Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8697 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2419 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of European CME     Open Access  
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Pest Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.669
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1612-4766 - ISSN (Online) 1612-4758
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Natural habitat increases natural pest control in olive groves: economic
    • Abstract: Natural habitat at the landscape scale can promote biological control of crop pests, but farmers often regard natural habitat as a cost or a lost economic opportunity. Evaluating the benefits of promoting natural habitats in economic terms should make different management alternatives easier to compare. However, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the connection between natural habitat and natural pest control. In this study, we link measurements of natural habitat and ground cover with abundances of multiple natural enemy groups and biological control of the olive pest Prays oleae to describe spatial patterns in biocontrol and the economic value associated. Natural habitat increased biocontrol and crop yields by an average of 186.36 €/ha. This could be attributable to the entire community of predatory natural enemies present in the olive regardless of natural habitat. One predator species of this community, Anthocoris nemoralis, whose abundance was influenced by natural habitat, was strongly associated with elevated biocontrol. We hypothesize that this predator species could be the link between natural habitat and the biological control. Our results suggest that olive growers could stand to gain from conserving natural habitat. Moreover, our evidence suggests that minimizing the use of chopped pruning remains may result in increased biocontrol by bolstering the abundance of A. nemoralis. More generally, our study indicates that diversifying olive orchards and surrounding landscapes may improve olive yields.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01104-w
  • Field margins provide a refuge for pest genes beneficial to resistance
    • Abstract: Fencelines and field margins in broad-acre cropping systems are commonly a refuge for weeds, diseases and invertebrates because they avoid many cropping and pest management regimes applied inside fields. As such, fenceline refuges are often managed separately with the goal to reduce pest reinfestation of fields from the margins. However, the implications of these pest control strategies are poorly understood in terms of their impact on pest genes beneficial to pesticide resistance management. Fenceline management, such as selectively reducing pest populations through insecticides, or non-selectively modifying habitat quality by removing host weeds with herbicides, might increase or decrease resistance evolution rates. Indeed, the potential to perform selective and non-selective control of pests separates management of field margins from structured in-field susceptible refuges (e.g. Bt crops). Here, a simulation approach was used to explore the effect of different fenceline management strategies, cropping characteristics and pest genetics on resistance evolution. The analysis was applied to a major crop pest, the mite Halotydeus destructor, for which fenceline treatments of herbicides and insecticides may be applied. Spraying fencelines with an insecticide decreased reinfestation and the overall abundance of mites, compared with not applying insecticides to fencelines. However, in all scenarios tested, resistance evolution was delayed by leaving fenceline refuges unsprayed with insecticides or herbicides. Just as field margins may provide a reservoir for invertebrates beneficial to pest management (e.g. predators and parasitoids), they may also serve as an important refuge for genes beneficial to resistance management.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01106-8
  • Desiccation, thermal stress and associated mortality in Drosophila fruit
           flies induced by neuropeptide analogue treatment
    • Abstract: Drosophila suzukii is a serious pest of soft fruit worldwide. With the global over-dependence on broad-spectrum pesticides, a strong imperative exists for more environmentally friendly and targeted methods of control. One promising avenue involves employing synthetic neuropeptide analogues as insecticidal agents to reduce pest fitness. Neuropeptides, central to the regulation of physiological and behavioural processes, play a vital role in cold and desiccation survival. Building upon this, the current study investigated the effects of biostable kinin, the cardioacceleratory peptide CAP2b and pyrokinin (PK) analogues (the latter of which have previously displayed cross-talk with the capa receptor), on desiccation, starvation and cold stress tolerance of the pest, D. suzukii, and the closely related non-pest, D. melanogaster. Results demonstrated analogues of the superfamily (CAP2b and PK derived) significantly impacted survival of the target insect under conditions of desiccation stress. However, these peptides enhanced desiccation stress survival in relation to controls, suggesting that they may act as antagonists of the capa signalling pathway in the Malpighian tubules. Of particular note was the ability of analogues 1895 (2Abf-Suc-FGPRLa) and 1902 (2Abf-Suc-FKPRLa) to impact D. suzukii but not D. melanogaster. A focus on native Drosophila CAP2b/PK and kinin sequences in analogue development may yield pure agonists with diuretic action that may reduce desiccation stress survival in the pest flies. In highlighting the PRXamide neuropeptide superfamily more generally, and the structures of promising analogues more specifically, this research will feed the evolution of next-generation analogues and drive forward the development of neuropeptidomimetic-based agents.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01100-0
  • Correction to: Botanical insecticide and natural enemies: a potential
           combination for pest management against Tuta absoluta
    • Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the authors have inadvertently missed to include a statement in the Acknowledgement section and the corrected version is given below.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01102-y
  • Side effects of insecticides commonly used against Tuta absoluta on the
           predator Macrolophus basicornis
    • Abstract: Macrolophus basicornis (Stal) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a promising biological control agent against tomato pests, mainly the South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Nevertheless, the amount of pesticides used in tomato crops could compromise the effectiveness of M. basicornis in pest control. Thus, the present research aims to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides (spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole + abamectin, triflumuron, tebufenozide, and abamectin) commonly used in tomato crops on M. basicornis. Third instar nymphs were exposed to dry residues of insecticides on tomato seedlings, and adults were directly sprayed using a Potter precision tower. Abamectin caused the highest mortality rate (79.98%) of M. basicornis nymphs. Females exposed to spinetoram during the nymphal stage showed a reduction in tibia length. Except for spinetoram, all other insecticides significantly influenced adult longevity. All insecticide treatments caused a reduction in female offspring. However, the growth of males and females (F1 generation) issued from adults treated did not differ significantly from the control. In the predator flight bioassay, males in the first evaluation showed a reduction in flight activity following exposure to chlorantraniliprole + abamectin and to tebufenozide. Overall, all insecticides tested caused negative effects on M. basicornis.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01099-4
  • Geographic variation of host preference by the invasive tomato leaf miner
           Tuta absoluta : implications for host range expansion
    • Abstract: Host range evolution is a central issue for pest management, particularly for invasive species of agricultural importance. The invasive tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of tomato in Europe and recently in sub-Saharan Africa, is a good model organism to better understand underlying processes. We studied oviposition acceptance (proportion of females accepting a given plant as host for laying egg), oviposition preference (number of eggs laid by females on a given host plant) and performance (offspring development estimated as survival from egg to adult) of two T. absoluta populations originating from France (FRA) and Senegal (SEN) on six solanaceous plants (tomato, eggplant, Ethiopian eggplant, potato, sweet pepper and pepper). The ovipositional behavioral pattern differed between the two populations; the SEN population showed higher oviposition acceptance on Ethiopian eggplant and sweet pepper than the FRA population. In addition, SEN population showed higher oviposition preference toward sweet pepper and potato than the FRA population. By contrast, the FRA population showed higher preference toward tomato and eggplant than the SEN population. The two populations of T. absoluta performed best on tomato (the preferred host plant) and showed similar decreasing trend in performance when comparing the two populations on the various other host plants. For both populations, performance on solanaceous plant species was closely related to ovipositional response of females to these plants. The differences observed between the two populations may indicate an ongoing differentiation in the host range of T. absoluta in the two invaded areas, possibly due to the abundance of these alternative host crops in Senegal at a period when tomato crops are scarce.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01094-9
  • Correction to: Complex invasion history of the Asian long-horned beetle:
           fifteen years after first detection in Europe
    • Abstract: In Table 1, longitude of the population 1 (Tallgrass, Canada) and the associated Figs. 2c and 5c were published incorrectly in the original publication of the article.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-017-0931-3
  • Intercrop movement of heteropteran predators between alfalfa and maize
           examined by stable isotope analysis
    • Abstract: Alfalfa is a reservoir providing natural enemies to adjacent crops. However, whether these crops act only as receptors or also as donors is unknown. The pattern of movement between alfalfa and maize of Orius majusculus, Orius niger and Nabis provencalis and the role of both crops as “donor” or “receptor” were inferred through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Results show that all heteropteran species are able to move between crops, but the predators’ movement is species specific and the role of alfalfa and maize as “donor” or “receptor” varies. The movement is also affected by crop management practices such as alfalfa cutting. All heteropterans that colonized maize at its early stage came from alfalfa, but N. provencalis also moved back to alfalfa from maize. Alfalfa cutting triggers movement of heteropterans to maize, but the time when this practice is performed also affects the movement. Alfalfa cutting did not have consequences on the recolonization of alfalfa, and some of the heteropterans found during the alfalfa regrowth period seem to have remained within alfalfa (mainly N. provencalis) while others came from maize (mainly O. majusculus and O. niger). When maize was harvested or dry, O. majusculus moved to alfalfa later than the other two predators. Due to the movement capacity of heteropterans between alfalfa and maize and the variable role of both crops as “donor” or “receptor”, conservation biological control could be enhanced by including adjacent fields of alfalfa and maize or a mosaic of both crops at farm and landscape levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1049-y
  • Life history and functional response to prey density of the flower bug
           Orius sauteri attacking the fungivorous sciarid fly Lycoriella pleuroti
    • Abstract: Seldom have natural enemies been quantified in their ability to control fungivorous arthropods, despite the severe losses they can cause in production of edible fungus. Here, we evaluated the omnivorous predator Orius sauteri (Poppius) when preying on eggs and larvae of the fungivorous sciarid fly Lycoriella pleuroti (Yang et Zhang) and compared against a microencapsulated artificial diet. We also estimated the predation ability of O. sauteri feeding on different densities of L. pleuroti larvae and eggs. The results indicated that O. sauteri successfully oviposit on a mushroom substrate. Moreover, both L. pleuroti eggs and larvae were capable of supporting O. sauteri populations. A type II functional response was observed for both males and females of the predator. Further, moderate values for parameter a′ (instantaneous attack rate) and greatly reduced Th (handling time) revealed a high potential for O. sauteri in suppressing outbreaks of L. pleuroti. This is the first report of a generalist predator feeding and developing within an edible mushroom-pest system. O. sauteri is a prime candidate for testing as a biological control agent, either in inoculative or in inundative release, for targeted suppression of the fungivorous sciarid L. pleuroti.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1032-7
  • A computational model to predict the population dynamics of Spodoptera
    • Abstract: Among lepidopteran insects, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, deserves special attention because of its agricultural importance. Different computational approaches have been proposed to clarify the dynamics of fall armyworm populations, but most of them have not been tested in the field and do not include one of the most important variables that influence insect development: the temperature. In this study, we developed a computational model that is able to represent the spatio-temporal dynamics of fall armyworms in agricultural landscapes composed of Bt and non-Bt areas, allowing the user to define different input variables, such as the crop area, thermal requirements of S. frugiperda, migration rate, rate of larval movement, and insect resistance to transgenic crops. In order to determine the efficiency of the proposed model, we fitted it using a 4-year (2012–2015) FAW monitoring data for an area located in northern Florida, USA. Simulations were run to predict the number of adults in 2016 and examine possible scenarios involving climate change. The model satisfactorily described the main outbreaks of fall armyworms, estimating values for parameters associated with insect dynamics, i.e., resistance-allele frequency (0.15), migration rate (0.48) and rate of larval movement (0.04). A posterior sensitivity analysis indicated that the frequency of the resistance allele most influenced the model, followed by the migration rate. Our simulations indicated that an increase of 1 °C in weekly mean temperatures could almost double the levels of fall armyworm populations, drawing attention to the possible consequences of temperature rises for pest dynamics.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1051-4
  • Changes in corn rootworm wing morphology are related to resistance
    • Abstract: The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious pest of maize across the US Corn Belt and now Europe. The beetle has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to adapt to pest management strategies through evolution of resistance to conventional insecticides, the cultural practice of crop rotation and now to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin which is produced by genetically modified maize. In this study, the wing morphology of 358 western corn rootworm adults from Iowa, Indiana and Illinois, USA, was investigated using geometric morphometric procedures. The populations investigated comprised resistant (i.e. soybean–maize rotation and Bt-maize variants) and non-resistant beetle populations. Data analysis was divided into two groups: (1) resistant versus non-resistant and (2) rotation-resistant versus Bt-maize rootworm populations. Results showed that morphological differences exist in the hind-wing shape of both rotation and Bt-maize-resistant versus non-resistant populations and rotation-resistant versus Bt-maize-resistant variants. Across all three types of rootworm variants investigated, the movement of landmarks 8, 9 and 14 drove the wing shape differences found. These landmarks relate to the basal radial vein and are a key anatomical character used to distinguish different wing morphotypes in rootworm. This study demonstrates the utility of hind-wing morphology/shape as an inexpensive and accessible population biomarker for rootworm. With simple equipment (camera mounted microscopes or flatbed scanners) and readily available free software to capture and analyse landmark (shape and size) data, it is possible to effectively monitor pest resistance development and associated field-based population-level differences. The biological implications of the differences in wing shape found and how this relates to rootworm flight and consequently its dispersal and invasion capabilities are also explored.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-01077-2
  • Development of an odorous repellent against common voles ( Microtus
           arvalis ) in laboratory screening and subsequent enclosure trials
    • Abstract: Common voles (Microtus arvalis) can cause severe crop damage in European agriculture and are usually managed with rodenticides. Population dynamics and behavioral studies question rodenticide effectiveness, and an ecologically based management is needed. A useful addition to such a toolbox could be repelling odor barriers along field margins minimizing migration of voles to crops. We screened 17 plant products and mammalian scents in T-maze trials to test their repelling effects. The most repelling compounds (carrot seed oil (CS), black pepper oil (BP), spruce needle oil (SN), benzaldehyde (BA), BA and BP in double concentration (dc), combinations of BP + BA and BP + CS) were tested further in enclosures. We measured in four populations how often voles crossed enclosure compartments through channels treated with a compound or without a compound. In addition, the amount of rolled oats eaten by voles near treated and untreated channels was compared. In enclosures, voles avoided significantly channels treated with BP (79% more crossings through the control channel) and BP (dc) (42%). Voles consumed significantly more rolled oats near control channels than in the presence of BP + CS (72% more feeding at control), CS (51%), BA (dc) (36%), BP (32%) and BA + BP (28%). This demonstrated for the first time that natural compounds can reduce uptake of a highly attractive food source in common voles under semi-natural conditions. BP + CS was the most successful feeding deterrent and has the potential to be included in an ecologically based management approach.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1028-3
  • Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera to two Bt toxins, Cry1Ac and
           Cry2Ab, in northwestern China: toward developing an IRM strategy
    • Abstract: Extensive unofficial planting of Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac toxin has occured for the past two decades in northwestern China, and no mandatory refuge policy has been adopted. The status of Cry1Ac susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera in this region has not been routinely monitored, nor has the susceptibility to Cry2Ab cotton which has not been released in China. The susceptibility of H. armigera populations to both toxins was assessed in 2014 and 2015 in two contrasting cotton farming systems across the region. Over the 2 years, the response to Cry1Ac of the nine H. armigera field populations sampled ranged from 3.16 to 16.94 μg ml−1 for LC50 and 0.013 to 0.741 μg ml−1 for IC50, and the baseline susceptibility of these strains to Cry2Ab ranged from 3.43 to 19.05 μg ml−1 for LC50 and 0.16 to 3.81 μg ml−1 for IC50. There was no significant difference in susceptibility to either Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab between small-holder and broad-acre farming. The susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin in northwestern China is higher than that in northern China, while there was no difference for Cry2Ab between northwestern China and northern China. With high levels of adoption of Bt cotton and relatively limited natural refuge for H. armigera, it is important to consider resistance management measures for Bt cotton in northwestern China.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1047-0
  • Kernel volatiles of some pigmented wheats do not elicit a preferential
           orientation in Sitophilus granarius adults
    • Abstract: The granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera, Dryophthoridae), is a primary pest of stored cereals worldwide. To identify possible sources of wheat resistance toward this pest, two commercial durum and bread wheat varieties with yellow pericarp were compared with anthocyanin-pigmented durum and bread wheat genotypes that have never entered commercial production. The composition of the kernel head-space volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the olfactory responses of granary weevil adults to these kernel VOCs were investigated. Head-space solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis highlighted 17 and 13 kernel VOCs from durum and bread wheats, respectively. These compounds mainly included aldehydes and alcohols, and to a lesser extent, terpenes and benzene derivatives. Quantitative and qualitative differences were seen between the odor profiles of yellow and pigmented wheat kernels. In two-choice behavioral bioassays, granary weevil adults were significantly attracted by the kernel odors from the yellow commercial wheat varieties and their hexane extracts, but not by those of the pigmented wheat genotypes and their hexane extracts. Electroantennography confirmed the presence of VOCs in all of the hexane extracts that stimulated the olfactory system of both sexes of the granary weevil in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, differences among the odor blends were responsible for the different olfactory responses of granary weevils to the yellow and pigmented wheat kernels. These differences in VOC emissions and olfactory responses induced in granary weevils by the yellow and pigmented wheat kernels can be exploited to characterize resistance mechanisms associated with different genotypes and to incorporate resistance into improved varieties.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1035-4
  • Identification of attractants from plant essential oils for Cyrtorhinus
           lividipennis , an important predator of rice planthoppers
    • Abstract: The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a serious insect pest in rice cultivation, while Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, its main predator, feeds on BPH eggs and nymphs. The artificial release of C. lividipennis could significantly suppress the increase in BPH and prevent hopper burn in the open field. How to attract the artificially released C. lividipennis to the precise location of the target rice field is key for successful biological control. However, there have been few reports related to C. lividipennis. In the current study, we identified two attractant compounds for C. lividipennis from plant essential oils. Using olfactometer assays, we found that Coriandrum sativum and Nerium indicum essential oils were highly attractant to both adults and nymphs of C. lividipennis. The petroleum ether fractions of C. sativum, N. indicum, and Alpinia officinarum essential oils were analyzed with GC-MS. According to previous reports and the results of the GC-MS analysis, we selected ten compounds to screen their attractancy to C. lividipennis. After the olfactometer assays, we identified isocaryophyllene and trans-2-dodecenol, which were the most effective attractants to C. lividipennis under laboratory conditions. Our experiments under greenhouse and field conditions showed that isocaryophyllene and trans-2-dodecenol presented significant attractancy to C. lividipennis. These results highlight the potential of isocaryophyllene and trans-2-dodecenol as effective attractants to aid C. lividipennis in locating target rice fields during their artificial release. Further studies are required to develop a formulation that would increase efficacy with lower costs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-018-1054-1
  • Virus effects on plant quality and vector behavior are species specific
           and do not depend on host physiological phenotype
    • Abstract: There is growing evidence that plant viruses manipulate host plants to increase transmission-conducive behaviors by vectors. Reports of this phenomenon frequently include only highly susceptible, domesticated annual plants as hosts, which constrains our ability to determine whether virus effects are a component of an adaptive strategy on the part of the pathogen or simply by-products of pathology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transmission-conducive effects of a virus (Turnip yellows virus [TuYV]) on host palatability and vector behavior (Myzus persicae) are linked with host plant tolerance and physiological phenotype. Our study system consisted of a cultivated crop, false flax (Camelina sativa) (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), a wild congener (C. microcarpa), and a viable F1 hybrid of these two species. We found that the most tolerant host (C. microcarpa) exhibited the most transmission-conducive changes in phenotype relative to mock-inoculated healthy plants: Aphids preferred to settle and feed on TuYV-infected C. microcarpa and did not experience fitness changes due to infection—both of which will increase viruliferous aphid numbers. In contrast, TuYV induced transmission-limiting phenotypes in the least tolerant host (C. sativa) and to a greater degree in the F1 hybrid, which exhibited intermediate tolerance to infection. Our results provide no evidence that virus effects track with infection tolerance or physiological phenotype. Instead, vector preferences and performance are driven by host-specific changes in carbohydrates under TuYV infection. These results provide evidence that induction of transmission-enhancing phenotypes by plant viruses is not simply a by-product of general pathology, as has been proposed as an explanation for putative instances of parasite manipulation by viruses and many other taxa.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10340-019-01082-z
  • The effect of local and landscape variables on Mediterranean fruit fly
           dynamics in citrus orchards utilizing the ecoinformatics approach
    • Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) (medfly), is a major pest among all varieties of citrus. Despite advances in recent years, knowledge about the effects of various variables on the spatiotemporal spread of the medfly is still limited. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of various local and landscape variables on the population density of medfly in citrus orchards in Israel, utilizing the ecoinformatics approach. Data were collected during three citrus growing seasons (years). The medfly population data consisted of a weekly inspection of ~ 2300 traps. Thirteen potentially explanatory variables believed to influence the medfly populations were quantified. The contributions of the explanatory variables were analyzed using multimodel inference. Results show that the medfly population is affected by both local and landscape variables. Further analysis was focused on the data from November (representing the fall peak) and April (representing the beginning of the spring peak). The major findings were: Medfly population was higher in plots that were closer to human communicates, presumably due to their proximity to private gardens; the medfly population was negatively affected by the proportion of the surrounding crop; larger plots with lower perimeter-to-area ratio and plots inside large citrus clusters had smaller populations of medflies; variety had inconsistent effect; and elevation showed inverse response (positive in November and negative in April). Additionally, during the fall peak, the medfly population was positively affected by the proportion of the surrounding deciduous orchards and negatively affected by pest aerial spraying rounds up to a certain number. The results of this study demonstrate that the medfly populations in citrus are affected by the composition of the external landscape. Thus, similar to other studies, this study encourages the adoption of area-wide integrated pest management protocols.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Spreading of Vespa velutina in northwestern Spain: influence of elevation
           and meteorological factors and effect of bait trapping on target and
           non-target living organisms
    • Abstract: The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, is a recent invasive species in Galicia (NW Spain). Its invasion has an important socio-economic impact because it preys upon honeybees (Apis mellifera) and other crucial insect pollinators. The dispersal of this species must be monitored to minimise the damage it causes and to take the necessary control actions. The aims of this study were to determine target and nontarget living organisms captured by bait trapping and to compare the distribution patterns of V. velutina and the autochthonous V. crabro. Altitude and weather conditions played important roles in hornet behaviour. The traps placed in low-altitude coastal areas contained the most yellow-legged hornets. In contrast, the autochthonous hornet occurred in relatively greater numbers in the traps hung in high-altitude areas. High minimum temperatures, dew temperature, relative humidity and low maximum temperatures favour the occurrence and spread of V. velutina. These conditions are common in the coastal areas of this territory and promoted the rapid dispersal of this pest. The traps used were not bait-selective, so many other arthropod organisms were captured along with the hornet. Therefore, the use of species-selective baits is required for the ecofriendly effective management of this insect pest.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • First discovery of adventive populations of Trissolcus japonicus in Europe
    • Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), native to East Asia, emerged as an invasive pest in Europe in the 2000s. In its native range, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) is the dominant egg parasitoid of H. halys, and thus it has been considered for classical biological control in countries invaded by the pest. A survey of native egg parasitoids conducted in 2017 and 2018 with frozen, sentinel egg masses of H. halys revealed that T. japonicus was already present in apple orchards in the Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Trissolcus japonicus was recovered in both years and from three different sites. In total, 17 egg masses were recovered from which 42 adult parasitoids emerged. A genetic analysis using the barcode mitochondrial DNA confirmed the morphological identification of T. japonicus and evidenced a best match of the “Ticino populations” to Japanese populations, but the pathways of entry remain unknown.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Exploration for native parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii in China reveals
           a diversity of parasitoid species and narrow host range of the dominant
    • Abstract: Drosophila suzukii is native to East Asia and an invasive pest of fruit crops widely established in the Americas and Europe. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the invaded regions prompted surveys for co-evolved parasitoids in Yunnan Province, China, from 2013 to 2016. From banana-baited traps (2013–2015), 458 parasitoids of drosophilids were reared, comprised of Braconidae (49.56%), Figitidae (37.55%), Diapriidae (7.42%), and Pteromalidae (5.46%). Larval parasitoids included seven braconid species, all Asobara and primarily Asobara mesocauda, and five figitid species, primarily Leptopilina japonica japonica. Pupal parasitoids were the diapriid Trichopria drosophilae and the pteromalid Pachycrepoideus vindemiae. Collections from wild fruits (2016) provided more interesting results. From the puparia of drosophilids collected, comprised of D. suzukii and Drosophila pulchrella, emerged 1354 parasitoids. The larval parasitoids Ganaspis brasiliensis and L. j. japonica were the prevalent species, reaching a fairly high percentage parasitism of fly puparia collected from berries of Rubus foliosus (22.35%), R. niveus (18.81%), Fragaria moupinensis (19.75%), and Sambucus adnata (63.46%). Ganaspis brasiliensis was the dominant species and was collected only from D. suzukii and D. pulchrella-infested fruits and never from banana-baited traps. Molecular analysis showed two G. brasiliensis lineages, which are discussed with respect to previous Japanese collections. Quarantine tests showed that G. brasiliensis developed from D. suzukii and two closely related hosts (Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans) but did not develop from seven non-target drosophilid species. Our results suggest that G. brasiliensis is a promising classical biocontrol agent for release in invaded regions.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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