreite des Begriffs und seine möglichen körperlichen, psychologischen, sozialen oder transzendentalen Konnotationen erweitert und bereichert.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:56Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The intention, genre, dating and provenance of 2 and
           4 Maccabees : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Cook; Johann
      Abstract: There is a relationship between 2 and 4 Maccabees. The author of 4 Maccabees clearly made use of 2 Maccabees. There are also differences between these writings. These differences pertain to inter alia genre, intention and provenance. Suitable criteria need to be formulated to address this issue. In order to determine the provenance of these individual books, this paper analyses internal (linguistic) and external (historical) criteria.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:54Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Collective guilt and self-sacrifice in Sophocles'
           Antigone and in II & IV Maccabees - preliminary cultural-critical
           remarks : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Dafni; Evangelia G.
      Abstract: Jewish-Hellenistic authors use language and ideas of ancient Greek tragedies in order to express their own religious and theological standpoints and make them accessible to the Greek-speaking world. This article highlights the significance of Sophocles' Antigone for a cultural-critical understanding of the concepts of collective guilt and self-sacrifice in II Macc 6-7 and IV Macc.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:54Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The metatexts of 1 and 2 Maccabees : Septuagint
           conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Miller-Naude; Cynthia L., Naude, Jacobus A.
      Abstract: The physical placement of Maccabees within translations provides important evidence concerning the translators' views of the book and its relation to other parts of the canon. Some of the translations include a preface which explicitly indicates the status of Maccabees with respect to the remainder of the canon of Scripture and its proper use both for public reading and ecclesiastical doctrine. In addition, some translations include introductions to Maccabees, which further discuss the status and role of Maccabees within the canon. Finally, the metatextual evidence of marginal notes will be used to indicate interpretive issues concerning the text of Maccabees.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:53Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The Maccabean literature and Hebrews : some
           intertextual observations : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Steyn; Gert J.
      Abstract: Several common motifs and linguistic similarities between the books of the Maccabees and the book of Hebrews were noted in the past by scholars in random remarks and ad hoc statements. These relations and similarities deserve further investigation. It is therefore the intention of this paper to compare the Maccabean literature and Hebrews with each other in order to present a brief synopsis of a few selected motifs. Some prominent common motifs that will receive attention include the Abrahamic promise and the Aqedah, priests with royal functions, faith heroes and endurance, instruction of the Scriptures, and the Canticum Mosis. It is hoped that this comparison of common motifs will result in first a closer understanding of whether the unknown author of Hebrews was familiar with the books of the Maccabees, and secondly a better understanding of the provenance of Hebrews in particular.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:52Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Words of wisdom, words of war : a study of terms and
           concepts in IV Maccabees : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Swart; Gerhard
      Abstract: In the words of Jan Willem van Henten (1997:296), the fourth book of Maccabees "presents itself to the reader, from the very beginning of the work, as a philosophical discourse about the dominance of devout reason over the emotions". Despite the fact that the terminology and phraseology employed in this initial portrayal keeps recurring at various points throughout the book, several scholars have noticed a disturbing mismatch between the prologue and the main body of the work. This paper addresses the question whether or not IV Maccabees is structured according to a thematically unified plan, and attempts to find an answer by focusing on some philosophical terms and concepts and the ways in which these feature in the composition as a whole.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:51Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Virtue and philosophy in 4 Maccabees : Septuagint
           conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Decock; Paul B.
      Abstract: The first section of this article focuses on the use of the term and theme of ἀρετή in the argument that the Jewish religion can be seen as a most worthy philosophy. The second section shows how 4 Maccabees can be seen as a Jewish version of a philosophical work in the ancient Greco-Roman tradition: it raises the practical question of the noble way of life and shows us inspiring examples of persons who embodied this way by the manner in which they faced their death. The third section explores how a reading of 4 Maccabees can be seen as one of the "spiritual exercises" in the philosophical tradition (Pierre Hadot). The fourth section touches briefly on the issue of the Hellenization of the Jewish religion, of which 4 Maccabees is a strong example.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:50Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Lion imagery in 1 Maccabees 3:4 : Septuagint
           conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Kotze; Gideon R.
      Abstract: A very interesting case of lion imagery appears in 1 Macc 3:4. In this verse, the poet compares Judas Maccabee to a lion and a roaring cub. These similes merit closer investigation as part of the narrator's characterisation of Judas as one of the narrative's main protagonists and as unique examples of lion images in early Jewish literature. This study undertakes such an investigation and concludes that the lion images communicate the fearsomeness of Judas, his power to dominate his enemies and to protect his people. They make a small contribution to the narrator's portrayal of Judas in 1 Macc 3:1-26 as a mighty warrior whose military feats against his enemies are in service of his people and win him great renown.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:49Z
  • Journal for Semitics: A rhetorical analysis of the first prefixed letter
           (1:1-1:10a) in 2 Maccabees : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Coetzer; Eugene
      Abstract: The text of 2 Maccabees has been fruitfully explored throughout the centuries. An aspect which scholars have struggled with is the significance of the two prefixed letters. The discussions on the reason for adding the letters are, however, mainly concerned with the respective authors, vocabulary and main ideas which are present in both the letters and the narrative. This article proposes an alternative approach to the problem. Through applying a rhetorical analysis to the first prefixed letter, the study explicates similarities in the communicative strategies applied in both the letter and the narrative. Both focus on a unified and ideal group who function as ambassadors for a specific purpose, and both employ the elements of threat and response in order to highlight important ideas. This will hopefully provide new insight into the reasons for attaching this letter to such a rhetorically effective narrative.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:48Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The temple in 2 Maccabees - dynamics and episodes :
           Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Jordaan; Pierre J.
      Abstract: Scholars differ among each other about the importance of the Jerusalem temple in 2 Maccabees. Some see the temple as of minor importance while others are of the opinion that the temple takes centre stage in this book. This article concurs with the second view. However, it goes further by also exploring crucial temple dynamics. These temple dynamics are determined by certain pre-set criteria and centre mainly on the relationship between God and the nation. The result is that three different temple episodes can be distinguished. The positive/negative view of each temple episode is determined by this relationship between the nation and God. This opens a new way of exploring 2 Maccabees.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:48Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Use and function of metaphorical discourse in 1
           Maccabees : Septuagint conference articles (LXXSA 2014)
    • Authors: Tilly; Michael
      Abstract: In the poetic passages of 1 Maccabees, the narrated events are summarized and interpreted from the perspective of a third-person omniscient narrator. In these passages metaphorical speech is prominent. This article examines the functions of these metaphors within their literary contexts and investigates which social, cultural and religious conditions are recognized as integral parts of the "cultural encyclopaedia" of the ancient Jewish author and his addressees.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T16:13:47Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Friction in the fiction of Solomon in
           Song of Songs
    • Authors: Fischer; Stefan
      Abstract: This essay considers the conflict created by the figure of Solomon, and clarifies his image and his function as literary figure. The intertextual base in 1 Kings is referenced but a different interpretation of Solomon is considered. The conventional interpretation of Solomon in the Old Testament and the later reception in non-biblical traditions such as the Qur'an is sketched. By contrast, Qoheleth and Song of Songs present a much more critical image of Solomon. The passages of Song of Songs referring to Solomon are analysed directly. The effect of understanding the heading of Song of Songs as reading instruction is pointed out. All instances where Solomon is mentioned are also considered. It is shown that a sliding transition takes place, which introduces the contrast of "real love" to that represented by Solomon. The figure of Solomon reinforces the theme of love. He may be superfluous to the plot, but is integral to the story.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:26Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Editorial
    • Authors: Lombaard; Christo, Fischer, Stefan
      Abstract: In this special issue of Journal for Semitics/Tydskrif vir Semitistiek articles by scholars from Austria, the Czech Republic, South Africa, Switzerland and the United States are collected. The title "Song of Songs: African and Western studies" reflects a broad variety of methodological approaches and cultural backgrounds. On two occasions, in 2012 and 2013, papers were presented at symposiums, respectively in Basel and Pretoria. The first meeting was hosted by the University of Basel, in co-operation with the University of South Africa (UNISA), the University of Vienna and the Swiss Society for Ancient Near Eastern Studies (SGOA). It was the kick-off event for a successful series of academic meetings.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:26Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Liebe, leidenschaft und
           erfüllung : die bildwelt des hoheliedes im werk der mystikerin
           Gertrud von Helfta (1256-1302)
    • Authors: Bangert; Michael
      Abstract: Das Hohelied wird seit der Frühzeit der christlichen Theologie intensiv rezipiert. Mit seiner Kommentierung des Hoheliedes bestimmt Origenes (185-267) wesentlich die Rezeptionswege dieser biblischen Schrift im Christentum und insbesondere die Übernahme der Metaphorik des Hoheliedes in die Bildsprache der christlichen Mystik. Sein Kommentar ist die „norma normans“ der christlichen Hohelied-Rezeption. Mit Bernhard von Clairvaux (1090-1153) beginnt eine neue Epoche intensiver Rezeption des Hoheliedes. Bernhards Auslegungen des Hoheliedes fallen in die Phase der „Entdeckung des inneren Menschen“. Für die Mystikerin Gertrud von Helfta ist da Hohelied und seine Metaphorik eine wesentliche Inspirationsquelle. Die göttliche Liebe zum Menschen findet in den Versen des Hoheliedes seinen Ausdruck. Das Unnennbare gewinnt für Gertrud von Helfta im Hohelied seine gültige und akzeptierte Sprache. So erhält durch das Aufgreifen von Bildern aus dem Hohelied die Kreuzestheologie Gertruds eine zärtlich-erotische Färbung. Die Intimität der Hohelied-Zitate verhindert eine Veräusserlichung der Leidensmeditation.Durch die Meditation, sowie die kreative Aneignung von Metaphorik, erzählerischer Dynamik und literarischer Strukturen des Hoheliedes verschafft sich die Mystikerin Gertrud von Helfta einen Sprachraum und ein Kommunikationsmittel, um die Begegnungen, die sich den Worten entziehen, in eine biblisch autorisierte, kommunikativ praktikable und ästhetisch hochstehende Form zu bringen.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:25Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): "What can be said about
           absence?" Notes on the Song of Songs and modern children's Bibles
    • Authors: Du Toit; Jaqueline S.
      Abstract: In the religious vocabulary of both the Jewish and Christian tradition the Song of Songs, more than any other book of the Hebrew or Christian Bible, concurs with Robert Carroll's dictum that the Bible is "an adult book written by adults for adults". No matter how carefully the parameters of canon are observed by the authors of children's Bibles, it is generally assumed that Song of Songs does not contentually lend itself to a change of register. Most scholars would agree that the very nature of the material contained in this book seems to call for some form of acceptable censorship in a society that shields the child from depictions of excessive violence, misogyny, overt sexuality and so forth. As a vehicle for the transfer of the moral prerogatives of one generation to the next, the children's Bible becomes an often under-appreciated commentator on what the adult community considers most valuable to convey to the next community. As Bottigheimer asks in relation to religion for the young in Bible story collections, "What can be said about absence?" Within the tradition of children's Bibles, excision, repression or censorship is never equal to permanent removal from the canon. It can also signal transfer from the written text to the integral accompaniment of the pictorial, the only "text" the young child reads without the performance or interpretation of the parent. In this context the absence of an entire biblical book is problematic, unless the tradition finds a means of explaining it away or incorporating it in some other manner. These explanations of where the book disappears to often prove to be particularly revealing about modern religious collectives' attitudes towards the Bible and its content.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:24Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013):
           in Song of Songs 1:4 : a new understanding
    • Authors: Biernot; David, Lombaard, Christo
      Abstract: This research explores the meaning of the word mesharim in Song of Songs 1:4. It challenges most of the renderings of the term in ancient and modern translations, and in commentaries. Instead of translating it in judicial, romanticised or rhetorical justificatory language, a bolder approach is proposed that brings out the erotic message of this biblical book much better than the translations to date. Mesharim as used in this context may refer to sexual erection. This proposal is supported by insightful linguistic findings made by Naphtali Herz Tur Sinai in ancient Near Eastern sources. The authors, however, do not want to push their reading of mesharim too far, warning of the danger of producing pornographic-like renderings of Song.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:23Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): The Song of Songs and the editor of
           editors : on the implications of the Netziv's Rinah Shel Torah
    • Authors: Kalman; Jason
      Abstract: Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin (the Netziv, 1816-1893) led the Volozhin Yeshiva, the premier rabbinic academy, from 1853 until 1892 when it closed. A Talmudic scholar, he was a staunch traditionalist who is frequently described as an ardent opponent of biblical criticism. Given that position, it is difficult to explain his comment on Song 1:1 in which he describes the canonical text as a collection of songs edited by Solomon but which includes portions composed by earlier biblical characters (some named, some anonymous). In so doing, he made a radical break with the general trend of Jewish exegesis which reads the Song as an allegory concerning the unfolding history of the relationship between God and the nation of Israel. Berlin's commentary should be understood as his attempt to mediate between tradition and modernity by offering his students a work that appropriated new modes of biblical scholarship and dressed them in classical Jewish garb.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:23Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Sexualisation and desexualisation of
           biblical texts in medieval Jewish literature : two diverging exegetical
           strategies in Levi ben Gershom's Commentary on Song and Sefer Ha-Zohar
    • Authors: Biernot; David
      Abstract: Basing itself on the assumption that discourse on sexuality is closely related to hermeneutics, this article enquires into the ways two competitive strains of medieval Jewish spirituality, philosophy and Kabbalah, voiced or dampened the carnal character of Jewish religion while exegetically engaging with biblical texts. Seeking the goal of human existence rather in the speculative realm of sciences, philosophical writings were undoubtedly marked by a propensity to asceticism, which was hermeneutically undergirded by allegorical reading of Scripture and its imprint can be seen in particular in the "desexualising" approach to the Song of Songs. Unlike philosophy, Kabbalistic literature showed a much friendlier attitude to sexual and erotic motives. This tendency was also determined by the employment of creative, mythopoetic reading of Scriptures akin to midrash. In this way, Kabbalah sometimes "sexualises" even those biblical texts that bear no sexual or erotic undertones. The article demonstrates these diverging exegetical strategies on selected passages from Gersonides's commentary on the Song of Songs and the Book of Splendour.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:22Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): An Afrocentric reading of the
           uncharacteristic request for love by the woman in the Song of Songs
    • Authors: Ndoga; Sampson S.
      Abstract: The request for love and initiating love exchanges by the woman in the Song of Songs deviates from the norms of the day. Reading such audacity as promoting a feminine agenda perhaps says more about the reader's world than the world of the text. Nevertheless, in determining meaning there is an interplay between the world in the text, the world outside the text and the world of the reader. Adding an Afrocentric perspective to this dynamic opens the door for mutually enriching perspectives, in which ancient texts and modern African culture may be understood differently. Some steps in this direction are indicated.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:21Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Why do black African Old Testament
           scholars not write on Song of Songs?
    • Authors: Mangayi; Lukwikilu Credo
      Abstract: For this reflection on why black African Old Testament scholars do not write on Song of Songs five scholars from the University of South Africa were briefly engaged by means of personal interviews. The findings reveal that the main reasons for this situation could be classified into three categories, namely (i) cultural constraints, (ii) technical reasons (e.g., lack of skills to interpret Song of Songs in culturally accepted language) and (iii) doctrinal (e.g., doubt about the content of Song of Songs). Customary and culturally relevant communication tools such as poetry, drama, dance and the like that already exist in an African context are suggested as resources that could be unearthed by scholars who want to write about eros without shame and reservation. Further research is also suggested as this would bring to the fore reasons that are deeply rooted in society.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:20Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Rhetorical figures of the garden
           motif in Song of Songs 4:12-5:1
    • Authors: Fischer; Stefan
      Abstract: The rhetorical figures of the garden motif in Song of Songs 4:12-5:1 are analysed and the functioning of double entendre in a literal and metaphorical garden is explained. The rhetorical figures of simile, metonymy, metaphor and allegory are applied to this episode. Particular emphasis is placed on the unlocking of the locked garden, the function of the exotic garden and its personification. In closing, the "garden" as reference to the Garden of Eden and to the Promised Land is explored.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:20Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Song of Songs : from transcending to
           "transcendental" sex (1)
    • Authors: Van der Zwan; Pieter
      Abstract: Contrary to the common reception of Song of Songs as ecstatic love poetry, perhaps even exuding some divine atmosphere, is the mostly unrecognised voice of a very human and fragile female protagonist who is either fixated in or has regressed to, a rather primitive psychological condition where her oral, narcissistic and perhaps even depressed orientation ironically opens her up to suggest her desire to include and therefore transcend her beloved. This she does precisely through her embracing sexuality which mirrors her own longing to belong to a wider and greater maternal context which serves as silent background.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:19Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Celebrating the celebration of
           sexuality in Song of Songs
    • Authors: Scheffler; Eben H.
      Abstract: Today Song of Songs is widely recognised as celebrating human sexual love and not as an allegory for God's love of his people. How this insight is to be appropriated has not yet been accounted for in Christianity, and this article seeks to make a contribution in this regard. Metaphors from contemporary culture and nature, the geography of the land, the 'absence' of traditional repressive ('superego') religion, and the explicit and tasteful communication of eroticism in the Song are used. It is contended that modern Christianity should learn to speak in such a way about sex. Examples from three modern Afrikaans poems (of which a translation is provided) by Breyten Breytenbach are discussed by way of comparison with Song of Songs.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:18Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Song of Songs : from transcending to
           "transcendental" sex (2)
    • Authors: Van der Zwan; Pieter
      Abstract: The oral, narcissistic and perhaps depressed woman lover introduced in the first article of the same title by the present author in this issue of the Journal for Semitics is nothing but a shadow cast by her bright background. Her neediness and narcissism are due to her false self, which makes her available for projective identification with all the diverse religiosities carried by her but also allows her to dissolve in the feeling of being in an embracing love, her own projection. In this transcendental aspect the feminine resembles the divine. Contrary to the traditional or common reception of Song of Songs as either transcending the foreground sexuality through an allegorical interpretation where exclusive attention is given to its spirituality or, in contrast, a literal approach where a greater holding background is ignored respectively, the text can be read in its openness to sexuality as a pointer towards various religious subtexts. This is despite the fact that no explicit reference to any religiosity is apparently made in the text. When transcendence refers to the realm that includes all lower levels of existence, certain possibilities in Song of Songs can be opened through transpersonal psychology to suggest that the sexuality depicted also has a transcendent dimension.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:18Z
  • Journal for Semitics : Special issue : Song of Songs : African and Western
           Studies (Basel 2012, Pretoria 2013): Coming home to the body : an
           ecofeminist body theological reading of the Song of Songs
    • Authors: Van Schalkwyk; Annalet
      Abstract: An ecofeminist perspective is used to relate the Song of Songs, which was primarily written as a text on the physical relationship between a man and a woman, to the ecology. This is done by finding the overlap in meaning of the words "body", "lover", "beloved", "eros" and "erotic". In both a reading of the Song of Songs and in ecofeminist theology these words have great significance and are centred on an understanding of eros as not only an intensely intimate physical love relationship with a beloved, but also of a physical relationship of love and care between a human being and the ecology. In both readings the word eros has a sacred dimension which is of special significance in ecofeminist theology. This article was not written as a work of biblical scholarship, but rather as an interpretation of Song of Songs from an ecofeminist perspective, albeit with the assistance of feminist biblical scholars. In such an interpretation, Song of Songs is related to three contemporary "settings" for its interpretation: (i) an intimate reading, (ii) a public reading and (iii) an ecological reading of Song of Songs. By eventually placing the reading of Song of Songs within the scope and context of the cosmological "story" where new science explains the origins and evolvement of the cosmos and earth, the further development of "body theology" or ecofeminist body theology is enabled by relating the passionate care for the intimate body to passionate care of the earth body as a whole.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T13:04:17Z
  • Journal for Semitics: 'n Waarderingswoord aan prof. dr. H. F. (Herrie) van
           Rooy : redaksie / editorial
    • Authors: Van Deventer; H.J.M.
      Abstract: Herculaas Frederik van Rooy, wat op 7 Augustus 1949 sy eerste asem geadem het, het vanjaar (2014) op die vooraand van die lente in Suid-Afrika sy vyf-en-sestigste verjaarsdag gevier. Herrie het dus daardie ouderdom bereik waarop akademici verbonde aan staats-gefinansierde universiteite amptelik onthef word van belangrike, maar dikwels minder aangename verpligtinge wat deel is van hierdie professie. Gelukkig vir die gilde van Semitici in Suid Afrika gaan Herrie vir die afsienbare toekoms steeds 'n rol speel in die verdere uitbou van hierdie vakgebied. Hy het ingestem om vanaf 2015 vir 'n termyn te dien as Direkteur van 'n nuutgestigde navorsingsfokusarea, Antieke Tekste: Teks, Konteks en Resepsie, aan die Noordwes-Universiteit.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:50Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Leadership in times of crisis : Nahum as master of
           language and imagery
    • Authors: Wessels; Wilhelm J.
      Abstract: The book of Nahum reflects a time in the history of Judah when they were dominated by the Assyrians. The book displays oracles of a prophet named Nahum who encourages the people of Judah to put their trust in YHWH who would destroy their enemy and so secure their future. Several examples are highlighted to illustrate how the prophet uses language and imagery effectively for this purpose (Nahum 1:2-8; 9-15 [Heb. 1:9-2:1]; 2:1-13 [2:2-14]; and 3:1-17; 18-19). An attempt is further made to demonstrate how Nahum craftily uses language and images to create a reality check for the people of Judah and their enemy as to how pride will be turned to humiliation through the intervention of YHWH.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:49Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The salvific task of the suffering servant in Isaiah
           42:1-7 : a contemporary perspective
    • Authors: Rugwiji; Temba
      Abstract: The theme of salvation is central in the servant songs. In Isaiah 42:1-7, the theme of salvation prefigures the significant task of the suffering servant. First, this essay commences with a critical analysis of Isaiah 42:1-7. This analysis will shed light on the context from which the text emerged in an effort to decipher salvific themes in the text. Second, the study maintains that Yahweh's exclusivist proclamation in the Old Testament (hereafter OT) is revised in order to also include non-Jews in his salvific programme of the universe. Third, the term salvation is defined as depicting liberation in the OT. Liberation comprises various facets, including but not limited to political freedom, economic emancipation, democracy, justice, poverty eradication, and equal rights, amongst others. Fourth, this essay will explore divergent views on the identity of the suffering servant in the servant songs, such as Jeremiah, Cyrus, Jacob/Israel, and Jesus. The Christian view of the suffering servant will also be considered. Fifth, this article will discuss servant leadership in our contemporary context, in which Nelson Mandela as a representative example of a servant leader is explored. The overall objective of this research is to identify some salvific tasks of the suffering servant in the first servant song in order to inspire, inform and legitimise socio-political transformation in our contemporary society.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:49Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Rhetorical criticism and the affective dimension of
           the biblical text
    • Authors: Martin; Lee Roy
      Abstract: In the years since James Muilenburg challenged biblical scholars to move beyond form criticism, rhetorical criticism has become an accepted method within Old Testament studies. Biblical scholars, however, have been hesitant to examine the affective argument of biblical rhetoric, what Aristotle called pathos. This article suggests that the biblical documents advocate for certain agendas, and they use both logical and affective proofs to form their arguments. Therefore, what is offered here is a critical approach to examining the affective content of the biblical text, not as a new method, but as one part of the larger hermeneutical strategy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:48Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Constructing a deceitful deity - the disempowerment
           of Bel - Bel and the dragon, verses 1-22 (OG/Th)
    • Authors: De Bruyn; Joseph Jacobus
      Abstract: In this article aspects of narrative critique, body, space and ancient cosmologies are combined into a spatial-body framework. This spatial-body framework is then used to analyse the first narrative episode of "Bel and the Dragon" which is described as "The disempowerment of Bel". Simultaneously, this smaller narrative episode is read in reciprocal relationship with the larger narrative of the Greek Daniel. Such an analysis indicates a shift in the author's personal cosmology. First, a new worldview is created within which all alien gods are false. Second, the Babylonian god Bel is recreated as a deceitful deity. Third, the identity of the Jewish deity is recreated as an omnipresent all-powerful god. By means of the narrative the editor/author creates a new reality and worldview within which the Jews in the diaspora can still be faithful to their God without being afraid of competing earthly powers or other so-called deities.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:47Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Malachi's vision of the temple : an emblem of
           eschatological hope (Malachi 3:1-5) and an economic centre of the
           community (Malachi 3:10-12)
    • Authors: Boloje; Blessing Onoriode, Groenewald, Alphonso
      Abstract: This article shows how temples were viewed in biblical Israel and how the prophets understood the temple in their different contexts. The temple is emphasised as the abode of Yahweh by the prophets before the exile. During the exile, it is seen as a symbol of the reestablishment of the people as community of faith, and in the post-exilic era, the temple is conceived as an emblem of the restoration and revival of the people and as a representation of an eschatological hope. These prophetic conceptions of the temple are used by the prophets in their respective contexts to challenge people to move towards their aim. In keeping with these prophetic traditions, the article highlights the fact that in the book of Malachi the temple is discerned as an emblem of eschatological hope, wherein Yahweh's last judgment is determined and the triumph of his people is declared and granted (Malachi 3:1-5) and as an economic centre of the community (Malachi 3:10-12). The consistency of Malachi's vision validates similar prophetic formulae and theological themes.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:47Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The legacy of 1 Enoch on Ethiopian literature
    • Authors: Asale; Bruk Ayele
      Abstract: 1 Enoch disappeared centuries ago from the Jewish and the Christian world where it originated, and from where it spread widely gaining canonical authority. It survives in its entirety in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewhahedo Church (EOTC) to date. Hence, it is to be expected that traces of the book's legacy can still be detected in the church. Evidently, the book has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention in the last hundred years, more specifically since the landmark discoveries of the Dead Sea Scrolls. However, its legacy in the EOTC and its influence on the community that is credited with honouring it for many centuries, keeping its original authority and usage intact, have been largely omitted from the discussion. This article, therefore, asks what traces the influence of 1 Enoch has left in Ethiopia and in what its legacy consists. In its attempt to respond to these questions, the article focuses particularly on the literary influences the book has on Ethiopian literature. Though the influence and legacy of the book is not limited to the literary realm, the article limits itself to it alone. Subsequent discussions may go beyond this to consider ways in which the book may have contributed to the making of Ethiopia at large.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:46Z
  • Journal for Semitics: On the meaning of Job 26:9
    • Authors: Pinker; Aron
      Abstract: Attribution of the speeches to the various figures in the concluding cycles of the Jobian debates is an unsettled issue. The variety of proposals is baffling and hardly any agreement exists. Clines (1960:628) claims that "the evidence of general disarray in the attribution of speeches from 24:18 to chap. 28 suggests rather that the text has been subjected to some damage in the course of transmission." This study focuses on 26:9 in the context of the unit consisting of vv. 7-13.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:46Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Lost in translation : present-day terms in the
           maintenance texts of the nadiātu from old Babylonian Nippur
    • Authors: Van Wyk; Susandra J.
      Abstract: Present-day terms such as the usufruct - in civil law systems - and its equivalent, the life-right - in common law systems - were foreign to ancient Near Eastern legal texts. Prima facie both terms - usufruct and life-right - direct the "time-limited interest" of the use and enjoyment by a person over the property of another. However, mainstream ancient Near Eastern scholars' unqualified use of the foreign terms - diverged in time and space - affect the translation and our insight into ancient texts. In addition, differences in land ownership institutions and philosophies in present-day law systems and those of ANE contribute to variances in the meaning and interpretation of the intrinsic aspects of property and as such "time-limited interest" applicable: a usufruct, life-right or even a hybrid form of both. In the article, I focus on the maintenance - a time-limited interest - of the nadītu priestess in the Old Babylonian city-state of Nippur. The application of Stone's theory on Nippur's land ownership - the institutions' economy - prima facie shows that the nadiātu of Nippur held a freestanding life-right, rather than a usufruct which the majority of ANE scholars assigned to the nadiātu's maintenance. However, I propose a deviation with the superficial overlay of present-day terms on the maintenance of the nadiātu by presenting a time-limited interest framework. The framework serves as a delineation method of identifying the characteristics of the maintenance-construction of the nadiātu from OB Nippur: communicating a "unitary concept" in context of the ancient texts - rather than only assigning coined terms - taking recognition of the influences of Nippur's land ownership philosophy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:45Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Reading Jeremiah 13:23 in an African context
    • Authors: Adamo; David Tuesday
      Abstract: This paper examines the meaning and importance of Jeremiah 13:23 critically. The author argues that one of the greatest prophets of ancient Israel, having been familiar with the military might, wisdom and vastness of their African territories does not despise black African people but uses them as standards against which to evaluate Israel in Jeremiah 13:23 as did other biblical passages (Amos 9:7; Is 17:3, 11-15; 30:1-2; 31:1-3; 45:14; Ez 27:7; Dn 11:43). The reasons for using black people and nations as standards against which to evaluate Israel are: first, their vast territories, great military might and power, wealth and wisdom (Is 19:5, 11-15; Is 45:14; Ez 27:7; Dn 11:43); second, it makes their high esteem to be boosted when these nations are cited as paradigmatic. The central theological message of Jeremiah 13:23 is to address the question of Judah's habituation of sin which leads to slavery that is irredeemable. Judah has an indelible stain and "her evil habits held her fast like bands of steel". The various English translations of Jeremiah 13:23 in different English versions of the Bible are misleading and therefore a disservice to the black race all over the world. The proper translation according to this author should have been: . "Would Black Africans change their skin or the leopards their sports? . So also you who have learnt to do evil could do evil."
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:44Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Hebrew הבח : a
           kompositions- und redaktionsgeschichte
    • Authors: Spoelstra; Joshua Joel
      Abstract: הבח , the term designated for the vessels of Noah (Gn 6-9*) and Moses (Ex 2*), has been a conundrum for biblical scholarship on several levels, namely the identification of the source language and its definition, and translation variation amongst daughter versions. After these aforementioned issues are surveyed and expounded, a redactional construction is proffered which attempts to legitimise the majority consensus that הבח is Egyptian in origin and explicate why this term is present in the flood and foundling narratives. Thus it is argued that the non-P redactor, at the time of the Persian period, edited the vessel terminology in the flood from P's אּרוך to הבח for polemical - and political/theological - reasons portending to new life, not death (ḏbȜ.t).
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:44Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The sources of Cosmas Indicopleustes' miniatures of
           animals : the case of the "unicorn"
    • Authors: Christides; V.
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to trace the sources of the Byzantine author Cosmas Indicopleustes' miniatures of animals, in particular of the "unicorn", in his work Christian topography. Cosmas, a sixth century seaman and merchant, wrote his work, Christian topography, based on his personal experience travelling in the Red Sea and beyond. Although his main aim was to enhance religious beliefs, his work yields important geographical information concerning navigation, peoples and animals of various countries neighbouring the Red Sea and beyond. His description of various exotic countries is decorated with drawings and numerous designs relevant to his cosmological interpretation of the Bible. While Cosmas' cosmological theory and the relevant designs have been studied by a number of scholars, little attention has been paid to his drawings of animals based on his travelling experience. An attempt is made in this study to trace the origin of Cosmas Indicopleustes' illustrations of animals, focusing on the unicorn. Furthermore, a comparison with similar drawings found in Arabic manuscripts is added. An effort is also made in this study to draw information not only from the pictorial evidence but also from the literary tradition of the original Greek and Arabic sources.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:43Z
  • Journal for Semitics: South African writings of Morris Hoffman : between
           Yiddish and Hebrew
    • Authors: Kotlerman; Ber
      Abstract: Morris Hoffman (1885-1940), who was born in a Latvian township and emigrated to South Africa in 1906, was a brilliant example of the Eastern European Jewish maskil writing with equal fluency in both Yiddish and Hebrew. He published poetry and prose in South African Yiddish and Hebrew periodicals. His long Yiddish poem under the title Afrikaner epopeyen (African epics) was considered to be the best Yiddish poetry written in South Africa. In 1939, a selection of his Yiddish stories under the title Unter afrikaner zun (Under the African sun) was prepared for publishing in De Aar, Cape Province (which is now in the Northern Cape Province), and published after his death in 1951 in Johannesburg. The Hebrew version of the stories was published in Israel in 1949 under the title Tahat shmey afrikah (Under the skies of Africa). The article deals with certain differences between the versions using the example of one of the bilingual stories. The comparison between the versions illuminates Hoffman's reflections on the relations between Jews and Afrikaners with a rather new perspective which underlines their religious background.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:42Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Dealing with the history-nature dualism in
           ecological theology
    • Authors: Van Heerden; Willie
      Abstract: Christian theologians have been accused of contributing to humanity's alienation from nature, because they have drawn a sharp distinction between history and nature (also between humanity and nature, and God and nature). This study first offers a brief overview of studies that shed light on problems related to the history-nature dichotomy in Christian theology, and then focuses on two sets of proposed solutions to these problems: downplaying history in favour of nature, and embracing non-idealistic and non-dualistic models of the relation between history and nature. The twofold thesis of this paper is, first, that downplaying history in favour of nature may not be the most fruitful way of solving problems related to the history-nature dichotomy. This thesis is supported by literature on problem formation and problem resolution. Secondly, it argues that studies on the role of history and narrative in the formation of environmental values, and the interconnections between the histories of humans and their environments, offer useful alternatives to dualistic views of the relation between humans and the rest of the earth community. Based on these insights, the paper then offers a reading of Genesis 1:1-2:4a, which contains the biblical passage quoted most often by those who have accused Christianity of being biased against the earth and the earth community, namely Genesis 1:26-28.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:42Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Incorporating ancient Israel's worldview into the
           teaching of Biblical Hebrew
    • Authors: Miller-Naude; Cynthia L., Naude, Jacobus A.
      Abstract: Modern language instruction always includes a cultural component - students do not learn just isolated words, morphology and syntax, but rather the cultural context of the language and its speakers. The teaching of Biblical Hebrew, however, has usually taken place in a cultural vacuum without reference to the cultural concepts that permeated ancient Israelite society. In this paper we describe an initiative to embed the teaching of Biblical Hebrew within the cultural world-view of ancient Israel in accordance with modern language pedagogy. Because South Africa is a multi-cultural society, we pay particular attention to the differing cultural backgrounds that our students bring to the learning of ancient Hebrew.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:41Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Is there philosophy in the Hebrew Bible? Some
           recent affirmative perspectives
    • Authors: Gericke; Jaco
      Abstract: This article discusses a selection of the most recent examples from both biblical scholarship and Jewish philosophy of the construction of the Hebrew Bible as a philosophical resource. By way of a descriptive overview of the relevant ideas in the writings of exemplars such as Davies, Hazony, Gericke, Glouberman and Sekine, the study reveals a neglected albeit radical trend in the contemporary attempted return of philosophy to Hebrew Bible interpretation and vice-versa. These new developments are labelled "philosophical maximalism", involving as they do the classification of the entire corpus of the Hebrew Bible as philosophical literature, in one sense or another.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:41Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Metaphor's forgotten brother : a survey of metonymy
           in Biblical Hebrew poetry
    • Authors: Chau; Kevin
      Abstract: Metaphor has long been a subject of interest for biblical scholarship; however metonymy, which is closely related to metaphor, has received far less attention. Metaphor and metonymy are distinct in their conceptual processes, metaphor juxtaposes two conceptually distinct domains and metonymy creates relationships within one conceptual domain, but they share many similarities and often function in concert in poetry. Although metaphor has received the lion's share of our attention, further study of metonymy will enrich our knowledge of metaphor and the poetics behind biblical poetry (i.e., the mechanisms and principles that govern poetry). This article introduces the two main forms of metonymy: taxonomic and partonomic. Taxonomic metonymy is based upon relationships between a more comprehensive and less comprehensive category (e.g., SPECIFIC FOR GENERAL), and partonomic metonymy is based upon contiguous relationships (e.g., PART FOR WHOLE). It surveys the various poetic functions of partonomic metonymy (semantic compaction, oblique reference, and semantic multivalency), and concludes by illustrating how accounting for metonymy can aid in solving the interpretive difficulties in the poetic passage of Jr 5:15-16.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:40Z
  • Journal for Semitics: The use of interrogatives in the book of Ezekiel and
           their translation in the ancient versions
    • Authors: Van Rooy; Harry
      Abstract: The Hebrew book of Ezekiel contains more than 70 questions, many of them rhetorical. The questions are introduced by interrogative particles, such as הּ and אּלּה, and interrogative pronouns. There are also questions without such particles. This paper investigates the construction and use of questions in the Hebrew Ezekiel and the translation of these questions into the Septuagint, Peshitta, Targum and Vulgate. The first section of the paper deals with the construction of questions in the Hebrew Old Testament as well as in the versions. The main part of the paper discusses a few of the different kinds of questions in the Hebrew Ezekiel, and their rendering into the versions. From the examples discussed, it is clear that the Targum normally follows the Hebrew closely. The LXX and Vulgate do not have fixed patterns, but use interrogative particles in the majority of examples. The Peshitta is close to the Hebrew in factual questions, but shows a variety of translations for yes-no questions, in most instances without any interrogative particles.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:40Z
  • Journal for Semitics: List of referees
    • Abstract: List of referees
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:39Z
  • Journal for Semitics: Paleo-Hebrew script in Jerusalem and Judea from the
    • Authors: Zissu; Boaz, Abadi, Omri
      Abstract: The article focuses on the use of the Paleo-Hebrew script versus the square script (known also as "Jewish script" or "Assyrian") by the Jews of Judea during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. From the Persian period until the Bar Kokhba Rebellion, Paleo-Hebrew script was used in various Jewish contexts (official, sacred, funerary) and on a variety of substrates (parchment, stone, coins, and pottery). The most representative artefacts bearing inscriptions in the Paleo-Hebrew script are Jewish coins of that time and the Dead Sea Scrolls. One common view is that because the Hasmoneans and the rebels in both revolts sought to establish their sovereignty, they employed symbols of Jewish significance and the archaic and obsolete - but prestigious - Paleo-Hebrew script, which was a reminder of the glorious past. Studies of the Dead Sea Scrolls commonly premise that greater holiness and value was attached to the Paleo-Hebrew script than to the square script. The article shows that, in the Second Temple period, the square script was considered holy. Consequently, those who were scrupulous about observing the laws of ritual purity refrained from using the square script for mundane purposes and used the Paleo-Hebrew script instead.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24T12:32:39Z
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