Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1818 journals)
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Showing 1 - 16 of 16 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ada : A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
AFRREV LALIGENS : An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Men's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Body Image     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Feminist Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Men's Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Partner Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Politics & Gender     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Aging Male     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Body Image
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.378
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1740-1445 - ISSN (Online) 1740-1445
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3201 journals]
  • #bodypositivity: A content analysis of body positive accounts on Instagram
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Rachel Cohen, Lauren Irwin, Toby Newton-John, Amy Slater In the last decade, the body image literature has begun to extend beyond a primary focus on body image disturbances and examine the construct of positive body image. Similarly, “Body positivity” is a growing social media trend that seeks to challenge dominant societal appearance ideals and promote acceptance and appreciation of all bodies and appearances. The present study provides a content analysis of body positive posts on Instagram. A set of 640 Instagram posts sampled from popular body positive accounts were coded for physical appearance-related attributes and central themes featured. Results showed that body positive imagery typically depicted a broad range of body sizes and appearances. Additionally, while a proportion of posts were appearance-focused, the majority of posts conveyed messages aligned with theoretical definitions of positive body image. This study clarifies body positive content on Instagram, as well as highlights points of overlap and distinction from academic principles of positive body image and other appearance-focused social media content. Accordingly, the results offer theoretical and practical implications for future research and prevention efforts.
  • Is the Drive for Muscularity Scale a valid and reliable instrument for
           young adult women'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Fernanda da Costa Oliveira, Clara Mockdece Neves, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira There is a lack of psychometric studies on scales aiming to evaluate the drive for muscularity in women. This study aimed to test whether the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) yielded reliable and valid scores for assessing the drive for muscularity construct in young adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 242 Brazilian adult women. Exploratory factor analysis, convergent validity, estimated internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the DMS’s scores were examined. The results of the exploratory factor analysis upheld the original unidimensional structure of the DMS for Brazilian women. The scale presented a significant but weak association with body mass index and risk behaviors for eating disorders. Adequate internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability were found. Future psychometric analyses (convergent and discriminant validity) of the DMS are encouraged to further our understanding of drive for muscularity in women, especially to confirm its unidimensional factor structure. Future research avenues also include examining the reliability and validity of the DMS’s scores among women from various cultures.
  • The effect of exposure to parodies of thin-ideal images on young
           women’s body image and mood
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Amy Slater, Natasha Cole, Jasmine Fardouly Although social networking services typically promote the thin beauty ideal for women, they also provide an opportunity for users to challenge this dominant ideal in unique and novel ways. This study aimed to experimentally investigate the influence of exposure to humorous, parody images of thin-ideal celebrity Instagram posts on women’s body satisfaction and mood compared to exposure to thin-ideal celebrity posts alone. Participants were 102 women aged 18–30 years who were randomly allocated to view either a set of Instagram images of thin-ideal celebrity posts or humorous parody images of the same celebrity posts. Results indicated that acute exposure to parody images led to increased body satisfaction and positive mood (happiness) compared to exposure to the thin-ideal celebrity images alone. No group differences were found on levels of trait appearance comparison or social media literacy, and the findings were not moderated by trait levels of thin-ideal internalisation. The findings provide preliminary support for the use of humorous, parody images for improving body satisfaction and positive mood in young women and add to the small but growing body of research highlighting potentially positive effects of social media.
  • Effects of weight teasing and gender on body esteem in youth: A
           longitudinal analysis from the REAL study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Darcie D. Valois, Christopher G. Davis, Annick Buchholz, Nicole Obeid, Katherine Henderson, Martine Flament, Gary S. Goldfield Weight teasing is associated with body dissatisfaction, but no study has examined the differential impact of the teasing source’s gender. This study examined whether the longitudinal relationship between weight teasing (by peers), weight-related comments (by parents) and body esteem differed by the teasing sources’ gender, and whether these relationships were moderated by victims’ weight status and demographic factors. A school-based sample (N = 1197 at Time 1; 60% female) of adolescents completed surveys over approximately 2 years (Time 1-Time 3). Multilevel modeling showed that teasing from a male peer had a stronger, negative association with appearance esteem for female victims than males. Although weight teasing was more prevalent among youth with overweight/obesity, teasing from female peers had a stronger negative association with weight esteem for adolescents of average weight. Results suggest the weight teasing sources’ gender may differentially impact the victims’ body esteem, and highlights the need to consider these factors in weight teasing prevention strategies.
  • Focusing on one’s own appearance leads to body shame in women but not
           men: The mediating role of body surveillance and appearance-contingent
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Alba Moya-Garófano, Miguel Moya Previous research has shown that some appearance-focused situations lead to increased self-objectification, especially among women. The present research explored, with an experimental design, whether the simple fact of thinking about one’s own physical appearance increases body shame through body surveillance and appearance-contingent self-worth in men and women. Our main prediction was that focusing on one’s own appearance would increase both women’s body surveillance and appearance-contingent self-worth, and that both variables in turn would increase women’s body shame. Among men, while we expected body surveillance and appearance-contingent self-worth to be related to body shame, we believed that thinking about their physical appearance would be less likely to increase their body surveillance and appearance-contingent self-worth. Spanish young men (n = 123) and women (n = 140) were randomly assigned to an appearance group, in which they wrote about their appearance, or a personality group, in which they wrote about their personality. The results confirmed our prediction for women. Among men, the indirect effects were not significant, and focusing on one’s own appearance did not increase body surveillance or appearance-contingent self-worth. Since body shame has been associated with pervasive negative consequences, knowledge about its antecedents has practical and theoretical significance.
  • A study of Singapore adolescent girls’ selfie practices, peer appearance
           comparisons, and body esteem on Instagram
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Leanne Chang, Pengxiang Li, Renae Sze Ming Loh, Trudy Hui Hui Chua Social media allow users to play multiple roles as receivers, exhibitors, and evaluators of idealized images through photo browsing, posting, and editing. In this study, we examined the associations between adolescent girls’ various types of Instagram selfie practices and their body esteem. The mediating role of appearance comparisons and the moderating role of direction of comparisons were also tested. A survey was distributed to 303 adolescent girls from three secondary schools in Singapore. Results indicated that the negative associations between participants’ photo browsing and editing behaviors and body esteem were fully mediated by peer appearance comparisons. Contrarily, selfie posting had a direct and positive association with body esteem that was not mediated by peer appearance comparisons. The findings suggested that objectifying standards of beauty may permeate adolescent girls’ value systems through frequent appearance comparisons on social media. When peer influence was presented in the form of appearance comparisons, it had a strong negative association with body esteem, regardless of the direction of the comparisons involved. The positive relationship between selfie posting and body esteem suggested that peer interactions may benefit adolescent girls’ body image development in specific ways that warrants further inquiry.
  • The visual cues that drive the self-assessment of body size: Dissociation
           between fixation patterns and the key areas of the body for accurate
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Kamila R. Irvine, Kristofor McCarty, Thomas V. Pollet, Katri K. Cornelissen, Martin J. Tovée, Piers L. Cornelissen A modified version of the bubbles masking paradigm was used in three experiments to determine the key areas of the body that are used in self-estimates of body size. In this paradigm, parts of the stimuli are revealed by several randomly allocated Gaussian “windows” forcing judgements to be made based on this partial information. Over multiple trials, all potential cues are sampled, and the effectiveness of each window at predicting the judgement is determined. The modified bubbles strategy emphasises the distinction between central versus edge cues and localises the visual features used in judging one’s own body size. In addition, eye-movements were measured in conjunction with the bubbles paradigm and the results mapped onto a common reference space. This shows that although observers fixate centrally on the torso, they are actually directing their visual attention to the edges of the torso to gauge body width as an index of body size. The central fixations are simply the most efficient way of positioning the eye to make this estimation. Inaccurate observers are less precise in their central fixations and do not evenly allocate their attention to both sides of the torso’s edge, illustrating the importance of efficiently sampling the key information.
  • Facebook, body esteem, and body surveillance in adult women: The
           moderating role of self-compassion and appearance-contingent self-worth
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Christopher Modica This study examined how Facebook use and specific Facebook activities were associated with body esteem and body surveillance in adult women. This study also examined whether self-compassion and appearance-contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between Facebook appearance comparison and body esteem, and the relationship between Facebook appearance comparison and body surveillance. Self-report measures were administered to adult women (N = 232) between the ages of 20 and 72 (M = 35.91) recruited through MTurk. Results indicated that Facebook appearance-exposure and Facebook appearance comparison significantly related to body surveillance, whereas only Facebook appearance comparison significantly related to body esteem. Overall Facebook use and Facebook intensity were not significantly associated with either body esteem or body surveillance. Self-compassion and appearance-contingent self-worth significantly related to body esteem and body surveillance. However, neither self-compassion nor appearance-contingent self-worth significantly moderated the relationship between Facebook appearance comparison and body surveillance. Similarly, a lack of significant moderation was found for the relationship between Facebook appearance comparison and body esteem. The importance of studying body image and Facebook activities in adult women is discussed. Additionally, the importance for researchers to examine how specific Facebook activities, beyond Facebook use, are linked with body image in this population is also highlighted.
  • Multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness are associated with facets
           of body image in British adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Jennifer Todd, Jane E. Aspell, David Barron, Viren Swami Previous research has identified a relationship between interoception and body image, where lower interoceptive awareness (IA) is associated with negative body image. However, relationships between facets of interoception and positive body image remain unexplored, and men and older adults remain underrepresented. To overcome these limitations, we assessed relationships between multiple dimensions of interoceptive awareness (IA) and multiple facets of body image in community adults. An online sample of 646 British adults (447 women) aged 18–76 years completed the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), the Body Appreciation Scale-2, the Functionality Appreciation Scale, the Authentic Pride subscale from the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale, and the Appearance Orientation and Overweight Preoccupation subscales from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant predictive relationships between IA and all five facets of body image after controlling for sex, body mass index, and age. In the final models, the MAIA subscales emerged as significant predictors for at least one facet of body image, with the exception of the MAIA Body Listening subscale. These findings extend previous work by demonstrating significant relationships between IA and previously unexplored facets of body image, which may hold promise for practitioner-based interventions.
  • Ideal comparisons: Body ideals harm women’s body image through
           social comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 29Author(s): Diana E. Betz, Natalie J. Sabik, Laura R. Ramsey Body dissatisfaction and self-objectification can arise when women view idealized thin bodies, as well as idealized athletic or curvy bodies. State-level social comparisons have been shown to mediate such effects, with mixed evidence for the moderating role of trait-level social comparison. An experiment tested the hypotheses that viewing messages idealizing thin, athletic, and curvy bodies would be associated with greater state social comparison as compared to a body acceptance condition, and that trait social comparison would moderate this association. Additionally, state social comparison was expected to mediate the association between viewing idealized images and negative body image. Data were collected online from 200 adult women. Regression analyses indicated that all three body ideals significantly increased state social comparison, which in turn predicted greater body surveillance, lower body appreciation, and, for thin and curvy conditions only, lower body esteem for looks. Further, trait social comparison moderated the association between viewing the curvy ideal and state social comparison. This study increases our knowledge of how state and trait social comparison function in relation to body ideals. Reducing social comparison to idealized images, as opposed to replacing the thin ideal with other body types, may be a superior approach to improving body image.
  • Body image states in everyday life: Evidence from ecological momentary
           assessment methodology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz This review highlights the contributions of Professor Thomas Cash to the scholarship of body image experiences in daily life, including his influence on subsequent research in this field. Cash’s arguments for capturing a broad range of state-based body image experiences have been heeded, with recent studies exploring positive body image constructs as well as the more studied negative body image experiences. Appearance comparisons are the most commonly studied contextual influence on body image, and they seem to have a consistent effect. However, the experiences of body image in sexual contexts, and among adolescents, those who are pregnant, or have other physical characteristics that may increase the salience of appearance warrant further attention. Findings generally support Cash’s contention that trait body image relates to likelihood and level of experience of body image in daily life, though the moderating effects of trait aspects on state-based relationships remains unclear. The discussion concludes with consideration of the impact of assessment schedules on obtained results. It is also discussed how accumulated knowledge regarding state-based body image experiences may be leveraged in treatment contexts, particularly in light of clear evidence that repeated assessment of body image in daily life increases self-awareness of one’s body image characteristics.
  • Announcement of 2018 Fisher Award
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s):
  • Corrigendum to “Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body
           Appreciation Scale-2 among adolescents and young adults in Danish,
           Portuguese, and Swedish” [Body Image 26 (2018) 1–9]
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): J.E. Lemoine, H. Konradsen, A. Lunde Jensen, C. Roland-Lévy, P. Ny, A. Khalaf, S. Torres
  • Acknowledgement of Consulting Reviewers
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s):
  • Conformity to feminine norms and self-objectification in self-identified
           feminist and non-feminist women
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Jaclyn A. Siegel, Rachel M. Calogero This study investigated the association between the endorsement of feminine gender role norms and self-objectifying beliefs and behaviors in self-identified feminist and non-feminist women. One hundred and ninety-seven predominantly White heterosexual cisgender women attending a large university in southwestern Canada completed the study questionnaires for course credit. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated no differences in self-objectification between self-identified feminist and non-feminist women. Compared to non-feminist women, however, feminist women were less likely to endorse feminine norms for sexual fidelity, romantic relationships, and domesticity. Regression analyses indicated more endorsement of thinness, investment in appearance, and romantic relationships and less endorsement of domesticity accounted for unique variance in self-objectification. Overall, this study provides further evidence for the association between endorsement of feminine norms, especially the norms for beauty and romance, and the adoption of an objectified self-view, even among feminist women.
  • Evaluating the potential roles of body dissatisfaction in exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Kimberly R. More, L. Alison Phillips, Miriam H. Eisenberg Colman Body dissatisfaction is linked to poor physical health, even after actual markers of health have been controlled for. This link is likely due to body dissatisfaction influencing health behaviors—more specifically, cardiovascular exercise. Modifiable reasons for this link have yet to be determined. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate whether active avoidance of exercise may explain the association of body dissatisfaction with exercise, and, if so, whether perceived barriers to exercise account for the association of body dissatisfaction and exercise avoidance. Baseline measures were collected via survey; physical activity was measured over time, via self-report. As expected, avoidance mediated the prospective relationship between dissatisfaction and exercise. Additionally, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and avoidance was mediated by embarrassment and fatigue. Interventions that boost body satisfaction and/or address perceptions of fatigue and embarrassment may be needed for individuals with body dissatisfaction to be more likely to participate in exercise-related programs.
  • Psychometric properties of the Breast Size Rating Scale (BSRS) in
           Brazilian university women
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Alessandra Costa Pereira Junqueira, Maria Fernanda Laus, Sebastião Sousa Almeida, Telma Maria Braga Costa, Maria Carolina Franco da Cunha, Viren Swami The present study examined the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese translation of the Breast Size Rating Scale (BSRS). A total of 194 Brazilian university women completed the BSRS along with measures of body satisfaction, body appreciation, weight discrepancy, and attitudes toward societal appearance ideals. They also had their actual bra size and body mass indices (BMIs) objectively measured. Results indicated evidence of adequate convergent validity insofar as greater breast size dissatisfaction was significantly associated with greater weight discrepancy, higher BMI, lower body appreciation, lower body satisfaction, greater use of information from society about appearance ideals, greater perceived pressure from society about appearance ideals, and greater internalisation of general and athletic appearance ideals, respectively. In our sample, 20.6% of women reported no breast size dissatisfaction, 65.5% desired a larger breast size, and 13.9% desired a smaller breast size. Findings demonstrate that BSRS scores are psychometrically sound and that breast size dissatisfaction is common among Brazilian women.
  • The effects of active social media engagement with peers on body image in
           young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Jacqueline V. Hogue, Jennifer S. Mills This experimental study examined the effects of engaging on social media with attractive female peers on young adult women’s body image. Participants were 118 female undergraduate students randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. Participants first completed a visual analogue scale measure of state body image and then either browsed and left a comment on the social media site of an attractive female peer (n = 56) or did the same with a family member (n = 62) and then completed a post-manipulation visual analogue scale measure of state body image. A 2 × 2 mixed analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between condition and time. Follow-up t-tests revealed that young adult women who engaged with an attractive peer on social media subsequently experienced an increase in negative body image (dependence-corrected d = 0.13), whereas those who engaged with a family member did not (dependence-corrected d = 0.02). The findings suggest that upward appearance comparisons on social media may promote increased body image concerns in young adult women.
  • Prospective relations among internalization of beauty ideals, body image
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Svenja Hoffmann, Petra Warschburger Common models propose that the internalization of societal beauty ideals influences disordered eating behaviors and muscularity-oriented behaviors via body image concerns. However, previous studies addressing these pathways have been mainly cross-sectional and primarily included female samples. We investigated these pathways prospectively in male and female adolescents and young adults, examining two pathways: a ‘weight/shape pathway,’ linking thin-ideal internalization, weight/shape concern, and restrained eating, and a ‘muscularity pathway,’ linking athletic-ideal internalization, muscularity concern, and muscularity-oriented behavior. Across three time points, 973 participants from the German general population were assessed. Although the hypothesized pathways could not be supported in their complete temporal sequence, several hypothesized pathways occurred across two time points. Among others, weight/shape concern predicted restrained eating and the athletic ideal played a prominent role in the prediction of muscularity-oriented behavior in both genders.
  • Bodies in Motion: An empirical evaluation of a program to support positive
           body image in female collegiate athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Dana K. Voelker, Trent A. Petrie, Qiushi Huang, Avinash Chandran Female athletes are at risk for eating disorders due to the experience and internalization of pressures regarding various aspects of their bodies, including weight and appearance. Evaluating programs that address psychosocial antecedents and may reduce female athletes’ risk is critical. We examined Bodies in Motion, a program based on cognitive dissonance and mindful self-compassion principles that integrates components of social media. Female athletes across nine NCAA athletic departments were assigned to Bodies in Motion (n = 57) or a wait-list control group (n = 40). Athletic department personnel were trained in the standardized program. Data were collected at three time-points – baseline, post-program, and three to four months later. Using Holm’s algorithm to control for multiple comparisons, repeated measures ANOVAs showed that, after program completion, Bodies in Motion athletes reported less thin-ideal internalization, as compared to the control athletes, over time. We also observed varying group trajectories in outcome responses upon visual inspection of profile plots. These findings serve as the basis for future research suggestions involving larger sample sizes and prolonged measurement of outcomes.
  • Examining sexual racism and body dissatisfaction among men of color who
           have sex with men: The moderating role of body image inflexibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Yash Bhambhani, Maureen K. Flynn, Karen Kate Kellum, Kelly G. Wilson Body image research with men who have sex with men (MSM) has largely focused on White MSM. The current study aimed to investigate whether men of color who have sex with men (MCSM) report similar levels of body dissatisfaction as White MSM. We also studied whether (a) the experience of sexual racism, a unique stressor for MCSM, is related to body dissatisfaction and (b) body image inflexibility moderates the relationship between sexual racism and muscularity-oriented behaviors. White MSM and MCSM (total N = 887) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk completed questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, body image flexibility, and experienced sexual racism on Qualtrics. We found that MCSM report more engagement in behaviors aimed at changing their bodies than White MSM. Additionally, experiencing sexual racism was related to higher body dissatisfaction and body image inflexibility in MCSM. In addition, body image inflexibility moderated by strengthening the association between experiencing sexual racism and muscularity-oriented behaviors. The present study highlights the need for further research with this understudied population, including intervention studies on mitigating the impact of experiencing sexual racism by increasing psychological and body image flexibility and studies aimed at reducing the incidence of sexual racism.
  • Religion and spirituality: Pathways to positive body image
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Marika Tiggemann, Kristy Hage Positive body image is a multidimensional construct referring to love, respect, and acceptance of one’s body, including aspects inconsistent with sociocultural ideals. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential pathways leading from religion and spirituality to positive body image. Participants were 345 women who completed questionnaire measures of engagement with formal religion, spirituality, gratitude, self-objectification, and positive body image. Both engagement with formal religion and spirituality were found to be positively associated with positive body image. Further, mediation analyses showed that the relationship between spirituality and positive body image was mediated by gratitude and reduced self-objectification. It was concluded that a broader spiritual consciousness may assist women to develop a loving, appreciative, and respectful relationship with their bodies. In addition, gratitude and a de-emphasis on external appearance provide useful goals and potential intervention points for promoting positive body image.
  • The impact of no-makeup selfies on young women’s body image
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Jasmine Fardouly, Ronald M. Rapee Viewing idealized images of attractive women on social media can negatively impact women’s body image and mood. Although women tend to post idealized images on social media, some also post natural no-makeup images. This study examined the impact of viewing both made up and no-makeup selfies on young women’s body image and mood. Female undergraduate students (N = 175) viewed either images of a woman wearing no makeup interspersed among idealized made up images of that woman (no-makeup condition), only idealized made up images of a woman (makeup only condition), or appearance-neutral travel images (control condition). Participants rated their state appearance satisfaction and mood pre- and post-exposure to the study images and rated their desire to change aspects of the face, hair, and skin post-exposure to the study images. Participants in the makeup only condition were less satisfied with their facial appearance and were more motivated to change aspects of their face, hair, and skin after exposure to the study images. Viewing the study images had no impact on the body image or mood of participants in the no-makeup condition. These results suggest that no-makeup selfies may reduce any negative impact of idealized made up images on women’s facial concerns.
  • A randomized experimental evaluation of a yoga-based body image
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Emma Halliwell, Kayleigh Dawson, Samantha Burkey Recent literature argues that body image interventions need to become more embodied. This paper evaluates a brief yoga-based body image intervention which incorporates themes specifically tailored to focus on positive body image. Young women (Mage = 20.21, SDage = 2.15) were randomly allocated to a four-session yoga intervention (n = 22) or a control condition (n = 22). Compared to controls, participants in the yoga condition reported significant increases in body appreciation, body connectedness, body satisfaction, and positive mood at posttest and at 4-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in negative mood or body surveillance. These findings add to existing evidence that yoga can improve women’s body image and positive mood. In addition, they suggest that a strong thematic focus on positive body image can achieve benefits at relatively low yoga doses. These findings are important as intervention length impacts the potential for dissemination.
  • Appearance comparison and other appearance-related influences on body
           dissatisfaction in everyday life
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Julie Chhouk, Lorie-Ann McCann, Geovanny Urbina, Hao Vuo, Isabel Krug, Lina Ricciardelli, Jake Linardon, Jaclyn Broadbent, Kristin Heron, Ben Richardson Although appearance comparisons, self-monitoring, and appearance-related comments have been linked to body dissatisfaction in prior studies, the combined and unique influences of these variables on state body dissatisfaction in daily life has yet to be explored. The present study addressed this gap, and also evaluated whether these state-based effects were stronger for individuals with trait-level body image disturbances (internalization and body dissatisfaction). Eighty-four women completed baseline measures of trait internalization and body dissatisfaction, and then reported momentary experiences of body dissatisfaction, appearance self-monitoring, appearance-related comments, and appearance-based comparisons at up to 10 random times daily for seven days. Multilevel analyses confirmed that both appearance comparisons and commentary (both negative and positive) were predictive of changes in state body dissatisfaction when modelled individually as well as in a combined (full) model. Appearance self-monitoring was not a significant predictor, either individually or in the full model. These within-person relationships were not moderated by individual differences in trait body dissatisfaction and internalization of appearance standards. Accordingly, experiences of body dissatisfaction in daily life may be a common reaction to negative appearance comments and unflattering comparisons, yet positive comments and/or efforts to avoid appearance-based comparisons may have a positive effect on one’s body image.
  • Examining positive body image, sport confidence, flow state, and
           subjective performance among student athletes and non-athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Zachary A. Soulliard, Alicia A. Kauffman, Hannah F. Fitterman-Harris, Joanne E. Perry, Michael J. Ross The primary purpose of the present study was to examine differences in positive body image, specifically body appreciation and functionality appreciation, between student athletes and non-athletes. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between positive body image and other sport-related variables. Seventy-nine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student athletes (Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.13) and 175 non-athletes (Mage = 19.38, SD = 1.81) completed measures of body appreciation and functionality appreciation. The athletes further completed measures of sport confidence, flow state, and subjective sport performance. Student athletes reported higher levels of both facets of positive body image. Significant relationships were also found between positive body image and the sport-related variables. The present results contribute novel findings to the positive body image literature and potential implications for coaches to encourage a culture that focuses less on body appearance and more on cultivating positive body image.
  • Dimensional structure, psychometric properties, and sex invariance of a
           Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the Multidimensional Body-Self
           Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scales (MBSRQ–AS) in Malaysian
           Malay adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Viren Swami, Jennifer Todd, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd. Khatib, Evelyn Kheng Lin Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, David Barron The 34-item Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scales (MBSRQ–AS) is a widely-used measure of multidimensional body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the MBSRQ–AS. A sample of 629 Malaysian Malays (women n = 315) completed the MBSRQ–AS, as well as measures of body appreciation, psychological well-being, perceptions of appearance ideals, and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the MBSRQ–AS items reduced to four dimensions, although one factor had less-than-adequate internal consistency. Omitting this factor resulted in a 23-item 3-factor solution, which we tested for fit using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) alongside the parent 5-factor model. CFA indicated that both models had good fit on some indices, but less-than-ideal fit on other indices, with the 3-factor model showing comparatively better fit. Multi-group CFA indicated that it was not possible to achieve scalar invariance across sex, but internal consistency coefficients were adequate. Evidence of construct validity, as assessed through correlations between MBSRQ–AS scores and additional measures, was mixed. We discuss reasons that complicate interpretation of the dimensionality of MBSRQ–AS scores in this and previous studies, and call for further research on this issue.
  • Anti-doping rule violations in sport: The attractive leniency effect and
           attributions of guilt and punishment
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Mark S. Allen, Kirsty McRae, Emma E. Walter The attractive-leniency effect predicts that more attractive people are perceived as less guilty and less deserving of punishment compared to less attractive people. This closely aligned conceptual replication study sought to explore athlete physical attractiveness, sex, and anti-doping rule violation severity (ADRV) as factors contributing to attributions of guilt and punishment. After initial pilot testing, 411 participants (135 men, 276 women; Mage = 20.30, SD = 4.69 years) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings that differed in sex (male/female), ADRV severity (serious/minor), and physical attractiveness (high/low). Participants were asked to provide attributions of guilt, severity of punishment, and most appropriate course of action (sport-related punishment). Analyses of variance showed that attributions of guilt and punishment were related to ADRV severity, but there were no significant main or interaction effects for physical attractiveness on any of the outcome variables. Follow-up sensitivity analyses provided some evidence that less attractive athletes are afforded harsher punishments (reflecting a longer suspension from sport) than more attractive athletes, but this finding was not robust. Overall, the findings of this initial research indicate that an attractive leniency effect is likely to be trivial or negligible in the context of anti-doping rule violations in sport.
  • Factor structure and psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay)
           translation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Viren Swami, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd. Khatib, Evelyn Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, Jennifer Todd, David Barron The 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used measure of a facet of positive body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAS-2 in a community sample of Malaysian Malay and Chinese adults (N = 781). Participants completed the Malay BAS-2 alongside demographic items and measures of subjective happiness, life satisfaction, actual-ideal weight discrepancy (women only), drive for muscularity (men only), and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analyses with a Malay subsample indicated that BAS-2 scores reduced to a single dimension with all 10 items in women and men, although the factor structure was similar but not identical across sex. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following modifications. BAS-2 scores were partially scalar invariant across sex (with no significant sex differences) and ethnicity (Malay participants had significantly higher body appreciation than Chinese participants), as well as had adequate internal consistency. Evidence of construct and incremental validity was also provided through associations with additional measures and the prediction of subjective happiness over-and-above other variables, respectively. The availability of the Malay BAS-2 should help advance research on the body appreciation construct in Malay-speaking populations.
  • From negative to positive body image: Men’s and women’s journeys from
           early adolescence to emerging adulthood
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Kristina Holmqvist Gattario, Ann Frisén This study examined the developmental journeys of individuals who have overcome negative body image in early adolescence and developed positive body image on their way to emerging adulthood. Interviews were conducted with 15 women and 16 men (aged 26–27) recruited from a large longitudinal sample. Results demonstrated different patterns of positive body image development, but most participants had overcome their negative body image by age 18. Factors contributing to their negative body image in early adolescence included negative peer influence and discontent with life in general. Turning points included finding a new social context, experiencing agency and empowerment, and using cognitive strategies to improve body image. Characteristics of the participants’ current positive body image coincided with established features of positive body image; novel findings were that the women were more likely to think of positive body image as needing constant work to maintain and were also more likely to have a feminist identity, whereas the men were more likely to try to improve their body shape and perceive their body as resembling the ideal. In conclusion, body image interventions need to target not only matters related to physical appearance but also adolescents’ general sense of belonging, agency, and empowerment.
  • Exposure to body focused and non-body focused others over a week: A
           preliminary investigation of their unique contributions to college
           women’s eating and body image
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Kathryn Miller, Allison Kelly, Elizabeth Stephen This study investigated how exposure to non-body focused others (i.e., those who are not preoccupied with their body weight/shape or appearance) and exposure to body focused others uniquely affect young women’s eating and body image over a week, within a day, and from one day to the next. For seven consecutive days, 92 female college students completed nightly online questionnaires about their daily experiences. Between-persons, multilevel modelling revealed that higher average levels of exposure to non-body focused others over the week uniquely predicted greater intuitive eating, greater body appreciation, and less dietary restraint, whereas higher average exposure to body focused others predicted these outcomes in the opposite direction. Within-persons, exposure to body focused others did not predict eating and body image, but exposure to non-body focused others did. On days when women had more exposure to non-body focused others than their personal average level or than the previous day’s level, eating and body image were better. These findings are the first to suggest that independent of exposure to body focused others, level of exposure to non-body focused others – within and across days – contribute positively to eating and body image.
  • Me, my selfie, and I: The relationship between editing and posting selfies
           and body dissatisfaction in men and women
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Alexandra Rhodes Lonergan, Kay Bussey, Jonathan Mond, Olivia Brown, Scott Griffiths, Stuart B. Murray, Deborah Mitchison Factors that promote versus protect against body dissatisfaction remain unclear. Social media may be a risk factor, particularly given ubiquitous engagement among young people, and the pervasive use of “selfies.” Conversely, self-compassion has received attention as a protective factor against body dissatisfaction. This study examined: (a) the relationships between “manipulation” of selfies posted online, “investment” in others’ responses to selfies, and body dissatisfaction; and (b) whether self-compassion moderated the relationships between social media variables and body dissatisfaction. Results from 184 Australian men (n = 89) and women (n = 95) suggested that social media variables photo manipulation and investment were associated with greater body dissatisfaction for both genders. Self-compassion did not moderate these relationships. Findings suggest that manipulation and concern about selfies posted may be risk correlates for body dissatisfaction in men and women. Further research is needed to investigate protective factors against body dissatisfaction in an online environment.
  • The relationship between weight stigma, weight bias internalization, and
           physical health in military personnel with or at high-risk of
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Lisa M. Shank, Natasha A. Schvey, Kendra Ekundayo, Deanna Schreiber-Gregory, Dawn Bates, Douglas Maurer, Elena Spieker, Mark Stephens, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Tracy Sbrocco Perceived weight stigma is associated with adverse health indices, such as elevated cortisol, lipid/glucose dysregulation, and poorer self-rated health. This relationship may be particularly relevant for military personnel, given the cultural emphasis on fitness and weight/shape. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between weight stigma and physical health in 117 active duty personnel (66.7% male; 56.4% non-Hispanic White; age: 30.8 ± 7.4 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 2.5 kg/m2). Participants reported weight stigma (general and military-specific), weight bias internalization, and the presence (≥1; n = 55) or absence (n = 62) of medical conditions. Logistic regressions were conducted examining the ability of weight stigma (general or military-specific) and weight bias internalization to predict the presence or absence of medical conditions. General weight stigma was not significantly associated with the presence of a medical condition (p> .05). However, individuals with military-specific weight stigma scores twice that of their peers were over three times more likely (p =  .04) to report a medical condition. Weight bias internalization was not significant in any model (ps> .20). Longitudinal studies should prospectively examine the relationship between weight stigma in the military setting and health among service members.
  • The Body Appreciation Scale-2: Item interpretation and sensitivity to
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Nicole A.L. Dignard, Josée L. Jarry The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used measure of positive body image. Items are worded ambiguously to allow reference to any aspect of the body during measure completion. We examined (a) how BAS-2 items are interpreted and whether this interpretation is influenced by the content of measures administered prior to it, (b) whether measures administered prior to the BAS-2 alter its scores or (c) the correlation between BAS-2 scores and scores on a measure of body dissatisfaction, (d) how BAS-2 item interpretation relates to total scores, and (e) whether BAS-2 scores are associated with investment in appearance for aesthetic purposes. Canadian female undergraduates (N = 392) completed one of four priming questionnaires, followed by the BAS-2, and then indicated how they interpreted each BAS-2 item. Most items were interpreted in terms of appearance, with the primes having no impact on item interpretation, scores, or the magnitude of the correlation with body dissatisfaction. BAS-2 scores were highest among women interpreting a moderate number of items in terms of appearance and negatively correlated with investment for aesthetic purposes. Thus, the BAS-2 is not vulnerable to priming, but among young Western women, items are likely to be interpreted in terms of appearance.
  • Understanding cosmetic surgery consideration in Chinese adolescent girls:
           Contributions of materialism and sexual objectification
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s): Boby Ho-Hong Ching, Jason Teng Xu Based on objectification theory and the consumer culture impact model, this study examined psychological predictors of cosmetic surgery consideration in 314 Chinese adolescent girls. Path analyses revealed several findings. First, both interpersonal sexual objectification and materialism contributed to internalized appearance ideals, which in turn related to body surveillance, body shame, and facial appearance concerns. Second, the association between materialism and internalized appearance ideals was independent of the association between materialism and interpersonal sexual objectification. Third, internalized appearance ideals were linked to cosmetic surgery consideration via body surveillance and facial appearance concerns. Fourth, while internalized appearance ideals were associated with body shame, body shame did not mediate its association with cosmetic surgery consideration. Fifth, instead of body shame, facial appearance concerns mediated that link between body surveillance and cosmetic surgery consideration as well as the link between internalized appearance ideals and cosmetic surgery consideration. This study provides support to the basic tenets of objectification theory and the consumer culture impact model as applied to Chinese adolescent girls’ willingness to consider cosmetic surgery. It suggests that using a measure that is more sensitive to salient cultural concerns is important when attempting to understand body image issues in different cultural contexts.
  • The Seymour Fisher Annual Award
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Body Image, Volume 28Author(s):
  • Stereotypes of physical attractiveness and social influences: The heritage
           and vision of Dr. Thomas Cash
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): Rachel F. Rodgers, Jenna Campagna, Raihaan Attawala Dr. Thomas Cash conducted seminal work on the beliefs and stereotypes related to attractiveness as well as their impact, and their transmission through cultural and interpersonal processes. This initial work has inspired and given rise to an important body of research significantly increasing our understanding of these processes. Here we review the initial contributions and research directions set up by Dr. Cash, as well as the main findings of the research that has built on his foundations. Specifically, we review findings related to the existence of attractiveness stereotypes and appearance ideals, research examining the social and interpersonal impacts of such stereotypes, and finally the sociocultural transmission of these beliefs. Future directions related to the extension of our understanding to appearance characteristics beyond shape and weight, as well as increased focus on minority identities and their intersection, are proposed.
  • Body image, cosmetic surgery, and minimally invasive treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): David B. Sarwer Over the past 60 years, a growing body of research has investigated the psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery and related minimally-invasive treatments. While the earliest studies were influenced by psychoanalytic thinking, much of the work over the past several decades has been influenced by Thomas Cash’s cognitive-behavioral theory of body image and has focused on the appearance concerns of patients who seek these procedures. The majority of individuals interested in the procedures report heightened dissatisfaction typically focused on the feature being considered for treatment. Studies from around the world also have suggested that between 5–15% of patients who present for cosmetic procedures meet diagnostic criteria for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). While individuals with BDD typically do not report a reduction in their BDD symptoms following a cosmetic procedure, the great majority of patients without the disorder do report improvement in body image. The paper reviews this literature and also discusses the role of body image in three newer areas of plastic surgery—body contouring after massive weight loss, genital procedures (either for cosmetic purposes or as part of gender reassignment), and vascularized composite allotransplantation, including face and hand transplantation.
  • The Cash effect: Shaping the research conversation on body image and
           eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): Sarah K. Murnen, Linda Smolak Cash and Deagle (1997) examined the associations between body image disturbance (BID) and the eating disorders (EDs) of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in a meta-analytic review. They found almost twice as many studies employing perceptual measures of body size evaluation compared to cognitive-evaluative measures of body dissatisfaction, even though effect sizes were larger for studies with cognitive-evaluative measurement. We examined 109 “influential” (i.e., well-cited) studies that cited the Cash and Deagle meta-analysis. We found a slight, continued emphasis on research using body size evaluation measures that implied a biological correlate for perceptual differences (especially for those with AN). We found proportionally more studies using cognitive-evaluative measures than was true in 1997, and more variability in the types of measures used. In these studies researchers emphasized the role of sociocultural factors in the link between BID and EDs. Theory and research that integrate a variety of factors to conceptualize the association between BID and EDs are still needed.
  • A review of research linking body image and sexual well-being
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): Meghan M. Gillen, Charlotte H. Markey The link between body image and sexual well-being is intuitive and increasingly supported by psychological research: individuals, particularly women, with greater body satisfaction and body appreciation tend to report more positive sexual experiences. Although both perceptions of one’s body and one’s sexual life are central to most adults’ experiences, this area of research has remained somewhat understudied. In this review, we discuss the findings that are available and suggest directions for future research and applied implications of this work. We highlight Thomas Cash’s contributions to this area of study, given his significant contributions to moving our understanding of body image and sexual well-being forward.
  • Translation and validation of body image instruments: Challenges, good
           practice guidelines, and reporting recommendations for test adaptation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Body ImageAuthor(s): Viren Swami, David Barron Body image research has grown rapidly to include new cultural and linguistic populations, but this gives rise to a need for measurement instruments that are sensitive to local contextual variations while remaining equivalent across groups. Test adaptation, or the translation and validation of a source instrument for use in a new cultural group, is an important part of this process. Here, we offer an operational framework for conducting effective test adaptation. We cover good-practice guidelines for instrument translation and suggest effective strategies for achieving semantic equivalence of translated instruments. We also focus on measurement invariance and provide good-practice and reporting guidelines for conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Finally, we suggest good-practice guidelines for demonstrating that scores on translated measures have good reliability and validity. It is our hope that the availability of this article will assist body image scholars seeking to conduct robust test adaptations of existing measurement tools.
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Heriot-Watt University
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