Subjects -> MEDICAL SCIENCES (Total: 8690 journals)
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MEDICAL SCIENCES (2415 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3562 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Forensic Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Gandaki Medical College-Nepal     Open Access  
Journal of Generic Medicines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Geographical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hand Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health & Medical Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior     Open Access  
Journal of Health Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science and Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Science Research     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of health sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences / Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Health Sciences and Surveillance System     Open Access  
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Health Specialties     Open Access  
Journal of Health Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Helminthology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbs Spices & Medicinal Plants     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of HIV for Clinical and Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Hospital Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Hypertension     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Rhythm     Open Access  
Journal of Human Transcriptome     Open Access  
Journal of Ideas in Health     Open Access  
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation Research     Open Access  
Journal of Injury and Violence Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Institute of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Insulin Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Interactional Research in Communication Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Interventional Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Investigative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Abdulaziz University : Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Laryngology and Voice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Limb Lengthening & Reconstruction     Open Access  
Journal of Lumbini Medical College     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Science : Materials in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Maternal and Child Health     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Cases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Medical Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Humanities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Journal of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medicine and the Person     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medicine in Scientific Research     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine in the Tropics     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine Research and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicines Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Metabolomics & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nanotheranostics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Medicines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nature and Science of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Nepalgunj Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Neurocritical Care     Open Access  
Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neurorestoratology     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience and Neurological Disorders     Open Access  
Journal of Nobel Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Occupational Health     Open Access  
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science     Open Access  
Journal of Orofacial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Hearing and Balance Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ovarian Research     Open Access  
Journal of Ozone Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Paramedical Sciences & Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Journal of Parkinsonism and Restless Legs Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participatory Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Patan Academy of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Pathogens     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Patient Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews     Open Access  
Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes     Open Access  
Journal of Periodontal Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physiology-Paris     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pioneering Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Pregnancy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Prevention & Intervention Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health     Open Access  
Journal of Primary Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Prosthodontic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Prosthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Regenerative Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Scientific Innovation in Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Scientific Perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sensory Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College     Open Access  
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Arthroplasty     Open Access  
Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of South American Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stem Cell Therapy and Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stomal Therapy Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Journal of Substance Use     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Surgical Academia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surgical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Surgical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report     Open Access  
Journal of Systemic Therapies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon     Open Access  
Journal of The Arab Society for Medical Research     Open Access  

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Medical Ethics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.618
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 27  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 0306-6800 - ISSN (Online) 1473-4257
Published by BMJ Publishing Group Homepage  [68 journals]
  • Research or clinical care: whats the difference'
    • Authors: Hallowell; N.
      Pages: 359 - 360
      Abstract: In 1979 the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioural Research in the US delivered a set of guidelines for the ethical conduct of research on human research subjects.1 In developing these guidelines, subsequently known as The Belmont Report, the Commission was "...directed to consider: (i) the boundaries between biomedical and behavioural research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine"(p1); and outline a set of ethical principles which would specifically govern research activities. The Report notes that maintaining this distinction is important to ensure that all research activities are subjected to ethical review and, while it acknowledges that distinguishing research and clinical care is less easy in some cases, it suggests that this is a relatively simple and straightforward task. Forty years later, biomedical activities appear more complex: clinical activities are hybridised, trial design is no longer solely aimed at improving the...
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2018-104926
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Face transplantation for the blind: more than being blind in a sighted
           world
    • Authors: Lee; J.
      Pages: 361 - 365
      Abstract: Face transplantation (FT) is a landmark in reconstructive surgery involving vascularised composite allotransplantation. A recent issue of FT for patients who are blind has arisen. Some bioethicists recommend not excluding a patient who is blind, as this may amount to discrimination. From an ethical standpoint, FT for those with blindness is appropriate in selected candidates. This article seeks to add to the clinical evidence supporting FT for those with blindness by detailing a complementary psychosocial perspective. Currently, there is little relevant research about the subjectivity of the blind. This is critical since the arguments against FT for the blind refer to their inability to see their face and to view the reaction of others to their disfigured faces. We begin with a brief look at examples of FT involving blindness and associated arguments. The next part is a multidisciplinary investigation of the experiences of the blind. These are gleaned from a close reading of the literature and drawing inferences, as direct studies are rare. The discussion analyses identity themes of the blind in relation to their faces: as they experience it; the face they wish to show to the world; and how others perceive and react to their face in a saturated environment of imagery and visual communication. Disability and the blind person’s experience of faces are well-founded considerations for medical practitioners and ethics boards in the process of FT decision-making.
      Keywords: Editor's choice
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104560
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • From whom do physicians obtain consent for surgery'
    • Authors: Jarayedi, Z; Asghari, F.
      Pages: 366 - 370
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate the knowledge and performance of surgical residents regarding the person from whom informed consent should be taken for surgery and from whom the consent is taken in practice.Materials and methodsThis study was done in 2013. The population of this study was all residents of urology, surgery, orthopaedic surgery and gynaecology of Tehran and Iran University of Medical Sciences. The study tool was a self-administered questionnaire, containing questions on their knowledge and performance regarding informed consent acquisition from patients with different conditions in terms of age, sex, marital status and their capacity to make treatment decisions.ResultsA total of 213 residents participated in the study (response rate=51.9%). The mean score of the participants’ knowledge was 72.95 out of 100. There was no significant correlation between the residents’ knowledge and performance. Regarding a competent married male patient, 98.2% of the residents knew that the person’s consent was enough, but only 63.6% obtained informed consent only from the patient. These percentages were 69% and 19.7% for a competent married female patient, respectively. For a competent single male patient, 90.9% of the residents were aware that the patient’s consent was enough, while only 40% of the residents obtained informed consent only from the patient. These percentages were 65.3% and 16% for a competent single female patient, respectively.ConclusionDespite the residents’ average knowledge of patient autonomy, this right is not observed for female patients, and their treatment is subject to consent acquisition from other family members.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104556
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Chronic disease as risk multiplier for disadvantage
    • Authors: Stutzin Donoso; F.
      Pages: 371 - 375
      Abstract: This paper starts by establishing a prima facie case that disadvantaged groups or individuals are more likely to get a chronic disease and are in a disadvantaged position to adhere to chronic treatment despite access through Universal Health Coverage. However, the main aim of this paper is to explore the normative implications of this claim by examining two different but intertwined argumentative lines that might contribute to a better understanding of the ethical challenges faced by chronic disease health policy. The paper develops the argument that certain disadvantages which may predispose to illness might overlap with disadvantages that may hinder self-management, potentially becoming disadvantageous in handling chronic disease. If so, chronic diseases may be seen as disadvantages in themselves, describing a reproduction of disadvantage among the chronically ill and a vicious circle of disadvantage that could both predict and shed light on the catastrophic health outcomes among disadvantaged groups—or individuals—dealing with chronic disease.
      Keywords: Ethics
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104321
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Resuscitation decisions at the end of life: medical views and the
           juridification of practice
    • Authors: MacCormick, F. M; Emmett, C, Paes, P, Hughes, J. C.
      Pages: 376 - 383
      Abstract: BackgroundConcerns about decision making related to resuscitation have led to two important challenges in the courts resulting in new legal precedents for decision-making practice. Systematic research investigating the experiences of doctors involved in decisions about resuscitation in light of the recent changes in law remains lacking.AimTo analyse the practice of resuscitation decision making on hospital wards from the perspectives of doctors.DesignThe data presented in this paper were collected as part of a wider research study of end-of-life care in an acute hospital setting. Data collection comprised ethnographic non-participant observation on two acute hospital wards and individual interviews with patients, relatives and healthcare professionals caring for patients thought to be approaching the end of life. Data were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory approach.ResultsDiscussions and decision making about resuscitation present many challenges for those involved on acute medical wards. The data highlight the potential for multiple interpretations of legal precedents, creating misunderstandings that may impact patient care in less positive ways.ConclusionsThis paper provides unique insights into how doctors respond to the changing medico-legal culture and the subsequent effects on patient care. It demonstrates how the juridification of medical practice can occur. It highlights the potential benefit of a structure to support clinicians, patients and relatives in discussing and navigating decisions around care at the end of life in line with the patient’s wishes and preferences. Recommendations for future research are made and legal ramifications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104608
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Montgomery, informed consent and causation of harm: lessons from Australia
           or a uniquely English approach to patient autonomy'
    • Authors: Smith, M. K; Carver, T.
      Pages: 384 - 388
      Abstract: The UK Supreme Court in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board adopts an approach to information disclosure in connection with clinical treatment that moves away from medical paternalism towards a more patient-centred approach. In doing so, it reinforces the protection afforded to informed consent and autonomous patient decision making under the law of negligence. However, some commentators have expressed a concern that the widening of the healthcare providers’ duty of disclosure may provide impetus, in future cases, for courts to adopt a more rigorous approach to the application of causation principles. The aim would be to limit liability but, in turn, it would also limit autonomy protection. Such a restrictive approach has recently been adopted in Australia as a result of the High Court decision in Wallace v Kam. This paper considers whether such an approach is likely under English negligence law and discusses case law from both jurisdictions in order to provide a point of comparison from which to scope the post-Montgomery future.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104273
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Content analysis of requests for religious exemptions from a mandatory
           influenza vaccination program for healthcare personnel
    • Authors: Antommaria, A. H; Prows, C. A.
      Pages: 389 - 391
      Abstract: ObjectiveHaving failed to achieve adequate influenza vaccination rates among employees through voluntary programmes, healthcare organisations have adopted mandatory ones. Some programmes permit religious exemptions, but little is known about who requests religious objections or why.MethodsContent analysis of applications for religious exemptions from influenza vaccination at a free-standing children’s hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA during the 2014–2015 influenza season.ResultsTwelve of 15 260 (0.08%) employees submitted applications requesting religious exemptions. Requestors included both clinical and non-clinical employees. All requestors voluntarily identified their religious affiliation, and most were Christian (n=9). Content analysis identified six categories of reasons used to justify an exemption: risks/benefits, ethical/political, lack of direct patient contact, providence, purity and sanctity of life. Individuals articulated reasons in 1–5 (mean 2.6) categories. The most frequently cited category (n=9) was purity; the vaccine and/or its mode of administration were impure, or receiving the vaccine would make the individual impure. Two individuals asserted that the vaccine contained cells derived from aborted human fetuses. Individuals (n=6) also volunteered information supporting the sincerity of their beliefs including distress over previous vaccination and examples of behaviour consistent with their specific objection or their general religious commitment. All requests were approved.ConclusionsLess than 0.1% of employees requested religious exemptions. Partnering with religious leaders and carefully correcting erroneous information may help address requestors’ concerns.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104271
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Consent and the ethical duty to participate in health data research
    • Authors: Ballantyne, A; Schaefer, G. O.
      Pages: 392 - 396
      Abstract: The predominant view is that a study using health data is observational research and should require individual consent unless it can be shown that gaining consent is impractical. But recent arguments have been made that citizens have an ethical obligation to share their health information for research purposes. In our view, this obligation is sufficient ground to expand the circumstances where secondary use research with identifiable health information is permitted without explicit subject consent. As such, for some studies the Institutional Review Board/Research Ethics Committee review process should not assess the practicality of gaining consent for data use. Instead the review process should focus on assessing the public good of the research, public engagement and transparency.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104550
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Towards a national genomics medicine service: the challenges facing
           clinical-research hybrid practices and the case of the 100 000 genomes
           project
    • Authors: Dheensa, S; Samuel, G, Lucassen, A. M, Farsides, B.
      Pages: 397 - 403
      Abstract: Clinical practice and research are governed by distinct rules and regulations and have different approaches to, for example, consent and providing results. However, genomics is an example of where research and clinical practice have become codependent. The 100 000 genomes project (100kGP) is a hybrid venture where a person can obtain a clinical investigation only if he or she agrees to also participate in ongoing research—including research by industry and commercial companies. In this paper, which draws on 20 interviews with professional stakeholders involved in 100kGP, we investigate the ethical issues raised by this project’s hybrid nature. While some interviewees thought the hybrid nature of 100kGP was its vanguard, interviewees identified several tensions around hybrid practice: how to decide who should be able to participate; how to determine whether offering results might unduly influence participation into wide-ranging but often as yet unknown research and how to ensure that patients/families do not develop false expectations about receiving results. These areas require further debate as 100kGP moves into routine healthcare in the form of the national genomic medicine service. To address the tensions identified, we explore the appropriateness of Faden et al.’s framework of ethical obligations for when research and clinical care are completely integrated. We also argue that enabling ongoing transparent and trustworthy communication between patients/families and professionals around the kinds of research that should be permitted in 100kGP will help to understand and ensure that expectations remain realistic. Our paper aims to encourage a focused discussion about these issues and to inform a new ‘social contract’ for research and clinical care in the health service.
      Keywords: Open access, Informed consent
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104588
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Artificial gametes, the unnatural and the artefactual
    • Authors: Smajdor, A; Cutas, D, Takala, T.
      Pages: 404 - 408
      Abstract: In debates on the ethics of artificial gametes, concepts of naturalness have been used in a number of different ways. Some have argued that the unnaturalness of artificial gametes means that it is unacceptable to use them in fertility treatments. Others have suggested that artificial gametes are no less natural than many other tissues or processes in common medical use. We suggest that establishing the naturalness or unnaturalness of artificial gametes is unlikely to provide easy answers as to the acceptability of using them in fertility medicine. However, we also suggest that we should be cautious about repudiating any relationship between nature and moral evaluation. The property of being natural or man-made may not per se tell us anything about an entity’s moral status, but it has an important impact on the moral relationship between the creator and the created organism.
      Keywords: Ethics
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104351
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Learning health systems, clinical equipoise and the ethics of response
           adaptive randomisation
    • Authors: London; A. J.
      Pages: 409 - 415
      Abstract: To give substance to the rhetoric of ‘learning health systems’, a variety of novel trial designs are being explored to more seamlessly integrate research with medical practice, reduce study duration and reduce the number of participants allocated to ineffective interventions. Many of these designs rely on response adaptive randomisation (RAR). However, critics charge that RAR is unethical on the grounds that it violates the principle of equipoise. In this paper, I reconstruct critiques of RAR as holding that it is inconsistent with five important ethical principles. I then argue that these criticisms rest on a faulty view of equipoise encouraged by the idea that a RAR study models the beliefs of a single rational agent about the relative merits of the interventions being studied. I outline a view in which RAR models an idealised health system in which diverse communities of fully informed experts shrink or grow as their constituent members update their expert opinions in light of reliable medical evidence. I show how a proper understanding of clinical equipoise can reconcile this conception of RAR with these five ethical principles. This analysis removes an in-principle objection to RAR and sheds important light on the relationship between clinical equipoise and transient diversity in the scientific community.
      Keywords: Clinical trials (epidemiology)
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104549
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Legitimacy in bioethics: challenging the orthodoxy
    • Authors: Smith; W. R.
      Pages: 416 - 423
      Abstract: Several prominent writers including Norman Daniels, James Sabin, Amy Gutmann, Dennis Thompson and Leonard Fleck advance a view of legitimacy according to which, roughly, policies are legitimate if and only if they result from democratic deliberation, which employs only public reasons that are publicised to stakeholders. Yet, the process described by this view contrasts with the actual processes involved in creating the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and in attempting to pass the Health Securities Act (HSA). Since the ACA seems to be legitimate, as the HSA would have been had it passed, there seem to be counterexamples to this view. In this essay, I clarify the concept of legitimacy as employed in bioethics discourse. I then use that clarification to develop these examples into a criticism of the orthodox view–that it implies that legitimacy requires counterintuitively large sacrifices of justice in cases where important advancement of healthcare rights depends on violations of publicity. Finally, I reply to three responses to this challenge: (1) that some revision to the orthodox view salvages its core commitments, (2) that its views of publicity and substantive considerations do not have the implications that I claim and (3) that arguments for it are strong enough to support even counterintuitive results. My arguments suggest a greater role for substantive considerations than the orthodox view allows.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2017-104559
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Researching about us without us: exploring research participation and the
           politics of disability rights in the context of the Mental Capacity Act
           2005
    • Authors: Loomes; G.
      Pages: 424 - 427
      Abstract: The right to active participation by disabled people in academic research has been discussed at length in recent years, along with the potential for such research to function as a tool in challenging oppression and pursuing disability rights. Significant ethical, legal and methodological dilemmas arise, however, in circumstances where a disabled person loses the capacity to provide informed consent to such participation. In this article, I consider disability politics and academic research in the context of the Mental Capacity Act (MCA) 2005, which sets out in Anglo-Welsh law the circumstances and requirements for research participation by individuals lacking the capacity to provide informed consent. Drawing on my own perspective on research participation in relation to physical and psychosocial disability, I consider the implications of my potential future loss of capacity (eg, if I were to be in a vegetative or minimally conscious state following an accident) for my right to participate in disability-related research. I examine the barriers to such participation and suggest that partial solutions may be found in the advance decision-making and advance care-planning frameworks of the MCA 2005 and related policy, but that current legislative and policy frameworks nevertheless still curtail my rights with regard to research participation on loss of capacity to consent. In so doing, I seek to provoke debate concerning what this legislative provision means for the disability rights movement, and the possibilities and challenges it presents to the movement’s commitment to ‘nothing about us without us’.
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2016-104129
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Ethics briefing
    • Authors: Davies, M; Campbell, R, Brannan, S, English, V, Mussell, R, Sheather, J. C.
      Pages: 429 - 430
      Abstract: Parliament committee investigates genomics and genome editing in the NHS In April, the UK House of Commons Science and Technology committee published a report evaluating the readiness of the National Health Service (NHS) to incorporate genomic testing into mainstream service provision.1 The committee also examined some of the research and regulatory considerations in relation to the ongoing development of genome editing. Genomics in the NHS The main focus of the report is the 100,000 Genomes Project and the various practical and ethical challenges associated with the planned roll-out of the Genomics Medicine Service in the NHS. The 1 00 000 Genomes Project was launched in 2012 and is the first large-scale whole genome sequencing research study of its kind in the world. The overall objective is to sequence genomes from NHS patients with a rare disease and their families, and from patients with specific cancers. The study...
      PubDate: 2018-05-24T03:50:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1136/medethics-2018-104924
      Issue No: Vol. 44, No. 6 (2018)
       
 
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