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  Subjects -> MANUFACTURING AND TECHNOLOGY (Total: 287 journals)
    - CERAMICS, GLASS AND POTTERY (25 journals)
    - MACHINERY (32 journals)
    - PACKAGING (15 journals)
    - PLASTICS (27 journals)
    - RUBBER (1 journals)

MACHINERY (32 journals)

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Mechanics Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
BER : Consumer Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engenharia Agrícola     Open Access  
High Speed Machining     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
High Temperature Materials and Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Machining and Machinability of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Machinery Manufacturing and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Terramechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Machine Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 55)
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Sensor Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal Cover International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
  [SJR: 3.363]   [H-I: 81]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0890-6955
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2817 journals]
  • A load identification method for the grinding damage induced stress (GDIS)
           distribution in silicon wafers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Ping. Zhou, Shance Xu, Ziguang Wang, Ying Yan, Renke Kang, Dongming Guo
      Subsurface damage (SSD) and grinding damage induced stress (GDIS) result in deformation and strength degradation of a ground silicon wafer. The Stoney equation is widely used as a non-destructive method for finding GDIS in a silicon wafer prepared by the rotational grinding method. However, the basic assumptions of the Stoney equation ignore the detailed information on the GDIS in a ground wafer. In this paper, a new method is proposed for analyzing GDIS distribution in a silicon wafer thinned by grinding. The wafer is diced into small chips for identification of stress state with a load identification method. The results show that the stresses are not independent of the direction as assumed in the Stoney equation, and the ratio of the two principal stresses in the damage layer is approximately 2:3 under the grinding conditions of a #3000 diamond wheel with a spark-out time of 5 seconds. Moreover, the principal stress direction is obviously aligned with the grinding direction but independent of the crystalline orientation. The SSD is observed with a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), which shows numerous plane defects parallel to the {111} planes. It can be deduced from the results that the defects are non-uniformly distributed in the subsurface with their directions in the slip direction of the grinding abrasives. However, the principal stresses at any points have their respective values close to each other. The results of this study are unique and unexpected.

      PubDate: 2016-05-02T12:56:34Z
  • Chatter free tool orientations in 5-axis ball-end milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Sun Chao, yusuf Altintas
      Dies, molds and parts with complex free form surfaces are usually machined with ball end mills on 5-axis CNC machining centers. This paper presents automatic adjustment of tool axis orientations to avoid chatter along the tool path. The process mechanics and dynamics of ball end milling are modeled in cutter-workpiece engagement coordinate system. The structural dynamics of tool and workpiece are transformed to cutter-workpiece engagement coordinates by considering the tool path and the kinematics of the machine tool. The stability of the 5-axis ball end milling is modeled at each tool path location, and the chatter free tool axis orientations are searched iteratively using Nyquist criterion while avoiding gouging limits. The tool path, i.e. cutter location (CL) file, is updated to generate chatter free, 5-axis ball end milling of the parts. The proposed algorithm has been experimentally proven in 5-axis ball end milling tests.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T17:53:58Z
  • Review of micro/nano machining by utilizing elliptical vibration cutting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jianguo Zhang., Tao Cui, Cheng Ge, Yongxin Sui, Huaijiang Yang
      Textured surfaces with sophisticated micro/nano structures can provide interesting and advanced functions. In order to promote those unique functions into the practical use, high performance manufacturing technologies are required. Nowadays, elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) is attracting more and more attentions due to its excellent machining performances, especially the advantageous in the precision machining of difficult-to-cut materials. The emphasis on this literature review is the micro/nano machining technology by applying EVC. The development of the EVC technology is simply introduced, and then the advantageousness of EVC in the machining process is explored in detail. As following, the development of different EVC devices are introduced, and the applications of the micro/nano structure fabrication is detailedly expatiated by applying the different types of elliptical vibrators. By controlling the motion of the ultra-precision machine tool itself, the micro/nano structure can be accurately fabricated on various workpiece materials with the reduction of cutting forces, burr generation, tool wear, et al. in EVC process. Moreover, a unique amplitude control sculpturing method, where the depth of cut is arbitrary changed by controlling the vibration amplitude in the machining process, is introduced. By applying the amplitude control sculpturing method, ultra-precision micro/nano structures can be efficiently sculptured especially on the difficult-to-cut materials. Finally, the elliptical vibration texturing process is also explored in the fast micro/nano machining of the simple and regular structures. The EVC technology is expected to promote the development of micro/nano machining process in the actual industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T17:53:58Z
  • An experimental and theoretical investigation on the brittle ductile
           transition and cutting force anisotropy in cutting KDP crystal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Shengfei Wang, Chenhui An, Feihu Zhang, Jian Wang, Xiangyang Lei, Jianfeng Zhang
      As a typical brittle material, Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) crystal exhibits anisotropic mechanical property during processing. The most general method to produce smooth and crack-free KDP surface is single point diamond fly-cutting (SPDF). In processing KDP by SPDF, cutting direction has great influence on the cutting force and the quality of the machined surface. Thus, selecting an optimal cutting direction is of great significance in decreasing the cutting force and improving the surface quality. In this paper, influence of cutting direction on the brittle ductile transition (BDT) depth and cutting force in machining KDP crystal has been investigated. Cutting experiments are carried out on the (001), Doubler and Tripler plane of KDP crystal to find out the change law of cutting force and BDT depth related to cutting direction. Theoretical models for calculating the cutting force and conditions for achieving crack-free surface in cutting by circular edge cutter have also been established. The predicted results coincide well with the experiment results, which have proved the validity of the proposed models. The experimental results in this study can provide guidelines for optimizing the processing parameters in fly-cutting of KDP crystal, and the theoretical models can be extended to study the cutting mechanism of other brittle materials.

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T17:53:58Z
  • Modelling of Cutting forces in orbital drilling of titanium alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): P.A. Rey, J. LeDref, J. Senatore, Y. Landon
      Orbital drilling is a highly complex machining operation. Due to the tool helical trajectory, the chip thickness is highly variable along the cutting edges and during the tool revolution. This can be made even more difficult by the cutting tool geometry, which can be also very complex. This explains why cutting forces are very difficult to model and to estimate for different cutting tool geometries. The aim of this study is to develop a cutting forces model depending on the tool geometry and cutting conditions in order to control the final quality of the machined borehole. First, the geometry of the chip is modelled taking into account the parameters defining the trajectory and the tool geometry. A cutting force model, based on the instantaneous chip thickness, is then set up. An experimental study validates the modelling through measurements of cutting forces made during orbital drilling tests. From this modelling, it is possible to optimize the cutting parameters and the geometry of the cutting tool in order to control the loading on the tool and thus the final quality of the borehole.

      PubDate: 2016-04-19T12:37:37Z
  • IFC - Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 105

      PubDate: 2016-04-14T12:14:08Z
  • Origins for the size effect of surface roughness in diamond turning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): C.L. He, W.J. Zong, T. Sun
      In this work, a novel surface roughness prediction model, in which the kinematics, plastic side flow, material spring back and random factors are considered, is theoretically formulated to reveal the underlying mechanisms for the observed size effect of surface roughness in diamond turning. In this newly developed model, the copy effect of tool edge waviness is successively integrated into the kinematic component, and a yield stress and minimum undeformed chip thickness related function is constructed for calculating the material spring back. For the component of plastic side flow, the effects of minimum undeformed chip thickness, tool nose radius, feed rate as well as cutting width are took into account. Moreover, the component of random factors is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. Theoretical predictions and experimental validations show that the feed rate dependent size effect of surface roughness as observed on the fine grain substrate is derived from the decrement of the kinematic component being less than the increment of the plastic side flow component. For the coarse grain substrate, the large and hard inclusion inevitably appears in the matrix. Therefore, the size effect of surface roughness can be attributed to the formation of pit defect and deep groove on the finished surface at large feed rate and the protrusion of hard inclusion from the finished surface at low feed rate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T04:36:49Z
  • Dual laser beam revising the separation path technology of laser induced
           thermal-crack propagation for asymmetric linear cutting glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Chunyang Zhao, Hongzhi Zhang, Lijun Yang, Yang Wang, Ye Ding
      Owing to the properties of high-transmittance, wear-resisting and lightweight brittle, glass plays an important role in various electronic equipment screens. The laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) can separate the glass with the advantage of the high-quality, high-efficiency and high-strength. However, the deviation of the separation path (which means the material don′t separate in the path of laser scanning) is one of the serious problems in asymmetric linear cutting glass with LITP. In this study, a dual laser beam revision the separation path technology (DLBRP) has been developed for the first time by skillfully arranging two defocused diode pump solid state laser (1064nm). The principle of DLBRP is expounded. This paper studied several factors's effects on the cutting quality such as Master laser power (P M ), scanning speed (V M ) and laser spot diameter (D M ).The smaller the Master laser spot diameter, the smaller deviation of the separation path. The effects of revision factors including Accompanying laser power (P A ), Accompanying laser spot diameter on the material surface (D A ) and the horizontal relative distance between the Master laser and Accompanying laser (∆X) were investigated. The optimum processing parameters were presented in this paper. The cambered separation path (which means the material gets separated in the arc way) in asymmetry linear cutting glass (which means the cutting path deviating from the symmetry axis of the material in a large scale, and the area of two separated parts is varied widely) could be revised into the straight one. A numerical simulation on the thermal stress and the dynamic propagation of crack in the DLBRP for asymmetric linear cutting glass with LITP was developed to analyze the revision mechanism, which is corresponding to the theoretical analysis and experimental results. The analysis of experimental results and numerical simulation results shows that the DLBRP technology can effectively revise the deviation of the separation path in asymmetry linear cutting glass with LITP. Besides, the clean surface without any pollution and surface damage can be achieved.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T04:36:49Z
  • Impact-driven ejection of micro metal droplets on-demand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jun Luo, Lehua Qi, Yuan Tao, Qian Ma, Claas Willem Visser
      On-demand metal droplet deposition will be a cornerstone technology in 3D metal printing. However, suitable small nozzles are hardly available, limiting the resolution and surface finish of final products. Here, the ejection of record-small metal droplets with a diameter of only 0.55±0.07 times the nozzle diameter was demonstrated. To this end, a novel metal drop-on-demand (DoD) generator for high-temperature metal processing was designed and manufactured. A metal rod was utilized to transfer a vibration pulse, which was required to eject a liquid droplet, from a low-temperature region to the high-temperature liquid metal close to the nozzle. The influence of the pulse characteristics on the droplet ejection regime was studied experimentally and numerically. A 2D axisymmetric numerical model revealed that the shorter pulses allow reducing the droplet size, with the pulse duration of 13μs resulting in the smallest feasible droplets. A novel method to create such short pulses, by impacting the metal-ring connected rod with a solid impactor was manufactured and tested, and the benefits of this method over more the spring-type pulse transfer was experimentally confirmed. This research provides a feasible way to achieve ejection of the small metal droplet on-demand.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T04:36:49Z
  • Investigation of non-uniform preload on the static and rotational
           performances for spindle bearing system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Li. Xiaohu, Li Huanfeng, Zhang Yanfei, Hong Jun
      In order to eliminate the deflection of spindle under external loading, a new non-uniform preload for spindle bearing system is proposed in this paper, and the effect of non-uniform preload on the static and rotational performances of the spindle system is explored both theoretically and experimentally. Seeking to reveal the role of non-uniform preload in spindle static and rotational performances under external radial loading, the equivalent transformation model is firstly built to simplify the non-uniform preload applied on the bearing. Then a simulation model is employed to analyze the variable static and rotational performances of spindle under different preload conditions. A test rig is designed to equip with spindle bearing system, inside which the measurement system is arranged to experimentally investigate how the spindle static and rotational accuracy are influenced by non-uniform preload, varying external load and rotating speeds. The results under different preload conditions show that the non-uniform preload with reasonable equivalent magnitude and direction can effectively adjust the spindle rotating center and compensate the spindle rotation error, and thus improves the rotational accuracy of the spindle system under complicated and alternating working conditions. This provides a new compensation method to the spindle deflection and rotational motion error through adjusting the non-uniformly distributed preload on the spindle bearing system.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T12:29:54Z
  • Effect of drilling allowance on TBC delamination, spatter and re-melted
           cracks characteristics in laser drilling of TBC coated superalloys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Zhengjie Fan, Xia Dong, Kedian Wang, Wenqiang Duan, Rujia Wang, Xuesong Mei, Wenjun Wang, Jianlei Cui, Xin Yuan, Chengying Xu
      Laser drilling of inclined holes on Ni-based superalloys coated with thermal barrier coatings (TBC) was studied using numerical simulation and experiments. Two types of drilling, three steps-laser drilling (TSLD) method and the one step laser drilling (OSLD), were employed for making comparison. The simulation results demonstrate that relatively strong vortex effect of assist gas at hole entrance and the drilling allowance of the substrate hole can deflect the trajectories of melt flow from leading edge TBC wall. This phenomenon may isolate leading edge of the hole from the ejecting molten material. Thus, shearing stress effect was prevented. The characteristics of TBC delamination, spatter at the TBC leading edge and re-melted cracks along the TBC trailing edge are investigated by comparing the characteristics of the melt flow obtained via simulation and experiment. The combined results suggest that the TBC/substrate multilayer can avoid these defects applying the TSLD technology.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T12:29:54Z
  • A comprehensive error analysis method for the geometric error of
           multi-axis machine tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jian-xiong Chen, Shu-wen Lin, Xiao-long Zhou
      In this paper, a comprehensive error analysis method is proposed to discover how the geometric error propagation through every motion axis, and to find out which error parameters have greater impact on the tool posture error at the end of the kinematic chain. As the geometric error of a motion axis can be regarded as the differential movement, an error model for a four-axis machine tool is established to calculate the tool posture error with all the geometric error parameters. Then a cumulative process of the differential movements of every axis is proposed to describe the error propagation process when moving the tool to the given position. Moreover, the workspace of the machine tool is discretized into an amount of points with a uniform sampling method on the measured positions of the geometric error. Then, a Spearman rank correlation method is presented to find out how closely linked between a single error parameter and the tool posture error all over the sampling workspace. Hence, the ten key error parameters are selected according to the analysis results in the three-axis and four-axis sampling workspace. Finally, an experiment is conducted on the four-axis machine tool with a three-axis controlled trajectory to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method using a double ballbar.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T12:29:54Z
  • Micro-dimple pattern process and orthogonal cutting force analysis of
           elliptical vibration texturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Rendi Kurniawan, Gandjar Kiswanto, Tae Jo Ko
      Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) has been studied extensively due to its superior performance. Benefits include reduced cutting force, tool wear, burrs, and surface roughness. This paper demonstrates the fabrication of a micro-dimple pattern using elliptical vibration texturing (EVT) based on the EVC method. An analytical model of the texturing process and an orthogonal cutting force analysis are presented. The micro-dimples were successfully established on Al-6061 using different vibration frequencies. The accuracy of the micro-dimples was measured and compared to an analytical model in order to validate the texturing process. The orthogonal cutting force model was used to simplify the cutting mechanism analysis. The effect of transient shear angle is not considered in the texturing process due to the small slope angle of the tool path. The result shows that the analytical model of the cutting force corresponds well with the experimental data.

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T12:17:36Z
  • Modeling and compensation for spindle’s radial thermal drift error
           on a vertical machining center
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Kuo Liu, Mingjia Sun, Tiejun Zhu, Yuliang Wu, Yu Liu
      In the present work, spindle’s radial thermal drift error (RTDE) was studied on a vertical machining center. RTDEs in X-direction and Y-direction of a vertical machining center were tested and the main direction of RTDE was determined as Y-direction. RTDEs in Y-direction and temperatures in key points of spindle were tested using different rotating speeds. RTDE models under different postures were established and the compensation strategy was presented. Thereafter, the influence of geometric parameters on the prediction of results was obtained using advanced first order second moment method. The compensation effects were verified using both simulation and experiment. The results indicated that high accuracy and strong robustness can be achieved with the proposed model, even if the rotating speed of spindle randomly changed, or the spindle was disturbed by the cooling system.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T09:23:48Z
  • Modeling and analysis of a novel approach in machining and structuring of
           flat surfaces using face milling process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Mohammadjafar Hadad, Mohammadjavad Ramezani
      In this paper, a new and innovative method for regular structuring and special patterning of workpiece surface applying face milling process is presented. The patterns have been generated on surface by particular positioning of workpiece and tool, milling passes in different directions, and as well as special angular position of spindle in typical vertical milling machine. The model for the geometry of the cutting tool was first developed and subsequently, a new simulation model for surface pattern by face milling process was established. Mathematical models are presented to describe the cutting tool geometry and position (including orientation and location) in space. To verify this method, calculation and simulation programs (MATLAB and CAD programming software) are developed. This study provides a fundamental understanding for the pattern milling process, based on this, the influence of different milling process parameters on pattern geometry (including insert angles and radius) is discussed. The simulation results could be used to optimize the pattern milling and conventional milling processes, and also to improve the workpiece surface quality or predict the surface pattern by given face milling parameters.

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T18:37:03Z
  • IFC - Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 104

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T18:37:03Z
  • Developments in electrochemical discharge machining: A review on
           electrochemical discharge machining, process variants and their hybrid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Tarlochan Singh, Akshay Dvivedi
      Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is a hybrid non-conventional machining process, used to machine electrically conductive and non-conductive materials. It is a preferred process to fabricate micro scale features like micro holes, micro channels, microwaves and 3-dimensional intricate shapes on variety of materials. In order to improve the efficacy of ECDM process, certain technical augmentations are provided with basic configuration of ECDM. These augmentations result in developments of ECDM process variants. Further, research community has developed ECDM based triplex hybrid methods for further process enrichment. This review article presents a comprehensive review of these recent developments in ECDM process, its variants and their triplex hybrid methods. The future research possibilities are identified and presented as research potentials.

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T18:37:03Z
  • Thermal volumetric effects under axes cycling using an invar R-test device
           and reference length
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Elie Bitar-Nehme, J.R.R. Mayer
      Thermal errors of machine tools are in part caused by the variation of ambient temperature as well as the heat internally generated by the machine. These deformations are a major source of quasi-static machining errors and are thought to be related to temperatures and temperature gradients within the machine structure. This article presents a study of the thermal volumetric behavior of a five-axis machine tool. The study uses direct volumetric error measurements within the machine work volume for specific combinations of five-axis commands. Thermally induced volumetric distortion errors are studied in relation to a specifically designed machine activity sequence during which the power at each of the five-axis motors and the spindle are measured. The experimental measurement setup consisting of a thermally stable volumetric error sensor and a reference scale bar is presented. The study allows quantifying the effect of every axis’ activity on the Cartesian components of the volumetric distortion. Rotary axes are found to be the major contributors to the tested machine's thermal errors. Thermal coupling is observed whereby the activity of a rotary axis strongly affects a neighbouring linear axis.

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T18:37:03Z
  • Identification and compensation of main machining errors on surface form
           accuracy in ultra-precision diamond turning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Xianlei Liu, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang, Shugui Liu
      Ultra-precision diamond turning is widely used in manufacturing the optical surfaces with nanometric accuracy. However, the machining errors especially geometric errors have a significant influence on the form accuracy of machined surfaces. A machining error model for a three-axis ultra-precision lathe is established based on multi-body system (MBS) theory to study the effect of geometric errors on the coordinate distortion and form accuracy. The machining errors are classified into five categories according to the coordinate distortions direction. These errors generate the coordinate distortions along the X direction, Y direction, radial direction, circumferential direction, and axial direction respectively. Five error categories have different effects on different typical surfaces, and the main machining errors on the form accuracy are identified according to the difference of the form error distribution for different surface shapes. Simulation is implemented to verify the influence of the machining errors on the form accuracy. One plane-spherical surface was proposed and machined to separate the main machining errors, which are used to be compensated in the machining experiments. The form accuracy of one freeform surface is proved to achieve a significant improvement finally.

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T18:37:03Z
  • A generic instantaneous undeformed chip thickness model for the cutting
           force modeling in micromilling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Li Kexuan, Zhu Kunpeng, Mei Tao
      The precise modeling of the instantaneous undeformed chip thickness is one of the key issues in the mechanics of micromilling. While most current models noticed the influences of the tool tip trochoidal trajectory and tool runout, they took account only the workpiece removed by immediate passing tooth but not more preceded teeth. These lead to inaccuracy when the single edge cutting occurred, which has been identified to be a prevalent phenomenon in micromilling operation. In this paper, the actual cutting area in micromilling is derived, and then a generic instantaneous undeformed chip thickness model is proposed by considering the cutting trajectory of all passing teeth in one cycle. Additionally, this study derives a criteria that could determine the single-edge-cutting phenomenon in multi-tooth micromilling from the geometric relations. The accuracy of the model is verified by the real experimental data and the result are shown superior to known models.

      PubDate: 2016-03-09T18:17:08Z
  • Corrigendum to: “A novel approach for the prediction of the milling
           stability based on the Simpson method” [Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
           99 (2015) 43–47]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Zhao Zhang, Hongguang Li, Guang Meng, Chong Liu

      PubDate: 2016-03-09T18:17:08Z
  • A new position independent geometric errors identification model of
           five-axis serial machine tools based on differential motion matrices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jixiang Yang, Han Ding
      Five-axis position independent geometric errors (PIGEs), which are caused by imperfect assembly of machine tools, need to be identified and compensated in order to improve the accuracy of machined parts. In traditional PIGEs identification model based on differential motion matrices (DMM), PIGEs elements are defined in the local frames attached to the previous axis, which is inconvenient to do redundance analysis. In order to fully but un-redundantly identify five-axis PIGEs, this paper proposes a new PIGEs identification model based on DMM in the global coordinate frame. The transfer matrix which realizes the transformation of PIGEs between global and local definitions is derived at first. Then the Jacobian function of the tool center motion errors related to PIGEs defined in the global frame is calculated and adopted for PIGEs identification with the least-square algorithm. For the proposed PIGEs identification model in the global frame, the minimum set of PIGEs can be easily found to make sure full but un-redundant identification, by properly setting up the machine tool coordinate frame using the method of ISO 230-1:2012. The proposed new Jacobian function and PIGEs identification model in the global frame are verified through simulation and experiments with ball-bar tests.

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T11:21:58Z
  • Effect of servo and geometric errors of tilting-rotary tables on
           volumetric errors in five-axis machine tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Wenzheng Ding, Xiaochun Zhu, Xiaodiao Huang
      The tilting-rotary table becomes a standard accessory for five-axis machine tools. An approach for volumetric errors evaluation taking into account servo and geometric errors of the tilting-rotary table is proposed in this paper. A simple machining model of volumetric circles is used to evaluate volumetric errors due to servo errors of the tilting-rotary table. A kinematic error model is used to predict the volumetric errors resulting from geometric errors associated with the tilting-rotary table. Then effects of the two error sources are added to predict the total volumetric errors. A test part obtained by improving the cone frustum specified in NAS979 is presented to validate this method. Cases studies with cutting experiments are carried out on a commercial five-axis machine tool. The results show that the proposed model is effective to evaluate the effect of servo and geometric errors of the tilting-rotary table on volumetric errors in the five-axis machine tool.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T22:12:40Z
  • IFC - Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 103

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T22:12:40Z
  • Generalized mechanics and dynamics of metal cutting operations for unified
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 104
      Author(s): Z.M. Kilic, Y. Altintas
      This paper presents the unified modeling of mechanics and dynamics of metal cutting operations such as turning, boring, drilling and milling. The distribution of chip thickness along the cutting edges of tools are evaluated using the generalized geometric and kinematic model of the operations [1]. The effect of relative vibrations between the cutting edge and workpiece segments are considered. The force contributed by each oblique cutting edge segment is evaluated from shear stress, shear angle and friction coefficient defined in orthogonal cutting data base. The tool cutting loads are evaluated by summing the differential cutting forces along all engaged cutting edges using the generalized geometric transformations presented in [1]. The chatter stability is solved in modal coordinate system, and the forced vibration marks left on the finish surface are predicted in discrete time domain. The process damping, multiple-regenerative phase delays which depend on the tool geometry and operations are considered. The application of the proposed unified mechanics and dynamics model is demonstrated experimentally in drilling, milling with indexable cutters and various end mills, and in opening large holes with multi-functional drilling/boring heads.

      PubDate: 2016-02-08T04:29:35Z
  • Study on cutting force model in ultrasonic vibration assisted side
           grinding of zirconia ceramics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Xingzhi Xiao, Kan Zheng, Wenhe Liao, Heng Meng
      Ultrasonic vibration assisted side grinding (UVASG) has outstanding performance in machining hard-and-brittle materials, such as ceramics. The cutting force is the key factor that affects the machined surface/subsurface quality, which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. However, the combined effect of both ductile removal and brittle fracture removal on cutting force model in UVASG of ceramics has not been reported yet. In this study, a theoretical cutting force model is proposed with the consideration of the ductile-to-brittle transition removal mechanism in UVASG of ceramics. The critical cutting depth of ductile-to-brittle transition has been determined experimentally to distinguish the ductile region and brittle region. Besides, the average cutting depths have been derived for the modeling of the cutting forces in ductile and brittle region, respectively. Then the number of active diamond grits has been presented for the development of the final cutting force model. The parameter K is introduced to represent the influence of overlapping and intersection between different diamond grits. In addition, the relationship between cutting force and input variables has been revealed through the model. Finally, the pilot experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical model. The experimental results are consistent well with the model predictions. Therefore, the theoretical model can be applied to evaluate the cutting force, and it can provide better understanding of the effects of ductile removal and brittle fracture removal on the cutting force during UVASG of ceramics.

      PubDate: 2016-01-29T13:13:47Z
  • Comment on “ A novel approach for the prediction of the milling
           stability based on the Simpson method” By Z. Zhang, H. Li, G. Meng
           and C. Liu, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture
           99 (2015) 43–47
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): C.G. Ozoegwu

      PubDate: 2016-01-23T01:43:34Z
  • Generalized modelling of cutting tool geometries for unified process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Z.M. Kilic, Y. Altintas
      This paper presents a generalized geometric model of cutting tools for the purpose of predicting the mechanics and dynamics of machining operations. The model starts by defining the tangent and rake face vectors at discrete elements along the cutting edge. The discrete cutting edge elements are assembled mathematically to form either an insert or solid cutting edge, which are further transformed to design turning, boring, drilling, milling and other tools by considering the geometry and kinematics of cutting operations. Homogeneous transformation matrices are used to successively locate and orient the cutting edge within the insert, tool and process coordinate frames. Industry-standard tool-in-use planes are used to obtain the effective geometry for all cutting operations. In total 15 geometric parameters are used for identifying the geometry of an arbitrary tool. Radial and axial runouts are considered in the model. Generalized model is demonstrated by modelling the geometry of sample drills, indexable and serrated milling tools. The generalized model allows unified prediction of machining operations with one mathematical model which covers all operations and tool geometries.

      PubDate: 2016-01-23T01:43:34Z
  • Material removal mechanism in ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing of
           micro cylindrical surface on SiC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Qingliang Zhao, Zhiyuan Sun, Bing Guo
      In consideration of the high hardness of the mold insert material SiC, ultrasonic vibration was introduced in the abrasive polishing (AP) of the linear micro cylindrical surface aiming to enhance the surface quality while improving the machining efficiency. However, the interaction behavior in between the material and polishing tool under ultrasonic vibration has not been studied so far. In this paper, the material removal mechanism of ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing (UVAP) on micro cylindrical SiC surface was investigated to fulfill a fundamental understanding of this process in comparison to the conventional polishing without employing ultrasonic vibration. The collection method of high frequency friction forces was firstly proposed to analyze the friction behavior on the SiC cylindrical surface. Then the relationship between ultrasonic vibration, friction force and micro cylindrical surface quality was studied respectively. The experimental results indicated that when the ultrasonic vibration was applied, the friction force decreased accordingly corresponding to a better surface quality. In addition, the lubrication condition was discussed in UVAP process based on the establishment of the stribeck curve. Furthermore, the wear coefficients were calculated through measuring the material removal depth, the surface morphologies were measured by a scanning electron microscopy in revealing the different material removal modes under various different polishing parameters. Through computation and analysis, it shows that the lower polishing force and relative lower speed as well as the higher vibration frequency and amplitude could result in a lower surface roughness and less polishing marks of micro cylindrical surface on SiC. Finally, the cylindrical arrays were successfully polished with the optimized parameters on precision diamond ground SiC surfaces.

      PubDate: 2016-01-19T04:53:09Z
  • IFC - Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 102

      PubDate: 2016-01-19T04:53:09Z
  • Mechanics of fibre deformation and fracture in vibration-assisted cutting
           of unidirectional fibre-reinforced polymer composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Weixing Xu, Liangchi Zhang
      Fibre orientation significantly affects the surface integrity of the machined fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Crushing or bending-dominated fibre fracture in the machining of FRPs is governed by fibre orientation relative to the cutting direction. This paper revealed the mechanics behind such phenomena and developed a reliable predictive model for cutting FRPs. The analysis integrated the effect of the whole fibre orientation range from 0° to 180°. Both traditional cutting and elliptic vibration-assisted (EVA) cutting of unidirectional FRPs were analysed by integrating microstructure-based and equivalent homogeneous deformation zones. A systematic experiment was also carried out. A comprehensive comparison of the mechanics predictions with the experiments shows that the model has captured the major material removal mechanisms and can be used to predict fibre deformation, fibre-matrix debonding, fibre fracture, subsurface damage and cutting forces in both traditional and vibration-assisted cutting. It was identified that fibre orientation affects subsurface damage and cutting forces significantly, and that EVA cutting can minimize the orientation effect. There is a critical fibre orientation at which subsurface damage and cutting force in feed direction would reach their worst situations.

      PubDate: 2016-01-19T04:53:09Z
  • A review of fly cutting applied to surface generation in ultra-precision
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): S.J. Zhang, S. To, Z.W. Zhu, G.Q. Zhang
      Fly cutting in ultra-precision machining (UPM), termed ultra-precision fly cutting (UPFC), is an intermittent cutting process in which a diamond tool is mounted with a spindle to intermittently cut a workpiece. The process offers the high flexibility necessary for fabricating freeform, micro/nano-structural surfaces, as well as hybrid structural surfaces with sub-micrometric form error and nanometric surface roughness, and its constant cutting velocity provides uniform high surface quality. However, in addition to its low machining efficiency, UPFC’s intermittent cutting process results in distinctive surface generation mechanisms, covering intermittent tool-workpiece relative motion, tool geometry imprinted into a machined surface, and surface material separation and deformation. General factors, such as cutting conditions, tool geometry, material factors (material property change, material swelling and recovery, and material separation mechanism), kinematic and dynamic errors, assembling errors, cutting strategies, tool path, and workpiece geometry, are individual to UPFC and universal in UPM. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the current investigation of fly cutting applied into surface generation in UPM. Conclusions are reached and the challenges and opportunities for further studies are discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-07T09:50:35Z
  • On chip formation of bone orthogonal cutting mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Zhirong Liao, Dragos A. Axinte
      Bone cutting is an important procedure in most surgery operations; therefore, understanding the mechanism by which the chip forms is important to design tools for optimising the surgery process. However, only very few studies to address this issue exist. In this paper, a transition from shear cutting, shear-crack cutting and fracture cutting modes with the increase of uncut chip thickness in orthogonal bone cutting was presented. To address these phenomena, a fracture mechanics based cutting model was proposed for the chip formation and cutting process. The influence of the anisotropy of bone to the orthogonal cutting was studied in reference to chip formation and thus, considered in the model to explain the chip morphologies in different cutting directions relative to the bone fibres (i.e. osteon). The experimental result shows to be consistent well with the proposed model yielding a maximum error of predicted transition uncut chip thickness of 10%. On the other hand, analysis of surface morphology revealed that significant differences exist in material damage mode related to the cutting mode and direction. Moreover, the proposed bone orthogonal cutting mechanism was also validated by the cutting force analysis from both static and dynamic components points of view. Based on this study, a maximum uncut chip thickness in a unique anisotropic material as bone to guide the selection of more advanced cutting process (e.g. drilling, milling and sawing) was proposed.

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T09:35:52Z
  • An accurate prediction method of cutting forces in 5-axis flank milling of
           sculptured surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Xing Zhang, Jun Zhang, Bo Pang, WanHua Zhao
      The instantaneous uncut chip thickness and entry/exit angle of cutter/workpiece engagement continuously vary with tool path and workpiece geometry in 5-axis flank milling of sculptured surface, which results in the obvious time-varying characteristic for consecutive cutting forces. An accurate prediction method for cutting force in 5-axis flank milling of sculptured surface is proposed in this paper. Comprehensively considering curved tool path and actual tool motion process with cutter runout (offset and inclination) effects, an accurate representation model for instantaneous uncut chip thickness during cutter/workpiece engaging in 5-axis flank milling is presented firstly, which can reach a higher accuracy and efficiency with the aid of linear iteration process than the methods published. Then, based on the thin plate milling experiments, an efficient calibration procedure for cutter runout parameters and specific cutting force coefficients is given and further verified in practice. Finally, a series of validation experiments are conducted under different cutting conditions, and the results reveal that there is a very good agreement between the experimental and simulation data both in shape and magnitude and prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2016-01-03T09:35:52Z
  • A ballbar test for measurement and identification the comprehensive error
           of tilt table
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jian-xiong Chen, Shu-wen Lin, Xiao-long Zhou, Tian-qi Gu
      This paper proposes a comprehensive geometric error measurement and identification method for a tilt table equipped in a five-axis machine tool with two turntables using the double ballbar. Three positional errors of the socket, caused by both the volumetric error and linkage error of the tilt table, are measured in the sensitive directions with simple circular paths. A mathematics model is applied to map the relationship between the night results that are from three installation positions of the socket and all the errors of the tilt table. Firstly, all the measured results are applied to establish the average axis that is just with the linkage error of the tilt table using the newly developed circular fitting method, rather than solving the large-scale linear equations. Then, the linkage error is treated as the trend item in the measured results for it keeps constant during the rotation of the tilt table. Hence, the volumetric error is identified by the remaining part of the measured results, which are obtained by subtracting the part caused by the linkage error, using the pseudo invert matrix method. Meanwhile, an error model is established to analyze the influence of the installation errors of the socket and the tool cup. Two simple correction procedures, using a low-cost electron clamp and an easily operated circular path, are developed to eliminate these two installation errors before the ballbar test. Finally, a verification experiment, by comparing the predicted value from the identified errors with the measured results by the ballbar, is carried out to validate the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2015-12-26T04:45:57Z
  • IFC - Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 101

      PubDate: 2015-12-18T08:10:12Z
  • Investigation of pulse electrochemical sawing machining of micro-inner
           annular groove on metallic tube
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): G.X. Liu, Y.J. Zhang, S.Z. Jiang, J.W. Liu, G.K. Gyimah, H.P. Luo
      Pulse electrochemical sawing micro-machining (PECSM) is a non-conventional process. Having features of no tool wear, no cutting force, and good surface quality, this process is suitable for machining micro-grooves on the inner wall of hole. The rotating dentate cathode (RDC) is beneficial for the distribution of electrolyte and electrolytic products removal, thus reducing the effects of concentration polarization on the electrochemical reaction. This study focuses on the PECSM of micro-inner annular groove on 304 stainless steel tube using a pH-neutral NaClO3 electrolyte. To study the effects of RDC on the process, the bubble layer structure (BLS) adhered to the surface of RDC was photographed using a high-speed camera. Under the condition of immersion, the symmetric distribution of two kinds of BLS adhered to the RDC surface. The four selected parameters (radius of dentate cathode, rotational speed of RDC, initial gap, feed rate) with different levels were carried out to study the process of PECSM micro-inner annular grooves on 304 stainless steel tube. Experimental results indicate that PECSM has high potential for machining micro-inner annular groove on metallic tube. A micro-inner annular groove that is 340μm in depth and 263μm in width was fabricated on a 304 stainless steel tube.

      PubDate: 2015-12-14T04:20:08Z
  • Surface generation of freeform surfaces in diamond turning by applying
           double-frequency elliptical vibration cutting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Xiaoqin Zhou, Chengming Zuo, Qiang Liu, Jieqiong Lin
      A new freeform surface generation method for the difficult-to-cut materials is proposed in this paper. Fast tool servo and slow slide servo diamond turning are the main generation technologies for freeform surfaces, whereas they cannot machine the freeform surfaces of difficult-to-cut materials very effectively. On the other hand, elliptical vibration cutting has demonstrated its excellent performance in material processing, especially for the difficult-to-cut materials. Nevertheless, it is unable to generate the freeform surfaces very successfully. Therefore, this paper proposes the double-frequency elliptical vibration cutting method for the freeform surface diamond machining on the difficult-to-cut materials, which provides the high-frequency elliptical vibration to improve the machinability in material removal and the low-frequency reciprocating movements for the freeform surface profile generation. The relative movements between the tool and the workpiece are analyzed, and because of the Y direction elliptical vibration, the cutting plane does not always cross the workpiece center, which makes the tool path generation, the tool geometry selection and the surface topography prediction very different from those in the conventional fast tool servo or slow slide servo diamond turning. A new tool path generation method is proposed, and the selection of the tool geometry parameters is discussed. The surface generation process is analyzed, based on which the topography model for the machined surfaces is constructed. Three typical freeform surfaces are machined on the die steel workpieces, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed tool path generation strategies. In addition, the experimental results agree well with the surface topography predictions, which validates the effectiveness of the topography model. This model also applies to the diamond turning processes with tool motion in the Y direction, such as turning with EVC.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T08:09:40Z
  • Modeling and compensation of volumetric errors for five-axis machine tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Sitong Xiang, Yusuf Altintas
      This article proposes a method to measure, model and compensate both geometrically dependent and independent volumetric errors of five-axis, serial CNC machine tools. The forward and inverse kinematics of the machine tool are modeled using the screw theory, and the 41 errors of all 5 axes are represented by error motion twists. The component errors of translational drives have been measured with a laser interferometer, and the errors of two rotary drives have been identified with ballbar measurements. The complete volumetric error model of a five-axis machine has been modeled in the machine's coordinate system and proven experimentally. The volumetric errors are mapped to the part coordinates along the tool path, and compensated using the kinematic model of the machine. The compensation strategy has been demonstrated on a five-axis machine tool controlled by an industrial CNC with a limited freedom, as well as by a Virtual CNC which allows the incorporation of compensating all 41 errors.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T08:09:40Z
  • A new approach to improving the machining precision based on dynamic
           sensitivity analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Liping Zhao, Hongren Chen, Yiyong Yao, Guangzhou Diao
      This paper proposes a new approach to improving the machining precision based on dynamic sensitivity analysis. Firstly, the movement transmission chain of machine tools is analyzed to establish the error propagation model. The model can be used to calculate the error sensitive coefficient of each component. Secondly, the deformation of each component is acquired depending on the finite element analysis. Combining the error sensitive coefficient and deformation, the sensitive error components of machine tools are identified. Thirdly, according to the sensitive error components, the layout of the machine tool is modified and the stiffness of sensitive error component is improved to reduce the machining error of machine tools. A simulation example about globoidal cam machine tools is conducted. Comparing the machining error of vertical globoidal cam machine tool and horizontal globoidal cam machine tool in the simulation, the feasibility of the method is verified. This method not only increases the stiffness of the sensitive error component, but also changes the layout of the machine tool based on dynamic sensitivity analysis results. Therefore, it can provide a new approach to improving the machining accuracy. Finally, an experiment was conducted to verify the validity the correctness of the conclusions.

      PubDate: 2015-12-04T08:09:40Z
  • Vibration analysis and suppression in robotic boring process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Yingjie Guo, Huiyue Dong, Guifeng Wang, Yinglin Ke
      The industrial robot, due to its flexibility, is considered as a promising option to accomplish the fine boring work of the aircraft intersection holes. However, the robot has a relatively low stiffness and is easily subjected to chatter vibration in the boring process, resulting in difficulty in guaranteeing the machining quality. In this article, the mechanism of the vibration in the robotic boring process is analyzed, and a novel vibration suppression method based on the pressure foot is proposed. First, a robotic boring system is presented. Based on its cutting characteristics and stiffness characteristics, the mechanism of the vibration is analyzed, followed by the study of the tool path during the boring operation. It is found that in the robotic boring process it is the robot itself vibrates rather than the boring bar, which usually vibrates in the traditional CNC machine tools. And the type of the vibration is found to be a forced vibration with a displacement feedback. Furthermore, a novel method making use of the pressure foot is proposed to suppress the vibration of the robot. Finally, large numbers of boring experiments have been conducted and the results verify the correctness of the vibration mechanism and the effectiveness of the vibration suppression method.

      PubDate: 2015-11-30T00:17:29Z
  • Correlation between preload and no-load drag torque of ball screws
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Chang-Guang Zhou, Hu-Tian Feng, Zeng-Tao Chen, Yi Ou
      This paper examines the relationship between the preload and no-load drag torque of ball screws. Based on a new equation to calculate the normal contact load between balls and the screw raceway under no external load, a new correlation between preload and no-load drag torque is proposed. Meanwhile, a novel preload-adjustable ball screw mechanism and a drag torque measuring system are constructed. Three LCM300 load cells and a force sensor are implemented for obtaining the experimental data from the constructed systems. Preload and no-load drag torque are obtained and analyzed. It is found that there is a large gap between the calculated preload by traditional formula and the measured value. The experimental results, agreeing well with the theoretical values calculated in this paper, show there exists a linear correlation between preload and drag torque in a preloaded ball screw mechanism. Furthermore, the derivation of the drag torque would be decreased when increasing the preload, which can improve the stability of the screw during its operation. This study provides an accurate correlation to obtain the preload through the no-load drag torque for preloaded ball screws, which is significant for better performance of ball screws as well as the CNC machine tools.

      PubDate: 2015-11-30T00:17:29Z
  • Real Time Parameter Based Contour Error Estimation Algorithms for Free
           Form Contour Following
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Hung-Ruey Chen, Ming-Yang Cheng, Chun-Hsien Wu, Ke-Han Su
      The contour following task of a multi-axis servo system is one of the most important applications of modern Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools, and is widely seen in many types of CNC machining. Hence, the reduction of contour error occurring in the contour following process is paramount and deserves more comprehensive investigation. In general, the calculation of precise contour error in real time is very challenging if not impossible, in free-form curve following tasks. To deal with such a problem, this paper proposes six real-time contour error estimation methods for free-form parametric curves. The feasibility of these methods is verified with several NURBS parametric curve contour following experiments. In addition, experimental results reveal that the proposed methods can provide more accurate contour error estimation for various free-form curves than the other estimation algorithms tested in the experiments. With the proposed contour error estimation approach, advanced motion control schemes can be designed to efficiently reduce contour errors of contour following tasks.

      PubDate: 2015-11-30T00:17:29Z
  • Micro-patterning technique using a rotating cutting tool controlled by an
           electromagnetic actuator
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 101
      Author(s): JongHyun Kim, Sun-Kyu Lee
      This work describes a micro-patterning or surface texturing technique on the fixed work surface using a proposed new spindle system with a rotating cutting tool controlled in real time. The proposed spindle system creates micro-sized patterns using rotating tools such as a micro-milling tool and a micro-grinding wheel. The shaft of the spindle is suspended by air bearings, and an electromagnetic actuator controls the radial motion of the spindle housing instead of the shaft. This generates a micro-pattern array on the electro-less Ni-coated workpiece in the micro-milling process. A PID controller is adopted to make the system stable, and adaptive feedforward cancellation is used to effectively compensate for the run-out of the spindle system during machining. The machining results show that this compensation improves the pattern accuracy. It is expected that micro-patterning using the proposed spindle system can be applied over a large surface area.

      PubDate: 2015-11-26T12:33:05Z
  • Hybrid Additive and Subtractive Machine Tools-Research and Industrial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Joseph M. Flynn, Alborz Shokrani, Stephen T. Newman, Vimal Dhokia
      By synergistically combining additive and subtractive processes within a single workstation, the relative merits of each process may be harnessed. This facilitates the manufacture of internal, overhanging and high aspect ratio features with desirable geometric accuracy and surface characteristics. The ability to work, measure and then rework material enables the reincarnation and repair of damaged, high-value components. These techniques present significant opportunities to improve material utilisation, part complexity and quality management in functional parts. The number of single platform workstations for hybrid additive and subtractive processes (WHASPs) is increasing. Many of these integrate additive directed energy deposition (DED) with subtractive CNC machining within a highly mobile multi-axis machine tool. Advanced numerical control (NC), and computer aided design (CAD), manufacture (CAM) and inspection (CAI) help to govern the process. This research reviews and critically discusses salient published literature relating to the development of WHASPs, and identifies future avenues for research and development. It reports on state-of-the-art WHASP systems, identifying key traits and research gaps. Finally, a future vision for WHASPs and other hybrid machine tools is presented based upon emerging trends and future opportunities within this research area

      PubDate: 2015-11-26T12:33:05Z
  • Feasibility study of the ultrasonic vibration filing of carbon fiber
           reinforced silicon carbide composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Volume 101
      Author(s): Yan Wang, Vinod K. Sarin, Bin Lin, Huan Li, Scott Gillard
      In this paper, ultrasonic vibration filing (UVF) is considered as a new method for inner surface machining of deep cavity component, which is made of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). The mathematical models obtained by kinematics analysis are taken out to reveal the machining principle of UVF. The surface formation mechanism is explained by surface residual height theory. The surface roughness, machining force and the surface microstructure are investigated and compared between UVF, common filing (CF) and common grinding (CG). It can be found that different grain size has a large influence on the surface morphology, which indicated the machining quality could be improved by control of the grain size. Ultrasonic vibration amplitude is considered as the most important ultrasonic parameter in UVF, it has a big influence on surface quality and machining force. According to the research, UVF is an effective machining method for inner shape processing of deep cavity workpiece, as well as improving the topography of the machined surface. Compared with traditional machining methods, UVF have an obviously improvement in surface quality and shape precision.

      PubDate: 2015-11-13T09:34:57Z
  • Polymer/CeO2-Fe3O4 multicomponent core–shell particles for
           high-efficiency magnetic-field-assisted polishing processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Junji Murata, Yoshihito Ueno, Koushi Yodogawa, Takahito Sugiura
      Novel multicomponent core–shell particles have been developed for use in high-efficiency magnetic-field-assisted polishing processes. The core–shell particles consist of core polymer particles covered by a shell composed of magnetic particles and abrasive grains. The particle preparation process involves agitation of the particle mixture in a dry ambient atmosphere with an appropriate controlled temperature, which is a simple and low-cost technique compared with the conventional sintering and granulation process used for the preparation of magnetic abrasives. Although the prepared polymer/CeO2-Fe3O4 multicomponent core–shell particles exhibit inferior glass-polishing performance compared to CeO2 abrasives without an applied magnetic field, they reveal a markedly higher removal rate in the presence of the magnetic field than that exhibited by conventional abrasives and mixed compounds (Fe 3 O 4 and CeO 2 ). Furthermore, polishing using the core–shell particles with the magnetic field shows the potential to achieve a superior material surface quality compared to conventional polishing.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-11-08T22:04:27Z
  • Feed fluctuation of ball screw feed systems and its effects on part
           surface quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Tao Liang, Dun Lu, Xiaojun Yang, Jun Zhang, Xiaobo Ma, Wanhua Zhao
      Feed fluctuation plays an important role on the part surface quality during the precision machining. In this paper, an analytical electromechanical model is developed to reveal the essential characteristics of the feed fluctuation for ball screw feed system, where the feedback control and driving circuit are equivalent to a “controlled current-source” and the mechanical transmission is modeled as a two-mass system. The analytical expression of displacement fluctuation is deduced and then the characteristics of feed fluctuation are investigated. Finally the influence of feed fluctuation on machining quality is analyzed. The results show that when the frequency of torque ripple is closer to the natural frequency of feed systems, the amplitude of displacement fluctuation increases significantly while that of the torque ripple has a sharp decrease. The displacement fluctuation along the feed direction contributes to the bright and dark stripes on the surface of workpiece in a precise cylindrical turning.

      PubDate: 2015-11-04T22:03:13Z
  • Parametric chip thickness model based cutting forces estimation
           considering cutter runout of five-axis general end milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Zerun Zhu, Rong Yan, Fangyu Peng, Xianyin Duan, Lin Zhou, Kang Song, Chaoyong Guo
      In the process of sculpture surfaces machining, due to the changes of the cutter orientation and the inevitable eccentricity between tool and spindle, machining parameters optimization based on five-axis cutting force is quite a challenge. To solve this problem, this study proposes a new method, cutting edge element moving(CEEM) method, to calculate instantaneous undeformed chip thickness(IUCT), to distinguish cutter/workpiece engagement(CWE) area and to simulate five-axis machining cutting force considering runout for general end mills. On the basis of upper work, the parameter representation of IUCT is deduced by the parametric expression of coordinate transformation matrix and feed vector, and resolved to three sub models about tool orientation, tool orientation change and cutter runout. At last, cutting force coefficients and cutter runout parameters are calibrated by cutting test and dial gauge testing. And inclined axis cutting test for bull nose mill, cylinder face-milling test for ball end mill and conical surface flank milling test for flat end mill are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and related decomposition model. Combined with the specific test, some analysis about peak values, mean values and peak to peak difference values of cutting forces in various tool orientations are conducted, and the effect to cutting force from the changes of lead and tilt angles are evaluated. Some conclusions obtained and the methods utilized can be used to optimize tool orientation and feed rate etc.

      PubDate: 2015-11-04T22:03:13Z
  • Modeling the dependency of edge chipping size on the material properties
           and cutting force for rotary ultrasonic drilling of brittle materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
      Author(s): Jianjian Wang, Pingfa Feng, Jianfu Zhang, Chenglong Zhang, Zhijian Pei
      Edge chipping induced by rotary ultrasonic drilling (RUD) restricts the applications of brittle materials. It should be possible to reduce or eliminate edge chipping by optimizing the process parameters based on efficient theoretical modeling of the size of the edge chip. However, to date, no publications are available on the predictive modeling of edge chipping during RUD of brittle materials. This paper presents an analytical model for predicting the edge chipping size during RUD of brittle materials by considering both effects of cutting force and subsurface cracks induced by machining on the occurrence of edge chipping. The relationships between the edge chipping size, processing variables (material properties and ultrasonic amplitude), and the cutting force were established theoretically. The coefficients in the model were obtained by conducting RUD tests on K9 optical glass specimens. Subsequently, the model was validated by conducting RUD tests on sapphire specimens. Using this model, the edge chipping size can be predicted during RUD of brittle materials. The experimental and predicted results were in good agreement.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-10-23T08:55:54Z
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